The United Arab Emirates 阿拉伯联合酋长国

【国 名】 阿拉伯联合酋长国(The United Arab Emirates)。

【面 积】 83,600平方公里。

【人 口】 930万,外籍人占88.5%,主要来自印度、巴基斯坦、埃及、叙利亚、巴勒斯坦等国。居民大多信奉伊斯兰教,多数属逊尼派。阿拉伯语为官方语言,通用英语。

【首 都】 阿布扎比(Abu Dhabi)。

【国家元首】 总统哈利法·本·扎耶德·阿勒纳哈扬(Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan),2004年11月当选。

【重要节日】 国庆日:12月2日。

【自然地理】 位于阿拉伯半岛东部,北濒波斯湾,海岸线长734公里。西和南与沙特阿拉伯交界,东和东北与阿曼毗连。属热带沙漠气候,夏季(5月-10月)炎热潮湿,气温40-50℃,冬季(11月-翌年4月)气温7-20℃,偶有沙暴。平均降水量约100毫米,多集中于1-2月间。

[Country name] The United Arab Emirates.

[area] 83,600 square kilometers.

[People] 9.3 million, foreigners accounted for 88.5%, mainly from India, Pakistan, Egypt, Syria, Palestine and other countries. Most of the residents believe in Islam, and most of them are Sunnis. Arabic is the official language, and general English.

[Capital] Abu Dhabi.

[Head of State] President Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan was elected in November 2004.

[Important Festival] National Day: December 2nd.

[Natural Geography] Located in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, in the northern Persian Gulf, the coastline is 734 kilometers long. West and South border Saudi Arabia, and East and Northeast are adjacent to Oman. It has a tropical desert climate. It is hot and humid in summer (May-October), with a temperature of 40-50 °C. In winter (November-April), the temperature is 7-20 °C, and there are occasional sandstorms. The average precipitation is about 100 mm, mostly concentrated in January and February.

【简 史】 公元7世纪隶属阿拉伯帝国。自16世纪开始,葡萄牙、荷兰、法国等殖民主义者相继侵入。19世纪初,英国入侵波斯湾地区,1820年沦为英国的保护国。1971年,英国宣布终止保护条约。同年12月2日,阿拉伯联合酋长国宣告成立,由阿布扎比、迪拜、沙迦、富查伊拉、乌姆盖万和阿治曼6个酋长国组成联邦国家。1972年2月10日,哈伊马角加入联邦。

【政 治】 联邦最高委员会由7个酋长国的酋长组成,是最高权力机构。重大内外政策制定、联邦预算审核、法律和条约批准均由该委员会讨论决定。联邦最高委员会从委员会成员中选出联邦总统和副总统,任期5年。总统兼任武装部队总司令。除外交和国防相对统一外,各酋长国拥有相当的独立性和自主权。联邦经费基本上由阿布扎比和迪拜两个酋长国承担。

【宪 法】 1971年7月18日,联邦最高委员会通过临时宪法,同年12月2日宣布临时宪法生效。1996年12月,联邦最高委员会通过决议,临时宪法确定为永久宪法。

【议 会】 联邦国民议会,成立于1972年,是咨询机构,每届任期4年,负责讨论内阁会议提出的法案,并提出修改建议。2006年8月,阿联酋颁布新的议会选举法,规定联邦国民议会成员为40名,其中20名由各酋长国酋长提名,总统任命,其余20名通过选举产生。议长和两名副议长均由议会选举产生。这被视为阿联酋在民主改革道路上迈出的重要一步。2015年9月举行第十六届国民议会选举,11月选举艾迈勒·古贝茜担任议长。

【政 府】 本届政府于2016年2月组成,目前共有内阁成员33人。总理穆罕默德·本·拉希德,兼任联邦副总统、迪拜酋长。

【行政区划】 由7个酋长国组成:阿布扎比、迪拜、沙迦、哈伊马角、阿治曼、富查伊拉、乌姆盖万。

[History] The 7th century AD was under the Arab Empire. Since the 16th century, colonialists such as Portugal, the Netherlands, and France have invaded. At the beginning of the 19th century, the British invaded the Persian Gulf region and in 1820 became a British protectorate. In 1971, the United Kingdom announced the termination of the protection treaty. On December 2 of the same year, the United Arab Emirates was established and formed a federal state by six emirates: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Fujairah, Umm Qaiwan and Ajman. On February 10, 1972, Ras Al Khaimah joined the Federation.

[Politics] The Supreme Council of the United States is composed of the chiefs of seven emirates and is the highest authority. Major internal and external policy development, federal budget review, legal and treaty approval are all decided by the committee. The Federal Supreme Council selects the federal president and vice president from among the members of the committee for a five-year term. The President also serves as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. In addition to the relative unity of diplomacy and national defense, the emirates have considerable independence and autonomy. Federal funding is basically borne by the two emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai.

[Constitution] On July 18, 1971, the Federal Supreme Council passed the interim constitution, and on December 2 of the same year, the interim constitution came into effect. In December 1996, the Federal Supreme Council passed a resolution establishing the interim constitution as a permanent constitution.

[Parliament] The Federal National Council, established in 1972, is an advisory body with a term of four years. It is responsible for discussing the bills proposed by the cabinet meeting and proposing amendments. In August 2006, the United Arab Emirates enacted a new parliamentary election law that stipulated 40 members of the Federal National Council, 20 of which were nominated by the chiefs of the emirates, appointed by the president, and the remaining 20 were elected. Both the Speaker and the two Vice-Presidents are elected by the Parliament. This is seen as an important step in the UAE’s path to democratic reform. In September 2015, the 16th National Assembly election was held, and in November, Ai Meilu Gubei was elected as the Speaker.

[Government] The current government was formed in February 2016 and currently has 33 members. Prime Minister Mohamed bin Rashid is also the vice president of the Federation and the chief of Dubai.

[Administrative Division] It consists of seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras Al Khaimah, Ajman, Fujairah, Umm Qawan.

【重要人物】 哈利法·本·扎耶德·阿勒纳哈扬:总统。1948年出生,系阿联酋首任总统扎耶德长子。1969年2月1日被立为阿布扎比酋长国王储;1976年5月任联邦武装部队副总司令;2004年11月2日扎耶德总统病逝后继任阿布扎比酋长;11月3日被联邦最高委员会推选为新任总统。

穆罕默德·本·拉希德·阿勒马克图姆:副总统兼总理、迪拜酋长。1949年出生。1971年任联邦国防部长;1995年被指定为迪拜王储;2006年1月4日接任迪拜酋长,同年2月11日就任阿联酋副总统兼总理。

穆罕默德·本·扎耶德·阿勒纳哈扬:阿布扎比酋长国王储、阿联酋武装部队副总司令、阿布扎比执行委员会主席。生于1961年,阿联酋首任总统扎耶德三子。毕业于英国桑赫斯特陆军军官学校。2004年11月2日被立为阿布扎比酋长国王储。同年12月任阿布扎比执行委员会主席。2005年1月任武装部队副总司令。

【经 济】 以石油生产和石油化工工业为主。政府在发展石化工业的同时,把发展多样化经济、扩大贸易和增加非石油收入在国内生产总值中的比重作为首要任务,努力发展水泥、炼铝、塑料制品、建筑材料、服装、食品加工等工业,重视发展农、牧、渔业;充分利用各种财源,重点发展文教、卫生事业。近年来,大力发展以信息技术为核心的知识经济,同时注重可再生能源研发,首都阿布扎比于2009年6月获选国际可再生能源署总部所在地。

主要经济数据(2018年):

国内生产总值(GDP) 4326亿美元

人均GDP 4.15万美元

GDP增长率 0.6%

货币名称 迪拉姆(Dirham)

汇率 1美元≈3.67迪拉姆

[Important figures] Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan: President. Born in 1948, he is the eldest son of the UAE’s first president, Zayed. On February 1, 1969, he was established as the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi; in May 1976, he served as the deputy commander-in-chief of the Federal Armed Forces; on November 2, 2004, President Zayed died as the chief of Abu Dhabi; on November 3 The Federal Supreme Council was elected as the new president.

Mohamed bin Rashid Al Maktoum: Vice President and Prime Minister, Dubai Chief. Born in 1949. In 1971, he served as the Federal Minister of Defense; in 1995, he was appointed as the Crown Prince of Dubai; on January 4, 2006, he took over as the chief of Dubai, and on February 11, the same year he became the Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates.

Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan: Crown Prince Abu Dhabi, Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the UAE Armed Forces, Chairman of the Executive Committee of Abu Dhabi. Born in 1961, the first president of the UAE is the third son of Zayed. Graduated from the British Army College of Sandhurst. On November 2, 2004, he was established as the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi. In December of the same year, he served as Chairman of the Executive Committee of Abu Dhabi. In January 2005, he served as deputy commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

[Economy] Mainly in the oil production and petrochemical industries. While developing the petrochemical industry, the government has made the development of diversified economy, expanding trade and increasing the proportion of non-oil revenue in GDP as the primary task, and strive to develop cement, aluminum smelting, plastic products, building materials, clothing, food processing. In other industries, we attach great importance to the development of agriculture, animal husbandry, and fisheries; make full use of various financial resources, and focus on the development of culture, education, and health. In recent years, the development of information technology as the core of the knowledge economy, while focusing on renewable energy research and development, the capital of Abu Dhabi was selected in June 2009, the headquarters of the International Renewable Energy Agency.

