The State of Qatar 卡塔尔国

【国 名】卡塔尔国(The State of Qatar)

【面 积】11521平方公里

【人 口】276万,其中卡塔尔公民约占15%。外籍人主要来自印度、巴基斯坦和东南亚国家。阿拉伯语为官方语言,通用英语。居民大多信奉伊斯兰教,多数属逊尼派中的瓦哈比教派,什叶派占全国人口的16%。

【首 都】多哈(Doha),人口154万。

【国家元首】埃米尔兼武装部队总司令塔米姆·本·哈马德·阿勒萨尼(Tamim Bin Hamad Al-Thani),2013年6月25日即位。

【重要节日】12月18日(国庆日)

【简 况】位于波斯湾西南岸的卡塔尔半岛上,南面与沙特接壤。海岸线长563公里。属热带沙漠气候,夏季炎热漫长,最高气温可达50℃;冬季凉爽干燥,最低气温7℃。年平均降水量仅75.2毫米。

公元7世纪卡是阿拉伯帝国的一部分。1517年葡萄牙人入侵。1846年萨尼·本·穆罕默德建立了卡塔尔酋长国。1872年被并入奥斯曼帝国版图。1916年成为英国的“保护地”。1971年9月3日卡宣布独立,艾哈迈德任埃米尔。1972年2月22日艾哈迈德堂弟哈利法出任埃米尔,哈利法之子哈马德任王储兼国防大臣。1995年6月27日,哈马德出任埃米尔。2013年6月25日,哈马德埃米尔让位于王储塔米姆。

[State name] The State of Qatar

[area] 11521 square kilometers

[People] 2.76 million, of which Qatar citizens account for about 15%. Foreigners are mainly from India, Pakistan and Southeast Asian countries. Arabic is the official language, and general English. Most of the residents believe in Islam, and most of them are Wahhabi sects in the Sunnis. The Shiites make up 16% of the country’s population.

[The capital] Doha, with a population of 1.54 million.

[Head of State] Tamim Bin Hamad Al-Thani, Commander-in-Chief of the Amir and Armed Forces, took the throne on June 25, 2013.

[Important Festival] December 18 (National Day)

[Profile] It is located on the Qatar Peninsula on the southwestern coast of the Persian Gulf and borders Saudi Arabia on the south. The coastline is 563 kilometers long. It has a tropical desert climate. It is hot and prolonged in summer, with a maximum temperature of 50 °C. It is cool and dry in winter, with a minimum temperature of 7 °C. The average annual precipitation is only 75.2 mm.

The 7th century AD card is part of the Arab Empire. The Portuguese invasion in 1517. In 1846, Sani Ben Mohamed established the Emirate of Qatar. In 1872 was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. In 1916, it became the “protected place” of the United Kingdom. On September 3, 1971, the card declared independence and Ahmed served as the Emir. On February 22, 1972, Ahmed’s cousin Khalifa became the Emir, and Hamad, the son of Khalifa, was the Crown Prince and Minister of National Defense. On June 27, 1995, Hamad served as the Emir. On June 25, 2013, Hamad Emir gave way to Crown Prince Tamim.

【政 治】卡塔尔系君主制国家。埃米尔为国家元首和武装部队总司令,掌握国家最高权力,由阿勒萨尼家族世袭。政府适度推进政治改革,保持社会稳定。卡禁止任何政党活动。

【宪 法】1970年颁布第一部宪法并规定:卡塔尔为独立的主权国家;伊斯兰教为国教;埃米尔在内阁和协商会议的协助下行使权力。宪法承认法官的独立性。1972年对临时宪法进行修宪。2003年4月,卡全民公投通过“永久宪法”,2005年6月7日正式生效。

【协商会议】1972年成立,系咨询机构,职能是协助埃米尔行使统治权力,有权审议立法和向内阁提出政策建议。由45名成员组成,其中15名由埃米尔任命,30名由选举产生,任期4年。会议下设秘书处和立法、财经、公共服务、内政外交4个委员会。现任主席艾哈迈德·本·阿卜杜拉·本·扎耶得·阿勒马哈茂德(Ahmed Bin Abdullah Bin Zayed Al-Mahmoud)于2017年11月任职。

【政 府】本届内阁成立于2013年6月,并多次进行改组,现有内阁成员14人。主要成员有:首相兼内政大臣阿卜杜拉·本·纳赛尔·本·哈利法·阿勒萨尼(Abdullah Bin Nasser Bin Khalifa Al Thani)、副首相兼国防事务国务大臣哈立德·本·穆罕默德·阿提亚(Khalid bin Mohammed Al-Attiyah)、副首相兼外交大臣穆罕默德·本·阿卜杜拉赫曼·阿勒萨尼(Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al Thani)、财政大臣阿里·谢里夫·厄马迪(Ali Sherif Al-Emadi)、能源事务国务大臣萨阿德·本·沙里达·卡阿比(Saad bin Sharida Al-Kaabi)。

【重要人物】

埃米尔兼武装部队总司令:塔米姆·本·哈马德·阿勒萨尼:1980年生。1997年毕业于英国桑赫斯特军事学院。任国际奥委会委员。2003年8月被任命为王储,同年9月被任命为武装部队副总司令。2013年6月25日接任其父,成为卡塔尔第八任埃米尔。

首相兼内政大臣阿卜杜拉·本·纳赛尔·本·哈利法·阿勒萨尼:1962年生。1985年起先后在卡塔尔救援警署、应急警署、特别安全局任职,2002年任特别安全局局长。2004年任内卫部队司令并晋升准将军衔。2005年任内政事务国务大臣。2013年6月被任命为首相兼内政大臣。

[Politics] Qatar is a monarchy. The Emir is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, who has mastered the supreme power of the country and is hereditary by the Al-Thani family. The government moderately promoted political reforms and maintained social stability. The card prohibits any party activities.

[Constitution] The first constitution was promulgated in 1970 and stipulated that Qatar is an independent sovereign state; Islam is the state religion; the Emir exercised power with the assistance of the cabinet and the consultations. The Constitution recognizes the independence of judges. The constitution was amended in 1972. In April 2003, the referendum on the card passed the “permanent constitution”, which came into effect on June 7, 2005.

[Consultation Meeting] Established in 1972, it is an advisory body whose function is to assist the Amir in exercising its ruling power, to review legislation and to make policy recommendations to the Cabinet. It consists of 45 members, 15 of whom are appointed by the Emirate and 30 are elected for a four-year term. The meeting consists of the Secretariat and four committees of legislation, finance, public services and internal affairs. The current Chairman, Ahmed Bin Abdullah Bin Zayed Al-Mahmoud, served in November 2017.

[Government] The current cabinet was established in June 2013 and has been reorganized several times. There are 14 members of the current cabinet. The main members are: Abdullah Bin Nasser Bin Khalifa Al Thani, Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior, and Khalid Bin, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of National Defense Khalid bin Mohammed Al-Attiyah, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al Thani, Chancellor of the Exchequer Ali Sharif Ema Ali Sherif Al-Emadi, Minister of State for Energy Affairs, Saad bin Sharida Al-Kaabi.

【VIP】

Commander-in-Chief of the Amir and Armed Forces: Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani: born in 1980. In 1997, he graduated from the Military Academy in Sandhurst, England. Member of the International Olympic Committee. In August 2003, he was appointed Crown Prince and in September of the same year he was appointed Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. On June 25, 2013, he took over as his father and became the eighth Emir of Qatar.

Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior Abdullah bin Nasser Bin Khalifa Al-Thani: born in 1962. Since 1985, he has served in the Qatar Rescue Police Station, the Emergency Police Department, and the Special Security Bureau. In 2002, he served as the Director of the Special Security Bureau. In 2004, he served as commander of the internal security forces and was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. In 2005, he served as Minister of State for Home Affairs. In June 2013, he was appointed Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior.

【经 济】石油、天然气产业是卡经济支柱。近年来,政府大力投资开发天然气,将其作为经济发展的重中之重,卡是世界第一大液化天然气生产和出口国。在大力发展能源产业的同时,卡还推出了“2030国家愿景”规划,核心是通过大力发展经济多元化,到2030年将卡打造成为一个可持续发展、具有较强国际竞争力、国民生活水平高的国家。

卡于1995年成为世界贸易组织成员。根据世界经济论坛(WEF)发布的《2011-2012全球竞争力报告》,卡塔尔全球竞争力居阿拉伯国家及中东国家首位。2012年美国《福布斯》杂志公布的全球最富国家和地区排行榜中,卡塔尔位列第一。

2018年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值 1883亿美元

人均国内生产总值 6.78万美元

经济增长率2.7%

进出口总额1153亿美元

进口额315亿美元

出口额838亿美元

货币名称:卡塔尔里亚尔(Qatari Rial)

汇率:1美元≈3.64卡塔尔里亚尔

【资 源】主要有石油和天然气。已探明石油储量为28亿吨,居世界第十二位,天然气储量25万亿立方米,居世界第三位。

[Economy] The oil and gas industry is the backbone of the card economy. In recent years, the government has invested heavily in the development of natural gas as the top priority of economic development. Card is the world’s largest producer and exporter of LNG. While vigorously developing the energy industry, the card also launched the “2030 National Vision” plan. The core is to develop the economic diversification and build the card into a sustainable development with strong international competitiveness and national living standards by 2030. High country.

The card became a member of the World Trade Organization in 1995. According to the 2011-2012 Global Competitiveness Report released by the World Economic Forum (WEF), Qatar’s global competitiveness ranks first in the Arab countries and Middle East countries. Qatar ranked first in the list of the world’s richest countries and regions published by Forbes magazine in 2012.

The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:

Gross domestic product of 188.3 billion US dollars

Per capita GDP of $67,800

Economic growth rate of 2.7%

Import and export totaled $115.3 billion

Imports of $31.5 billion

Exports of 83.8 billion US dollars

Currency name: Qatari Rial

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 3.64 Qatari Rial

[Resources] There are mainly oil and natural gas. The proven oil reserves are 2.8 billion tons, ranking 12th in the world, and natural gas reserves are 25 trillion cubic meters, ranking third in the world.

【工 业】主要为石油和天然气部门、相关工业及能源密集型工业,其中包括炼油厂、石化工厂、化肥厂、钢铁厂和水泥厂,同时还建立了一些造纸厂、洗涤剂厂、颜料厂、食品厂和塑料厂等。卡塔尔是中东重要的液化天然气出口国。目前,卡塔尔液化天然气年产能已达8200万吨。

【农牧渔业】卡塔尔全国可耕地面积为2.8万公顷,已耕地7000公顷。农牧产品不能自给,粮食、蔬菜、水果、肉蛋奶等主要依赖进口。只有鱼、虾类海产品产量可基本满足本国需求。

【交通运输】卡塔尔无铁路,各主要城市之间由现代化公路网相连。主要海港有多哈港、乌姆赛义德港和拉斯拉凡港,拉斯拉凡港是世界上最大的处理液化天然气的港口。卡塔尔有5个机场。

【财政金融】卡塔尔有14家商业银行,其中5家为卡资银行,分别为:卡塔尔国家银行、多哈银行、卡塔尔商业银行、卡塔尔国民银行和卡塔尔伊斯兰银行。卡塔尔国家银行吸收了卡近50%的存款,主要经营政府业务。

【对外贸易】2018年卡塔尔对外贸易总额为1153亿美元,其中进口额为315亿美元,出口额为838亿美元。主要出口产品石油、液化气、凝析油合成氨、尿素、乙烯等,主要进口产品是机械和运输设备、食品、工业原材料及轻工产品、药品等。主要贸易伙伴有美国、日本及西欧国家。

【人民生活】全国实行免费医疗。全国有主要医院4所,床位1100多个,另有医疗卫生中心近20个。

【军 事】卡塔尔系海湾阿拉伯国家合作委员会成员国,执行统一的防御政策。实行志愿兵役制。

[Industrial] mainly for the oil and gas sector, related industries and energy-intensive industries, including refineries, petrochemical plants, fertilizer plants, steel plants and cement plants, as well as some paper mills, detergent plants, pigment factories, Food factories and plastic factories, etc. Qatar is an important exporter of LNG in the Middle East. At present, Qatar’s annual production capacity of LNG has reached 82 million tons.

[Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] The total arable land area of ​​Qatar is 28,000 hectares and the cultivated land is 7,000 hectares. Agriculture and animal husbandry products cannot be self-sufficient, and food, vegetables, fruits, meat and eggs, etc. mainly rely on imports. Only fish and shrimp seafood production can basically meet domestic demand.

[Transportation] Qatar has no railways, and all major cities are connected by a modern road network. The main seaports are Doha Port, Umm Syed Port and Ras Laffan Port, the world’s largest port for handling LNG. There are 5 airports in Qatar.

[Financial Finance] Qatar has 14 commercial banks, 5 of which are card-funded banks: Qatar National Bank, Doha Bank, Qatar Commercial Bank, Qatar National Bank and Qatar Islamic Bank. The National Bank of Qatar has absorbed nearly 50% of its deposits, mainly in government operations.

[Foreign Trade] Total foreign trade of Qatar in 2018 was US$115.3 billion, of which US$31.5 billion was imported and US$83.8 billion was exported. The main export products are petroleum, liquefied gas, condensate synthetic ammonia, urea, ethylene, etc. The main imported products are machinery and transportation equipment, food, industrial raw materials, light industrial products, and pharmaceuticals. The main trading partners are the United States, Japan and Western European countries.

[People’s life] Free medical care is implemented nationwide. There are 4 major hospitals in the country, more than 1,100 beds, and nearly 20 medical and health centers.

[Military] Qatar is a member of the Gulf Arab States Cooperation Council and implements a unified defense policy. Implement a voluntary military service system.

【教 育】政府重视发展教育事业,实行免费教育,为成绩优异的学生提供留学深造机会,并发给奖学金。1977年建成的卡塔尔大学是一所配有现代化设备的综合性大学,也是卡塔尔仅有的一所本土大学,下设7个学院,在校学生近8000名。此外,卡塔尔还选派留学生到美国、欧洲及其他阿拉伯国家学习,并与美国合建大学教育城,多所世界名校已在城内设立分校。

【新闻出版】主要阿文报刊:《多哈月刊》,1969年创刊,新闻部发行;《阿拉伯人日报》,1972年创刊,新闻部发行;《旗帜报》,1979年创刊;《时代周刊》1974年创刊;《海湾市场》周刊,1980年创刊;《今日海湾》,1985年创刊;《每周消息》周刊,1986年创刊。此外还有《东方报》、《祖国报》等。英文报刊有《海湾时报》,1978年创刊。卡塔尔通讯社建于1975年,是阿拉伯国家主要通讯社之一。多哈广播电台用阿拉伯语、英语、法语和乌尔都语广播。有6个中波波段、5个调频波段和1个短波波段。“半岛”电视台是1996年卡塔尔埃米尔哈马德斥资1.37亿美元组建的电视台,24小时滚动播出阿拉伯语新闻节目,2006年半岛电视台英语频道开播。

【对外关系】奉行积极务实的外交政策。卡塔尔是联合国、伊斯兰合作组织、阿拉伯国家联盟和海湾阿拉伯国家合作委员会成员国。世界天然气出口国论坛成员及论坛总部所在地,2022年世界杯足球赛承办国。迄今已同100多个国家建立外交关系。

2017年6月5日,沙特、埃及、阿联酋、巴林四国以支持恐怖主义、干涉内政为由,宣布同卡塔尔断交,并中止同卡的人员、交通往来。

[Education] The government attaches great importance to the development of education, implements free education, provides opportunities for outstanding students to study abroad, and issues scholarships. The University of Qatar, built in 1977, is a comprehensive university with modern equipment. It is also the only local university in Qatar. It has 7 colleges and nearly 8,000 students. In addition, Qatar also sent international students to study in the United States, Europe and other Arab countries, and jointly established a university education city with the United States, many world-renowned schools have set up branches in the city.

[Press and Publication] The main Arabic newspaper: Doha Monthly, published in 1969, issued by the Ministry of Information; Arab Daily, published in 1972, issued by the Ministry of Information; “The Flag”, started in 1979; Time Magazine 1974 The founding of the year; “Bay Market” weekly magazine, published in 1980; “Today’s Gulf”, started in 1985; “Weekly News” weekly magazine, started in 1986. In addition, there are “Oriental Newspaper” and “The Motherland Newspaper”. The English newspaper has the Gulf Times and was founded in 1978. The Qatar News Agency was established in 1975 and is one of the leading news agencies in the Arab countries. Doha Radio is broadcast in Arabic, English, French and Urdu. There are 6 medium wave bands, 5 frequency bands and 1 short wave band. The “Peninsula” TV station was a television station set up by the Emir Hamad in Qatar in 1996 with a total investment of 137 million U.S. dollars. The Arabic news program was broadcasted 24 hours a day. In 2006, the Al Jazeera English Channel was launched.

[External Relations] Pursue an active and pragmatic foreign policy. Qatar is a member of the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the League of Arab States and the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. Member of the World Natural Gas Exporting Countries Forum and the headquarters of the Forum, the host country of the 2022 World Cup. To date, diplomatic relations have been established with more than 100 countries.

On June 5, 2017, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE and Bahrain announced the suspension of diplomatic relations with Qatar on the grounds of supporting terrorism and interfering in internal affairs, and suspended the personnel and traffic between the same card.