【国家元首】土库曼斯坦总统库尔班古力·米亚利克古利耶维奇·别尔德穆哈梅多夫（Гурбангулы Мяликгулыевич Бердымухамедов），2007年2月当选，2012年2月12日连任，2017年2月13日再次连任，任期7年。
[Country name] Turkmenistan (Туркменистан).
[Area] 491,200 square kilometers.
[Population] 5.62 million (January 2019). The main ethnic groups are Turkmen (94.7%), Uzbek (2%), and Russian (1.8%). In addition, there are more than 120 ethnic groups (1.5%) including Kazakh, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Azerbaijan. The official language is Turkmen and Russian is the lingua franca. The vast majority of residents believe in Islam (Sunni), and Russian and Armenian residents believe in Orthodox Christianity.
[Capital] Ashgabat, Ашхабад. The population is 1 million (August 2018). The average temperature in January is 2.1 °C, and the average temperature in July is 37.6 °C.
[Head of State] Turkmenistan President Kulban Guli Miyalik Guliyavic Berdymukhadov (Гурбангулы Мяликгулыевич Бердымухамедов), elected in February 2007, re-elected on February 12, 2012, Re-elected on February 13, 2017 for a term of seven years.
[Important Festival] New Year: January 1; Constitution Day and Flag Day: May 18; Independence Day: September 27; Neutral Day: December 12. In addition, Islamic traditional festivals such as Eid al-Fitr, the Eid al-Adha, and the Naurus Festival are celebrated.
[Profile] Located in the southwestern part of Central Asia, it is a landlocked country. The north and northeast are bordered by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, the Sicilian Sea faces Azerbaijan and Russia, the south is Iran, and the southeast is bordered by Afghanistan. About 80% of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert. The average temperature in January is 4.4 °C, and the average temperature in July is 39 °C. The annual precipitation increases from 80 mm in the northeast to 300 mm in the southern foothills. The annual precipitation in the Copet Mountain is 400 mm.
Historically, Persians, Macedonians, Turks, Arabs, and Mongols have established countries here. The Turkmen nation was basically formed in the 15th century. In the late 1960s and the mid-1980s, part of the territory was incorporated into Russia (outer Sea State). In 1917, the Turkmen people participated in the February Revolution and the October Socialist Revolution, and in December the same year established the Soviet regime. The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic was established on October 27, 1924, and joined the Soviet Union. On October 27, 1991, it declared independence and changed its name to Turkmenistan. Joined the Commonwealth of Independent States on December 21 of the same year. Joined the United Nations on March 2, 1992. On December 12, 1995, the 50th UN General Assembly passed a resolution recognizing that Turkey is a permanent neutral country. In June 2015, the 69th UN General Assembly again passed a resolution to support the permanent neutral status of the soil.
[Politics] After independence, the soil will always defend independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, develop the economy, and maintain social stability as the basic national policy; actively explore the development path suited to the national conditions of the country; promote the spirit of national rejuvenation, attach importance to national unity and harmony; and pursue active neutrality. A peaceful and friendly foreign policy, committed to developing constructive cooperative relations with other countries; advocating freedom of religious belief and prohibiting religious interference in the political life of the country.
From 2017 to 2018, the political situation in Turkmenistan continued to remain stable. Turkey’s President Berdymukhamedov’s ability and status have been further strengthened; the system has been strengthened, anti-corruption has been strengthened, performance and accountability have been strengthened, and delinquent officials have been severely punished; strict exit and entry management has been strengthened, and the functions of the state’s powerful departments have been strengthened, and public opinion supervision has been strengthened. Maintain social stability; pay attention to legal system construction, revise a number of laws and regulations, improve the legislative system; vigorously improve people’s livelihood, implement national welfare protection policies, increase the proportion of state budget expenditures for the social sector, raise residents’ wages and pensions, and build schools and houses; Hospitals and other livelihood facilities.
[Constitution] On May 18, 1992, the first constitution was passed, which stipulated that the country was a democratic, legal, and secular state, and the presidential republican system with separate powers was implemented. The President is the head of state and the highest executive head, and is directly elected by the whole people. The People’s Committee is the highest authority of the state. Legislative and judicial powers belong to the National Assembly and the courts. In December 1995, the soil changed the constitution and wrote the status of a permanent neutral state into the Constitution. In December 1999, the constitution was revised again. The provisions of the Constitution concerning the functions of the people’s committee and the parliament were revised and supplemented, and Niyazov was clearly stipulated as the first president. His term of office has no time limit. In 2003, Tuo passed the second constitution, stipulating that the People’s Committee is the permanent supreme power representative body, setting up the chairmanship, and stipulating that the president’s election age must not exceed 70 years. On December 26, 2006, the constitution was revised again, stipulating that the presidential candidate was between 40 and 70 years old. When the president was unable to exercise his powers for any reason, he appointed a deputy prime minister to temporarily represent the presidency in accordance with the resolution of the National Security Council. In September 2008, the soil passed the third constitution, canceled the People’s Committee (revived in October 2017), and transferred its power to the president and the parliament. In September 2016, the soil revised the constitution, canceled the upper limit of the presidential candidate, and extended the president’s term from five years to seven years.
[Parliament] called the National Assembly, which is the national legislature. It is now the sixth parliament, elected on March 25, 2018, with 125 members, consisting of three political parties and members of social organizations: 55 Democratic Party, 11 Industrialists and Entrepreneur Party, 11 Agricultural Party, and others. 48 social organizations and citizen groups for a term of five years. The speaker is Gulistat Mamedova (Гульшат Маммедова, female). The main functions of the parliament are to pass, amend and interpret the constitution and laws, supervise the enforcement of laws, determine the time for presidential and parliamentary elections, approve the national budget through the cabinet work program.
[Government] The cabinet is the executive organ of state power and is directly led by the president.
[Administrative divisions] In addition to the capital city of Ashgabat, the country is divided into five states: Ahar, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mare.
[Economy] The oil and natural gas industries are the pillar industries. Agriculture mainly produces cotton and wheat. In 2018, GDP grew by 6.2% year-on-year.
[Resources] The soil is rich in energy resources. The prospective reserves of oil and natural gas are 12 billion tons and 50 trillion cubic meters respectively, and the natural gas reserves rank fourth in the world.
[Armed Forces] After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Turkmenistan formed its own army on the basis of the former troops stationed in the Soviet Union. The armed forces are composed of the army, the air force, the anti-air force, and the navy. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces.