The Sultanate of Oman 阿曼苏丹国
【国 名】 阿曼苏丹国（The Sultanate of Oman）
【面 积】 30.95万平方公里
【人 口】 455.9万。其中阿曼人占54.9%。伊斯兰教为国教。85.9%人口为穆斯林，大多为伊巴德教派。
【语 言】 官方语言为阿拉伯语，通用英语。
【首 都】 马斯喀特（Muscat），面积约3900平方公里，人口138.2万。
【国家元首】 苏丹兼首相和外交、国防、财政大臣卡布斯·本·赛义德（Qaboos Bin Said），1970年7月23日登基。
[Country name] The Sultanate of Oman
[area] 309,500 square kilometers
[People] 45.59 million. Among them, Oman is 54.9%. Islam is the state religion. 85.9% of the population are Muslims, mostly Ibads.
[Language] The official language is Arabic and General English.
[Capital] Muscat, with an area of about 3,900 square kilometers and a population of 1.382 million.
[Head of State] Qaboos Bin Said, Sudanese Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, National Defense and Finance, was enthroned on July 23, 1970.
[National Day] November 18 (Cabas Sultan’s Birthday)
【简 况】 位于阿拉伯半岛东南部。与阿联酋、沙特、也门等国接壤，濒临阿曼湾和阿拉伯海。海岸线长3165公里。除东北部山地外，均属热带沙漠气候。全年分两季，5-10月为热季，气温高达40℃以上；11月至翌年4月为凉季，平均温度约为24℃。
【政 治】 阿曼是世袭君主制国家，禁止一切政党活动。苏丹享有绝对权威，颁布法律、任命内阁、领导军队、批准和缔结国际条约。1996年11 月，卡布斯苏丹颁布《国家基本法》（相当于宪法）；12月，成立以其为首的9人国防委员会，负责审议国家安全有关事宜并参与决定苏丹继承人。2011年10月，阿曼修订《国家基本法》，规定如王室委员会未在法定时间3日内就苏丹继任者达成一致，则由最高国防委员会连同国家委员会主席、协商会议主席、最高法院院长及两名年纪最长的副院长根据苏丹遗诏指定人选。2018年，阿曼政局保持稳定，国民经济持续增长，积极参与地区事务、维护地区稳定。
【议 会】 称“阿曼委员会”，由国家委员会（相当于议会上院）和协商会议（相当于议会下院）组成，国家委员会和协商会议成员不得相互兼任。 其中，国家委员会成立于1997年12月，主要负责审查国家法律、社会、经济等方面问题，共有委员75名，多为前政、军高官和各界知名人士，全由苏丹任命，任期4年，可连任。现任主席叶海亚·本·马哈福兹·蒙泽里（Yahya bin Mahfoudh Al Manthri），2004年3月就任并连任至今。
协商会议成立于1991年11月，其前身是1981年成立的国家咨询委员会。2003年以前，协商会议成员只能由一定范围内的阿曼公民选举产生。自2003年起，协商会议实现普选，所有年满21岁的阿曼公民都可参加选举投票。2007年，卡布斯苏丹颁布谕令，进一步解除了对协商会议成员候选人资格的限制。2011年10月，卡布斯苏丹颁布修订后的《国家基本法》，赋予协商会议更大权力，包括对法律、预算、条约、审计报告等的修改权和建议权，以及对政府部门的监督权和质询权等。协商会议主席产生也由苏丹任命改为协商会议成员直选产生。目前，协商会议共有84名成员，代表阿曼的61个州，任期4年，可连任。现任主席哈立德·本·希拉勒·马瓦利（Khalid bin Hilal Al Ma’awali），2011年10月当选并连任至今。
[profile] Located in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula. It borders the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and other countries, and is close to the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea. The coastline is 3,165 kilometers long. Except for the mountains in the northeast, they all have a tropical desert climate. The season is divided into two seasons, from May to October is the hot season, the temperature is above 40 °C; from November to April is the cool season, the average temperature is about 24 °C.
Oman is one of the oldest countries in the Arabian Peninsula. In 2000 BC, extensive maritime and land trade activities were carried out and became the shipbuilding center of the Arabian Peninsula. It became part of the Arab Empire in the 7th century and was independent at the end of the 11th century. In 1429, the Ibad sect established its rule in Oman. In 1507, Oman was invaded by Portugal and was colonized for a long time. In 1649, the locals of Oman overthrew the Portuguese rule and established the Ariba dynasty. In 1742, Oman was invaded by Persia. In the middle of the 18th century, the locals of Oman drove the Persians and established the Saeed dynasty. The country was named “Muscat Sultanate” and became one of the stronger countries along the Indian Ocean. The forces once expanded to the coastal areas of East Africa. . In 1856, after the death of Sultan Saeed Bin Sultan, his two sons were in charge of Oman and East African territories. In 1861, the two places officially split. In 1871, the British invaded Oman, forcing them to accept unequal treaties. In 1913, the Oman mountain tribe held an anti-British uprising and established the “Oman Islamic State.” In 1920, the British colonists signed the Treaty of Seeb with the “Teaching Powers” and recognized their independence. Oman was divided into two parts: the Sultanate of Muscat and the Islamic State of Oman. In December 1955, the British colonialists and the “Sultanate” army they supported captured the capital of Niswa, the capital of the “Teaching Power”. The local resistance forces withdrew into the mountains and re-initiated the anti-British uprising in July 1957, but eventually The British army failed with massive suppression. In 1967, the Sultanate of Muscat Sultan, with the support of the United Kingdom, finally unified the entire territory of Oman and changed its name to “Muscat and the Sultanate of Oman”. On July 23, 1970, the Sultan of Taimur was forced to abdicate, and his only son, Kabus, was re-elected and renamed the “Sultanate of Oman” and is still in use today. In 1973, British troops withdrew from Oman.
[Politics] Oman is a hereditary monarchy and prohibits all political parties. The Sudan enjoys absolute authority, enacts laws, appoints cabinets, leads the military, and ratifies and concludes international treaties. In November 1996, the Sultan Qaboos enacted the National Basic Law (equivalent to the Constitution); in December, the nine-member National Defense Commission headed by it was set up to review matters related to national security and participate in the decision of the heirs of the Sudan. In October 2011, Oman amended the National Basic Law, stipulating that if the Royal Committee did not reach an agreement on the successor of the Sudan within 3 days of the statutory time, the Supreme National Defense Commission, together with the Chairman of the National Committee, the President of the Consultative Meeting, the President of the Supreme Court and two The oldest deputy dean is appointed according to the remains of the Sultan. In 2018, the political situation in Oman remained stable, the national economy continued to grow, and it actively participated in regional affairs and maintained regional stability.
[Meetings] The “Oman Committee” is composed of a National Committee (equivalent to the upper house of parliament) and a consultation meeting (equivalent to the lower house of parliament). The members of the National Committee and the Consultative Meeting shall not concurrently serve each other. Among them, the National Committee was established in December 1997. It is mainly responsible for reviewing national legal, social and economic issues. There are 75 members, mostly former political officials, senior military officials and celebrities from all walks of life. They are all appointed by the Sudan for a term of four years. Can be re-elected. The current chairman, Yahya bin Mahfoudh Al Manthri, took office in March 2004 and has been re-elected to this day.
The consultation meeting was established in November 1991 and its predecessor was the National Advisory Committee established in 1981. Prior to 2003, members of the conference could only be elected by a certain number of Omani citizens. Since 2003, the conference has achieved universal suffrage, and all Omani citizens who are 21 years of age or older can participate in the election. In 2007, the Sultan Qaboos issued a decree that further lifted restrictions on the qualifications of candidates for the conference. In October 2011, the Sultan Qaboos issued the revised National Basic Law, giving the conference more powers, including the right to modify and recommend laws, budgets, treaties, audit reports, etc., as well as the supervision of government departments. And questioning rights, etc. The chairmanship of the consultation meeting was also changed from the appointment of the Sudan to the direct election of members of the conference. Currently, the conference has a total of 84 members representing 61 states in Oman for a four-year term renewable. The current chairman, Khalid bin Hilal Al Ma’awali, was elected in October 2011 and re-elected to this day.
【宪 法】 1996年11月，卡布斯苏丹颁布谕令，公布《国家基本法》（相当于宪法），就国体与政体、国家政策的指导原则、公民权利与义务、国家元首职权、内阁及其成员职责、阿曼委员会和司法体系运作等问题作出规定。2011年10月，卡布斯苏丹颁布谕令，对《国家基本法》进行修订，其中主要对苏丹位继承、协商会议权限等作出进一步规定。
【政 府】 内阁是苏丹授权的国家最高执行机构，成员由苏丹任命。本届内阁于1997年组成，共有阁员31名，经过数次调整，现主要成员有：首相兼国防、外交、财政大臣由卡布斯苏丹本人担任，内阁事务副首相法赫德·本·马哈茂德·阿勒赛义德（Fahd Bin Mahmoud Al-Said），国际关系与合作事务副首相兼苏丹特别代表艾斯阿德·本·塔里克·本·泰穆尔·阿勒赛义德（Sayyid Asaad bin Tareq al-Said），遗产和文化大臣海塞姆·本·塔里格·阿勒赛义德（Haitham Bin Tariq Al-Said），国防事务主管大臣巴德尔·本·萨乌德·本·哈利卜·布赛义迪（Badr Bin Saud Bin Habeb Al-Busaidi），内政大臣哈穆德·本·费萨尔·布赛义迪（Hamoud Bin Faisal Al-Busaidi），外交事务主管大臣优素福·本·阿拉维·本·阿卜杜拉（Yousef Bin Alawi Bin Abdullah），石油和天然气大臣穆罕默德·本·哈马德·本·赛义夫·鲁姆希（Mohammed Bin Hamad Bin Saif Al-Romhi），商业和工业大臣阿里·本·马斯乌德·苏奈迪（Ali Bin Masoud Bin Ali Al-Sunaidy），新闻大臣阿卜杜穆奈姆·本·曼苏尔·本·赛义德·哈萨尼（Abdulmun’em bin Mansour bin Said Al-hasani）。
[Constitution] In November 1996, the Sultan Qaboos issued a decree promulgating the “Basic Basic Law” (equivalent to the Constitution), the guiding principles of the state and polity, national policies, civil rights and obligations, the power of the head of state, the cabinet and its Provisions are made for issues such as the responsibilities of members, the Omani Commission and the functioning of the judicial system. In October 2011, the Sultan Qaboos issued a decree to amend the Basic Law of the State, which mainly made further provisions on the succession of the Sudan and the authority of the consultation meeting.
[Government] The Cabinet is the highest executive body authorized by the Sudan and its members are appointed by the Sudan. The current cabinet was formed in 1997. There are 31 cabinet members. After several adjustments, the main members are: Prime Minister and Minister of National Defense, Foreign Affairs and Finance. Mr. Kabus Sudan himself, Deputy Prime Minister of Cabinet Affairs Fahd Ben Ma Fahd Bin Mahmoud Al-Said, Deputy Prime Minister and Special Representative of the Sudan, Special Representative for International Relations and Cooperation, Esdad Bin Tariq Bin Temur Al Syed (Sayyid Asaad bin Tareq al-Said), Minister of Heritage and Culture Haitham Bin Tariq Al-Said, Minister of National Defense, Badr Bin Saoud ·Badr Bin Saud Bin Habeb Al-Busaidi, Minister of Home Affairs, Hamoud Bin Faisal Al-Busaidi, Head of Foreign Affairs Minister Yousef Bin Alawi Bin Abdullah, Minister of Oil and Gas Mohammed Bin Hamad Bin (Mohammed Bin Hamad Bin) Saif Al-Romhi), Minister of Commerce and Industry Ali Ben Mas Ali Bin Masoud Bin Ali Al-Sunaidy, Minister of Information Abdulmun’em bin Mansour bin Said Al- Hasani).
[Administrative divisions] divided into 11 provinces by administrative region (Muscat province, Dhofar province, Musandam province, Blemi province, North Central Province, Central South Province, Dahile province, inland province, There are 61 states in the provinces of Southeastern, Northeastern and Central Provinces.
