Union of Comoros 科摩罗联盟

【国 名】 科摩罗联盟(Union of Comoros,Union des Comores)。

【面 积】 2236平方公里(包括马约特岛)。

【人 口】 约80万(2018年)。主要由阿拉伯人后裔、卡夫族、马高尼族、乌阿马查族和萨卡拉瓦族组成。通用科摩罗语,官方语言为科摩罗语、法语和阿拉伯语。超过95%的居民信奉伊斯兰教,主要为逊尼教派。

【首 都】 莫罗尼(Moroni),人口约6万。热季为11月至次年5月,平均气温24-31℃,凉季为6月至10月,平均气温19-27℃。

【国家元首】 总统阿扎利·阿苏马尼(Azali Assoumani),2016年5月就职。

【重要节日】 国庆节:7月6日。

【简 况】 西印度洋岛国,由大科摩罗、昂儒昂、莫埃利、马约特四岛组成。位于莫桑比克海峡北端入口处,东、西距马达加斯加和莫桑比克各约300公里。热带海洋性气候,年平均气温23-28℃。

[Country name] Union of Comoros, Union des Comores.

[area] 2,236 square kilometers (including Mayotte).

[People] About 800,000 (2018). It is mainly composed of Arab descendants, Kraft, Magoni, Uamacha and Sakarava. General Comorian, the official languages are Comorian, French and Arabic. More than 95% of residents believe in Islam, mainly Sunni.

[The capital] Moroni has a population of about 60,000. The hot season is from November to May, with an average temperature of 24-31 ° C, and the cool season is from June to October, with an average temperature of 19-27 ° C.

[Head of State] President Azali Assoumani, took office in May 2016.

[Important Festival] National Day: July 6.

[Brief] The West Indian Ocean island country is composed of the four major islands of Comoros, Anjouan, Moeli and Mayotte. Located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel, about 300 km east and west of Madagascar and Mozambique. Tropical maritime climate with an average annual temperature of 23-28 °C.

西方殖民者入侵前长期由阿拉伯苏丹统治。1841年法国入侵马约特岛。1912年科摩罗四岛沦为法国殖民地。1946年成为法“海外领地”。1961年取得内部自治。1975年7月6日独立,成立科摩罗共和国,艾哈迈德·阿卜杜拉(Ahmed Abdallah)任总统。1978年10月22日改国名为科摩罗伊斯兰联邦共和国。1990年3月,赛义德·穆罕默德·乔哈尔(Said Mohamed Djohar)当选总统,组成科独立以来第一个多党联合政府。1995年9月,科前总统卫队长、雇佣军头目、法国人德纳尔发动军事政变,乔哈尔总统被囚,卡阿比总理成立过渡政府。乔哈尔获释后被送往留尼汪“治病”期间宣布成立合法政府,科出现两个政府共存局面。1996年1月,总统派和总理派实现和解,并于3月16日组织总统选举,穆罕默德·塔基·阿卜杜勒卡里姆(Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim)当选。1997年7月,昂儒昂岛要求脱离科摩罗归属法国,10月宣布独立。1998年11月塔基病逝,塔基丁出任代总统。1999年4月19-23日,科各岛和各党派代表在非洲统一组织和马达加斯加等主持下召开岛际会议并达成《塔那那利佛协议》,决定成立科国家联盟,各岛高度自治,但昂儒昂岛代表拒绝签字。4月30日,科军参谋长阿扎利上校发动军事政变上台。阿扎利上台后,组成文官主导的新政府,吸收更广泛的政党代表参政,基本稳定了科局势。同时,阿积极寻求与昂儒昂岛当局对话,2000年8月与昂儒昂岛领导人阿贝德签署《丰波尼共同声明》,原则同意进行民族和解,决定成立带有邦联性质的“科摩罗新集体”。2001年2月,科政府、反对党、昂儒昂岛当局、各岛代表及非统等9方签署《科摩罗和解框架协议》,科全面民族和解进程正式启动。12月23日,科通过新宪法草案,决定成立科摩罗联盟,赋予四岛高度自治权。2002年3-4月,科举行大选,阿扎利当选总统。2003年12月20日,科联盟政府与除马约特岛外的三岛达成《科摩罗过渡措施协议》,就议会选举、联盟和三岛之间权力分配等问题达成妥协。

【政 治】 2010年11-12月,科摩罗举行两轮总统选举,原副总统伊基利卢·杜瓦尼纳(Ikililou Dhoinine)当选新一任联盟总统。2011年5月26日,伊基利卢就任联盟总统。2016年2、5月,科摩罗举行两轮总统选举,前总统阿扎利当选新一任联盟总统。2016年5月26日,阿扎利宣誓就职。2018年2月,科摩罗举行全国对话协商大会,在改革总统轮任制、取消副总统职位、取消宪法法院等方面取得共识。2018年7月,科摩罗修宪公投顺利举行,将总统不得连任改为允许现任总统连任一次,并取消副总统职位。8月,阿扎利总统改组政府,取消三位副总统。2019年3月、4月,科摩罗举行总统选举两轮投票,阿扎利总统成功连任。

【宪 法】 2001年12月23日,科摩罗通过独立以来第四部宪法,2009年5月17日进行修正。根据修改后的宪法,科实现行政、立法和司法三权分立体制。联盟设1名总统和3名副总统。总统为国家元首兼政府首脑和军队最高统帅,由各岛轮任,任期五年。各岛政府在尊重国家统一的前提下,实行自治。副总统负责协调和监督各自治岛行政机构依法施政。2018年7月,阿扎利总统推动修订宪法,将总统不得连任、三岛轮任改为允许现任总统连任一次、三岛轮任,并取消副总统职位。

