The Syrian Arab Republic 阿拉伯叙利亚共和国
【国 名】 阿拉伯叙利亚共和国（The Syrian Arab Republic）。
【面 积】 185180平方公里（包括被以色列占领的戈兰高地约1200平方公里）。
【人 口】 1980万（2015年官方估计）。其中阿拉伯人占80%以上，还有库尔德人、亚美尼亚人、土库曼人等。
【语 言】 阿拉伯语为国语。
【宗 教】 居民中85%信奉伊斯兰教，14%信奉基督教。穆斯林人口中，逊尼派占80%（约占全国人口的68%），什叶派占20%，在什叶派中阿拉维派占75%（约占全国人口的11.5%）。
【首 都】 大马士革（Damascus），人口450万。
【国家元首】 总统巴沙尔·阿萨德（Bashar Al-Assad），2000年7月就任，2007年5月、2014年7月两次连任。
【地 理】 位于亚洲大陆西部，地中海东岸。北靠土耳其，东南邻伊拉克，南连约旦，西南与黎巴嫩、以色列接壤，西与塞浦路斯隔海相望。海岸线长183公里。
【气 候】 北部地区属亚热带地中海气候，南部地区属热带沙漠气候。沙漠地区冬季雨量较少，夏季干燥炎热。最低气温0°C以下，最高气温达40°C左右。年平均降水量沿海地区1000毫米以上，南部地区仅100毫米。
[Country name] The Syrian Arab Republic.
[area] 185,180 square kilometers (including about 1,200 square kilometers of the Golan Heights occupied by Israel).
[People] 98 million (official estimate in 2015). Among them, Arabs account for more than 80%, as well as Kurds, Armenians, Turkmen and so on.
[Language] Arabic is the national language.
[Religion] 85% of residents believe in Islam and 14% believe in Christianity. Among the Muslim population, Sunni account for 80% (about 68% of the national population), Shiites account for 20%, and Arawi in the Shiites account for 75% (about 11.5% of the national population).
[The capital] Damascus (Damascus) has a population of 4.5 million.
[Head of State] President Bashar Al-Assad took office in July 2000 and was re-elected twice in May 2007 and July 2014.
[Withdrawal Day] April 17 (National Day).
[Region] Located in the western part of the Asian continent, on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Turkey to the north, Iraq to the south, Jordan to the south, Lebanon and Israel to the southwest, and Cyprus to the west. The coastline is 183 kilometers long.
[Greek] The northern region has a subtropical Mediterranean climate, and the southern region has a tropical desert climate. The desert area has less rainfall in winter and is hot and dry in summer. The minimum temperature is below 0 °C and the maximum temperature is around 40 °C. The annual average precipitation is more than 1000 mm in the coastal area and only 100 mm in the southern part.
【简 史】 公元前3000年时有原始城邦国家存在。公元前8世纪起，先后被亚述、马其顿、罗马、阿拉伯、欧洲十字军、埃及马姆鲁克王朝、奥斯曼帝国等统治。1920年4月，沦为法国委任统治地。1940年6月，法向德投降，叙被纳粹德国控制。1941年9月27日，“自由法兰西军”总司令贾德鲁将军以盟国名义宣布叙独立。1943年8月，叙成立自己的政府，舒克里·库阿特利当选叙利亚共和国首任总统。1946年4月17日，英、法被迫撤军，叙获得完全独立。1958年2月1日，叙利亚和埃及宣布合并，成立阿拉伯联合共和国。1961年9月28日，叙宣布脱离“阿联”，成立阿拉伯叙利亚共和国。1963年3月8日，阿拉伯复兴社会党组成新政府。1970年11月13日，国防部长兼空军司令阿萨德发动“纠正运动”，改组党和政府，阿自任总理。1971年3月，阿萨德当选总统，任至2000年6月10日去世。阿次子巴沙尔·阿萨德于同年7月10日继任总统并连任至今。
[History] There were primitive city-states in 3000 BC. Since the 8th century BC, it has been ruled by Assyria, Macedonia, Rome, Arabia, the European Crusaders, the Egyptian Mamluk Dynasty, and the Ottoman Empire. In April 1920, he became the appointed seat of France. In June 1940, the French surrendered to the Germans, and Syria was controlled by Nazi Germany. On September 27, 1941, the Commander-in-Chief of the “Free French Army” General Jadru declared Syrian independence in the name of the Allies. In August 1943, Syria established its own government, and Shukri Kuateli was elected the first president of the Syrian Arab Republic. On April 17, 1946, Britain and France were forced to withdraw their troops, and Syria was completely independent. On February 1, 1958, Syria and Egypt announced the merger and the establishment of the United Arab Republic. On September 28, 1961, Syria announced its departure from the “Arab” and the establishment of the Syrian Arab Republic. On March 8, 1963, the Arab Baath Socialist Party formed a new government. On November 13, 1970, the Defense Minister and Air Force Commander Assad launched the “corrective movement” and reorganized the party and the government. In March 1971, Assad was elected president and died on June 10, 2000. The second son of Bashar al-Assad succeeded the president on July 10 of the same year and was re-elected to this day.
[Politics] Since March 2011, the situation in Syria has been turbulent and has continued to escalate, and armed violent conflicts have continued. In April 2012, under the United Nations-Afghan Special Envoy for the Syrian Crisis, Annan, the Syrian and Israeli conflicts were initially ceased, and the United Nations sent a monitoring mission to Syria. In mid-July, an explosion occurred in the capital Damascus, and many Syrian military and security officials, including the Minister of Defense, were killed. Since then, the situation in Syria has worsened. The government and opposition armed forces have continued to fought in many places across the country and spread to central cities such as the capital Damascus. In January 2013, President Bashar proposed an initiative to resolve the crisis in a phased manner, but was rejected by major opposition organizations. In January 2014, the Syrian government and the opposition delegation participated in the second Geneva conference on the Syrian issue initiated by the United States and Russia. The two sides have already conducted two rounds of negotiations under the framework of the conference, but the positions are opposite and the negotiations are fruitless. Geneva The negotiation process is deadlocked. In June, Syria held the first presidential election with multiple candidates. The current President Bashar was re-elected with 88.7% of the votes. In 2015, the domestic war in Syria was fierce, the terrorist extremists were sitting on the ground, the humanitarian situation was grim, and the spillover effect of refugee problems was highlighted. At the end of September, the Russian military involvement in the Syrian issue and the international promotion efforts have become more active. From October to December, the Syrian International Support Group held three foreign ministers’ meetings to determine the main principles, time frame and road map for the political settlement of the Syrian issue. On December 18th, the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2254 on the political process of Syria, emphasizing the decision of the Syrian people to define the future, supporting the political process led by the Syrian people within six months, and holding freedom under the new constitution within 18 months. Fair elections. At the end of January 2016, the United Nations promoted the Syrian government and the opposition to hold peace talks in Geneva, but it ended without results. On February 11, the Fourth Foreign Ministers’ Meeting of the Syrian International Support Group was held in Munich to reach a consensus on humanitarian relief, the promotion of a ceasefire, and the resumption of peace talks. In the second half of 2016, with the support of Russian military, the advantage of the Syrian government on the ground battlefield continued to expand, and eventually fully recovered Aleppo. The United States and the West have exerted pressure on the Russian and Syrian governments in multilateral platforms such as the Security Council, the UN General Assembly, and the OPCW. They have successively proposed draft resolutions on the ceasefire, the mechanism for responsibility, the ceasefire supervision, and the issue of chemical weapons. Before the end of the year, under the impetus of Russia and Turkey, the Syrian government signed a ceasefire agreement with some armed opposition parties. In 2017, the United Nations promoted the Syrian government and the opposition to hold six rounds of peace talks in Geneva. Russia, Turkey, and Iran served as sponsors of the ceasefire mechanism to promote the eight-round dialogue between the Syrian government and the opposition in Astana. In April, Syria suspected a chemical attack, and US President Trump ordered a crackdown on the Syrian government air base. In May, Russia, Turkey, and Iran signed a memorandum of understanding on the establishment of a “conflict relegation zone”. In December, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Syria and met with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and announced that Russia would withdraw troops from Syria. In January 2018, Turkey launched a military operation codenamed “Olive Branch” in the Aflin region of Syria. In the same month, the Sochi Syria National Dialogue was held. In February, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2401, which urged Syria to achieve at least 30 days of humanitarian ceasefire. In April, there was a suspected chemical attack in Syria, and the United States, Britain and France launched a military strike against Syria. In May, the ninth round of the Astana Dialogue was held. In July, the 10th round of the Astana Dialogue was held. In September, the leaders of Russia, Turkey and Iran coordinated their positions on Syria, especially Idlib. The Russian and Turkish heads of state reached a consensus on the establishment of a demilitarized zone in Idlib. In November, the 11th round of the Astana Dialogue was held. In December, the United States announced the withdrawal of troops from Syria, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain to resume the work of the embassy in Syria. In March 2019, US President Trump signed a presidential decree officially recognizing Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights. In April, the 12th round of the Astana Dialogue was held.
【宪 法】 原宪法于1973年3月12日经全国公民投票通过，规定叙利亚是人民民主社会主义国家，是阿拉伯祖国的一部分，复兴党是社会和国家的领导核心。实行有计划的社会主义经济。2012年2月，叙举行公投，通过新宪法，主要内容包括：国家政治制度以多元化为原则，改一党制为多党制；通过投票实施政权民主，总统由人民直接选举产生，任期为7年，只能连任一次等。
【议 会】 又称人民议会，国家立法机构。其职能是：提名共和国总统人选；通过法律；讨论内阁政策；通过国家总预算和发展计划；批准有关国家安全的国际条约和协定；决定大赦；接受和批准议员的辞呈，撤销对内阁成员的信任。人民议会于1971年2月21日成立。2016年4月，叙举行第十一届人民议会选举，复兴党领导的“全国进步阵线”赢得全部250个议席中的200席。6月，议会举行首次例会，哈蒂娅·阿巴斯（Hadiya Khalaf Abbas，女）当选议长，2017年7月议会通过议案罢免哈蒂娅。2017年9月，哈穆德·萨巴格（Hammoudeh Sabbagh）当选议长。
【政 府】 本届政府于2016年7月3日成立，2017年3月和2018年1月两次改组，有32名阁员，包括总理伊马德·哈米斯（Imad Khamis），副总理兼外交与侨民部长瓦立德·穆阿利姆（Walid Al-Moualem），国防部长阿里·艾尤布（Ali Ayoub）等。
【司法机构】 全国设高等宪法法院，各省、市、县设初级法院和调解法庭。现任高等宪法法院院长阿德南·扎里格（Adnan Zreeq）。
【政 党】 阿拉伯复兴社会党自1963年以来一直为叙执政党，领导统一战线组织全国进步阵线。2011年8月，叙颁布新的“政党法”和“选举法”，允许实行多党制。
（1）阿拉伯复兴社会党（The Baath Arab Socialist Party）：简称复兴党。成立于1947年4月，是一个泛阿拉伯的民族主义政党。党纲确定，该党是民族主义和社会主义政党，其任务是复兴阿拉伯民族，建立一个统一的阿拉伯社会主义祖国。对外主张反帝、反殖、反以色列犹太复国主义，遵循不结盟政策。对内实行国有化和土地改革等政策和措施。自1963年以来一直为叙执政党。地区领导书记巴沙尔·阿萨德。
（2）全国进步阵线（National Progressive Front）：1972年3月成立，是复兴党为团结其他政党而组成的统一战线组织。巴沙尔总统兼任阵线中央领导机构主席。除复兴党外，参加该阵线的还有9个党派：社会主义统一分子党（Unionist Socialist Party）、阿拉伯社会主义联盟（Arab Socialist Union Party）、叙利亚共产党（巴派）（Communist Party of Syria）、民族誓言党（National Vow Party）、阿拉伯社会主义者运动（Arab Socialist Party）、民主社会主义统一分子党（Democratic Socialist Unionist Party）、统一叙利亚共产党（United Communist Party of Syria）、阿拉伯民主联盟党（Arab Democratic Unionist Party）、叙利亚民族社会党（夏姆领导机构）（Syrian Social Nationalist Party）。
[Constitution] The original Constitution was passed by a national referendum on March 12, 1973, stipulating that Syria is a people’s democratic socialist country and part of the Arab motherland. The Baath Party is the core of society and the country’s leadership. Implement a planned socialist economy. In February 2012, Syria held a referendum and adopted a new constitution. The main contents include: the principle of diversification of the national political system and the change of the one-party system into a multi-party system; the implementation of political democracy through voting, the president is directly elected by the people for a term of office. In 7 years, it can only be re-elected once.
[Meetings] Also known as the People’s Assembly, the national legislature. Its functions are: nominating candidates for the president of the Republic; passing laws; discussing cabinet policies; adopting the national total budget and development plan; approving international treaties and agreements on national security; deciding amnesty; accepting and approving the resignation of parliamentarians, and withdrawing trust in cabinet members . The People’s Assembly was established on February 21, 1971. In April 2016, Syria held the eleventh People’s Assembly election, and the “National Progressive Front” led by the Baath Party won 200 of the 250 seats. In June, the parliament held its first regular meeting, and Hadiya Khalaf Abbas (female) was elected as the speaker. In July 2017, the parliament passed a bill to remove Hatia. In September 2017, Hammoudeh Sabbagh was elected as Speaker.
[Government] The current government was established on July 3, 2016, and was reorganized twice in March 2017 and January 2018. There are 32 cabinet members, including Prime Minister Imad Khamis, and the Deputy Prime Minister. Minister of Foreign Affairs and Overseas Chinese, Walid Al-Moualem, and Defense Minister Ali Ayoub.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 14 provinces and cities: Damascus Rural Province, Homs Province, Hama Province, Latakia Province, Idlib Province, Tartus Province, Raqqa Province, Deir ez-Zor Province, Hasakeh, Dar’a, Suweda, Quneitra, Aleppo and Damascus.
[Judiciary] The National Constitutional Court is set up in the country, and the primary courts and mediation courts are established in various provinces, cities and counties. Adnan Zreeq, current president of the High Constitutional Court.
[Political Party] The Arab Baath Socialist Party has been a Syrian political party since 1963, leading the united front to organize the National Progressive Front. In August 2011, Syria enacted a new “party law” and “election law”, allowing a multi-party system.
(1) The Baath Arab Socialist Party: referred to as the Baath Party. Founded in April 1947, it is a pan-Arab nationalist party. The party program determined that the party is a nationalist and socialist party whose task is to revitalize the Arab nation and establish a unified Arab socialist motherland. The outside world advocates anti-imperialist, anti-colonial, anti-Israel Zionism and follows the non-alignment policy. Internally implement policies and measures such as nationalization and land reform. Has been a Syrian political party since 1963. Regional leader secretary Bashar Assad.
(2) National Progressive Front: Established in March 1972, it is the united front organization formed by the Baath Party to unite other political parties. President Bashar is also the chairman of the central leadership of the Front. In addition to the Baath Party, there are also nine parties participating in the front: the Unionist Socialist Party, the Arab Socialist Union Party, and the Communist Party of Syria. National Vow Party, Arab Socialist Party, Democratic Socialist Unionist Party, United Communist Party of Syria, Arab League (Arab) Democratic Unionist Party), Syrian Socialist Party (Syrian Social Nationalist Party).
【经 济】 2011年叙局势动荡前，经济逐步向社会市场经济转轨。叙政府力图通过实施经济建设和社会发展的“十一五计划”（2011-2015年），优化经济结构，推动经济发展。但受多重因素影响，叙经济改革进程较为缓慢。叙局势动荡后，美西方、阿盟对叙实施制裁，叙面临石油出口中断、外汇收入锐减、货币贬值、物价上升、失业率高企等多重压力，经济形势更趋严峻。
【资 源】 主要有石油、天然气、磷酸盐、岩盐、沥青等。已探明石油储量25亿桶，石油及其产品基本自给，并部分出口。已探明的天然气储量6500亿立方米，磷酸盐储量6.5亿吨，岩盐储量5500万吨。
[Important figures] President Bashar al-Assad, the second son of the late President Hafez Al-Assad. Born in Damascus in September 1965. The original ophthalmologist, who studied for a master’s degree in medicine in London. After his brother Barcele died in a car accident, his father was chosen as the successor and began to abandon his doctor. In 1994, he entered the Holmes Military Academy. In 1995, he was promoted to major. In January 1996, he joined the Staff Command College. In January 1998, he was promoted to the Lieutenant Colonel. In January 1999, he was promoted to the colonel. He served as the chairman of the Syrian Information Association and the Deputy of the Republican Guards. Commander and 105 armored brigade commander. After the death of President Assad in June 2000, Ba Jin was promoted to general and served as commander-in-chief of the Syrian armed forces. On July 10, he was elected president, and in May 2007 and July 2014, he was re-elected twice. Married with two sons and one daughter.
[Economics] Before the turmoil in 1997, the economy gradually shifted to the social market economy. The Syrian government is trying to optimize the economic structure and promote economic development through the implementation of the 11th Five-Year Plan for economic construction and social development (2011-2015). However, affected by multiple factors, the economic reform process in Syria has been slow. After the turmoil in the Syrian Arab League, the United States and the United States imposed sanctions on Syria. Syria faces multiple pressures such as the disruption of oil exports, sharp decline in foreign exchange earnings, currency depreciation, rising prices, and high unemployment. The economic situation is becoming more severe.
Major economic data for 2014 (estimated):
Gross domestic product: $33 billion
Per capita GDP: $1,666
GDP growth rate: -30%
Currency Name: Syrian Pounds
Official exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ Syrian 434 (September 2018 data)
Unemployment rate: 58% or more
[Resources] There are mainly oil, natural gas, phosphate, rock salt, asphalt and so on. The proven oil reserves are 2.5 billion barrels, and oil and its products are basically self-sufficient and partially exported. The proven natural gas reserves are 650 billion cubic meters, the phosphate reserves are 650 million tons, and the rock salt reserves are 55 million tons.
【工 业】 工业基础薄弱，现代工业只有几十年历史。叙现有工业分为采掘工业、加工工业和水电工业。开掘工业有石油、天然气、磷酸盐、大理石等。加工工业主要有纺织、食品、皮革、化工、水泥、烟草等。
【农 业】 叙为中东地区农业大国，农业在国民经济中占据重要位置。农业耕种面积为473.6万公顷，农业人口440万人。主要作物有小麦、大麦、玉米。经济作物有棉花、豆类、甜菜和烟草，其中棉花是出口创汇第一的农作物。水果有柑桔、大马士革杏、无花果、橄榄等。叙是中东地区重要畜牧业国家，主要畜禽品种有牛、绵羊、山羊和鸡。水资源缺乏是影响叙农业发展的主要因素。
【军 事】 1946年建军。70年代发展较快，成为中东一支较强的武装力量。武装部队总司令部为最高统帅机关。巴沙尔总统任总司令。总参谋长达乌德中将。实行义务兵役制，服役期30个月。2011年叙局势动荡前，叙武装部队总兵力40.8万人，陆军30万人、海军8000人、空军与防空军10万人，另有准军事部队40余万人。武器装备主要来自苏联和俄罗斯。叙局势动荡并爆发内战后，兵力无详细统计。
【教 育】 普及小学义务教育，学制6年。初、高中学制6年，初中基本实行义务教育制。全国有4所综合性大学：大马士革大学、阿勒颇大学、十月大学和复兴大学。
[Industrial] The industrial base is weak, and modern industry has only a few decades of history. The existing industries are divided into mining industry, processing industry and hydropower industry. The mining industry has oil, natural gas, phosphate, marble and so on. The processing industry mainly includes textiles, food, leather, chemicals, cement and tobacco.
[Agriculture] It is a large agricultural country in the Middle East, and agriculture plays an important role in the national economy. The agricultural cultivation area is 4.736 million hectares and the agricultural population is 4.4 million. The main crops are wheat, barley and corn. Cash crops include cotton, beans, sugar beets and tobacco, of which cotton is the first crop to be exported. Fruits include citrus, damask apricot, figs, olives, etc. Syria is an important animal husbandry country in the Middle East. The main livestock and poultry species are cattle, sheep, goats and chickens. The lack of water resources is the main factor affecting the development of Syrian agriculture.
[Foreign Trade] Before the turmoil, the main export products were petroleum and petroleum products, cotton and cotton products, phosphates, spices and leather. The main imported products are machinery, steel, textiles, fuel, grain, canned food, sugar, chemical raw materials, cultural and educational supplies, medicine, and wood. The main importing countries are France, Italy, Germany, Turkey, and China. The main exporting countries are Germany, Italy, France, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. In the fiscal year 2010-2011, the export value was US$12.84 billion, and the import value was US$13.57 billion. After the turmoil, foreign trade has been sharply reduced. At present, it mainly imports fuel, food and clothing.
[Transportation] The transportation of land, sea and air is relatively developed. Domestic transportation is mainly highways, connecting towns and cities, and leading to Turkey, Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon.
Railway: The total length is 2798 kilometers.
Highway: The total length is 45,860 kilometers.
Water transport: The port of Latakia and the port of Tartus are the main ports of Syria.