[Judiciary] The government has a Ministry of Justice, Religious Funds and Islamic Affairs, which is in charge of judicial and religious affairs. There are 47 courts across the country, with courts of appeal in the capital and some states. In November 1999, the Judiciary Law was promulgated, an independent judiciary and the Supreme Judicial Council were established. Kabus was the chairman and the president of the Supreme Court was the vice chairman.
[Important figures] Kabs Ben Saeed: Sultanate of Oman and Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, National Defense and Finance. Born on November 18, 1940 in Sarah, the capital of the province of Dhofar in southern Oman, it was the 14th monarch of the Oman Sayed Dynasty. He graduated from the Royal Military Academy of Sandhurst in England in 1961. He then served as a lieutenant in the Scottish rifle battalion and served in Germany. He returned to Oman in 1964. On July 23, 1970, his father was forced to abdicate and Kabush Sultan was enthroned.
Fahd bin Mahmoud Al-Sayid: Deputy Prime Minister of the Cabinet of Ministers of Oman (equivalent to the head of government). Born in 1940, he is a distant uncle of the Sultan Qaboos. After graduating from the Cairo University in Egypt in 1965, he went to France to study political science. After the Kabuls Sultan became a throne in 1970, he served as the first foreign minister, and later served as the Minister of Culture, Tourism, and Information. In May 1979, he served as deputy prime minister in charge of legal affairs. Since January 1994, he has served as deputy prime minister of cabinet affairs. He often interviewed foreign guests on behalf of Kabus Sudan and went abroad for a visit.
Esdad Bin Tariq Al-Sayid: Deputy Prime Minister and Special Representative of Sudan for International Relations and Cooperation in Oman. Born in 1954, Kabbus Sultan cousin. He graduated from the Military College of Sandhurst in the United Kingdom in 1974. He served in the Oman Army from 1978 to 1993 and entered the government department in 1994. He served as Secretary General of the Supreme Planning Commission. In 2002, he was appointed Special Representative of the Sudan. In 2017, he was appointed Deputy Prime Minister and Special Representative of the Sudan for International Relations and Cooperation.
【经 济】 石油、天然气产业是阿曼的支柱产业，油气收入占国家财政收入的68%，占国内生产总值的41%。工业以石油开采为主，近年来开始重视天然气工业。实行自由和开放的经济政策，利用石油收入大力发展国民经济，努力吸引外资，引进技术，鼓励私人投资。为逐步改变国民经济对石油的依赖，实现财政收入来源多样化和经济可持续发展，政府大力推动产业多元化、就业阿曼化和经济私有化，增加对基础设施建设的投入，扩大私营资本的参与程度。农业不发达，粮食主要靠进口。渔业资源丰富，是阿曼传统产业，除满足国内需求外，还可供出口，是阿曼非石油产品出口收入的主要来源之一。
【资 源】 20世纪60年代开始开采石油。截至目前，阿曼已探明石油储量约7亿吨（54亿桶），当年产量约0.49亿吨（3.44亿桶），日均产量约97.1万桶。已探明天然气储量约0.7万亿立方米，当年产量323亿立方米。除石油和天然气外，阿曼境内发现的矿产资源还有铜、金、银、铬、铁、锰、镁、煤、石灰石、大理石、石膏、磷酸盐、石英石、高岭土等。具体情况为：铜矿储量约1500万吨，铬矿储量约250万吨，铁矿储量约1.2亿吨，锰矿储量约150万吨，煤矿储量约1.2亿吨，石灰石储量约3亿吨，大理石储量约1.5亿吨，石膏储量约12亿吨等。
【工 业】 以油气工业为主，其他工业起步较晚。工业项目主要为石油化工、炼铁、化肥、塑料、铸管等。除少数较大型企业如炼油厂、水泥厂、面粉厂等由政府投资经营外，其他均属私营中小企业，主要从事非金属矿产、木材加工、食品、纺织等生产。
【农 业】 农、牧、渔业在国民经济非石油产业中举足轻重，能满足国内47.6%的粮食和69%的动物饲料需求。但总体上农业不发达，全国可耕地约10万公顷，已耕地7.3万公顷，主要种植椰枣、柠檬、香蕉等水果和蔬菜。粮食作物以小麦、大麦、高粱为主，不能自给。渔业资源丰富，是传统产业，除满足国内需要外，还可出口，是非石油产品出口收入的主要来源之一。
[Economy] The oil and natural gas industry is the pillar industry of Oman. Oil and gas revenue accounts for 68% of the country’s fiscal revenue, accounting for 41% of GDP. The industry is dominated by oil exploitation, and in recent years it has begun to focus on the natural gas industry. Implement a free and open economic policy, use oil revenues to vigorously develop the national economy, strive to attract foreign investment, introduce technology, and encourage private investment. In order to gradually change the dependence of the national economy on oil and realize the diversification of fiscal revenue sources and sustainable economic development, the government vigorously promotes industrial diversification, employment Omanization and economic privatization, increases investment in infrastructure construction, and expands the participation of private capital. degree. Agriculture is underdeveloped and food is mainly imported. Rich in fishery resources, it is a traditional Oman industry. In addition to meeting domestic demand, it is also available for export. It is one of the main sources of Oman’s non-oil product export revenue.
