The State of Qatar 卡塔尔国
【国 名】卡塔尔国（The State of Qatar）
【国家元首】埃米尔兼武装部队总司令塔米姆·本·哈马德·阿勒萨尼（Tamim Bin Hamad Al-Thani），2013年6月25日即位。
[State name] The State of Qatar
[area] 11521 square kilometers
[People] 2.76 million, of which Qatar citizens account for about 15%. Foreigners are mainly from India, Pakistan and Southeast Asian countries. Arabic is the official language, and general English. Most of the residents believe in Islam, and most of them are Wahhabi sects in the Sunnis. The Shiites make up 16% of the country’s population.
[The capital] Doha, with a population of 1.54 million.
[Head of State] Tamim Bin Hamad Al-Thani, Commander-in-Chief of the Amir and Armed Forces, took the throne on June 25, 2013.
[Important Festival] December 18 (National Day)
[Profile] It is located on the Qatar Peninsula on the southwestern coast of the Persian Gulf and borders Saudi Arabia on the south. The coastline is 563 kilometers long. It has a tropical desert climate. It is hot and prolonged in summer, with a maximum temperature of 50 °C. It is cool and dry in winter, with a minimum temperature of 7 °C. The average annual precipitation is only 75.2 mm.
The 7th century AD card is part of the Arab Empire. The Portuguese invasion in 1517. In 1846, Sani Ben Mohamed established the Emirate of Qatar. In 1872 was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. In 1916, it became the “protected place” of the United Kingdom. On September 3, 1971, the card declared independence and Ahmed served as the Emir. On February 22, 1972, Ahmed’s cousin Khalifa became the Emir, and Hamad, the son of Khalifa, was the Crown Prince and Minister of National Defense. On June 27, 1995, Hamad served as the Emir. On June 25, 2013, Hamad Emir gave way to Crown Prince Tamim.
【协商会议】1972年成立，系咨询机构，职能是协助埃米尔行使统治权力，有权审议立法和向内阁提出政策建议。由45名成员组成，其中15名由埃米尔任命，30名由选举产生，任期4年。会议下设秘书处和立法、财经、公共服务、内政外交4个委员会。现任主席艾哈迈德·本·阿卜杜拉·本·扎耶得·阿勒马哈茂德（Ahmed Bin Abdullah Bin Zayed Al-Mahmoud）于2017年11月任职。
【政 府】本届内阁成立于2013年6月，并多次进行改组，现有内阁成员14人。主要成员有：首相兼内政大臣阿卜杜拉·本·纳赛尔·本·哈利法·阿勒萨尼（Abdullah Bin Nasser Bin Khalifa Al Thani）、副首相兼国防事务国务大臣哈立德·本·穆罕默德·阿提亚（Khalid bin Mohammed Al-Attiyah）、副首相兼外交大臣穆罕默德·本·阿卜杜拉赫曼·阿勒萨尼（Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al Thani）、财政大臣阿里·谢里夫·厄马迪（Ali Sherif Al-Emadi）、能源事务国务大臣萨阿德·本·沙里达·卡阿比（Saad bin Sharida Al-Kaabi）。
[Politics] Qatar is a monarchy. The Emir is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, who has mastered the supreme power of the country and is hereditary by the Al-Thani family. The government moderately promoted political reforms and maintained social stability. The card prohibits any party activities.
[Constitution] The first constitution was promulgated in 1970 and stipulated that Qatar is an independent sovereign state; Islam is the state religion; the Emir exercised power with the assistance of the cabinet and the consultations. The Constitution recognizes the independence of judges. The constitution was amended in 1972. In April 2003, the referendum on the card passed the “permanent constitution”, which came into effect on June 7, 2005.
[Consultation Meeting] Established in 1972, it is an advisory body whose function is to assist the Amir in exercising its ruling power, to review legislation and to make policy recommendations to the Cabinet. It consists of 45 members, 15 of whom are appointed by the Emirate and 30 are elected for a four-year term. The meeting consists of the Secretariat and four committees of legislation, finance, public services and internal affairs. The current Chairman, Ahmed Bin Abdullah Bin Zayed Al-Mahmoud, served in November 2017.
[Government] The current cabinet was established in June 2013 and has been reorganized several times. There are 14 members of the current cabinet. The main members are: Abdullah Bin Nasser Bin Khalifa Al Thani, Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior, and Khalid Bin, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of National Defense Khalid bin Mohammed Al-Attiyah, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al Thani, Chancellor of the Exchequer Ali Sharif Ema Ali Sherif Al-Emadi, Minister of State for Energy Affairs, Saad bin Sharida Al-Kaabi.
Commander-in-Chief of the Amir and Armed Forces: Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani: born in 1980. In 1997, he graduated from the Military Academy in Sandhurst, England. Member of the International Olympic Committee. In August 2003, he was appointed Crown Prince and in September of the same year he was appointed Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. On June 25, 2013, he took over as his father and became the eighth Emir of Qatar.
Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior Abdullah bin Nasser Bin Khalifa Al-Thani: born in 1962. Since 1985, he has served in the Qatar Rescue Police Station, the Emergency Police Department, and the Special Security Bureau. In 2002, he served as the Director of the Special Security Bureau. In 2004, he served as commander of the internal security forces and was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. In 2005, he served as Minister of State for Home Affairs. In June 2013, he was appointed Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior.
[Economy] The oil and gas industry is the backbone of the card economy. In recent years, the government has invested heavily in the development of natural gas as the top priority of economic development. Card is the world’s largest producer and exporter of LNG. While vigorously developing the energy industry, the card also launched the “2030 National Vision” plan. The core is to develop the economic diversification and build the card into a sustainable development with strong international competitiveness and national living standards by 2030. High country.
The card became a member of the World Trade Organization in 1995. According to the 2011-2012 Global Competitiveness Report released by the World Economic Forum (WEF), Qatar’s global competitiveness ranks first in the Arab countries and Middle East countries. Qatar ranked first in the list of the world’s richest countries and regions published by Forbes magazine in 2012.
The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product of 188.3 billion US dollars
Per capita GDP of $67,800
Economic growth rate of 2.7%
Import and export totaled $115.3 billion
Imports of $31.5 billion
Exports of 83.8 billion US dollars
Currency name: Qatari Rial
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 3.64 Qatari Rial
[Resources] There are mainly oil and natural gas. The proven oil reserves are 2.8 billion tons, ranking 12th in the world, and natural gas reserves are 25 trillion cubic meters, ranking third in the world.
[Industrial] mainly for the oil and gas sector, related industries and energy-intensive industries, including refineries, petrochemical plants, fertilizer plants, steel plants and cement plants, as well as some paper mills, detergent plants, pigment factories, Food factories and plastic factories, etc. Qatar is an important exporter of LNG in the Middle East. At present, Qatar’s annual production capacity of LNG has reached 82 million tons.
[Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] The total arable land area of Qatar is 28,000 hectares and the cultivated land is 7,000 hectares. Agriculture and animal husbandry products cannot be self-sufficient, and food, vegetables, fruits, meat and eggs, etc. mainly rely on imports. Only fish and shrimp seafood production can basically meet domestic demand.
[Transportation] Qatar has no railways, and all major cities are connected by a modern road network. The main seaports are Doha Port, Umm Syed Port and Ras Laffan Port, the world’s largest port for handling LNG. There are 5 airports in Qatar.
[Financial Finance] Qatar has 14 commercial banks, 5 of which are card-funded banks: Qatar National Bank, Doha Bank, Qatar Commercial Bank, Qatar National Bank and Qatar Islamic Bank. The National Bank of Qatar has absorbed nearly 50% of its deposits, mainly in government operations.
[Foreign Trade] Total foreign trade of Qatar in 2018 was US$115.3 billion, of which US$31.5 billion was imported and US$83.8 billion was exported. The main export products are petroleum, liquefied gas, condensate synthetic ammonia, urea, ethylene, etc. The main imported products are machinery and transportation equipment, food, industrial raw materials, light industrial products, and pharmaceuticals. The main trading partners are the United States, Japan and Western European countries.
[People’s life] Free medical care is implemented nationwide. There are 4 major hospitals in the country, more than 1,100 beds, and nearly 20 medical and health centers.
[Military] Qatar is a member of the Gulf Arab States Cooperation Council and implements a unified defense policy. Implement a voluntary military service system.
[Education] The government attaches great importance to the development of education, implements free education, provides opportunities for outstanding students to study abroad, and issues scholarships. The University of Qatar, built in 1977, is a comprehensive university with modern equipment. It is also the only local university in Qatar. It has 7 colleges and nearly 8,000 students. In addition, Qatar also sent international students to study in the United States, Europe and other Arab countries, and jointly established a university education city with the United States, many world-renowned schools have set up branches in the city.
[Press and Publication] The main Arabic newspaper: Doha Monthly, published in 1969, issued by the Ministry of Information; Arab Daily, published in 1972, issued by the Ministry of Information; “The Flag”, started in 1979; Time Magazine 1974 The founding of the year; “Bay Market” weekly magazine, published in 1980; “Today’s Gulf”, started in 1985; “Weekly News” weekly magazine, started in 1986. In addition, there are “Oriental Newspaper” and “The Motherland Newspaper”. The English newspaper has the Gulf Times and was founded in 1978. The Qatar News Agency was established in 1975 and is one of the leading news agencies in the Arab countries. Doha Radio is broadcast in Arabic, English, French and Urdu. There are 6 medium wave bands, 5 frequency bands and 1 short wave band. The “Peninsula” TV station was a television station set up by the Emir Hamad in Qatar in 1996 with a total investment of 137 million U.S. dollars. The Arabic news program was broadcasted 24 hours a day. In 2006, the Al Jazeera English Channel was launched.
[External Relations] Pursue an active and pragmatic foreign policy. Qatar is a member of the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the League of Arab States and the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. Member of the World Natural Gas Exporting Countries Forum and the headquarters of the Forum, the host country of the 2022 World Cup. To date, diplomatic relations have been established with more than 100 countries.
On June 5, 2017, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE and Bahrain announced the suspension of diplomatic relations with Qatar on the grounds of supporting terrorism and interfering in internal affairs, and suspended the personnel and traffic between the same card.