Main economic data (2018):

Gross domestic product (GDP) of $412.6 billion

GDP per capita is $41,500

GDP growth rate of 0.6%

Currency name Dirham

Exchange rate 1 US dollar ≈ 3.67 dirhams

【资 源】 石油和天然气资源非常丰富。已探明石油储量约130亿吨,天然气储量6.1万亿立方米,均居世界第七位。

【工 业】 以石油化工工业为主。此外还有天然气液化、炼铝、塑料制品、建筑材料、服装和食品加工等工业。

【农牧林渔业】 农业不发达。全国可耕地面积32万公顷,已耕地面积27万公顷。主要农产品有椰枣、玉米、蔬菜、柠檬等。目前,阿联酋粮食依赖进口;渔产品和椰枣可满足国内需求;畜牧业规模很小,主要肉类产品依赖进口。近年来,政府采取鼓励务农的政策,向农民免费提供种子、化肥和无息贷款,并对农产品全部实行包购包销,以确保农民收入,阿农业得到一定发展。

【交通运输、通讯】 各酋长国间有现代化高速公路相连,境内建有一条货运铁路(哈卜善-鲁维斯),总长266公里。

公路:总长约4080公里,道路质量位居世界前列。

水运:有12个主要海港,年货物吞吐量达10540万吨。集装箱吞吐能力为每年2650万个标准箱。阿布扎比的哈利法港是中东地区自动化程度最高的港口,并拟建成全球最大的产业集群区。迪拜杰拜勒·阿里港是全球最大的人造港和中东地区最大的港口。

空运:阿境内共有机场39个,其中包括阿布扎比、迪拜等7个国际机场。在全球航空公司的竞争排序中,阿联酋航空公司居阿拉伯国家首位。阿已同包括中国在内的155个国家签订了双边航空协定,世界各国的109个航空公司有定期航班飞往阿各机场。

通讯:手机保有量达1750万部,固定电话超过210万部。互联网接入用户超过110万户,其中宽带用户超过100万户。

邮政:目前,阿境内共有邮政网点73个,商业邮政代办点208家,邮箱215307个。

[Resources] Oil and natural gas resources are very rich. The proven oil reserves are about 13 billion tons, and the natural gas reserves are 6.1 trillion cubic meters, ranking seventh in the world.

[Industrial] Mainly in the petrochemical industry. There are also industries such as natural gas liquefaction, aluminum smelting, plastic products, building materials, clothing and food processing.

[Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] Agriculture is underdeveloped. The country has an area of ​​320,000 hectares of arable land and 270,000 hectares of cultivated land. The main agricultural products are date palm, corn, vegetables, and lemon. At present, UAE food is dependent on imports; fishery products and date palms can meet domestic demand; animal husbandry is small in scale, and major meat products are imported. In recent years, the government has adopted a policy of encouraging agriculture, providing free seed, fertilizer and interest-free loans to farmers, and implementing package purchase and sales of agricultural products to ensure the income of farmers, and agriculture has achieved certain development.

[Transportation, Communication] There are modern expressways connected between the emirates. There is a freight railway (Habshan-Ruvis) in the territory, with a total length of 266 kilometers.

Highway: The total length is about 4080 kilometers, and the road quality ranks among the top in the world.

Water transport: There are 12 major seaports with an annual cargo throughput of 105.4 million tons. The container throughput capacity is 26.5 million TEUs per year. Port of Khalifa in Abu Dhabi is the most automated port in the Middle East and is planned to build the world’s largest industrial cluster. Dubai’s Jebel Ali Port is the largest man-made port in the world and the largest port in the Middle East.

Air transport: There are 39 airports in Afghanistan, including 7 international airports including Abu Dhabi and Dubai. In the ranking of competition among global airlines, Emirates Airlines ranks first in the Arab countries. A has signed bilateral aviation agreements with 155 countries including China. 109 airlines from all over the world have scheduled flights to Ahmeda Airport.

Communication: The number of mobile phones has reached 17.5 million, and the number of fixed telephones has exceeded 2.1 million. There are more than 1.1 million Internet access users, including more than 1 million broadband users.

Postal: At present, there are 73 postal outlets in the territory, 208 commercial postal agencies and 215,307 mailboxes.

【财政金融】 阿银行业发达,现有本国银行23家,843家分行及89个办事处。外国银行及其它金融机构115家。外汇不受限制,货币自由入出境,汇率稳定。联邦政府财政收入来自各酋长国的石油或贸易收入。

【对外贸易】 1995年,阿联酋加入世界贸易组织。外贸在经济中占有重要位置。阿主要出口石油、天然气、石油化工产品、铝锭和少量土特产品;主要进口粮食、机械和消费品。

【人民生活】 实行免费医疗制度。建有较为完善的全国城乡医疗保健系统,全国共有医院、初级医疗中心和诊所等医疗机构1162家。

【军 事】 1971年12月,阿联酋成立时组成“联邦防卫部队”。1974年更名为“联邦武装部队”,设立武装部队总司令部,联邦总统任武装部队总司令。实行志愿兵役制。

【教 育】 国家重视发展教育事业和培养本国科技人才,实行免费教育制,倡导女性和男性享有平等的教育机会。共开设公立学校1259所,在校学生超过80万人,教师2.5万余人。

【新闻出版】 主要报刊有:《联邦报》(阿拉伯文),阿布扎比半官方日报,发行5.5万份;《宣言报》(阿拉伯文),迪拜半官方日报,发行5万份;《海湾报》(阿拉伯文),沙迦私人出版,发行5.8万份;《海湾时报》(英文),迪拜私人出版,发行45万份。此外还有《海湾新闻》、《今日海湾》杂志等。

阿联酋通讯社是国家通讯社。1976年11月成立。在国内各主要城市以及伦敦、巴黎、华盛顿、纽约、莫斯科、东京、开罗、突尼斯、贝鲁特等派有常驻记者。用阿拉伯文和英文发稿。

阿联酋有阿布扎比、迪拜、乌姆盖万、哈伊马角4家广播电台,阿布扎比、迪拜、沙迦和阿拉比亚等8家电视台,阿布扎比电台每天用阿、英、法和乌尔都语播送节目37小时。阿拉比亚电视台新闻节目用阿语连续24小时播送。此外还建有卫星地面接收站。

【对外关系】 奉行平衡、多元的外交政策,是不结盟运动成员国。2017年6月同卡塔尔断交。重视发展同美国等西方国家关系,近年来,推行“东向”政策,积极发展同中国、韩国、日本等亚洲国家关系。同192个国家建立了外交关系。2013年11月,阿联酋迪拜获得2020年世博会举办权。

[Financial Finance] A banking industry is developed, with 23 domestic banks, 843 branches and 89 offices. There are 115 foreign banks and other financial institutions. Foreign exchange is not restricted, the currency is free to enter and exit, and the exchange rate is stable. The federal government’s fiscal revenue comes from the oil or trade income of the emirates.

[Foreign Trade] In 1995, the UAE joined the World Trade Organization. Foreign trade occupies an important position in the economy. A major export of oil, natural gas, petrochemical products, aluminum ingots and a small number of native products; mainly imported food, machinery and consumer goods.

[People’s life] Implement a free medical system. There are relatively complete national urban and rural medical and health care systems, and there are 1,162 medical institutions such as hospitals, primary medical centers and clinics nationwide.

[Military] In December 1971, the United Arab Emirates formed the “Federal Defense Forces”. In 1974, it was renamed the “Federal Armed Forces”, the General Command of the Armed Forces was established, and the Federal President was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Implement a voluntary military service system.

[Education] The state attaches great importance to the development of education and the cultivation of national scientific and technological talents, and implements a free education system to promote equal educational opportunities for women and men. A total of 1,259 public schools were opened, with more than 800,000 students and more than 25,000 teachers.

[Press and Publication] The main newspapers are: “Federal Newspaper” (Arabic), Abu Dhabi semi-official daily newspaper, issued 55,000 copies; “Declaration” (Arabic), Dubai semi-official daily newspaper, issued 50,000 copies; Newspaper (Arabic), Sharjah private publication, issued 58,000 copies; Gulf Times (English), Dubai private publication, issued 450,000 copies. In addition, there are “Gulf News”, “Today’s Gulf” magazine and so on.

The Emirates News Agency is a national news agency. Established in November 1976. There are resident correspondents in major cities in China as well as in London, Paris, Washington, New York, Moscow, Tokyo, Cairo, Tunisia and Beirut. Published in Arabic and English.

The UAE has four radio stations in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Umm Qaiwan and Ras Al Khaimah, eight television stations in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and Arbia. Abu Dhabi Radio uses A, English and French every day. And the Urdu broadcast program for 37 hours. The news program of the Arabiya TV station was broadcast in Arabic for 24 hours. There is also a satellite ground receiving station.

[External Relations] Pursuing a balanced and diversified foreign policy is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 2017, he broke off with Qatar. Attach importance to developing relations with the United States and other Western countries. In recent years, we have promoted the “eastward” policy and actively developed relations with Asian countries such as China, South Korea, and Japan. Established diplomatic relations with 192 countries. In November 2013, Dubai, United Arab Emirates won the right to host the 2020 World Expo.