Tuvalu 图瓦卢

【国名】图瓦卢(Tuvalu)。

【面积】陆地面积26平方公里,海洋专属经济区面积约75万平方公里。

【人口】1.1万(2017年)。97%为图瓦卢人,属波利尼西亚人种。其余为基里巴斯人、欧洲裔等。英语为官方语言,图瓦卢语为通用语言。居民信奉基督教。

【首都】富纳富提(Funafuti)。

【国家元首】英国女王,总督是女王的代表。现任总督亚科巴·伊塔莱利·塔埃阿(Iakopa Italeli Taeia)。

【重要节日】图瓦卢日:10月1日。

【简况】位于中太平洋南部,在国际日期变更线西侧。由九个环形小珊瑚岛群组成,其中八个有人居住,富纳富提为主岛。海岸线长15英里。无河流。属热带海洋性气候。年均气温29℃,年均降水量3000毫米。陆地最高点不超过海平面5米,面临因海平面上升而被淹没的危险。

图瓦卢人世居岛上。1892年英宣布图瓦卢和附近的基里巴斯为英“保护地”。1916年被划入“英属吉尔伯特和埃利斯群岛殖民地”。1975年10月在法律上同基里巴斯分离,改用旧名图瓦卢(意为“八岛之群”)。1978年6月实行自治,10月1日独立。

【宪法】1978年10月1日独立时生效。宪法规定,图为英联邦成员国。英女王根据图总理推荐任命总督。总理由议员选举产生。内阁对议会负责,由总理和数名部长组成。总检察长为政府的主要法律顾问。1986年6月修改宪法,总督丧失对政府所提建议的否决权。

【议会】一院制,由15名议员组成,各岛根据登记选民数量产生1—2名议员,任期四年。本届议会于2015年3月产生,现议长为奥提涅卢·陶西(Otinielu Tausi)。

[Country name] Tuvalu.

[Area] The land area is 26 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of ​​about 750,000 square kilometers.

[Population] 11,000 (2017). 97% are Tuvaluans and belong to the Polynesian race. The rest are Kiribati, European, and so on. English is the official language and Tuvalu is the universal language. Residents believe in Christianity.

[Capital] Funafuti.

[Head of State] Queen of England, Governor is the representative of the Queen. The current Governor, Iakopa Italeli Taeia.

[Important Festival] Tuvalu Day: October 1.

[Profile] Located in the southern part of the Central Pacific Ocean, on the west side of the international date line. It consists of nine small coral islands, eight of which are inhabited, and Funafuti is the main island. The coastline is 15 miles long. No rivers. It has a tropical maritime climate. The annual average temperature is 29 °C, and the average annual precipitation is 3000 mm. The highest point on the land does not exceed 5 meters above sea level and is in danger of being flooded due to rising sea levels.

Tuvalu people live on the island. In 1892, Britain announced that Tuvalu and nearby Kiribati were British “protected places.” In 1916 it was classified as “the British Gilbert and Ellis Islands colony.” In October 1975, it was legally separated from Kiribati and changed to the old name Tuvalu (meaning “the group of eight islands”). Self-government was implemented in June 1978 and independence on October 1.

[Constitution] Effective on October 1, 1978, when it was independent. According to the Constitution, the picture shows the members of the Commonwealth. The Queen of England appointed the Governor according to the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The general reason for the election of the members. The cabinet is responsible to the parliament and consists of the prime minister and several ministers. The Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government. In June 1986, the Constitution was amended and the Governor lost the veto on the recommendations made by the Government.

[Parliament] The one-chamber system consists of 15 members. Each island produces one or two members based on the number of registered voters for a term of four years. The current parliament was produced in March 2015 and is currently chaired by Otinielu Tausi.

【政府】2013年8月,议会通过对特拉维政府的不信任案,埃内莱·索波阿加(Enele Sopoaga)当选总理。2015年3月,索波阿加在大选后成功连任。

索波阿加1956年2月10日出生,曾在牛津大学接受外交官培训,并在英国萨塞克斯大学获硕士学位。长期在政府部门任职,从政经历丰富,其兄长曾于2002年至2004年任图总理。索曾任图瓦卢驻斐济、巴新、萨摩亚高专,图外交部常秘等职。2010年当选议员,2013年在前总理特拉维下台后当选总理。

【司法机构】设最高法院、地区法院和岛法院(共八个)。最高法院由一名大法官主持受理下级法院的上诉案。如要进一步上诉则由斐济上诉法院代理或呈请英国枢密院司法委员会审理。

【经济】图瓦卢资源匮乏,土地贫瘠,农业落后,几乎无工业。被联合国列为最不发达国家之一。家族是生产和生活的最基本单位。集体劳动,主要从事捕鱼和种植椰子、香蕉、芋头,所获物品在家族内平分。买卖主要是以物易物。外汇收入主要靠外援、捕鱼证、邮票、椰干等出口、“.tv”网络域名出售、外国在图海域的捕鱼费以及海员汇款和在瑙鲁磷矿工作的侨民汇款。

2017年主要经济数据如下(来源:世界银行):

国内生产总值:约3973万美元。

人均国内生产总值:约3550美元。

国内生产总值增长率:约8.6%。

货币名称:图瓦卢币,通用澳元。

[Government] In August 2013, the parliament passed the no-confidence case against the Travi government, and Enele Sopoaga was elected prime minister. In March 2015, Sopoaga was successfully re-elected after the election.