The Western colonists were ruled by the Arab Sultan long before the invasion. In 1841 France invaded Mayotte. In 1912, the four islands of Comoros became French colonies. In 1946, he became the “overseas territory” of France. In 1961, internal autonomy was obtained. Independence on July 6, 1975, the Republic of the Comoros was established, and Ahmed Abdallah was appointed President. On October 22, 1978, the country was renamed the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros. In March 1990, Said Mohamed Djohar was elected president, forming the first multi-party coalition government since independence. In September 1995, the former Presidential Guard Captain, the mercenary leader, the Frenchman Denar launched a military coup, President Jowhar was imprisoned, and Prime Minister Karabi established the transitional government. After Jowhar was released, he was sent to Reunion to “establish medical treatment” and announced the establishment of a legal government. In January 1996, the presidential and prime ministers reconciled and on March 16 organized a presidential election, Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim was elected. In July 1997, Anjouan asked for independence from Comoros to France and declared independence in October. In November 1998, Taki died and Takiddin became the acting president. On April 19-23, 1999, representatives of Koko Island and various parties held an inter-island meeting under the auspices of the Organization of African Unity and Madagascar and reached the “Antananarivo Agreement”, deciding to establish a national alliance, and the islands were highly autonomous. However, the representative of Anjouan refused to sign. On April 30, Colonel Azali, Chief of Staff of the KLA, launched a military coup to take office. After Azali took office, he formed a new government led by civil servants, and absorbed a wider representation of political parties to participate in politics, which basically stabilized the situation in the country. At the same time, Afghanistan actively sought dialogue with the authorities of the Anjouan Islands. In August 2000, it signed the “Fonboni Joint Statement” with the leader of the Anjouan Island, and agreed in principle to carry out national reconciliation and decided to establish a “confederation”. The new Comoros collective.” In February 2001, the Kosovo Government, the opposition party, the Angolan island authorities, the island representatives and the OAU signed the “Comoros Reconciliation Framework Agreement”, and the comprehensive national reconciliation process was officially launched. On December 23, the Section passed the draft new constitution and decided to establish the Union of the Comoros, giving the four islands a high degree of autonomy. In March-April 2002, the department held a general election and Azali was elected president. On December 20, 2003, the government of the Union and the three islands except Mayotte reached the Comoros Transitional Measures Agreement, which reached a compromise on issues such as parliamentary elections, alliances and power distribution among the three islands.

[Politics] From November to December 2010, Comoros held two rounds of presidential elections, and former Vice President Ikililou Dhoinine was elected as the new president of the Union. On May 26, 2011, Ikililu became the president of the Union. In February and May 2016, the Comoros held two rounds of presidential elections, and former President Azali was elected as the new president of the Union. On May 26, 2016, Azali was sworn in. In February 2018, the Comoros held a National Dialogue Consultation and reached consensus on reforming the presidential rotation system, canceling the position of vice president, and abolishing the Constitutional Court. In July 2018, the Comoros constitutional referendum was successfully held, changing the president’s non-election to allow the current president to re-elect and cancel the vice-presidential position. In August, President Azali reorganized the government and cancelled three vice presidents. In March and April of 2019, the Comoros held two rounds of presidential elections, and President Azali was re-elected.

[Constitution] On December 23, 2001, the Comoros passed the fourth constitution since independence and was amended on May 17, 2009. According to the revised constitution, the department realized the three-dimensional system of administration, legislation and judiciary. The Union has one president and three vice presidents. The President is the head of state and head of government and the supreme commander of the army. He is appointed by the islands for a term of five years. The island governments exercise self-government on the premise of respecting national unity. The vice president is responsible for coordinating and supervising the administration of the autonomous islands in accordance with the law. In July 2018, President Azali promoted the revision of the Constitution, changing the president’s non-re-election, changing the three islands to allow the current president to re-elect, the three islands to rotate, and cancel the vice-presidential position.

【议 会】 国民议会为联盟最高立法机构,共有33名议员,其中24名议员通过直选产生,其他由各岛理事会(地方议会)各指定3人组成,负责讨论通过国家法律法规、国家预算、监督政府行为等,设有常务委员会和4个常设委员会,各委员会均有8名成员。每年召开两次例会,第一次召开时间为4月的第一个星期五,第二次召开时间为10月的第一个星期五。每次例会不超过3个月。

2015年2月,科举行议会选举,总统派获8席,反对党和独立候选人获其余16席。议长是阿卜杜·乌塞尼(Abdou Ousseni)。

【政 府】 本届政府于2016年5月成立,2018年8月改组,目前主要成员有:总统阿扎利·阿苏马尼(Azali Assoumani),能源、农业、渔业和环境部长穆斯塔德鲁因·阿卜杜(Moustadroine Abdou),邮政、电信、信息技术和通讯部长阿卜杜拉·赛义德·萨鲁马(Abdallah Said Sarouma),财政和预算部长赛义德·阿里·赛义德·谢哈尼(Said Ali Said Chayhane),外交与国际合作、海外侨民部长苏埃夫·穆罕默德·阿明(Souef Mohamed El Amine),经济、投资兼经济一体化部长比安里菲· 塔尔米迪(Bianrifi Tharmidhi),卫生、团结、社会保障及促进性别平等部长拉希德·穆罕默德·姆巴拉卡·法特玛(Rashid Mohamed Mbaraka Fatma),内政、新闻、权力下放、协调国家机构关系部长兼政府发言人穆罕默德·达乌杜(Mohamed Daoudou),司法、伊斯兰事务、公共行政和人权事务部长穆罕默德·侯赛尼·贾玛利莱利(Mohamed Housseini Djamalilaili),青年、就业、工作、培训、职业规划、体育、艺术和文化部长拉达安提·胡迈迪(Ladaenti Houmadi),国民教育、高等教育和科研部长萨利姆·马哈茂德(Salim Mahamoud),国土整治、城市规划兼不动产事务部长穆罕默德·沙图尔·巴达维(Mohamed Chatur Badaoui),海空运输兼旅游和手工业部长努尔丁·本·艾哈迈德(Nourdine Ben Ahmed)。

【行政区划】 分为大科摩罗、昂儒昂和莫埃利三个自治岛。岛下设县、乡、村,三岛分别有7个、5个、3个县,共24个乡。马约特岛现为法国控制。

【司法机构】 科联盟宪法规定,最高法院是联盟和各岛司法、行政和财政等问题的最高审判机关,法官终身任职。宪法法院负责审查联盟及各岛法律的合宪性,确认选举结果,审判选举争议,裁决联盟机构之间、联盟与各岛间有关权限问题的争议。共8名成员,由联盟总统、副总统、国民议会议长及各岛行政长官各指定一名法官组成。院长由宪法法院法官选出,任期6年,可连任。本届宪法法院成立于2008年7月,院长为阿卜杜拉扎库·阿卜杜勒哈米德(ABDOURAZAKOU ABDOULHAMID)。2018年4月,科政府将宪法法院职责暂时移交至最高法院。

[Parliament] The National Assembly is the highest legislative body of the Union. There are 33 members, of which 24 are elected by direct election. The other is composed of three members of each island council (local council), which is responsible for discussing and adopting national laws and regulations, the state budget, To supervise government actions, there are standing committees and four standing committees, each with eight members. There are two regular meetings each year, the first time is the first Friday in April, and the second time is the first Friday in October. Each regular meeting will last no more than 3 months.

