Turkmenistan 土库曼斯坦

【国名】土库曼斯坦(Turkmenistan,Туркменистан)。

【面积】49.12万平方公里。

【人口】562万(2019年1月)。主要民族有土库曼族(94.7%)、乌兹别克族(2%)、俄罗斯族(1.8%),此外,还有哈萨克、亚美尼亚、鞑靼、阿塞拜疆等120多个民族(1.5%)。官方语言为土库曼语,俄语为通用语。绝大多数居民信仰伊斯兰教(逊尼派),俄罗斯族和亚美尼亚族居民信仰东正教。

【首都】阿什哈巴德(Ashgabat,Ашхабад)。人口100万(2018年8月)。1月平均气温2.1℃,7月平均气温37.6℃。

【国家元首】土库曼斯坦总统库尔班古力·米亚利克古利耶维奇·别尔德穆哈梅多夫(Гурбангулы Мяликгулыевич Бердымухамедов),2007年2月当选,2012年2月12日连任,2017年2月13日再次连任,任期7年。

【重要节日】新年:1月1日;宪法日和国旗日:5月18日;独立日:9月27日;中立日:12月12日。此外,还庆祝开斋节、古尔邦节、纳乌鲁斯节等伊斯兰传统节日。

[Country name] Turkmenistan (Туркменистан).

[Area] 491,200 square kilometers.

[Population] 5.62 million (January 2019). The main ethnic groups are Turkmen (94.7%), Uzbek (2%), and Russian (1.8%). In addition, there are more than 120 ethnic groups (1.5%) including Kazakh, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Azerbaijan. The official language is Turkmen and Russian is the lingua franca. The vast majority of residents believe in Islam (Sunni), and Russian and Armenian residents believe in Orthodox Christianity.

[Capital] Ashgabat, Ашхабад. The population is 1 million (August 2018). The average temperature in January is 2.1 °C, and the average temperature in July is 37.6 °C.

[Head of State] Turkmenistan President Kulban Guli Miyalik Guliyavic Berdymukhadov (Гурбангулы Мяликгулыевич Бердымухамедов), elected in February 2007, re-elected on February 12, 2012, Re-elected on February 13, 2017 for a term of seven years.

[Important Festival] New Year: January 1; Constitution Day and Flag Day: May 18; Independence Day: September 27; Neutral Day: December 12. In addition, Islamic traditional festivals such as Eid al-Fitr, the Eid al-Adha, and the Naurus Festival are celebrated.

【简况】位于中亚西南部,为内陆国家。北部和东北部与哈萨克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦接壤,西濒里海与阿塞拜疆、俄罗斯相望,南邻伊朗,东南与阿富汗交界。约80%的国土被卡拉库姆大沙漠覆盖。1月平均气温4.4℃,7月平均气温39℃;年降水量从东北部地区的80毫米向南部山麓的300毫米递增,科佩特山区年降水量可达400毫米。

历史上波斯人、马其顿人、突厥人、阿拉伯人、蒙古鞑靼人曾在此建立国家。15世纪基本形成土库曼民族。19世纪60年代末和80年代中,部分领土并入俄国(外里海州)。1917年,土库曼人民参加了二月革命和十月社会主义革命,同年12月建立苏维埃政权。1924年10月27日成立土库曼苏维埃社会主义共和国,并加入苏联。1991年10月27日宣布独立,改国名为土库曼斯坦。同年12月21日加入独联体。1992年3月2日加入联合国。1995年12月12日,第50届联大通过决议,承认土为永久中立国。2015年6月,第69届联大再次通过决议,支持土永久中立地位。

【政治】独立后,土始终将捍卫独立、主权和领土完整、发展经济、保持社会稳定作为基本国策;积极探寻适合本国国情的发展道路;提倡民族复兴精神,重视民族团结与和睦;奉行积极中立、和平友好的外交政策,致力于同其他国家发展建设性合作关系;主张宗教信仰自由,禁止宗教干预国家政治生活。