Born on February 10, 1956, Sopoaga was trained as a diplomat at Oxford University and a master’s degree from the University of Sussex, England. He has served in the government department for a long time and has a rich experience in politics. His brother was the prime minister from 2002 to 2004. Suo Zeng served in Tuvalu in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Samoa High School. He is a regular secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 2010, he was elected as a member of the parliament in 2013 after former Prime Minister Travial stepped down.

[Judiciary] There are Supreme Court, District Court and Island Court (eight in total). The Supreme Court is chaired by a justice who accepts appeals from lower courts. If further appeals are to be made, they will be represented by the Fiji Court of Appeal or submitted to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.

[Economy] Tuvalu’s resources are scarce, the land is poor, agriculture is backward, and there is almost no industry. Listed by the United Nations as one of the least developed countries. The family is the most basic unit of production and life. Collective labor, mainly engaged in fishing and planting coconuts, bananas, taro, and the items obtained are equally divided within the family. Trading is mainly barter. Foreign exchange income mainly depends on foreign aid, fishing licenses, stamps, copra and other exports, “.tv” network domain name sales, foreign fishing fees in the map sea area and remittances of seafarers and remittances of expatriates working in the Nauru phosphate mine.

The main economic data for 2017 are as follows (Source: World Bank):

Gross domestic product: approximately $39.73 million.

Per capita GDP: about $3,550.

GDP growth rate: about 8.6%.

Currency name: Tuvalu, GM.

【农渔业】农业主要靠种植椰子、香蕉、芋头及饲养家禽、猪等。渔业资源丰富,但无开发能力。图与日本、韩国和中国台湾签有渔业协定。

【交通运输】以水运为主。首都富纳富提有深水港。图瓦卢有通往斐济等国的不定期班轮。斐济航空公司经营自楠迪经苏瓦飞富纳富提的航班。

【财政金融】收入主要来自“图瓦卢信托基金”、侨汇、出售捕鱼许可证和互联网电信协议。自1990年起,“图瓦卢信托基金”收入每年为图政府预算做出约15%的贡献。截至2012年9月,该基金市场价值约12730万新西兰元。主要贸易伙伴是新西兰和澳大利亚。

【教育】普及小学教育,实行免费教育。全国有11所小学,70多名教师,约1500名在校生;有一所中学,31名教师,约350名学生。另有一所海员训练学校,约50名学生。

【新闻出版】图瓦卢电台为官方电台,用图瓦卢语和英语播音。政府出版的唯一一份报纸《图瓦卢回声》(Tuvalu Echoes),可通过富纳富提图瓦卢传媒公司(Tuvalu Media Corporation)订阅。广播电台:2006年,图瓦卢天空—太平洋电视台(Sky Pacific television)开播。

【国防】图瓦卢无正规军队。设海上巡逻警察,负责海上搜救及监察。

【外交】外交重点在太平洋地区。同英国、澳大利亚、斐济关系密切,在斐设有高专署,在纽约、布鲁塞尔、伦敦等设有外交机构。图与英联邦成员国和比利时、智利、荷兰、法国、德国、日本、韩国等有外交关系。系联合国、联合国教科文组织、英联邦、世界卫生组织、万国邮政联盟、太平洋岛国论坛、太平洋共同体、太平洋区域环境署、亚洲开发银行等组织成员。在气候变化问题上立场激进。

[Agriculture and Fisheries] Agriculture mainly relies on planting coconuts, bananas, taro and raising poultry and pigs. Fisheries are rich in resources but have no development capacity. The map has a fishery agreement with Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.

[Transportation] is mainly based on water transportation. The capital Fu Nafu has a deep water port. Tuvalu has irregular liners to countries such as Fiji. Fiji Airlines operates flights from Nadi via Suva to Funafuti.

[Financial Finance] Income mainly comes from the Tuvalu Trust Fund, remittances, sale of fishing licenses and Internet telecommunications agreements. Since 1990, the Tuvalu Trust Fund has contributed approximately 15% of the annual government budget. As of September 2012, the fund’s market value was approximately 127.30 million New Zealand dollars. The main trading partners are New Zealand and Australia.

[Education] Popularize primary education and implement free education. There are 11 primary schools, more than 70 teachers, and about 1,500 students in the country; there is a middle school, 31 teachers, and about 350 students. There is also another seafarer training school with about 50 students.

[Press Release] Radio Tuvalu is the official radio station, broadcast in Tuvalu and English. The only newspaper published by the government, Tuvalu Echoes, is available for subscription through Tuvalu Media Corporation. Radio station: In 2006, Tuvalu Sky-Sky Pacific television was launched.

[Defense] Tuvalu has no regular army. A maritime patrol police officer is responsible for maritime search and rescue and surveillance.

[Diplomatic] Diplomacy focuses on the Pacific region. It has close ties with the United Kingdom, Australia and Fiji. It has a high-tech office in Fiji and a diplomatic agency in New York, Brussels and London. The chart has diplomatic relations with Commonwealth member states and Belgium, Chile, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Japan, and South Korea. Member of the United Nations, UNESCO, Commonwealth, World Health Organization, Universal Postal Union, Pacific Islands Forum, Pacific Community, Pacific Regional Environment Agency, Asian Development Bank. A radical position on climate change issues.