In February 2015, the branch held parliamentary elections, the president received 8 seats, and the opposition party and independent candidates won the remaining 16 seats. The speaker is Abdou Ousseni.

[Government] The current government was established in May 2016 and reorganized in August 2018. The current main members are: President Azali Assoumani, Minister of Energy, Agriculture, Fisheries and Environment Mustard Moustadroine Abdou, Minister of Posts, Telecommunications, Information Technology and Communications Abdallah Said Sarouma, Finance and Budget Minister Saeed Ali Saiyi Said Ali Said Chayhane, Foreign and International Cooperation, Overseas Resident Minister Souef Mohamed El Amine, Minister of Economy, Investment and Economic Integration Bianlifi Talmidi (Bianrifi Tharmidhi), Minister of Health, Solidarity, Social Security and Gender Equality Rashid Mohamed Mbaraka Fatma, Minister of Internal Affairs, News, Decentralization, Coordination of National Institutional Relations Government spokesman Mohamed Daoudou, Minister of Justice, Islamic Affairs, Public Administration and Human Rights, Mohamed Husseini Jamalile (Mohamed Housseini Djamalilaili), Minister of Youth, Employment, Work, Training, Career Planning, Sports, Arts and Culture, Ladadi Houmadi, Minister of National Education, Higher Education and Research, Salim Maha Salim Mahamoud, Minister of Land Management, Urban Planning and Real Estate Affairs Mohamed Chatur Badaoui, Minister of Air and Sea Transport and Tourism and Handicrafts, Noordin Ben Ahmed (Nourdine) Ben Ahmed).

[Administrative Division] It is divided into three autonomous islands: Grand Comoros, Anjouan and Moeli. There are 7 counties, 5 villages and 3 villages in the four islands, with a total of 24 townships. Mayotte is now controlled by France.

[Judiciary] The Constitution of the League of Associations stipulates that the Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the Union and the judicial, administrative and financial issues of the islands, and the judges serve for life. The Constitutional Court is responsible for reviewing the constitutionality of the Union and the laws of the islands, confirming the results of the elections, adjudicating the election disputes, and adjudicating disputes between the alliance agencies, the alliances and the islands. A total of eight members, consisting of the President of the Union, the Vice President, the Speaker of the National Assembly, and the Chief Executives of each island. The President is elected by a judge of the Constitutional Court for a term of six years and is eligible for reappointment. The current Constitutional Court was established in July 2008, and the dean is ABDOURAZAKOU ABDOULHAMID. In April 2018, the government handed over the duties of the Constitutional Court to the Supreme Court.

【政 党】 科目前有近50多个政党和政治团体。主要有:

(1)科摩罗复兴公约党(Convention pour le Renouveau des Comores,CRC):2002年7月21日成立。宗旨是捍卫国家统一、领土完整和民族和解成果,支持消除贫困的行动。主要机构有全国理事会、地区理事会、政治理事会、执行局和常设书记处。哈米杜·卡里奇拉(Hamidou Karihila)任总书记。阿扎利总统为该党创始人和名誉主席。

(2)全国争取正义阵线(Front National pour la Justice,FNJ):伊斯兰教政党。1990年11月19日成立,1992年被国家承认合法。宗旨是争取和平稳定,通过对话解决国家分裂危机。曾派团参加解决昂儒昂岛危机的国际会议,是有关文件签署方之一。总书记阿赫迈德·拉斯德(Ahmed Achid)。前总统桑比是该党创始人之一。

(3)科摩罗民主进步运动(Mouvement pour la Démocratie et le Progrès,MDP):1988年12月成立,成员多为商人。对内主张实行多党制,经济自由化和私有化;对外主张不结盟,睦邻友好,在相互尊重主权的基础上发展国家间关系。该党在阿卜杜拉、乔哈尔和阿扎利执政时期均为反对党。主席阿巴斯·尤素夫(Abbas Djoussouf)。

【重要人物】 阿扎利·阿苏马尼:科摩罗联盟总统。1959年12月31日生。1986年起先后担任科内政部移民局长、总统办公厅军务官、国防军司令、总参谋长等职。1999年4月政变上台。2002年4月当选科摩罗联盟总统,2006年5月卸任。2016年5月再次当选总统,2019年4月连任。

【经 济】 是世界最不发达国家之一。经济以农业为主,香草、丁香、鹰爪兰等香料产量居世界前列,有“香料岛”之称。工业基础脆弱,严重依赖外援。1991年5月开始实行世界银行和国际货币基金组织制订的“结构调整计划”。2012年底,科达到国际货币基金组织宣布科达到“重债穷国倡议”减债计划完成点。阿扎利总统上任后出台多项惠民举措,降低食品、日用品、石油制品价格,重视基础设施建设,积极推动全国公路网改造、新火力发电厂等项目。2017年,科政府提出“2030新兴国家”发展战略,拟重点推进水资源开发和道路、港口等基础设施建设,改善卫生和教育体系,发展数字化和创新技术。2018年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:12亿美元

人均国内生产总值:1500美元

经济增长率:2.7%

外汇储备:2.07亿美元

外债总额:1.9亿美元

货币名称:科摩罗法郎

汇率:1美元约合416.8科法郎。

通货膨胀率:1.8%

(资料来源:2019年5月《伦敦经济季评》)

【资 源】 无矿产资源。水力资源匮乏。渔业资源较丰富。

[Political Party] The department currently has nearly 50 political parties and political groups. There are:

(1) Convention pour le Renouveau des Comores (CRC): established on July 21, 2002. The aim is to defend national unity, territorial integrity and national reconciliation and support actions to eradicate poverty. The main institutions are the National Council, the Regional Council, the Political Council, the Executive Board and the Standing Secretariat. Hamidou Karihila is the general secretary. President Azali is the founder and honorary chairman of the party.

(2) Front National pour la Justice (FNJ): Islamic party. It was established on November 19, 1990 and was legally recognized by the state in 1992. The purpose is to strive for peace and stability and resolve the country’s separatist crisis through dialogue. An international conference that had sent a delegation to participate in the settlement of the Anjouan Island crisis was one of the signatories to the relevant documents. General Secretary Ahmed Achid. Former President Sambi is one of the founders of the party.