In November 2000, Oman officially joined the World Trade Organization.
The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: $79.2 billion
GDP growth rate: 2.4%
Per capita GDP: $15,000
Total import and export: $67.8 billion
Imports: $25.4 billion
Exports: $42.4 billion
Foreign exchange reserves: $14.6 billion
Note: The data source is the economic quarterly review.
[Resources] Oil was extracted in the 1960s. Up to now, Oman has proven oil reserves of about 700 million tons (5.4 billion barrels), with an annual output of about 49 million tons (344 million barrels) and an average daily output of about 971,000 barrels. The proven natural gas reserves are about 0.7 trillion cubic meters, and the current output was 32.3 billion cubic meters. In addition to oil and natural gas, the mineral resources found in Oman are copper, gold, silver, chromium, iron, manganese, magnesium, coal, limestone, marble, gypsum, phosphate, quartz, kaolin and so on. The specific situation is: copper mine reserves of about 15 million tons, chromium ore reserves of about 2.5 million tons, iron ore reserves of about 120 million tons, manganese ore reserves of about 1.5 million tons, coal reserves of about 120 million tons, limestone reserves of about 300 million tons, marble The reserves are about 150 million tons, and the gypsum reserves are about 1.2 billion tons.
[Industrial] The oil and gas industry is the mainstay, and other industries started late. Industrial projects are mainly petrochemical, iron making, fertilizer, plastics, cast pipes and so on. Except for a few large enterprises such as oil refineries, cement plants and flour mills, which are invested by the government, others are private SMEs, mainly engaged in non-metallic minerals, wood processing, food, textile and other production.
[Agriculture] Agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery play an important role in the national economy and non-oil industry, and can meet the domestic demand of 47.6% of food and 69% of animal feed. However, in general, agriculture is underdeveloped. The country has about 100,000 hectares of arable land and 73,000 hectares of cultivated land. It mainly grows fruits and vegetables such as dates, lemons and bananas. The food crops are mainly wheat, barley and sorghum, and they cannot be self-sufficient. Rich in fishery resources, it is a traditional industry. In addition to meeting domestic needs, it can also be exported. It is one of the main sources of non-oil product export revenue.
[Transportation] Transportation mainly depends on roads, and railway projects are under construction.
Highway: The total length of asphalt roads is 35,522 kilometers, and the total length of dirt roads is 1,222 kilometers.
Water transport: The main ports are Muscat, Port of Sultan Qaboos, Port of Sohar, Salarha Port, Port of Docum, Port of Kazakhstan and so on. Among them, the Sultan Qaboos Port of Muscat is no longer responsible for cargo transportation and is gradually transforming into a tourist port; Sohar Port and Salalah Port are mainly engaged in container and other cargo operations; Dukum Port and Kasab Port are still under construction. In addition, the Oman National Ferry Company operates a number of passenger routes between Mussandam (Oman enclave), Masira (Oman’s largest island) and Oman.
Air transport: “Oman Airline”, established in May 1981, is a public-private joint venture, mainly responsible for domestic passenger and cargo transportation. In recent years, Oman Airways has continued to expand its international business, and has already opened routes from Muscat to London, Kuala Lumpur and Jakarta. At the end of 2016, it opened a direct flight route to Guangzhou. Civil airports mainly include Muscat International Airport, Salal International Airport and Sohar Airport.
Oil pipeline: From the inland oilfield to the port of Fahr, there is a pipeline with a total length of 279 kilometers and a non-pressurized flow of 725,000 barrels per day.
【军 事】 实行义务兵役制。卡布斯苏丹任武装力量最高统帅并兼任国防大臣，穆罕默德·本·苏尔坦·布赛义迪为国防事务主管大臣。阿曼是海湾合作委员会成员国，在军事防御方面与该组织其他成员国相互协调。总兵力4.35万人。其中陆军2.5万人，海军4200人，空军4100人，苏丹卫队5500人，苏丹特种部队1000人，部落和民兵武装4400人。
【教 育】 实行免费教育制。在全国开展扫盲和成人教育，有各类学校1642所，在校生69万，有扫盲中心14个。卡布斯大学于1986年9月建成开学，是阿曼最高学府，在校生约1.5万人。
[Foreign Trade] The main export of oil and natural gas accounts for 68% of the country’s total fiscal revenue. Non-oil exports include copper, chemical products, fish, date palms, fruits and vegetables. Mainly exported to the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, India, China and other countries. Imported machinery, transportation tools, food and industrial manufactured goods, mainly from the United Arab Emirates (re-export), China, India, the United States and so on.
[Foreign Capital] Foreign capital is mainly invested in oil exploration and finance. The UK and the Gulf States are major investors.
[People’s life] The state implements free medical care. The average life expectancy of residents is 76.6 years. There are 67 hospitals in Oman and 203 health centers; the number of fixed and mobile phones in the country is 423,000 and 6,866,300 respectively. There are 269,500 Internet users. The national private housing ownership rate has reached a high level in the world.
[Military] Implement compulsory military service. The Sultan Qaboos is the supreme commander of the armed forces and serves as the Minister of National Defense. Muhammad bin Sultan Busaidi is the Minister of National Defense. Oman is a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council and coordinates with other members of the organization in terms of military defense. The total strength is 43,500. Among them, there are 25,000 Army, 4,200 Navy, 4,100 Air Force, 5,500 Sudanese Guards, 1,000 Special Forces in Sudan, and 4,400 armed tribes and militia.
[education] A free education system is implemented. In the country, literacy and adult education are carried out. There are 1,642 schools of various types, with 690,000 students and 14 literacy centers. The University of Kabushi was established in September 1986 and is the highest school in Oman with approximately 15,000 students.
[Press and Publication] There are more than 30 kinds of newspapers and periodicals in the country, mainly including: “Oman Daily”, with a daily circulation of about 40,000 copies; “Observer”, with a daily circulation of about 22,000 copies; “The Motherland”, semi-official background, Arabic Daily; Oman Tribune, private, English daily.
Oman News Agency: The official news agency, established in May 1986, the head office in Muscat.
Oman Sultanate Radio: Built in Muscat in 1970. The Sarah Radio was built in 1974 and later incorporated into the Sultanate of Oman. In 1979, a satellite ground receiving station was built. FM radio began in 1982 and was broadcast for 12 hours a day. Since 1998, the Arabic-language integrated channel has begun to broadcast to all parts of Oman 24 hours a day.
Oman TV: Oman’s state-owned and largest television station, established in 1974, has 4 channels.
[External Relations] Pursuing a foreign policy of non-alignment, good-neighborliness and friendship and non-interference in other countries’ internal affairs. Committed to maintaining security and stability in the Gulf region, actively participating in regional affairs, and advocating the resolution of differences between countries through dialogue and peaceful means. It has close ties with the United States and Britain and conducts diversified diplomacy at the same time. To date, Oman has established diplomatic relations with 143 countries.