Air transport: In addition to the Damascus International Airport, there are six provincial-level local airports. After the turmoil in the Syrian Arab Republic, the Syrian foreign routes have been sharply affected by the sanctions imposed by the US West and the Arab League and the military conflict.
[Military] Built in 1946. It developed rapidly in the 1970s and became a strong armed force in the Middle East. The Armed Forces General Command is the supreme commander. President Bashar is the commander-in-chief. General Staff Chief Lieutenant General Ud. The compulsory military service system is implemented and the service period is 30 months. Before the turbulent situation in 2011, the total strength of the Syrian armed forces was 408,000, the army was 300,000, the navy was 8,000, the air force and the air force were 100,000, and there were more than 400,000 paramilitary units. Weapons are mainly from the Soviet Union and Russia. After the turbulent situation and the outbreak of the civil war, there was no detailed statistics on the strength of the troops.
[Education] The primary school compulsory education is popularized and the school system is 6 years. In the junior high school and the high school system for six years, the junior high school basically implemented the compulsory education system. There are four comprehensive universities across the country: Damascus University, Aleppo University, October University and Fuxing University.
[Press and Publication] The National Arabic Daily has “Fuxing Newspaper”, “Revolution” and “October”. The local Awen Daily has the “People’s Daily”, “Dedication”, “Arabic” and “Unity”. The English-language daily newspaper “The Syrian Times” and the Arabic “People’s Weekly” and “Workers’ Weekly” were also issued. The Syrian Arab News Agency is the official news agency. The Syrian Radio Station was established in 1936 and has established local radio stations in various provinces and municipalities. The Syrian TV station was established on July 23, 1960. In addition to the Arabic language program, it also broadcast English and French programs.
In August 2011, Syria promulgated the “News Law.”
[External Relations] Since the turmoil in the Syrian Arab countries, the major Western countries and some Arab countries have said that Bashar has lost its legitimacy, and has continuously increased sanctions against Syria and exerted pressure to push the political transition between Israel and Palestine as the core. The Arab League adopted a resolution to suspend the qualifications of Syrian member states, suspend diplomatic cooperation with the Syrian government, and sever economic and trade exchanges. In March 2013, the Arab League handed over the Syrian Arab League seat to the “National Alliance.”
Relations with the United States: Established diplomatic relations with the United States in 1946. On the second day of the “June 5th” war in 1967, Syria announced that it had broken diplomatic relations with the United States. In June 1974, the two countries resumed diplomatic relations. In February 2005, Lebanese Prime Minister Hariri was killed. The United States pushed the Security Council to adopt a series of resolutions, demanding that Syria fully cooperate with the investigation of the International Independent Investigation Commission of the Kazakhstan case. The Syrian-US relationship is tense. The United States listed Syria as a list of countries supporting terrorist activities. After the Obama administration took office, it sought to improve US-Syrian relations. In February 2010, US Deputy Secretary of State Burns visited Syria. In the same month, the United States re- dispatched an ambassador to Syria. After the turmoil in Syria in 2011, the United States closed its embassy in Syria, expelled Syrian diplomats in the United States, and demanded that Syrian President Bashar al-Assad must step down and impose strict unilateral sanctions on Syria to push for a transition to a “democratic state.” On December 11, 2012, the United States announced that it recognized the Syrian opposition organization “National Alliance” as the legal representative of the Syrian people. Since 2013, the United States has gradually expanded its assistance to the Syrian opposition. After the “8.11” alleged use of chemical weapons in the Syrian territory, the US military strike against Syria was once on the line. At the end of September, the OPCW and the UN Security Council adopted the decisions and resolutions on the destruction of the armed forces, and the Syrian-Russian issue achieved a “soft landing.” In March 2014, the United States appointed a special envoy for Syria. In the same month, the US-Israel Embassy in the United States stopped consular services and demanded that the Syrian embassy and the consulates in Michigan and Texas ceased operations, requiring relevant diplomatic and administrative personnel and their families to leave the United States. In September 2014, the United States and other countries began air strikes against the extremist organization “Islamic State” in Syria. In April 2017, a suspected chemical attack was carried out in Syria, and the United States attacked the Syrian government air base. In April 2018, there was another suspected chemical attack in Syria. The United States and the United Kingdom and France carried out military strikes against Syria. In December, US President Trump announced the withdrawal of troops from Syria. In March 2019, US President Trump signed a presidential decree officially recognizing Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights.
Relations with Russia: Established diplomatic relations with the former Soviet Union in 1944. During the Cold War, he pursued the pro-Soviet policy. In 1980, he signed the Syrian-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation and established an alliance. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Syria recognized the independence of the Soviet Union’s republics and said that Syria would establish diplomatic relations with these countries on the basis of mutual respect and common interests. In recent years, Syria-Russia relations have developed rapidly. In May 2010, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visited Syria. After the turmoil in Syria in 2011, Russia gave political support and repeatedly rejected the Security Council’s draft resolution. In January and April 2015, Russia held two dialogues between the Syrian government and the opposition in Moscow. On September 30, 2015, at the invitation of the Syrian government, Russia began to launch air strikes against terrorist extremist organizations in Syria. On November 21, 2017, Syrian President Bashar visited Russia and held talks with President Putin. On December 11, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Syria and met with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and announced that Russia would withdraw troops from Syria. On May 17, 2018, Syrian President Bashar visited Russia again and held talks with President Putin. In October, Russia provided the S-300 air defense system to Syria.
Relations with EU countries: In November 1995, after 15 European Union countries and 12 foreign ministers on the southern coast of the Mediterranean held a “Europe-Mediterranean Conference” in Barcelona, the two sides had different degrees of political, economic, social and cultural relations. The development, especially the economic and financial partnership, has increased. After the turmoil in Syria in 2011, the EU imposed multiple rounds of unilateral sanctions against Syria, and Britain, France, Spain and other countries closed the embassy in Syria and expelled Syrian diplomats. In November 2012, Britain and France announced that they recognized the Syrian opposition organization “the Syrian opposition and the National Alliance of Revolutionary Forces” as the sole legal representative of the Syrian people. In May 2013, the EU decided to lift the arms embargo against the Syrian opposition. Since then, it has repeatedly imposed unilateral sanctions against the Syrian government.
Relations with Lebanon: Syria and Lebanon were the same country during the French mandate. After Li’s independence, Syria did not recognize that Syria and Lebanon maintained a “special relationship”. After May 1976, the Syrian Army had been stationed in Lebanon under the name of “Arab Deterrent Force.” In May 1991, Syria and Lebanon signed the “Brotherhood Relations Cooperation and Coordination Treaty” and the “Security and Defence Treaty.” In September 2004, the United States, France and other countries pushed the Security Council to adopt Resolution 1559, demanding that all Syrian troops stationed in Lebanon be evacuated. In April 2005, Syria announced the withdrawal of all its troops, security personnel and military equipment in Lebanon. In July and August 2008, President Suleiman and Syrian President Bashar held two meetings in Paris and Damascus. The two sides announced their decision to establish diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level. On October 15, 2008, Foreign Minister Syrian Li signed a communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations, and the two countries formally established diplomatic relations. After the turmoil in Syria in 2011, the Lebanese government advocated maintaining Syrian sovereignty, independence and unity, opposing external interference, adopting a “no-involvement” policy on the Syrian situation, and retaining reservations on several Arab League-related Syrian resolutions. However, the two camps of Li Qin and Anti-Symbol and their supporters have sharply opposed positions on the Syrian issue, and conflicts have occurred from time to time. In May 2013, the Li Hezbollah publicly admitted to assisting the Syrian government forces in the Syrian armed forces against the opposition. At present, there are millions of Syrian refugees in Lebanon.
Relations with the Gulf Arab States: In the 1990 Gulf War, Syria and Saudi Arabia demanded that troops be dispatched to the Gulf. After the war, Syria actively participated in the post-war security arrangements and improved relations with the Gulf countries. After the turmoil in Syria in 1997, the Gulf countries such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar asked President Bashar to step down, announced the recall of the ambassador to Syria, expelled Syrian diplomats, imposed sanctions on Syria, and provided financial and military services to the Syrian opposition. assistance. In November 2012, the GCC recognized the Syrian opposition organization “National Alliance” as the legal representative of the Syrian people. In March 2013, the “National Alliance” appointed the Ambassador to Qatar and opened an embassy in Doha. In December 2015 and November 2017, Saudi Arabia held a conference on the integration of Syrian opposition. In December 2018, the UAE and Bahrain announced the restoration of their work in the Syrian Embassy.