(3) Mouvement pour la Démocratie et le Progrès (MDP): Established in December 1988, most of whom are businessmen. Internally, it advocates a multi-party system, economic liberalization and privatization; it advocates non-alignment, good-neighborliness and friendship, and develops inter-state relations on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty. The party was an opposition party during the period of Abdullah, Jowhar and Azali. Chairman Abbas Djoussouf.

[Important figures] Azali Asumani: President of the Union of Comoros. Born on December 31, 1959. Since 1986, he has served as the immigration director of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the military officer of the presidential office, the commander of the national defense army, and the chief of staff. The coup took office in April 1999. In April 2002, he was elected President of the Union of the Comoros and retired in May 2006. In May 2016, he was re-elected as president and re-elected in April 2019.

[Economy] is one of the least developed countries in the world. The economy is dominated by agriculture, and the production of spices such as vanilla, clove, and cinnabar is among the highest in the world. It is known as the “Spice Island”. The industrial base is fragile and relies heavily on foreign aid. In May 1991, the “Structural Adjustment Plan” developed by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund was implemented. At the end of 2012, the Section reached the International Monetary Fund’s announcement that it had reached the completion point of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative debt reduction plan. After taking office, President Azali introduced a number of measures to benefit the people, reduce the prices of food, daily necessities and petroleum products, attach importance to infrastructure construction, and actively promote the transformation of the national road network and new thermal power plants. In 2017, the government proposed the “2030 Emerging Countries” development strategy, focusing on promoting water resources development and infrastructure construction such as roads and ports, improving health and education systems, and developing digital and innovative technologies. The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $1.2 billion

Per capita GDP: $1,500

Economic growth rate: 2.7%

Foreign exchange reserves: $207 million

Total external debt: $190 million

Currency Name: Comoros Franc

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar is about 416.8 francs.

Inflation rate: 1.8%

(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, May 2019)

[Resources] No mineral resources. Lack of water resources. Fishery resources are abundant.

【工 业】 基础薄弱、规模小,主要为农产品加工业,另有印刷厂、制药厂、可口可乐瓶装厂、水泥空心砖厂和小服装厂等。2015年工业产值占国内生产总值的12.2%。

【农牧渔业】 科是农业国家,57.4%的劳动力从事农业生产。全国可耕地面积7万多公顷。2015年,农林牧渔业产值占国内生产总值的48.3%,主要粮食作物为水稻、玉米和薯类。粮食不能自给,需从国外进口。丁香、香草、依兰等经济作物是科外汇收入主要来源。近年畜牧业有所发展,在大科摩罗岛有两家养鸡场。油料、粮食、肉类和牛奶主要从法国、阿联酋、南非和马达加斯加进口。渔业资源较丰富,主要鱼种为金枪鱼、红鱼和青鱼。但工具落后,仅能在近海捕捞,捕鱼量不能满足国内需要。现有渔民8000余人,年捕鱼量约14300吨。科政府与欧盟签有捕鱼协定。

【旅游业】 旅游资源丰富,海岛风光秀美,伊斯兰文化鲜明,但旅游资源尚待充分开发。现有客房760间,床位880个。位于大科摩罗岛的加拉瓦阳光度假酒店(Galawa Sun Resort Hotel)为科最大旅游设施。外国游客中68%来自欧洲,29%来自非洲。

【交通运输】 无铁路,岛上交通工具为汽车,岛际交通工具为轮船和飞机。独立以来,政府用于交通运输方面的投资占全部经济建设资金的一半以上。

公路:总长880公里,各种机动车约4000辆。

水运:国营的科摩罗港口和海运公司有客货两用轮3艘,港口年吞吐量约10万吨。穆察穆都港为科最大港口,可停靠2.5万吨级轮船。

空运:有赛义德·易卜拉欣王子国际机场(哈哈亚机场),跑道长2400米。也门、毛里求斯、马达加斯加和法国航空公司有班机经停。国营航空公司经营四岛间客机,私人航空公司承担空运业务。

【财政金融】 财政收入主要靠税收和外国援助,赤字居高不下。根据经济结构调整计划,近年来科政府努力削减公共开支。截至2017年底,科外债总额1.9亿美元。多边债权方主要有世界银行、非洲开发银行、阿拉伯非洲发展银行、国际货币基金组织等,法国是科最大双边债权国。

有5家银行:科摩罗中央银行(la Banque Centrale des Comores),1962年成立,1975年科独立后用现名;科摩罗工商银行(la Banque pour l’Industrie et le Commerce),1990年底成为巴黎国民银行在科分行,注册资本600万法国法郎;科摩罗发展银行(la Banque de Developpement des Comores),注册资本600万法国法郎,政府拥有50%的资本;科摩罗国家储蓄银行(la Caisse nationale d’epargne);2008年由坦桑尼亚投资成立进出口银行(EXIM Banque)。

[Industrial] The foundation is weak and the scale is small, mainly for the agricultural product processing industry, as well as the printing factory, the pharmaceutical factory, the Coca-Cola bottle factory, the cement hollow brick factory and the small garment factory. In 2015, industrial output accounted for 12.2% of GDP.

[Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] The branch is an agricultural country, and 57.4% of the labor force is engaged in agricultural production. The country’s arable land area is more than 70,000 hectares. In 2015, the output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery accounted for 48.3% of the gross domestic product. The main food crops were rice, corn and potato. Food cannot be self-sufficient and needs to be imported from abroad. Cash crops such as cloves, vanilla and ylang-ylang are the main sources of foreign exchange earnings. In recent years, animal husbandry has developed and there are two chicken farms on the island of Big Comoros. Oil, grain, meat and milk are mainly imported from France, United Arab Emirates, South Africa and Madagascar. The fishery resources are abundant, and the main fish species are tuna, red fish and herring. However, the tools are backward and can only be caught offshore. The amount of fishing cannot meet domestic needs. There are more than 8,000 fishermen and the annual fishing volume is about 14,300 tons. The government has signed a fishing agreement with the European Union.

[Tourism] The tourism resources are abundant, the island is beautiful, and the Islamic culture is clear, but the tourism resources have yet to be fully developed. There are 760 existing rooms and 880 beds. The Galaawa Sun Resort Hotel on the island of Grand Comoros is the largest tourist facility in the department. 68% of foreign tourists are from Europe and 29% are from Africa.

[Transportation] There is no railway, the island is a car, and the inter-island is a ship and an airplane. Since independence, the government’s investment in transportation has accounted for more than half of all economic construction funds.

Highway: The total length is 880 kilometers, and about 4,000 vehicles are used.

Water transport: The state-owned Comoros port and shipping company has three passenger and cargo wheels, with an annual port throughput of about 100,000 tons. Muchamudu Port is the largest port in the country and can dock 25,000-ton ships.

Air transport: There is Syed Ibrahim International Airport (Hahaya Airport) and the runway is 2,400 meters long. Yemen, Mauritius, Madagascar and Air France have flights to stop. State-owned airlines operate airliners between the four islands, and private airlines undertake air transport operations.

[Financial Finance] The fiscal revenue mainly depends on taxation and foreign aid, and the deficit remains high. According to the economic restructuring plan, the government has made efforts to reduce public expenditure in recent years. As of the end of 2017, the total foreign debt was 190 million US dollars. The multilateral creditors mainly include the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the Arab Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund, etc. France is the largest bilateral creditor of the Division.

There are five banks: the Central Bank of the Comoros (la Banque Centrale des Comores), which was established in 1962. It was named after the independence of the branch in 1975; La Banque pour l’Industrie et le Commerce, at the end of 1990 Became a branch of the National Bank of Paris with a registered capital of 6 million French francs; the La Banque de Developpement des Comores, with a registered capital of 6 million French francs, the government owns 50% of the capital; the Comoros National Savings Bank ( La Caisse nationale d’epargne); In 2008, the company established the Export-Import Bank (EXIM Banque).

【对外贸易】 2018年对外贸易总额2.8 亿美元。外贸连年逆差。生活用品几乎全部依靠进口。主要进口石油产品、交通工具和零配件、大米等。主要出口香料等农产品,丁香、香草、依兰为三大出口香料。主要出口国有法国、印度、德国、巴基斯坦等,主要进口国有阿联酋、法国、中国、马达加斯加等。

【外国援助】 基础设施建设基本依靠外援。联合国系统(含世界银行)援助居科外援首位,约占30%,其它多边援助占24%。法国是最大援助国,2013年法对科援助总额约为1000万欧元。其它援助方有欧盟、沙特、科威特、日本、美国、中国等。2001年世界银行向科提供600万美元消除贫困贷款,阿拉伯联盟首脑会议为科设立1000万美元的民族和解进程专项基金。7月在巴黎举行的“科摩罗之友”会议上,科共获得1280万美元国际援助。2002年科各岛财政纠纷导致欧盟、世界银行、国际货币基金组织等取消援助计划。2005年12月对科援助方圆桌会议在毛里求斯召开,法国、欧盟等为科实施《经济发展减贫战略》和《2006-2009年行动规划》募捐近2亿美元。2008年12月国际货币基金组织通过“后冲突时期经济援助计划”,向科提供1750万美元援助。2010年3月,卡塔尔政府及阿拉伯联盟、伊斯兰会议组织、联合国开发计划署在多哈联合召开支持科摩罗联盟发展与投资会议,为科筹得5.4亿美元的援助和投资项目。2012年12月,科摩罗通过国际货币基金组织和世界银行的“重债穷国倡议”决策点审查。2013年9月,世界银行向科提供2730万美元无偿援助,以促进科电信和能源领域的发展。11月,科和非洲开发银行签署经援协议,非发行将向科提供2010万美元无偿援助,帮助科加快电网建设。12月,国际货币基金组织确认科已达到重债穷国减债计划完成点。2015年2月,非洲开发银行向科水电公司提供1800万美元无偿援助。3月,欧盟与科签署合作协议,将在2014-2020年向科提供6800万欧元无偿援助。4月,国际重建和发展银行、国际开发协会与科签署协议,将向科提供1300万美元无偿援助。5月,欧盟与科签署协议,将向科提供600万欧元的无偿援助,为科修缮118公里的道路。同月,非盟与科签署合作协议,将向科提供114万美元无偿援助,用于支持科政府与新西兰、联合国开发计划署共同实施的地热开发项目。2017年2月,非洲发展银行与科签署2000万美元援助协议,用于支持科全国公路修缮计划。3月,世界银行与科签署协议,向科提供250万美元无偿援助,用于执行全国第二次人口普查计划。8月,世界银行宣布将在未来三年内向科政府提供至少2000万美元的援助,用于支持科政府的经济发展计划。

【人民生活】 据《2018年人类发展报告》人类发展指数(HDI)统计,2018年,科在全球188个国家和地区中居第165位。全国82%的人口可享受基本卫生保健服务。每7500人拥有一名医生,每342人有一张病床,每千人有10部电话。80%的人口患有不同程度的疟疾。平均预期寿命男性58岁,女性63岁。据科2013年千年发展目标年度报告,科人口贫困率45.6%。

【军 事】 科武装力量由军队、宪兵、警察和情报机构四部分组成。其中军队于1990年12月由武装部队和原总统卫队合并而成。总兵力约520人,编制为指挥和支援连、两个战斗连和总统安全分队。实行志愿兵役制,军官、士官从高中毕业生中招募,服役年限根据需要而定。士兵不定期招募,无严格年龄限制,一般服役15年。

总统为军队最高统帅,总统府国防国务代表(相当于国防部长)和参谋长负责实际工作。法国与科签有“防御协定”,负责科海、空防务,其军舰定期在科海域巡逻。法在马约特岛设有海军基地和驻军司令部。

[Foreign Trade] The total foreign trade volume in 2018 was US$280 million. Foreign trade has been in deficit for years. Almost all household items depend on imports. Mainly imported petroleum products, vehicles and spare parts, rice, etc. Mainly exporting spices and other agricultural products, cloves, vanilla and ylang-ylang are the three major export spices. The main exporting countries are France, India, Germany, Pakistan, etc. The main importing countries are the United Arab Emirates, France, China, Madagascar and so on.

[Foreign Aid] Infrastructure construction basically relies on foreign aid. The United Nations system (including the World Bank) assisted the first foreign aid recipients, accounting for about 30%, and other multilateral aid accounted for 24%. France is the largest donor, and the total amount of aid to the law in 2013 was about 10 million euros. Other aid parties include the European Union, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Japan, the United States, and China. In 2001, the World Bank provided a $6 million poverty alleviation loan to the Section, and the Arab League Summit set up a $10 million special fund for the national reconciliation process for the Section. At the “Friends of the Comoros” conference held in Paris in July, the Communist Party received $12.8 million in international assistance. In 2002, the fiscal disputes in Kosovo led to the cancellation of aid programs by the European Union, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. In December 2005, the round table of the aid donors was held in Mauritius. France, the European Union and other countries raised nearly 200 million U.S. dollars for the implementation of the Economic Development Poverty Reduction Strategy and the 2006-2009 Action Plan. In December 2008, the International Monetary Fund provided $17.5 million in assistance to the Section through the Post-Conflict Economic Assistance Program. In March 2010, the Government of Qatar and the Arab League, the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the United Nations Development Programme jointly held a conference to support the Comoros Alliance Development and Investment in Doha to raise 540 million U.S. dollars in aid and investment projects. In December 2012, the Comoros was reviewed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank’s Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative decision point. In September 2013, the World Bank provided $27.3 million in grant assistance to the Section to promote the development of the telecommunications and energy sectors. In November, the branch and the African Development Bank signed a financial aid agreement. The non-issuance will provide the company with $100 million in grant assistance to help the department accelerate the construction of the power grid. In December, the International Monetary Fund confirmed that it had reached the completion point of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Debt Relief Program. In February 2015, the African Development Bank provided $18 million in grant assistance to the company. In March, the EU and the Section signed a cooperation agreement to provide 68 million euros of free assistance to the Section in 2014-2016. In April, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association and the Section signed an agreement to provide $13 million in grant assistance to the Section. In May, the EU signed an agreement with the Section to provide 6 million euros of free assistance to the Section for the repair of 118 kilometers of roads. In the same month, the AU and the Section signed a cooperation agreement, which will provide 1.46 million US dollars of free assistance to support the geothermal development project jointly implemented by the government and New Zealand and the United Nations Development Program. In February 2017, the African Development Bank and the Section signed a $20 million assistance agreement to support the National Highway Repair Program. In March, the World Bank signed an agreement with the Section to provide $2.5 million in grant assistance to the Section for the implementation of the second national census plan. In August, the World Bank announced that it would provide at least $20 million in assistance to the government over the next three years to support the government’s economic development plan.

[People’s Life] According to the Human Development Report (HDI) of the 2018 Human Development Report, in 2018, the Section ranked 165th among 188 countries and regions around the world. 82% of the country’s population has access to basic health care services. There is one doctor for every 7,500 people, one bed for every 342 people and 10 telephones for every thousand people. 80% of the population suffer from varying degrees of malaria. The average life expectancy is 58 for men and 63 for women. According to the annual report of the 2013 Millennium Development Goals, the poverty rate of the population is 45.6%.

[Military] The armed forces of the armed forces are composed of the military, gendarmerie, police and intelligence agencies. The army was formed by the merger of the armed forces and the former Presidential Guard in December 1990. The total strength is about 520, and it is compiled into a command and support company, two combat companies and a presidential security unit. Volunteer military service system is implemented. Officers and non-commissioned officers are recruited from high school graduates. The number of years of service depends on the needs. Soldiers are recruited from time to time, without strict age restrictions, and generally serve for 15 years.

The president is the supreme commander of the army, and the presidential defense state representative (equivalent to the defense minister) and the chief of staff are responsible for the actual work. France and the Ministry signed a “defense agreement”, responsible for the Kehai, air defense, and its warships regularly patrol the Kehai area. The law has a naval base and a garrison headquarters on Mayotte.

【对外关系】 奉行独立、睦邻友好、不结盟和全方位务实外交政策。重视与印度洋邻国的团结与合作,主张建立印度洋和平区,积极发展同阿拉伯国家关系。是非盟、阿盟、印委会、环印度洋联盟、东南非共同市场、南部非洲发展共同体成员国。

【同法国的关系】 两国有着特殊关系,法国一直是科最大贸易伙伴和援助国。1975年科独立后同法国关系一度中断。1978年7月1日两国建交,同年12月法、科签订《友好合作条约》、《经济、财政和货币协定》、《文化教育协定》和《防务协定》,法全面恢复对科援助。法国总统密特朗、总理希拉克均曾访科,科总统、总理、议长等均多次访法。法各种顾问、专家遍及科军政各部门。2007年9月,桑比总统访法。11月,法国在援科欧洲出资者会议上出资100万欧元帮助科偿还欠非洲开发银行31%的债务,12月向科提供120万欧元优惠贷款用于发展中小企业。2008年3月,法国支持科政府军对昂岛采取军事行动,并承担了部分运兵任务。2009年7月,法国总理菲永对科摩罗进行了工作访问。2013年6月,伊基利卢总统访法,与法总统奥朗德举行会谈并共同签署《科法友好合作宣言》。2015年9月,法宣布将向科环保组织提供约150万人民币的物资和技术支持。2016年10月,科总统阿扎利访法,与法总统奥朗德举行会谈。同年12月,法国发展署向科财政部提供80万欧元的援助,用以发展科财政金融业。2017年9月,法国发展署向科提供400万欧元的援助支持科发展农业和渔业。

科法在马约特岛归属问题上长期存有争议。2009年3月,法国在其实际控制的马约特岛组织“建省公投”并获得通过,单方面宣布马约特岛自2011年起由法“海外领地”正式变为“海外省”,遭到科方强烈反对。2012年法推动欧盟理事会批准马约特岛获得欧盟外延区地位,遭到科方强烈反对。近年来,科法关系逐渐转圜,在马约特岛问题上的调门均有所减弱。2017年9月,科外长阿明访问法国,同法国就马约特岛问题进行磋商,双方签订马约特岛与科摩罗人员物资交流往来路线图。

【同美国的关系】 1979年科、美建交。1985年8月,美在科建使馆。1990年9月,美向科派出第一位常驻大使,1993年撤馆,由美驻毛里求斯大使兼任驻科大使。美从1988年开始向科派驻和平队,帮助科培训军官和海关人员。美在科有农业合作,并从科进口香料。1999年4月科发生军事政变后,美曾对科实行制裁。2007年昂儒昂岛危机发生后,美支持科联盟政府,并为科军提供药品。2014年8月,伊基利卢总统赴美出席美非峰会。2015年9月,科美签署反恐领域合作协议。根据协议,美国将帮助科在机场、海关建设身份鉴定安防系统。

[External Relations] Pursue an independent, good-neighborly, non-aligned and all-round pragmatic foreign policy. Attach importance to solidarity and cooperation with neighboring countries in the Indian Ocean, advocate the establishment of a peaceful zone in the Indian Ocean, and actively develop relations with Arab countries. It is the AU, the Arab League, the Indian Commission, the Indian Ocean Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and the member states of the Southern African Development Community.