2017—2018年,土库曼斯坦政局继续保持稳定。土总统别尔德穆哈梅多夫执政能力和地位进一步加强;整饬吏制,加大反腐,强化绩效和问责,严惩渎职官员;严格出入境管理,加强国家强力部门职能,强化舆论监管,维护社会稳定;注重法制建设,修订多项法律法规,完善立法体制;大力改善民生,实施国民福利保障政策,提升国家预算支出用于社会领域比例,提高居民工资和退休金,兴建学校、民宅、医院等民生设施。

[Profile] Located in the southwestern part of Central Asia, it is a landlocked country. The north and northeast are bordered by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, the Sicilian Sea faces Azerbaijan and Russia, the south is Iran, and the southeast is bordered by Afghanistan. About 80% of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert. The average temperature in January is 4.4 °C, and the average temperature in July is 39 °C. The annual precipitation increases from 80 mm in the northeast to 300 mm in the southern foothills. The annual precipitation in the Copet Mountain is 400 mm.

Historically, Persians, Macedonians, Turks, Arabs, and Mongols have established countries here. The Turkmen nation was basically formed in the 15th century. In the late 1960s and the mid-1980s, part of the territory was incorporated into Russia (outer Sea State). In 1917, the Turkmen people participated in the February Revolution and the October Socialist Revolution, and in December the same year established the Soviet regime. The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic was established on October 27, 1924, and joined the Soviet Union. On October 27, 1991, it declared independence and changed its name to Turkmenistan. Joined the Commonwealth of Independent States on December 21 of the same year. Joined the United Nations on March 2, 1992. On December 12, 1995, the 50th UN General Assembly passed a resolution recognizing that Turkey is a permanent neutral country. In June 2015, the 69th UN General Assembly again passed a resolution to support the permanent neutral status of the soil.

[Politics] After independence, the soil will always defend independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, develop the economy, and maintain social stability as the basic national policy; actively explore the development path suited to the national conditions of the country; promote the spirit of national rejuvenation, attach importance to national unity and harmony; and pursue active neutrality. A peaceful and friendly foreign policy, committed to developing constructive cooperative relations with other countries; advocating freedom of religious belief and prohibiting religious interference in the political life of the country.

From 2017 to 2018, the political situation in Turkmenistan continued to remain stable. Turkey’s President Berdymukhamedov’s ability and status have been further strengthened; the system has been strengthened, anti-corruption has been strengthened, performance and accountability have been strengthened, and delinquent officials have been severely punished; strict exit and entry management has been strengthened, and the functions of the state’s powerful departments have been strengthened, and public opinion supervision has been strengthened. Maintain social stability; pay attention to legal system construction, revise a number of laws and regulations, improve the legislative system; vigorously improve people’s livelihood, implement national welfare protection policies, increase the proportion of state budget expenditures for the social sector, raise residents’ wages and pensions, and build schools and houses; Hospitals and other livelihood facilities.

【宪法】1992年5月18日通过第一部宪法,规定土为民主、法制和世俗的国家,实行三权分立的总统共和制。总统为国家元首和最高行政首脑,由全民直接选举产生。人民委员会为国家最高权力代表机关。立法权和司法权分属国民会议和法院。1995年12月,土修改宪法,将永久中立国地位写入宪法。1999年12月再次修宪,对宪法中有关人民委员会、议会职能的条款进行修改和补充,明确规定尼亚佐夫作为首任总统,其任期无时间限制。2003年,土通过第二部宪法,规定人民委员会为常设最高权力代表机构,设立主席一职,同时规定总统当选年龄不得超过70岁。2006年12月26日再次修宪,规定总统候选人年龄在40至70岁之间,总统因故不能行使职权时,根据国家安全会议决议,任命一位副总理临时代理总统职权。2008年9月,土通过第三部宪法,取消人民委员会(2017年10月重新恢复),将其权力划归总统和议会。2016年9月,土修改宪法,取消总统候选人年龄上限,将总统任期由5年延长至7年。