[Relationship with France] The two countries have a special relationship. France has always been the largest trading partner and aiding country of the division. After independence in 1975, the relationship with France was interrupted. On July 1, 1978, the two countries established diplomatic relations. In December of the same year, the law and the department signed the “Friends and Cooperation Treaty”, the “Economic, Fiscal and Monetary Agreement”, the “Cultural Education Agreement” and the “Defense Agreement”. French President Mitterrand and Prime Minister Chirac have visited the branch, and the President, Prime Minister and Speaker of the House have visited the law many times. Various consultants and experts of the law are involved in various departments of the military and political affairs. In September 2007, President Sambi’s visit to France. In November, France invested 1 million euros in the Afghan European funders meeting to help the bank owe 31% of the debt to the African Development Bank. In December, it offered 1.2 million euros of preferential loans to the branch to develop small and medium-sized enterprises. In March 2008, France supported the government forces to take military action against Ong Island and assumed part of the mission. In July 2009, French Prime Minister Fillon conducted a working visit to the Comoros. In June 2013, President Ikililu visited France and held talks with French President Hollande and signed the “Declaration on Friendly Cooperation between Science and Law.” In September 2015, the law announced that it would provide about 1.5 million yuan of materials and technical support to the environmental protection organization. In October 2016, President Azali visited France and held talks with French President Hollande. In December of the same year, the French Development Agency provided 800,000 euros of assistance to the Ministry of Finance to develop the finance and finance industry. In September 2017, the French Development Agency provided a 4 million euros assistance support section to the development of agriculture and fisheries.

The law has long been controversial on the issue of the ownership of Mayotte. In March 2009, France organized and approved the “Double Provincial Referendum” on its actually controlled Mayotte Island, unilaterally proclaiming that Mayotte has officially changed from “Overseas Territory” to “Overseas Province” since 2011. The party was strongly opposed. The 2012 law promoted the approval of the EU Council to grant Mayotte the status of the EU’s extension zone, which was strongly opposed by the Kuwaiti side. In recent years, the relationship between science and law has gradually changed, and the adjustment of the issue on Mayotte has been weakened. In September 2017, Foreign Minister Amin visited France and held consultations with France on Mayotte. The two sides signed a road map for the exchange of goods between Mayotte and Comoros.

[Relationship with the United States] In 1979, the United States and the United States established diplomatic relations. In August 1985, the United States was building an embassy. In September 1990, the United States sent the first permanent ambassador to the Section, and was dismantled in 1993. The US Ambassador to Mauritius also served as Ambassador to the Section. Since 1988, the United States has been stationed in the Peace Corps to help the officers and customs officers. The United States has agricultural cooperation and imports spices from the branch. After the military coup in the branch in April 1999, the United States imposed sanctions on the branch. After the Anjouan Island crisis in 2007, the United States supported the Alliance Government and provided medicines for the KLA. In August 2014, President Ikililu went to the United States to attend the US-Africa summit. In September 2015, Comay signed a cooperation agreement in the field of counter-terrorism. According to the agreement, the United States will help the Section to establish an identity security system at the airport and customs.

【文化教育】 科教育分为古兰经式传统教育和现代化教育两大系统。古兰经式传统教育由地方集体办学,国家不干涉。现代化教育采用法国模式,由科教育部管理。学校用法语、科摩罗语和阿拉伯语教学。学制为小学6年,初中3年,高中4年。其中高中分为普通高中和职业技术高中(学制3年)。小学入学率65%,中学17%,成人(15岁以上)文盲率44%。2003年11月,科第一所大学科摩罗大学成立。此外,国外提供奖学金是科学生接受高等教育的重要途径。20世纪90年代中期以来,科教育经费预算一直占国家预算总额的22%左右,教育工作者占工薪人员的40%。

【新闻出版】 科无通讯社,国际新闻主要采编自法新社,国内新闻由官方驻各地记者供稿。法文《祖国报》是官方报纸,时有科摩罗语版面。主要在国内发行,部分在法国销售。科摩罗广播电台是国家电台,于法国殖民统治时期成立,主要用科摩罗语播音,每天用法语播报三次新闻,有时也用阿拉伯语、马达加斯加语和斯瓦希里语播音。1991年4月,由德国无偿援建的中、短波发射台投入使用,可覆盖全国四岛。

2006年5月,中国援建的国家电视台正式开播,并开始每天转播中国中央电视台法语频道节目。2012年,中国中央电视台和中国国际广播电台在科摩罗落地。昂儒昂岛有一家私人电视台,用科摩罗语播送地方新闻并转播法国电视台节目。

[Cultural Education] Science education is divided into two major systems: the traditional Koranic education and modern education. The traditional Koranic education is run by local collectives and the state does not interfere. Modern education adopts the French model and is managed by the Ministry of Education. The school is taught in French, Comorian and Arabic. The school system is 6 years for elementary school, 3 years for junior high school, and 4 years for high school. Among them, high school is divided into ordinary high school and vocational high school (three years of schooling). The primary school enrollment rate is 65%, the secondary school is 17%, and the adult (15+) illiteracy rate is 44%. In November 2003, the first university of the University of Comoros was established. In addition, the provision of scholarships abroad is an important way for students to receive higher education. Since the mid-1990s, the budget for science education has been accounting for about 22% of the total national budget, and educators account for 40% of wage earners.

[Press and Publication] Branch No News Agency, international news is mainly compiled from AFP, and domestic news is contributed by official reporters from all over the world. The French “The Motherland” is an official newspaper, with a Comoros page. Mainly issued in the country, and partly sold in France. The Comoros Radio is a national radio station established during the French colonial period. It is mainly broadcast in Comoros. Three news stories are broadcast daily in French, sometimes in Arabic, Madagascar and Swahili. In April 1991, the medium and short wave launchers built by Germany without compensation were put into use, covering the four islands of the country.

In May 2006, the national television station aided by China officially launched, and began to broadcast the French Channel program of China Central Television every day. In 2012, China Central Television and China Radio International landed in Comoros. There is a private television station on Anjouan Island that broadcasts local news in Comoro and broadcasts French TV shows.

【同阿拉伯和非洲国家的关系】 科历届政府均重视发展与阿拉伯国家的关系。1993年9月,科加入阿拉伯国家联盟。1998年以来,科历任总统大力推行伊斯兰化,多次出访阿拉伯国家。2003年4月,科加入阿拉伯货币基金组织。阿拉伯国家每年都为科提供军用物资和经济援助。2010年科摩罗和卡塔尔政府在多哈联合召开了支持科摩罗联盟发展与投资会议,阿拉伯国家承诺为科提供5.4亿美元的援助和投资项目。2013年,促进科摩罗发展与投资阿拉伯委员会代表团访科,与科方在种植业、渔业、旅游业等领域达成多项合作协议。2015年9月,沙特宣布将为科援建10所中学并向科提供500万美元援助。2016年3月,科总统伊基利卢访问沙特。2016年7月,科总统阿扎利访问沙特,与沙特国王举行会谈,并与沙特政府在能源、水利等方面签署多项合作协议。2017年6月,科摩罗宣布与卡塔尔断交。同月,科总统阿扎利赴沙特朝觐,受到高规格接待,并同沙特国王萨拉曼会见。

2007年昂儒昂岛危机发生后,坦桑尼亚、利比亚、苏丹、塞内加尔等国对科联盟政府立场表示支持。2008年3月,坦桑尼亚、苏丹等国派兵帮助科政府军对昂儒昂岛采取军事行动。

【同周围岛国的关系】 科与马达加斯加关系密切。1975年科、马建交。双方签有航空、海运、签证、海关和教育合作等协定。马是非洲统一组织“马约特岛问题特别委员会”成员国,支持科收复马约特岛。科在马有4万侨民。1978年,因马发生排科侨事件,两国关系一度中断,1985年恢复正常。马积极推动科民族和解进程,曾于1999年4月在马主持召开科岛际会议。2006年5月,马总理西拉出席桑比总统就职仪式。2007年11月,科外长贾法尔访马。2011年2月,桑比总统访马。同年5月,马最高过渡权力机构主席拉乔利纳出席伊基利卢总统就职仪式。2013年10月和12月,科前总统阿扎利率印度洋委员会观察员代表团两次赴马达加斯加观察大选。2016年3月,科总统伊基利卢访马。同年11月,科总统阿扎利赴马出席第16届世界法语国家峰会。

1984年,科与毛里求斯建交。两国签有卫生和文教合作等协定。近年来,科提出向毛学习经济建设经验,赴毛人员渐增。1999年4月科发生军事政变后,毛予以谴责并停止对科援助。毛还积极响应非统呼吁,对昂儒昂岛采取禁运等制裁措施。2003年,马、毛同南非共同协调,推动科联盟政府与三岛达成《科摩罗过渡措施协议》。2004年10月,阿扎利总统访毛。2005年12月,对科援助方圆桌会议在毛举行。2007年11月,毛资助科30万美元偿还其欠非洲开发银行的债务。

2007年昂儒昂岛危机出现后,马达加斯加、毛里求斯、塞舌尔等科邻国举行多次地区外长会议,对科联盟政府立场表示支持。

[Relationship with Arab and African countries] All successive governments have attached importance to developing relations with Arab countries. In September 1993, the Section joined the League of Arab States. Since 1998, the President of the Science Council has vigorously promoted Islamization and has visited the Arab countries many times. In April 2003, the Section joined the Arab Monetary Fund. The Arab countries provide military materials and economic assistance to the Section every year. In 2010, the Comoros and Qatar governments jointly held a conference to support the Comoros Alliance Development and Investment in Doha, and the Arab countries pledged to provide Section 540 million in aid and investment projects. In 2013, the delegation of the Arab Council for the Development and Investment of the Comoros visited the branch, and reached a number of cooperation agreements with the Branch in the fields of planting, fishery and tourism. In September 2015, Saudi Arabia announced that it would build 10 secondary schools for the Ministry of Science and Technology and provide 5 million US dollars in assistance to the Section. In March 2016, President Iglylu visited Saudi Arabia. In July 2016, President Azali visited Saudi Arabia to hold talks with the Saudi King and signed various cooperation agreements with the Saudi government on energy and water conservancy. In June 2017, the Comoros announced that it had broken diplomatic relations with Qatar. In the same month, President Azali went to Saudi Arabia for a high-profile reception and met with Saudi King Salaman.

After the Anjouan Island crisis in 2007, Tanzania, Libya, Sudan, Senegal and other countries expressed their support for the position of the Kuwaiti government. In March 2008, Tanzania, Sudan and other countries sent troops to help the government forces to take military action against Anjouan.

[Relationship with surrounding island countries] The branch has close ties with Madagascar. In 1975, the branch and the horse established diplomatic relations. The two sides have agreements on aviation, shipping, visas, customs and educational cooperation. Malaysia is a member of the Organization of African Unity “Special Committee on Mayotte” and the Support Section recovers Mayotte. The branch has 40,000 expatriates in Malaysia. In 1978, the relationship between the two countries was interrupted due to the incident of the Chinese occupation of the country, and it returned to normal in 1985. Ma actively promoted the process of national reconciliation, and in April 1999, he hosted an inter-island meeting in Ma. In May 2006, Prime Minister Syrah attended the inauguration ceremony of President Sambi. In November 2007, Foreign Minister Jafar visited Malaysia. In February 2011, President Sambi’s visit to Malaysia. In May of the same year, the President of Malaysia’s highest transitional authority, La Jolina, attended the inauguration ceremony of President Ikililu. In October and December 2013, the former observer of the Indian National Committee of the Aza Interest rate, the Indian Ocean Committee, went to Madagascar to observe the general election. In March 2016, President Ichililu visited Malaysia. In November of the same year, President Azali went to Malaysia to attend the 16th World Francophone Summit.

In 1984, the branch established diplomatic relations with Mauritius. The two countries have signed agreements on health and culture and education cooperation. In recent years, the department has proposed to learn from Mao’s experience in economic construction, and the number of people attending Mao has increased. After the military coup in the branch in April 1999, Mao condemned and stopped aid to the branch. Mao also actively responded to the OAU appeal and imposed sanctions such as embargo on Anjouan Island. In 2003, Ma and Mao coordinated with South Africa to promote the Agreement on Transitional Measures of the Comoros with the Government of the Union and the Three Islands. In October 2004, President Azali visited Mao. In December 2005, the round table of the aid donors was held in Mao. In November 2007, the Mao Funding Department paid $300,000 to repay its debts owed to the African Development Bank.

After the emergence of the Anjouan Island crisis in 2007, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and other neighboring countries held several meetings of regional foreign ministers, expressing support for the position of the coalition government.