【议会】称国民会议,是国家立法机构。现为第六届议会,于2018年3月25日选举产生,议员125名,由三个政党和社会组织成员组成:民主党55人,工业家和企业家党11人,农业党11人,其他社会组织和公民团体48人,任期5年。议长是古丽沙特·马梅多娃(Гульшат Маммедова,女)。议会主要职能是通过、修改和解释宪法与法律,监督法律的执行,确定总统、议会选举的时间,通过内阁工作纲领,批准国家预算等。

【政府】称内阁,是国家权力执行机关,由总统直接领导。

【行政区划】除首都阿什哈巴德市外,全国划分为阿哈尔、巴尔坎、达绍古兹、列巴普和马雷五个州。

【经济】 石油、天然气工业为支柱产业。农业主要种植棉花和小麦。2018年国内生产总值同比增长6.2%。

【资源】土能源资源丰富,石油和天然气远景储量分别为120亿吨和50万亿立方米,天然气储量居世界第四位。

【武装力量】苏联解体后,土库曼斯坦在原驻土苏军基础上组建了本国军队。武装力量由陆军、空军—防空军和海军组成,总统任武装力量最高统帅。

[Constitution] On May 18, 1992, the first constitution was passed, which stipulated that the country was a democratic, legal, and secular state, and the presidential republican system with separate powers was implemented. The President is the head of state and the highest executive head, and is directly elected by the whole people. The People’s Committee is the highest authority of the state. Legislative and judicial powers belong to the National Assembly and the courts. In December 1995, the soil changed the constitution and wrote the status of a permanent neutral state into the Constitution. In December 1999, the constitution was revised again. The provisions of the Constitution concerning the functions of the people’s committee and the parliament were revised and supplemented, and Niyazov was clearly stipulated as the first president. His term of office has no time limit. In 2003, Tuo passed the second constitution, stipulating that the People’s Committee is the permanent supreme power representative body, setting up the chairmanship, and stipulating that the president’s election age must not exceed 70 years. On December 26, 2006, the constitution was revised again, stipulating that the presidential candidate was between 40 and 70 years old. When the president was unable to exercise his powers for any reason, he appointed a deputy prime minister to temporarily represent the presidency in accordance with the resolution of the National Security Council. In September 2008, the soil passed the third constitution, canceled the People’s Committee (revived in October 2017), and transferred its power to the president and the parliament. In September 2016, the soil revised the constitution, canceled the upper limit of the presidential candidate, and extended the president’s term from five years to seven years.

[Parliament] called the National Assembly, which is the national legislature. It is now the sixth parliament, elected on March 25, 2018, with 125 members, consisting of three political parties and members of social organizations: 55 Democratic Party, 11 Industrialists and Entrepreneur Party, 11 Agricultural Party, and others. 48 social organizations and citizen groups for a term of five years. The speaker is Gulistat Mamedova (Гульшат Маммедова, female). The main functions of the parliament are to pass, amend and interpret the constitution and laws, supervise the enforcement of laws, determine the time for presidential and parliamentary elections, approve the national budget through the cabinet work program.

[Government] The cabinet is the executive organ of state power and is directly led by the president.

[Administrative divisions] In addition to the capital city of Ashgabat, the country is divided into five states: Ahar, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mare.

[Economy] The oil and natural gas industries are the pillar industries. Agriculture mainly produces cotton and wheat. In 2018, GDP grew by 6.2% year-on-year.

[Resources] The soil is rich in energy resources. The prospective reserves of oil and natural gas are 12 billion tons and 50 trillion cubic meters respectively, and the natural gas reserves rank fourth in the world.

[Armed Forces] After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Turkmenistan formed its own army on the basis of the former troops stationed in the Soviet Union. The armed forces are composed of the army, the air force, the anti-air force, and the navy. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces.