the State of Palestine 巴勒斯坦国

【国 名】巴勒斯坦国(the State of Palestine)。

【面 积】根据1947年11月联合国关于巴勒斯坦分治的第181号决议,在巴勒斯坦地区建立的阿拉伯国面积为1.15万平方公里。但由于当时阿拉伯国家反对该决议,阿拉伯国未能建立。1948年第一次中东战争期间,以色列占领了181号决议规定的大部分阿拉伯国领土。1967年第三次中东战争期间,以色列占领了该决议规定的全部阿国领土。1988年11月,巴勒斯坦全国委员会第19次特别会议宣告成立巴勒斯坦国,但未确定其疆界。马德里和会后,巴方通过与以色列和谈,陆续收回了约2500平方公里的土地。

【人 口】约1270万人,其中加沙地带和约旦河西岸人口为488万(2017年7月),其余为在外的难民和侨民。通用阿拉伯语,主要信仰伊斯兰教。

【首 都】1988年11月,巴勒斯坦全国委员会第19次特别会议通过《独立宣言》,宣布耶路撒冷为巴勒斯坦国首都。目前巴勒斯坦总统府等政府主要部门均设在拉马拉。

【国家元首】总统马哈茂德·阿巴斯(Mahmoud Abbas),2008年11月23日当选。

【重要节日】宣布建国日:11月15日。

【地 理】位于亚洲西部。约旦河西岸东邻约旦,面积5884平方公里。加沙地带西濒地中海,面积365平方公里。

【气 候】亚热带地中海型气候。夏季炎热干燥,最热月份为7-8月,气温最高达38℃左右。冬季微冷湿润多雨,平均气温为4-11℃,最冷月份为1月。雨季为12月至次年3月。

[State name] The State of Palestine.

[Aspect] According to Resolution 181 of the United Nations on the partition of Palestine in November 1947, the Arab region established in the Palestinian territories has an area of ​​11,500 square kilometers. However, because the Arab countries opposed the resolution at the time, the Arab countries failed to establish. During the first Middle East war in 1948, Israel occupied most of the Arab territories under resolution 181. During the third Middle East war in 1967, Israel occupied all the territory of the country as defined in the resolution. In November 1988, the 19th special meeting of the Palestinian National Council announced the establishment of a Palestinian state, but its borders were not established. After the Madrid meeting, the Palestinians successively recovered about 2,500 square kilometers of land through peace talks with Israel.

[People] About 12.7 million people, including the population of the West Bank of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank of 4.88 million (July 2017), and the rest are refugees and expatriates. General Arabic, mainly believe in Islam.

[Capital] In November 1988, the 19th special meeting of the Palestinian National Committee adopted the Declaration of Independence, announcing Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine. At present, the main government departments such as the Palestinian Presidential Palace are located in Ramallah.

[Head of State] President Mahmoud Abbas was elected on November 23, 2008.

[Important Festival] Announced the founding of the country: November 15th.

[Region] is located in western Asia. The west side of the Jordan River is adjacent to Jordan and covers an area of ​​5,884 square kilometers. The western part of the Gaza Strip is Mediterranean, covering an area of ​​365 square kilometers.

[Weather] Subtropical Mediterranean climate. The summer is hot and dry, the hottest months are from July to August, and the temperature is up to 38 °C. The winter is slightly cold and humid, with an average temperature of 4-11 ° C and the coldest month of January. The rainy season is from December to March.

【简 史】巴勒斯坦古称迦南,包括现在的以色列、约旦、加沙和约旦河西岸。历史上,犹太人和阿拉伯人都曾在此居住。公元前1000年左右,犹太人在巴勒斯坦地区建立以色列国,后被亚述、巴比伦、波斯、古希腊、罗马帝国征服。公元70年左右,犹太人爆发太规模起义反抗罗马人的暴行,遭到罗马军队残酷镇压,被赶出巴勒斯坦,流落世界各地。公元7世纪,阿拉伯人战胜东罗马帝国,占领巴勒斯坦。16世纪起,巴勒斯坦成为奥斯曼帝国的一部分。第一次世界大战后沦为英国的委任统治地。英国占领巴勒斯坦后,将其分为两部分:约旦河以东称外约旦,即现今的约旦哈希姆王国;约旦河以西称巴勒斯坦,包括现今的以色列、加沙和约旦河西岸。

1947年11月29日,联大通过第181号决议,规定在巴勒斯坦建立阿拉伯国和犹太国。犹太人同意该决议,并于1948年5月14日宣布建立以色列国。阿拉伯国家反对和拒绝该决议,于以建国次日向以宣战。至停战时,以占领了181号决议规定的大部分阿拉伯国领土;约旦占领了约旦河西岸4800平方公里土地;埃及占领了加沙地带258平方公里土地。1967年6月5日,第三次中东战争爆发,以色列在战争中占领了约旦河西岸和加沙地带,即整个巴勒斯坦。

1988年11月15日在阿尔及尔举行的巴勒斯坦全国委员会第19次特别会议通过《独立宣言》,宣布接受联合国第181号决议,建立以耶路撒冷为首都的巴勒斯坦国。1994年5月,根据巴以达成的协议,巴方在加沙、杰里科实行有限自治。1995年以后,根据巴以签署的各项协议,巴自治区逐渐扩大,目前巴方控制着包括加沙和约旦河西岸的约2500平方公里的土地。

【政 治】1994年5月12日,巴勒斯坦民族权力机构成立,阿拉法特当选为主席。2004年11月,阿拉法特病逝。阿巴斯接任巴解执委会主席。2005年1月9日,阿巴斯当选新一任民族权力机构主席。

2006年1月,巴举行第二届立法委员会选举,巴勒斯坦伊斯兰抵抗运动(哈马斯)获胜。阿巴斯任命哈马斯领导人哈尼亚为总理,组成以哈马斯为主的新政府。

2007年3月17日,哈马斯和巴勒斯坦民族解放运动(法塔赫)等组成民族联合政府,哈尼亚继续担任总理。6月,哈马斯和法塔赫爆发严重冲突,哈马斯实际控制了加沙。阿巴斯宣布解散民族联合政府、实施紧急状态、成立紧急政府。7月14日,阿巴斯任命紧急政府成员组成过渡政府,法耶兹为总理。

2011年5月,经埃及斡旋,以法塔赫和哈马斯为首的巴勒斯坦13个政治派别在开罗签署和解协议。2012年2月,法塔赫和哈马斯签署《多哈宣言》,同意组建以阿巴斯为总理的联合过渡政府,但此后和解进程进展缓慢。2013年1月,法塔赫主席阿巴斯与哈马斯政治局主席马沙勒在开罗会晤,决定推动落实2011年5月达成的“开罗协议”。5月,法塔赫与哈马斯同意在8月14日前组建联合政府,以筹备大选。6月,阿巴斯任命“成功大学”校长哈姆迪拉为新的过渡政府总理,哈马斯表示反对。7月初埃及局势剧变后,哈马斯处境日益艰难,巴勒斯坦内部和解进程基本停滞。2014年4月,巴内部加快和解。6月初,法塔赫和哈马斯经协商组建过渡性质的民族共识政府,并决定半年内举行总统和立法委员会选举。在2014年夏天以色列和哈马斯爆发加沙冲突后,巴内部和解延滞,哈马斯宣布退出民族共识政府。2017年10月12日,法塔赫同哈马斯在埃及开罗签署和解协议。随后,巴民族共识政府在加沙履职并接管加沙口岸。11月22日,巴各派别在开罗举行会谈并发表联合声明,一致同意于2018年年底前举行总统大选和议会选举。2018年3月13日,巴总理哈姆迪拉车队在加沙地带遭遇路边炸弹袭击。巴总统府、总理府表示,哈马斯作为加沙实际控制方应对袭击事件负责。2018年12月22日,阿巴斯宣布根据巴最高宪法法院决定,解散立法委员会,并呼吁在6个月内举行立法委员会选举。哈马斯认为解散决定无效。

[History] Palestine was called Canaan in ancient times, including the present Israel, Jordan, Gaza, and the West Bank. Historically, Jews and Arabs have lived here. Around 1000 BC, Jews established the State of Israel in the Palestinian territories and were later conquered by Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Ancient Greece, and the Roman Empire. Around 70 AD, the Jews broke out against the Romans’ atrocities on a large scale, and were brutally suppressed by the Roman army. They were driven out of Palestine and flowed around the world. In the 7th century, the Arabs defeated the Eastern Roman Empire and occupied Palestine. Since the 16th century, Palestine has become part of the Ottoman Empire. After the First World War, it became the appointed place of the British. After the British occupation of Palestine, it was divided into two parts: the Jordan River to the east called the outer Jordan, the current Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan; the west of the Jordan River called Palestine, including the present-day Israel, Gaza and the West Bank.

On November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly passed Resolution No. 181, which stipulated the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in Palestine. The Jews agreed to the resolution and announced the establishment of the State of Israel on May 14, 1948. The Arab countries opposed and rejected the resolution and declared war on the next day after the founding of the People’s Republic of China. By the time of the truce, most of the Arab territories occupied by Resolution 181 were occupied; Jordan occupied 4,800 square kilometres of land in the West Bank; Egypt occupied 258 square kilometres of land in the Gaza Strip. On June 5, 1967, the third Middle East war broke out. Israel occupied the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in the war, that is, the entire Palestine.

The 19th special session of the Palestinian National Committee, held in Algiers on 15 November 1988, adopted the Declaration of Independence, announcing the acceptance of United Nations Resolution 181 and the establishment of a Palestinian State with Jerusalem as its capital. In May 1994, according to the agreement reached between Palestine and Israel, the Palestinians implemented limited autonomy in Gaza and Jericho. After 1995, according to various agreements signed by Palestine and Israel, the Palestinian autonomous region gradually expanded. Currently, the Palestinian side controls about 2,500 square kilometers of land including Gaza and the West Bank.

[Politics] On May 12, 1994, the Palestinian National Authority was established and Arafat was elected as the chairman. In November 2004, Arafat died of illness. Abbas took over as chairman of the PLO Executive Committee. On January 9, 2005, Abbas was elected as the new chairman of the National Authority.

In January 2006, Pakistan held the second legislative committee election and the Palestinian Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) won. Abbas appointed Hamas leader Hania as prime minister to form a new Hamas-based government.

On March 17, 2007, Hamas and the Palestinian National Liberation Movement (Fatah) formed a national coalition government, and Chania continued to serve as prime minister. In June, Hamas and Fatah broke out in serious conflict, and Hamas actually controlled Gaza. Abbas announced the dissolution of the national coalition government, the implementation of a state of emergency, and the establishment of an emergency government. On July 14, Abbas appointed emergency government members to form a transitional government and Fayyad as prime minister.

In May 2011, through the mediation of Egypt, 13 political factions led by Fatah and Hamas signed a settlement agreement in Cairo. In February 2012, Fatah and Hamas signed the Doha Declaration and agreed to form a joint transitional government with Abbas as Prime Minister, but the reconciliation process has been slow since then. In January 2013, Fatah President Abbas and Hamas Politburo President Marshal met in Cairo and decided to promote the implementation of the Cairo Agreement reached in May 2011. In May, Fatah and Hamas agreed to form a coalition government by August 14th in preparation for the general election. In June, Abbas appointed Hamadila, the president of the “Successful University”, as the new Prime Minister of the Transitional Government. Hamas expressed opposition. After the dramatic changes in the situation in Egypt in early July, Hamas was in an increasingly difficult situation and the internal reconciliation process in Palestine was basically stagnant. In April 2014, Pakistan internally accelerated reconciliation. In early June, Fatah and Hamas negotiated the formation of a transitional national consensus government and decided to hold presidential and legislative committee elections within six months. After the outbreak of the Gaza conflict between Israel and Hamas in the summer of 2014, Pakistan’s internal reconciliation was delayed and Hamas announced its withdrawal from the national consensus government. On October 12, 2017, Fatah signed a settlement agreement with Hamas in Cairo, Egypt. Subsequently, the Palestinian National Consensus Government performed its duties in Gaza and took over the Gaza Port. On November 22nd, the Pakistani factions held talks in Cairo and issued a joint statement, unanimously agreeing to hold presidential and parliamentary elections by the end of 2018. On March 13, 2018, the Pakistani Prime Minister Hamdila team was hit by a roadside bomb in the Gaza Strip. The Presidential Palace and the Prime Minister’s Office stated that Hamas is responsible for the attack as the actual control party of Gaza. On December 22, 2018, Abbas announced the dissolution of the Legislative Council in accordance with the decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Pakistan and called for the holding of a legislative committee election within six months. Hamas believes that the dissolution decision is invalid.

【巴勒斯坦解放组织(Palestine Liberation Organization)】:简称巴解(PLO)。1964年5月在耶路撒冷成立。1974年10月在第7次阿拉伯首脑会议上被确认为巴人民的唯一合法代表。同年11月,被邀请以观察员身份参加联合国会议。1976年8月被接纳为不结盟运动正式成员,同年9月,被接纳为阿拉伯国家联盟正式成员。巴解曾以黎巴嫩、约旦为基地在被占领土开展武装斗争。

【巴勒斯坦全国委员会(Palestine National Council)】:巴勒斯坦解放组织的最高权力机构,代表巴境内、外的全体巴勒斯坦人。有委员669人,分别为巴勒斯坦各抵抗组织及其他群众组织代表,现任主席萨利姆·扎农(Saleem Al-Zanoon)。2018年4月30日至5月4日,第23届全国委员会会议举行。

【巴勒斯坦解放组织执行委员会(The Executive Committee of PLO)】:巴解组织的常设领导机构。本届执行委员会是于1996年4月经巴勒斯坦全国委员会第21次会议选举产生。1969年以来,执行委员会主席一直由阿拉法特担任。2004年11月阿拉法特去世后,阿巴斯继任主席。2018年5月4日,阿巴斯在第23届全国委员会会议上连任巴解执委会主席。

【巴勒斯坦解放组织中央委员会(Central Committee of PLO)】:巴解中央委员会是巴全委会与巴执委会之间的一个监督机构,负责监督执委会执行巴全委会的决议和巴解的方针政策。由全国委员会选举产生,共有100多名成员,在全委会闭会期间,由中央委员会指导巴解工作。1970年起,阿拉法特一直担任中委会主席。阿拉法特去世后,阿巴斯继任主席。

【巴勒斯坦立法委员会(Palestinian Legislative Council)】:立法机关。本届立法会于2006年选举产生,共有132个议席,其中哈马斯获74席,为立法会内第一大党派。现任主席为阿齐兹·杜维克(Aziz Duwaik,属哈马斯)。2018年12月22日,巴最高宪法法院决定解散巴立法委员会,并呼吁在6个月内举行立法委员会选举。哈马斯认为解散决定无效。

【政 府】1994年5月根据巴解组织决议成立巴勒斯坦民族权力机构(Palestine National Authority),作为阶段性、过渡性的权力机构。2007年6月,哈马斯和法塔赫爆发冲突后,巴民族权力机构主席阿巴斯任命前财政部长萨拉姆·法耶兹(Salam Fayyad)组建过渡政府。2012年5月,过渡政府进行第三次重组。2013年1月,阿巴斯签署命令,要求将法规、公文、证件等使用的“巴勒斯坦民族权力机构”称谓统一改为“巴勒斯坦国”。4月,法耶兹辞职。6月,阿巴斯任命哈姆迪拉为新的过渡政府总理,但哈姆迪拉不久即辞职。9月,阿巴斯再次任命哈姆迪拉为总理。2014年6月,巴民族共识政府成立后,哈姆迪拉留任。2019年1月29日,哈姆迪拉率政府总辞,阿巴斯接受辞呈。3月10日,阿巴斯责成法塔赫中央委员会委员阿什提耶以巴解组织成员为骨干组建新政府。4月14日,第18届政府宣誓就职,阿什提耶任总理。

【行政区划】巴勒斯坦分为约旦河西岸和加沙地带两部分。根据巴计划与国际合作部1997年10月绘制的地图,约旦河西岸分为8个省,加沙地带分为5个省。

[Palestine Liberation Organization]: referred to as PLO. Established in Jerusalem in May 1964. It was recognized as the sole legal representative of the Palestinian people at the 7th Arab Summit in October 1974. In November of the same year, he was invited to participate in the UN meeting as an observer. In August 1976, he was accepted as a full member of the Non-Aligned Movement. In September of the same year, he was accepted as a full member of the League of Arab States. PLO has carried out armed struggles in the occupied territories based on Lebanon and Jordan.

[Palestine National Council]: The highest authority of the Palestine Liberation Organization, representing all Palestinians inside and outside Pakistan. There are 669 members, representatives of Palestinian resistance organizations and other mass organizations, and current president Saleem Al-Zanoon. From April 30 to May 4, 2018, the 23rd National Committee Meeting was held.

[The Executive Committee of PLO]: The permanent leadership of the PLO. The current Executive Committee was elected in April 1996 at the 21st meeting of the Palestinian National Council. Since 1969, the Chairman of the Executive Committee has been served by Arafat. After the death of Arafat in November 2004, Abbas succeeded as chairman. On May 4, 2018, Abbas was re-elected as Chairman of the PLO Executive Committee at the 23rd National Committee Meeting.

[Central Committee of PLO]: The Central Committee of the PLO is a supervisory body between the Pakistani National Committee and the Pakistani Executive Committee. It is responsible for supervising the implementation of the resolutions and the PLO of the Executive Committee. Policy. Elected by the National Committee, there are more than 100 members. During the intersessional period, the Central Committee will guide the PLO. Since 1970, Arafat has served as the chairman of the Central Committee. After Arafat’s death, Abbas succeeded as chairman.

[Palestinian Legislative Council]: Legislature. The current Legislative Council was elected in 2006 with a total of 132 seats, of which Hamas won 74 seats and is the largest party in the Legislative Council. The current chairman is Aziz Duwaik (Hamas). On December 22, 2018, the Supreme Constitutional Court of Pakistan decided to dissolve the Legislative Council of Pakistan and called for the holding of a legislative committee election within six months. Hamas believes that the dissolution decision is invalid.

[Government] In May 1994, the Palestine National Authority was established as a phased and transitional authority in accordance with the resolution of the PLO. In June 2007, after the outbreak of conflict between Hamas and Fatah, Palestinian National Authority Chairman Abbas appointed former finance minister Salam Fayyad to form a transitional government. In May 2012, the Transitional Government reorganized for the third time. In January 2013, Abbas signed an order to change the title of “Palestine National Authority” used in regulations, official documents and documents to the “State of Palestine”. In April, Fayyad resigned. In June, Abbas appointed Hamdila as the new Prime Minister of the Transitional Government, but Hamdila soon resigned. In September, Abbas re-appointed Hamdila as prime minister. In June 2014, after the establishment of the Palestinian National Consensus Government, Hamdila remained. On January 29, 2019, Hamdila led the government’s general remarks and Abbas accepted his resignation. On March 10th, Abbas ordered the Fatah Central Committee member Ashtiye to form a new government with the members of the PLO as the backbone. On April 14, the 18th government was sworn in and Ashtie was prime minister.

[Administrative Division] Palestine is divided into two parts, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. According to the map drawn by the Pakistan Plan and the Ministry of International Cooperation in October 1997, the West Bank of the Jordan River is divided into eight provinces, and the Gaza Strip is divided into five provinces.

【主要政治派别】

(1)巴勒斯坦民族解放运动(Palestinian National Liberation Movement):简称“法塔赫”(Fatah)。20世纪50年代末期,由巴勒斯坦爱国青年逐步组建,1969年以后成为巴解主流派,得到阿拉伯国家的广泛承认与支持。“法塔赫”的常设领导机构是中央委员会,下设革命委员会,均由“法塔赫”代表大会选举产生。阿拉法特去世后,卡杜米(Farouk Al-Kaddoumi)继任中央委员会主席。2006年11月,法塔赫革委会推选阿巴斯为最高领导人。2009年8月法塔赫举行第六次代表大会,选举产生新一届中央委员会和革命委员会,阿巴斯当选中央委员会主席。2016年12月法塔赫举行第七次代表大会,阿巴斯当选中央委员会主席。

(2)伊斯兰抵抗运动(Islamic Resistance Movement):简称“哈马斯”(Hamas),由“伊斯兰”、“抵抗”和“运动”三个阿拉伯词语缩写组成。由亚辛教长于1987年创建,其前身为“伊斯兰联合会”,在伊朗、叙利亚、黎巴嫩等国设有分支。哈马斯宣称《古兰经》是宪法,强调“圣战”是实现其目标的唯一手段;强烈反对中东和平进程,主张消灭以色列,解放巴全部被占领土。目前哈马斯实际控制加沙地带。2017年5月,原政治局副主席、加沙地区领导人哈尼亚当选成为哈马斯新任领导人。2017年5月,哈马斯公布新政策文件,在组织属性、领土主张等方面立场均有所调整,并首次公开表示愿加入巴解组织,积极谋求在巴政坛合法地位。

(3)解放巴勒斯坦人民阵线(Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine):简称“人阵”(Popular Front)。1967年12月由巴勒斯坦解放阵线、“复仇青年”、“归国英雄”等组织合并而成,是巴解中第二大组织。政治观点偏左,反对巴以“奥斯陆协议”。“人阵”领导机构为中央委员会。现任总书记为艾哈迈德·萨阿达特(Ahmed Sa’adat)。

(4)解放巴勒斯坦民主阵线(Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine):简称“民阵”(Democratic Front)。1969年从“人阵”中分裂出来,是巴解中第三大组织。政治观点偏左,反对巴以“奥斯陆协议”。现任总书记为纳耶夫· 哈瓦特迈赫(Nayef Hawatmeh)。

(5)巴勒斯坦解放阵线(Palestine Liberation Front):简称“巴解阵”。1976年由“人阵(总部)”分出,1977年4月正式成立。1983年又分为两派。2003年,该党总书记穆罕默德·阿巴斯(Mohammed Abbas)在伊拉克战争中被美军俘虏。2004年初,阿死于美战俘营。现任总书记是瓦希尔·阿布·尤素福(Wasel Abu-Yousef)。

(6)伊斯兰圣战组织(Islamic Jihad):简称“杰哈德”(Jihad)。20世纪80年代后期由穆斯林兄弟会中的激进派发展起来,其宗旨是通过圣战反对以色列对巴勒斯坦领土的占领,解放巴勒斯坦,建立独立的巴勒斯坦伊斯兰共和国。总书记拉马丹·阿卜杜拉·沙拉赫(Ramadan Abdullah Shalah)。

【重要人物】马哈茂德·阿巴斯(Mahmoud Abbas):巴勒斯坦国总统、巴解组织执委会主席。1935年生于巴勒斯坦北部萨法德,曾获莫斯科大学历史学博士学位。1959年起协助阿拉法特筹建巴解主流派“法塔赫”。90年代初,曾作为巴方首席谈判代表出席马德里中东和会,主持巴以奥斯陆谈判并代表巴方签署“奥斯陆协议”。1995年当选巴解组织执委会总书记。2003年4月至9月出任巴勒斯坦自治政府首任总理。2004年11月阿拉法特逝世后,继任巴解组织执委会主席。2005年1月,当选巴勒斯坦民族权力机构主席。2006年11月,法塔赫革委会推选阿巴斯为最高领导人。2008年11月,巴解组织中央委员会选举阿巴斯为巴勒斯坦国总统。2009年8月当选法塔赫中央委员会主席。已婚,有三个子女。

[main political faction]

(1) The Palestinian National Liberation Movement: “Fatah”. In the late 1950s, the Palestinian patriotic youth gradually formed, and after 1969 became the mainstream of the PLO, which was widely recognized and supported by the Arab countries. The permanent leadership of Fatah is the Central Committee, which houses the Revolutionary Committee, which is elected by the “Fatah” Congress. After Arafat’s death, Farouk Al-Kaddoumi succeeded the chairman of the Central Committee. In November 2006, the Fatah Revolutionary Committee elected Abbas as the top leader. In August 2009, Fatah held its sixth congress, elected a new Central Committee and Revolutionary Committee, and Abbas was elected as Chairman of the Central Committee. In December 2016, Fatah held its seventh congress and Abbas was elected chairman of the Central Committee.

(2) Islamic Resistance Movement: referred to as “Hamas”, consisting of three Arabic acronyms: “Islam”, “Resistance” and “Sports”. Founded in 1987 by Yassin, the predecessor was the “Islamic Federation” and has branches in Iran, Syria, and Lebanon. Hamas declares that the Qur’an is a constitution, emphasizing that “jihad” is the only means to achieve its goals; it strongly opposes the Middle East peace process and advocates the elimination of Israel and the liberation of all occupied territories. Currently Hamas actually controls the Gaza Strip. In May 2017, the former vice chairman of the Politburo and leader of the Gaza region, Chania, was elected as the new leader of Hamas. In May 2017, Hamas announced new policy documents, adjusted its position in terms of organizational attributes and territorial claims, and publicly expressed its willingness to join the PLO for the first time and actively seek legal status in the Pakistani political arena.

(3) Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine: referred to as the “Popular Front”. In December 1967, it was formed by the merger of the Palestine Liberation Front, the “Revenge Youth” and the “Returning Heroes”. It is the second largest organization in the PLO. The political view is on the left and against the Palestinian-Israeli “Oslo Accord.” The leader of the “People’s Front” is the Central Committee. The current general secretary is Ahmed Sa’adat.

(4) The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine: “Democratic Front”. Split from the “People’s Matrix” in 1969, is the third largest organization in the PLO. The political view is on the left and against the Palestinian-Israeli “Oslo Accord.” The current general secretary is Nayef Hawatmeh.

(5) Palestine Liberation Front (Palestine Liberation Front): It was separated by the “People’s Array (Headquarters)” in 1976 and was formally established in April 1977. In 1983, it was divided into two factions. In 2003, the party’s general secretary, Mohammed Abbas, was captured by the US military during the Iraq war. At the beginning of 2004, Ah died in the US prison camp. The current general secretary is Wasel Abu-Yousef.

(6) Islamic Jihad: referred to as “Jihad”. Developed by radicals in the Muslim Brotherhood in the late 1980s, its purpose was to oppose Israel’s occupation of the Palestinian territories through jihad, liberate Palestine, and establish an independent Palestinian Islamic Republic. General Secretary Ramadan Abdullah Shalah.

[Important] Mahmoud Abbas: President of the State of Palestine and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the PLO. Born in 1935 in Safad, northern Palestine, he received a doctorate in history from Moscow State University. Since 1959, he has assisted Arafat in the preparation of the “Fatah” mainstream of the Palestinians. In the early 1990s, he served as the chief negotiator of the Palestinian side at the Madrid Middle East Conference, presided over the Palestinian-Israeli negotiations and signed the “Oslo Accord” on behalf of the Palestinian side. In 1995, he was elected General Secretary of the PLO Executive Committee. From April to September 2003, he became the first prime minister of the Palestinian self-government government. After the death of Arafat in November 2004, he succeeded the chairman of the PLO Executive Committee. In January 2005, he was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority. In November 2006, the Fatah Revolutionary Committee elected Abbas as the top leader. In November 2008, the Central Committee of the PLO elected Abbas as the President of the State of Palestine. In August 2009, he was elected chairman of the Fatah Central Committee. Married with three children.

【经 济】以农业为主,其他有手工业、建筑业、加工业、服务业等。巴经济严重依赖以色列,据巴官方统计,巴约旦河西岸地区以及加沙地带每年消费约40亿美元的以色列产品,巴约有70%的商品和80%的服务来自以,以方代收巴税款。巴以对峙对巴经济发展形成严重制约。2010年底世界银行报告认为,巴勒斯坦经济已经达到建立独立国家的水平。近两年以来,由于外部财政援助未能及时到位、以色列持续对巴封锁等原因,巴勒斯坦出现严重财政困难。

2017年主要经济数字:

国内生产总值(GDP)136.86亿美元

国内生产总值增长率3.1%

人均国内生产总值约3072.4美元

通货膨胀率0.21%

失业率28.1%

【工 业】巴工业水平很低,规模较小,主要是加工业,如塑料、橡胶、化工、食品、石材、制药、造纸、印刷、建筑、纺织、制衣、家具等。

【农 业】四季分明,农产品丰富,农业是巴经济支柱。13.4%的人口从事农业生产。水果、蔬菜和橄榄(油)是外贸出口的重要部分,占出口产品的25%。可耕地面积为16.6万公顷。

【旅 游】旅游业是重要经济支柱。巴气候宜人,有大量的历史文化古迹,旅游资源丰富。

【交通运输】公路:有各类公路5146.9公里。2000年以后,由于巴以爆发冲突,巴交通建设陷入停滞。2009年后,道路等基础设施建设有所恢复并得到一定发展。

航空:1996年组建民航机构,1998年11月加沙国际机场投入使用,开通至埃及和约旦的航线,总投资2.5亿美元。2000年9月巴以爆发冲突后,以军摧毁并关闭加沙机场。巴勒斯坦航空公司属巴民族权力机构所有,总部设在埃及阿里什,现有2架支线客机。

【财政金融】巴勒斯坦货币管理局(Palestine Monetary Authority,PMA)于1994年底成立。巴勒斯坦至今未发行本国货币,当地使用以色列货币新谢克尔(NIS)。

【国际社会对巴经济援助】国际援助是巴民族权力机构的主要收入来源之一。联合国近东巴勒斯坦难民救济和工程处(UNRWA)是最主要的国际对巴援助机构。美国和欧盟是最大的援助方。UNRWA平均每年总支出约12至13亿美元。美国于2018年初宣布切断对巴方的援助,UNRWA面临巨大财政困难。

【军 事】根据奥斯陆协议,巴自治政府可建立警察部队以保证约旦河西岸和加沙地带的公共秩序和内部安全。目前警察部队约有6万人。

【教 育】受巴以冲突影响,巴教育状况总体落后,巴目前文盲率为12.8%。主要大学有比尔宰特大学、成功大学、圣城大学、伯利恒大学等。

【新闻出版】主要报刊有《耶路撒冷报》(Al-Quds)、《日子报》(Al-Ayyam)、《新生活报》(Al-Hayat Al-Jadida)等。官方广播电台为“巴勒斯坦之声”,官方电视台为“巴勒斯坦电视台”,均从属于“巴勒斯坦广播公司”。

[Economy] is mainly based on agriculture, and other industries include handicrafts, construction, processing, and services. Pakistan’s economy is heavily dependent on Israel. According to Pakistan’s official statistics, the West Bank of the Jordan River and the Gaza Strip consume about 4 billion U.S. dollars of Israeli products each year. Pakistan’s 70% of its products and 80% of its services come from Israel. paragraph. The Palestinian-Israeli confrontation has severely constrained the economic development of Pakistan. The World Bank report at the end of 2010 concluded that the Palestinian economy has reached the level of establishing an independent state. In the past two years, due to the failure of timely external financial assistance and Israel’s continued blockade against Pakistan, Palestine has experienced serious financial difficulties.

Major economic figures for 2017:

Gross domestic product (GDP) of 13.686 billion US dollars

GDP growth rate of 3.1%

Per capita GDP is about 3072.4 US dollars

Inflation rate 0.21%

Unemployment rate 28.1%

[Industrial] Pakistan’s industrial level is very low, and its scale is small, mainly in processing industries such as plastics, rubber, chemicals, food, stone, pharmaceutical, paper, printing, construction, textiles, clothing, and furniture.

[Agriculture] The four seasons are distinct and the agricultural products are abundant. Agriculture is the pillar of the Pakistani economy. 13.4% of the population is engaged in agricultural production. Fruits, vegetables and olives (oil) are an important part of foreign trade exports, accounting for 25% of export products. The arable land area is 166,000 hectares.

[Travel] Tourism is an important economic pillar. The climate is pleasant, with a large number of historical and cultural monuments and rich tourism resources.

[Transportation] Highway: There are 5146.9 kilometers of various types of highways. After 2000, due to the outbreak of conflict between Palestine and Israel, Pakistan’s traffic construction has stagnated. After 2009, infrastructure construction such as roads has been restored and has been developed.

Aviation: Established a civil aviation organization in 1996. It was put into use in Gaza International Airport in November 1998 and opened flights to Egypt and Jordan with a total investment of 250 million US dollars. After the outbreak of the conflict between Palestine and Israel in September 2000, the Israeli army destroyed and closed Gaza airport. The Palestinian Airways is owned by the Palestinian National Authority and is headquartered in Arish, Egypt. It has two regional airliners.

[Financial Finance] The Palestine Monetary Authority (PMA) was established at the end of 1994. Palestine has not yet issued its own currency, and the local currency uses the Israeli currency New Shekel (NIS).

[International Economic Assistance to Pakistan] International aid is one of the main sources of income for the Palestinian National Authority. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is the leading international aid agency for Pakistan. The United States and the European Union are the biggest aid donors. UNRWA’s average annual total expenditure is about $1.2 to $1.3 billion. The United States announced in early 2018 that it would cut off its assistance to the Palestinians. UNRWA faces enormous financial difficulties.

[Military] According to the Oslo Accord, the Palestinian self-government government can establish police forces to ensure public order and internal security in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. There are currently about 60,000 police forces.

[Education] Affected by the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the education situation in Pakistan is generally backward. The current illiteracy rate of Pakistan is 12.8%. The main universities include Birzeit University, Success University, Al-Quds University, and Bethlehem University.

[Press and Publication] The main newspapers include “Al-Quds”, “Al-Ayyam” and “Al-Hayat Al-Jadida”. The official radio station is “The Voice of Palestine” and the official television station is “Palestine Television”, all of which are subordinate to the “Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation”.

【对外关系】巴解组织成立后,得到阿拉伯国家和世界许多国家的广泛支持。1974年10月在拉巴特举行的第七届阿盟首脑会议决议承认巴解为巴人民的唯一合法代表。同年11月巴解以观察员身份参加联大会议和工作。1976年8月第五届不结盟国家会议接纳巴解为正式成员,同年9月阿盟接纳其为正式成员。1988年11月15日巴勒斯坦国宣告成立,现已得到138个国家的正式承认。1988年12月15日,巴勒斯坦成为联合国观察员实体。2011年9月,巴勒斯坦申请成为联合国正式会员国,但未获通过。10月,巴勒斯坦成为联合国教科文组织正式会员国。2012年11月29日,第67届联合国大会通过决议,正式授予巴勒斯坦联合国观察员国地位。

与埃及的关系:埃及是最早支持巴解组织的阿拉伯国家之一,曾是巴解组织开展政治活动的主要基地。埃、以签订戴维营协议后,巴解中断同埃的关系。1987年11月,埃宣布重新开放巴解组织驻开罗办事处。海湾战争后,由于双方立场不同,关系冷淡。此后,随着中东和平进程的推进,双方关系实现正常化。阿巴斯当选巴民族权力机构主席后,曾多次访埃。近年来,埃及在巴以停火、换俘、巴内部和解等问题上积极斡旋。2011年,经埃及斡旋,巴各派于5月初在开罗签署和解协议。10月,埃方促成哈马斯同以色列成功换俘。2012年11月加沙冲突爆发后,埃及明确支持巴方,同时积极展开斡旋,推动实现停火。2013年1月,在埃及斡旋下,法塔赫和哈马斯领导人在开罗就民族和解事宜举行会晤。7月底埃及局势剧变后,埃及与哈马斯关系急剧恶化,埃及军方加强对西奈半岛与加沙地带接壤地区的管控,缩短拉法口岸开放时间,并摧毁了加沙通往西奈的大部分地道。2014年3月,埃方决定禁止哈马斯在埃一切活动,哈马斯对此表示谴责。2015年初,埃法院裁决哈马斯为恐怖组织。6月,埃及紧急事务上诉法院以缺乏司法权为由,撤销先前将哈马斯列为恐怖组织的裁定。2017年3月,阿巴斯访问埃及,同塞西总统举行会谈。2017年12月,阿巴斯访问埃及,同塞西总统就美涉耶城决定协调立场。2018年11月,阿巴斯赴沙姆沙伊赫出席世界青年论坛,与埃总统塞西举行会谈,就巴以问题及巴内部和解等交换意见。埃方还先后接待哈马斯和法塔赫代表团访埃,努力调解双方矛盾。

与叙利亚的关系:叙曾是巴游击队的重要基地和后方。巴一些重要组织的总部设在大马士革。哈马斯领导人马沙勒也在叙定居。1983年后,因对解决中东问题的政治主张存在分歧,双方关系恶化。1988年后,巴叙关系有所缓和。1999年,在叙鼓励与支持下,叙境内的巴反对派组织开始与巴民族权力机构进行对话。2004年12月,阿巴斯继任巴解执委会主席后访叙。2006年哈马斯执政后,叙表示支持巴勒斯坦人民自主选择的政府,反对对巴封锁,鼓励巴各政治派别通过对话解决分歧。2007年11月,叙出席安纳波利斯中东和会。2008年7月和10月,阿巴斯访叙。2011年叙局势出现动荡后,哈马斯领导层离叙,并公开要求叙总统巴沙尔下台。

与约旦的关系:巴、约之间在历史、地理、血缘等方面有着特殊关系。约旦是阿拉伯世界唯一给予巴勒斯坦人国籍的国家,现巴人占约旦总人口的60%。约曾是巴解组织总部所在地。1970年,约巴关系恶化,巴武装被迫全部从约撤出。中东和平进程开始后,巴约曾组成联合代表团出席中东和会。2003年6月,约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世主持了由美、以、巴三方首脑参加的亚喀巴峰会,宣布正式启动中东和平“路线图”计划。阿巴斯当选巴民族权力机构主席后,多次访约。阿巴斯解散联合政府后,约旦强调巴应维护内部团结、重建秩序。阿卜杜拉二世国王多次呼吁国际社会推动和平进程,支持巴以和谈,敦促美在中东问题上发挥重要作用。2012年初,约旦同中东问题“四方机制”推动巴以双方在安曼就恢复和谈进行多次接触。2017年3月在约旦召开阿盟峰会期间,约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世、埃及总统塞西和巴总统阿巴斯举行三方会晤,重点就巴勒斯坦问题交换看法。2017年12月和2018年1月,阿巴斯两次访问约旦,同约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世举行会谈。约方重申了在耶路撒冷问题上对巴勒斯坦的支持。2018年9月,巴总理哈姆迪拉率团访约,会见约首相拉扎兹。

与沙特等海湾阿拉伯国家的关系:沙特、科威特等海湾阿拉伯国家曾是巴解的主要财政援助国。1990年,沙特等海湾国家对巴解在海湾战争中的立场不满,同巴解关系恶化。原在海湾国家的50万巴勒斯坦人大部分离开。1991年3月31日,海湾合作委员会宣布中断对巴解的财政援助。但在巴解决定出席马德里中东和会后,沙特等海湾国家与巴解关系开始缓和,官方往来逐渐恢复,沙特还部分恢复了对巴援助。从1993年起,巴解同海湾国家关系不断改善。2002年4月25日,沙特王储阿卜杜拉访问美国期间向布什总统提出了解决中东问题的8点建议。2004年12月,巴解执委会主席阿巴斯访问沙特和科威特,对巴在海湾战争中的错误立场表示道歉。巴与海湾国家关系明显改善。2007年2月,在沙特斡旋下,哈马斯与法塔赫达成“麦加协议”。3月,在沙特等国推动下,第19次阿盟首脑会议重申“阿拉伯和平倡议”,并确定相关工作机制。2012年10月,卡塔尔埃米尔哈马德访问加沙,是2006年以来首位访问加沙的海湾国家元首,卡同时提供2.54亿美元援助,用于支持加沙经济重建。2013年4月,卡塔尔首相兼外交大臣哈马德率阿拉伯国家代表团访美,表示愿在1967年边界基础上、通过少量土地置换实现“两国方案”,受到美国和以色列的欢迎。2015年7月,沙特国王萨勒曼会见赴沙特朝觐的哈马斯政治局主席马沙勒。2017年3月,阿巴斯访问卡塔尔,同卡埃米尔举行会谈。2017年11月和12月,阿巴斯两次访问沙特,同萨勒曼国王和穆罕默德王储会面。2018年9月,卡塔尔宣布向加沙地带提供6000万美元援助以购买燃料。同月,阿巴斯总统访问阿曼,会见阿苏丹卡布斯。

[External Relations] After the establishment of the PLO, it was widely supported by the Arab countries and many countries in the world. The resolution of the Seventh Arab League Summit held in Rabat in October 1974 recognized the PLO as the sole legal representative of the Palestinian people. In November of the same year, the PLO participated in the UN General Assembly meeting and work as an observer. In August 1976, the Fifth Conference of Non-Aligned Countries accepted the PLO as a full member. In September of the same year, the League of Arab States accepted it as a full member. The State of Palestine was proclaimed on November 15, 1988 and has been officially recognized by 138 countries. On 15 December 1988, Palestine became a United Nations observer entity. In September 2011, Palestine applied to become a full member of the United Nations but was not approved. In October, Palestine became a full member of UNESCO. On November 29, 2012, the 67th session of the UN General Assembly passed a resolution to formally grant the status of observer state of the United Nations to Palestine.

Relations with Egypt: Egypt was one of the first Arab countries to support the PLO and was the main base for political activities of the PLO. After the signing of the Camp David agreement, the Palestinians broke the relationship with Egypt. In November 1987, Egypt announced the reopening of the PLO office in Cairo. After the Gulf War, the relationship was indifferent because of the different positions of the two sides. Since then, with the advancement of the Middle East peace process, relations between the two sides have been normalized. After Abbas was elected president of the Palestinian National Authority, he visited Egypt several times. In recent years, Egypt has actively used mediation in the Palestinian-Israeli ceasefire, the exchange of prisoners, and the internal reconciliation of the Palestinians. In 2011, after Egypt’s mediation, the Palestinians signed a settlement agreement in Cairo in early May. In October, the Egyptian side promoted the successful exchange of prisoners between Hamas and Israel. After the outbreak of the conflict in Gaza in November 2012, Egypt clearly supported the Palestinian side and actively deployed its good offices to promote a ceasefire. In January 2013, under the mediation of Egypt, Fatah and Hamas leaders met in Cairo on matters of national reconciliation. After the dramatic changes in the situation in Egypt at the end of July, the relationship between Egypt and Hamas deteriorated drastically. The Egyptian military strengthened control over the area bordering the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip, shortened the opening hours of the Rafah port, and destroyed most of the tunnels that Gaza led to Sinai. In March 2014, the Egyptian side decided to ban all activities of Hamas in Egypt, and Hamas condemned it. In early 2015, the Egyptian court ruled that Hamas was a terrorist organization. In June, the Egyptian Emergency Court of Appeal abolished the previous decision to include Hamas as a terrorist organization on the grounds of lack of judicial power. In March 2017, Abbas visited Egypt and held talks with President Sethi. In December 2017, Abbas visited Egypt and decided to coordinate his position with President Seyce on the United States. In November 2018, Abbas went to Sharm el-Sheikh to attend the World Youth Forum and held talks with Ethiopian President Seyce to exchange views on the Palestinian-Israeli issue and the internal reconciliation in Pakistan. The Egyptian side also received a delegation from Hamas and Fatah to visit Egypt and tried to mediate the contradictions between the two sides.

Relations with Syria: Syria was an important base and rear of the Pakistani guerrillas. Some important organizations in Pakistan are based in Damascus. Hamas leader Mashal is also settled in Syria. After 1983, due to differences in political opinions on the settlement of the Middle East issue, relations between the two sides deteriorated. After 1988, the relationship between Pakistan and Syria has eased. In 1999, with the encouragement and support of Syria, the Palestinian opposition organizations in Syria began a dialogue with the Palestinian National Authority. In December 2004, Abbas visited Syria after the success of the chairman of the PLO Executive Committee. After Hamas took office in 2006, Syria expressed support for the government chosen by the Palestinian people, opposed the blockade of Pakistan, and encouraged Pakistani political factions to resolve their differences through dialogue. In November 2007, Syria attended the Annapolis Middle East Conference. In July and October 2008, Abbas visited Syria. After the turmoil in the Syrian situation in 2011, the leadership of Hamas dissociated and publicly demanded that Syrian President Bashar be stepped down.

Relations with Jordan: There is a special relationship between the two countries in terms of history, geography, and blood. Jordan is the only country in the Arab world that gives Palestinian nationality, and the Palestinians now account for 60% of Jordan’s total population. The appointment was the headquarters of the PLO headquarters. In 1970, relations between the two countries deteriorated, and the Palestinian armed forces were forced to withdraw from the treaty. After the beginning of the Middle East peace process, Baye has formed a joint delegation to attend the Middle East peace conference. In June 2003, King Abdullah II of Jordan presided over the Aqaba Summit, attended by the leaders of the United States, Israel and Pakistan, and announced the official launch of the “road map” plan for peace in the Middle East. After Abbas was elected president of the Palestinian National Authority, he visited the country several times. After Abbas dissolved the coalition government, Jordan stressed that Pakistan should maintain internal unity and rebuild order. King Abdullah II has repeatedly called on the international community to promote the peace process, support the Palestinian-Israeli peace talks, and urge the United States to play an important role in the Middle East issue. In early 2012, Jordan and the “quartet mechanism” on the Middle East pushed the Palestinians and Israelis to make repeated contacts in the resumption of peace talks in Amman. During the Arab League summit in Jordan in March 2017, King Abdullah II of Jordan, Egyptian President Seychelles and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas held a tripartite meeting to exchange views on the Palestinian issue. In December 2017 and January 2018, Abbas visited Jordan twice and held talks with King Abdullah II of Jordan. The Jordanian side reiterated its support for Palestine on the question of Jerusalem. In September 2018, Pakistani Prime Minister Hamdila led a delegation to visit the party and met with Prime Minister Lazaz.

Relations with Saudi Arabian Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia: The Gulf Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait were the main financial aid recipients of the PLO. In 1990, the Gulf countries such as Saudi Arabia were dissatisfied with the position of PLO in the Gulf War and deteriorated relations with PLO. Most of the 500,000 Palestinians who were originally in the Gulf countries left. On March 31, 1991, the Gulf Cooperation Council announced that it would suspend financial assistance to the PLO. However, after Pakistan settled in the Middle East Peace Conference in Madrid, relations between Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries began to ease, and official exchanges gradually resumed. Saudi Arabia also partially resumed aid to Pakistan. Since 1993, relations between the Palestinians and the Gulf countries have continued to improve. On April 25, 2002, Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah presented President Bush with an eight-point proposal to resolve the Middle East issue during his visit to the United States. In December 2004, PLO Chairman Abbas visited Saudi Arabia and Kuwait and apologized for Pakistan’s wrong position in the Gulf War. The relationship between Pakistan and the Gulf countries has improved markedly. In February 2007, under the mediation of Saudi Arabia, Hamas and Fatah reached a “Mecca agreement.” In March, under the impetus of Saudi Arabia and other countries, the 19th Arab League summit reaffirmed the “Arab Peace Initiative” and identified relevant working mechanisms. In October 2012, Qatar’s Emir Hamad visited Gaza, the first Gulf State head to visit Gaza since 2006. The card also provided $254 million in aid to support the economic reconstruction of Gaza. In April 2013, Qatar Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Hamad led a delegation of Arab countries to visit the United States. He expressed his willingness to realize the “two-state plan” through a small amount of land replacement on the basis of the 1967 border, which was welcomed by the United States and Israel. In July 2015, Saudi King Salman met with Mashaler, chairman of the Hamas Politburo, who went to Saudi Arabia. In March 2017, Abbas visited Qatar and held talks with Kaymir. In November and December 2017, Abbas visited Saudi Arabia twice and met with King Salman and Crown Prince Muhammad. In September 2018, Qatar announced that it would provide $60 million in aid to the Gaza Strip to purchase fuel. In the same month, President Abbas visited Oman and met with A Sultan Qaboos.

同以色列的关系:巴、以于1993-1995年,先后签署《临时自治安排原则宣言》(即“奥斯陆协议”)、《加沙和杰里科先行自治协议》和《扩大巴勒斯坦在约旦河西岸自治范围的协议》。1997年1月,巴以签署了关于以军在希伯伦重新部署的协议,规定以从希伯伦80%的地区撤出。1998年10月,巴以签署了以色列第二阶段从约旦河西岸撤军协议,即“怀伊协议”。1999年11月8日,巴以正式启动最终地位谈判。2000年7月,美、以、巴首脑戴维营峰会无果而终。

2000年9月,由于以利库德集团领导人沙龙强行进入阿克萨清真寺,引发长达4年多的以巴冲突。2005年阿巴斯出任巴最高领导人后,巴以关系明显改善。2月,以、巴、埃、约领导人在埃及沙姆沙伊赫举行峰会。9月,在埃及等方面的推动以及巴方的积极配合下,以完成从加沙和约旦河西岸部分地区撤离犹太人定居点和军队的“脱离计划”。11月,在美国斡旋下,巴以达成《加沙地区通行进出协议》。

2006年哈马斯执政后,以要求其接受“三项条件”(承认以色列、放弃暴力、遵守巴以双方已达成的协议),并对巴进行政治孤立和经济封锁。2007年6月阿巴斯解散联合政府后,以恢复同阿巴斯对话,并成立谈判工作组。11月26日,巴、以参加美主持召开的安纳波利斯中东问题国际会议,在会上发表“共同谅解文件”,开始就最终地位问题进行谈判。2008年,巴以双方持续谈判,但未达成和平协议。12月,以方针对哈马斯等武装派别对加沙地带发动大规模军事行动,巴以和谈中止。

2009年3月以新一届政府成立后,表示愿根据“路线图”计划同巴方谈判。2010年5月,巴以在美国主持下开始进行间接谈判,9月初双方重启直接谈判。但由于以方坚持在被占领土修建犹太人定居点,巴方于10月8日宣布暂停与以和谈。

2012年初,巴、以双方在中东问题“四方机制”、约旦等方面推动下就复谈问题进行接触,双方领导人亦于4、5月互换信件,以总理内塔尼亚胡还首次公开表示支持巴勒斯坦人建立“领土连贯”的国家。但双方在犹太人定居点等关键问题上始终存在严重分歧。11月14日至21日,为报复哈马斯等巴勒斯坦武装组织持续向以色列境内发射火箭弹,以军对加沙地带发动大规模空袭,造成巴方严重人员伤亡和财产损失。11月29日,第67届联大授予巴勒斯坦联合国观察员国地位。以色列对此强烈反对,并随即采取新建定居点住宅、停止向巴方移交代征海关税款等报复措施。2013年3月以来,在美国方面的促动下,巴以双方就恢复和谈进行接触。

2013年7月底,巴以在美国推动下重启和谈。2014年4月底,和谈再次陷入僵局后,巴以关系急剧恶化。7月8日,以色列向哈马斯控制的加沙地带发动代号为“保护边境”的军事行动,军事打击持续51天,造成巴方重大人员伤亡和财产损失。

2015年9月中旬以来,巴以双方在多地持续发生零星冲突,导致大量人员伤亡。2017年7月中下旬,因耶路撒冷老城阿克萨清真寺入口附近安全事件,巴以局势一度紧张升级。7月底已恢复常态。

2017年5月,巴总理哈姆迪拉同以财长卡隆在拉马拉举行会晤。这是自共识政府组建以来,哈姆迪拉总理首次公开会见以方高官。近期,在美推动下,巴以就共建“引红(海)济死(海)”工程达成局部互利安排,巴方还建成了首个独立运营的电力公司。

2017年12月美国宣布承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都后,巴解组织于2018年2月做出中止承认以色列、全面停止与以安全协调、努力摆脱对以经济依赖等决定。

2018年3月30日起,巴勒斯坦民众在加沙地带举行“回归大游行”,一直持续至今,冲突已经造成200多名巴人死亡,超过两万人受伤。2019年3月下旬,加沙地带武装派别与以色列多次相互袭击,加沙地带和约旦河西岸局势均趋于恶化,经埃及介入调解,双方矛盾略有缓和。

Relations with Israel: In 1993-1995, Pakistan and Israel signed the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements (the “Oslo Accord”), the Gaza and Jericho Autonomy Agreement, and the expansion of Palestinian self-government in the West Bank. Scope of the agreement. In January 1997, Palestine and Israel signed an agreement on the redeployment of Israeli troops in Hebron, stipulating that it would be withdrawn from 80% of Hebron. In October 1998, Palestine and Israel signed the second phase of Israel’s withdrawal agreement from the West Bank, the “Wye Agreement”. On November 8, 1999, Palestine and Israel officially launched final status negotiations. In July 2000, the summit of the United States, Israel, and Pakistan’s summit at Camp David ended without results.

In September 2000, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which lasted more than four years, was triggered by the forced entry of the Likud leader Sharon into the Al-Aqsa Mosque. After Abbas became the top leader of Pakistan in 2005, the relations between Palestine and Israel improved significantly. In February, leaders of Israel, Palestine, Egypt and Israel held a summit in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. In September, with the promotion of Egypt and other parties and the active cooperation of the Palestinians, the “disengagement plan” for the evacuation of Jewish settlements and troops from parts of Gaza and the West Bank was completed. In November, under the mediation of the United States, Palestine and Israel reached an agreement on the passage of the Gaza region.

After Hamas took office in 2006, he was asked to accept “three conditions” (recognizing Israel, renunciation of violence, observing the agreements reached between the two sides), and political isolation and economic blockade of the Palestinians. After the dissolution of the coalition government in June 2007, Abbas resumed dialogue with Abbas and established a negotiating working group. On November 26, Pakistan and Israel participated in the Annapolis International Conference on the Middle East, which was hosted by the United States. At the meeting, they issued a “common understanding document” and began negotiations on the final status issue. In 2008, the Palestinians and Israelis continued to negotiate, but did not reach a peace agreement. In December, the Israeli side launched a large-scale military operation against the Gaza Strip against armed factions such as Hamas, and the Palestinian-Israeli peace talks were suspended.

After the establishment of the new government in March 2009, he expressed his willingness to negotiate with the Palestinians in accordance with the “road map” plan. In May 2010, Palestine and Israel began indirect negotiations under the auspices of the United States. In early September, the two sides resumed direct negotiations. However, as Israel insisted on building Jewish settlements in the occupied territories, the Palestinian side announced on 8 October that it would suspend peace talks.

At the beginning of 2012, Pakistan and the two sides exchanged views on the issue of resumption of talks under the impetus of the “quartet mechanism” in the Middle East and Jordan. The leaders of the two sides also exchanged letters in April and May, and the Prime Minister Netanyahu also made his first public announcement. Expresses its support for the establishment of a “territorial coherence” by the Palestinians. However, the two sides have always had serious differences on key issues such as Jewish settlements. From November 14 to 21, in order to retaliate against Palestinian armed groups such as Hamas and continue to launch rockets into Israel, the Israeli army launched a large-scale air strike on the Gaza Strip, causing serious casualties and property losses in the Palestinian side. On November 29th, the 67th UN General Assembly granted the status of observer state of the United Nations to Palestine. Israel strongly opposed this and immediately adopted retaliation measures such as the construction of new settlements and the suspension of the transfer of customs taxes to the Palestinians. Since March 2013, under the urging of the United States, the Palestinians and Israelis have made contacts on the resumption of peace talks.

At the end of July 2013, Palestine and Israel pushed the peace talks under the US. At the end of April 2014, after the peace talks reached a deadlock again, the Palestinian-Israeli relationship deteriorated sharply. On July 8, Israel launched a military operation codenamed “Protection of Borders” in the Gaza Strip controlled by Hamas. The military strike lasted for 51 days, causing heavy casualties and property losses in the Palestinian side.

Since mid-September 2015, there have been sporadic clashes between the Palestinians and Israelis in many places, resulting in a large number of casualties. In the middle and late July 2017, the situation in Palestine and Israel was escalated due to security incidents near the entrance to the Al-Aqsa Mosque in the old city of Jerusalem. At the end of July, the normal state has been restored.

In May 2017, Pakistani Prime Minister Hamdila met with Finance Minister Karon in Ramallah. This is the first time that Prime Minister Hamdila has met with Israeli high-ranking officials since the establishment of the consensus government. Recently, under the impetus of the United States, Palestine and Israel have reached a partial mutually beneficial arrangement for the construction of the “Red (Sea) and Death (Sea) project. The Palestinian side has also built the first independent power company.

After the United States announced in December 2017 that Jerusalem was recognized as the capital of Israel, the PLO in February 2018 made a suspension of recognition of Israel, a complete cessation of coordination with security, and efforts to get rid of economic dependence.

Since March 30, 2018, the Palestinian people held a “return to the parade” in the Gaza Strip, which has continued to this day. The conflict has caused more than 200 Palestinian deaths and more than 20,000 people were injured. In late March 2019, armed factions in the Gaza Strip and Israel repeatedly attacked each other. The situation in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank of the Jordan River both deteriorated. After Egypt’s intervention in mediation, the contradictions between the two sides eased slightly.

同美国的关系:美国曾长期拒不承认巴勒斯坦解放组织。1988年12月,在巴解宣布接受安理会242和338号决议并公开谴责恐怖主义之后,美、巴开始对话。1993年9月,巴以签署华盛顿宣言,美随后宣布承认巴解为巴勒斯坦人民的代表。1994年6 月24日,美将巴驻美办事处升格为官方使团,并利用美驻耶路撒冷总领馆与巴进行联系。2002年12月,美主导中东问题“四方机制”拟定中东和平“路线图”计划,并积极推动实施。

2006年哈马斯胜选并组阁后,美反应强烈,重申哈马斯是“恐怖组织”,表示不会与巴政府进行接触,要求国际社会孤立哈马斯,直至其改变立场、接受“三项条件”,并停止对巴直接援助。2007年6月阿巴斯解散联合政府后,美解除对约旦河西岸的经济封锁,推动巴以对话,并于11月26日召开中东问题国际会议(即安纳波利斯会议),提出巴以“两个国家”和平共处的设想。2008年1月,美国总统布什访巴,宣布启动安纳波利斯会议确定的三方委员会机制,由美方监督巴以履行“路线图”计划情况。美国务卿赖斯多次访问巴以,推动和谈。

2009年,美奥巴马政府上台后,积极推动巴以和谈。5月,阿巴斯访美。9月,美总统奥巴马促成美、巴、以三方首脑于联大期间在纽约会晤。2010年,美副总统拜登、中东特使米切尔等频繁访巴,最终促成巴于5月接受在美主持下与以恢复间接和谈,并于9月与以重启直接谈判。后因以色列方面拒绝延长犹太人定居点建设冻结令,谈判中止。

2011年5月,美国总统奥巴马在其中东政策演讲中提出巴以两国边界应以1967年边界线为基础,通过双方认可的土地置换划定。巴方对此表示欢迎。但美方坚决反对巴方将独立建国问题诉诸联合国的做法。2012年3月,奥巴马致电阿巴斯,重申推动中东和平进程的承诺。11月,第67届联大表决授予巴勒斯坦联合国观察员国地位的决议草案,美国投反对票。

2013年3月,奥巴马第二任期伊始即访问巴勒斯坦、以色列等地区国家,重申以“两国方案”为基础解决巴以争端。美国国务卿克里多次访问地区国家,推动巴以双方重启和平谈判,并提出加强巴勒斯坦经济能力、改善巴勒斯坦民众生活、设立40亿美元援助基金等设想。2013年7月底,在国际社会特别是美方的大力推动下,巴以重启和谈。2014年4月,和谈陷入僵局。2015年底,巴以零星冲突持续升级之际,美国国务卿克里访问巴以进行斡旋。

2017年1月,美总统特朗普上台后,美加大了对巴勒斯坦问题的投入力度。5月初,阿巴斯访问美国。5月下旬,特朗普访问巴勒斯坦,强调美国愿继续推动中东和平进程,愿在任内促双方重启新一轮和谈,同时表示不会将解决方案强加给任何一方,巴以双方也要展示谈判诚意。2017年12月,特朗普宣布承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都并启动将美驻以使馆迁至耶路撒冷的程序。2018年5月,美国将美驻以使馆迁往耶路撒冷。巴方对此强烈抗议,表示将拒绝参与由美方主导的和平进程。同年8月,美正式切断对巴勒斯坦的援助。同年9月,美以巴方拒绝与以方进行有效和谈为由,宣布关闭巴解组织驻美办事处。2019年3月4日,美国将驻巴勒斯坦总领馆降格为驻以色列使馆巴勒斯坦事务部。

Relations with the United States: The United States has long refused to recognize the Palestine Liberation Organization. In December 1988, after the PLO announced its acceptance of Security Council resolutions 242 and 338 and publicly condemned terrorism, the United States and Pakistan began a dialogue. In September 1993, Palestine and Israel signed the Washington Declaration, and the United States subsequently announced its recognition of the PLO as a representative of the Palestinian people. On June 24, 1994, the US-Brazil office in the United States was upgraded to an official mission and used the US Consulate General in Jerusalem to contact Pakistan. In December 2002, the US led the “quartet mechanism” on the Middle East issue to formulate a “road map” plan for peace in the Middle East and actively promoted its implementation.

After Hamas won the election and formed the cabinet in 2006, the United States reacted strongly and reiterated that Hamas is a “terrorist organization” and said that it will not contact the Pakistani government and ask the international community to isolate Hamas until it changes its position and accepts “three.” Condition, and stop direct assistance to Pakistan. After Abbas dissolved the coalition government in June 2007, the United States lifted the economic blockade on the West Bank and promoted Palestinian-Israeli dialogue. On November 26, the International Conference on the Middle East (the Annapolis Conference) was held. The idea of ​​peaceful coexistence with “two countries.” In January 2008, US President George W. Bush visited Pakistan and announced the launch of the tripartite committee mechanism established by the Annapolis Conference. The US side oversees the implementation of the “road map” plan. US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has visited Palestine and Israel many times to promote peace talks.

In 2009, after the US Obama administration took office, it actively promoted the Palestinian-Israeli peace talks. In May, Abbas visited the United States. In September, US President Barack Obama promoted the meeting between the US, Pakistan and the three parties in New York during the UN General Assembly. In 2010, US Vice President Biden and Middle East Special Envoy Mitchell frequently visited Pakistan, which eventually led Pakistan to accept the indirect peace talks under the auspices of the United States in May, and to resume direct negotiations in September. After the Israeli side refused to extend the Jewish settlement construction freeze order, the negotiations were suspended.

In May 2011, US President Barack Obama stated in his Middle East policy speech that the border between Palestine and Israel should be based on the 1967 border line and demarcated by land exchange approved by both sides. The Pakistani side welcomes this. However, the United States resolutely opposes the Palestinians’ approach to resorting to the United Nations for independent statehood. In March 2012, Obama called Abbas to reaffirm his commitment to the Middle East peace process. In November, the 67th session of the UN General Assembly voted on the draft resolution on the status of the United Nations Observer State in Palestine, and the United States voted against it.

In March 2013, Obama visited the countries of Palestine, Israel and other countries at the beginning of his second term and reiterated that the Palestinian-Israeli dispute should be resolved on the basis of the “two-state plan.” US Secretary of State Kerry has repeatedly visited regional countries to promote the resumption of peace talks between the Palestinians and Israelis, and proposed the idea of ​​strengthening Palestinian economic capabilities, improving the lives of Palestinians, and setting up a $4 billion aid fund. At the end of July 2013, with the vigorous promotion of the international community, especially the United States, Palestine and Israel restarted peace talks. In April 2014, the peace talks reached a deadlock. At the end of 2015, when the sporadic conflict between Palestine and Israel continued to escalate, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Pakistan to mediate.

In January 2017, after US President Trump took office, the United States increased its investment in the Palestinian issue. In early May, Abbas visited the United States. In late May, Trump visited Palestine and stressed that the United States is willing to continue to promote the Middle East peace process. It is willing to promote a new round of peace talks during the term of office. At the same time, he said that he will not impose a solution on any party. The two sides will also show their sincerity in negotiations. . In December 2017, Trump announced the recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and the process of relocating the US Embassy to Jerusalem. In May 2018, the United States moved the US embassy to Jerusalem. The Pakistani side strongly protested that it would refuse to participate in the peace process led by the US. In August of the same year, the United States officially cut off aid to Palestine. In September of the same year, the US-Israel side refused to conclude an effective peace talk with Israel and announced the closure of the PLO office in the United States. On March 4, 2019, the United States downgraded the Consulate General in Palestine to the Palestinian Affairs Department of the Israeli Embassy.

同欧盟国家的关系:巴解组织重视发展与欧盟国家的关系,在10多个欧盟国家派驻代表。海湾危机发生后,欧盟国家指责巴解在海湾危机中支持伊拉克。1991年2月6日,欧共体12国外长宣布冻结与巴解和阿拉法特的接触。海湾战争结束后,欧盟国家与巴解关系逐渐恢复。巴、以签署巴自治协议后,欧盟国家开始在巴自治区设代表处或通过驻耶路撒冷总领馆与巴自治政府进行联系,并向巴民族权力机构提供了大量援助。

2006年哈马斯胜选并组阁后,欧盟要求哈马斯接受“三项条件”。2007年6月阿巴斯解散联合政府后,欧盟表示支持阿巴斯。2010年以来,阿巴斯多次访问英、法、德、西班牙、比利时、希腊等国,寻求欧盟支持巴勒斯坦独立建国。2011年以来,英、法、西班牙、意大利等国先后宣布将巴驻该国代表机构级别提升为外交使团。但欧盟内部在巴加入联合国等国际组织问题上立场不一。2013年7月,欧盟出台新的对以色列定居点的限制规定,即自2014年起,位于定居点内的机构不能获得欧盟拨款、馈赠、金融工具等方面资助。2014年10月,瑞典承认巴勒斯坦国家地位,并将巴驻瑞典代表处提升为使馆。2015年6月,梵蒂冈正式承认巴勒斯坦国。法国、英国、比利时、意大利等国议会纷纷投票支持政府承认巴国地位。2015年6月,法国外长法比尤斯访问巴以。7月,意大利总理伦齐访问巴以。2016年6月和2017年1月,法国两次组织召开巴勒斯坦问题外长会。2017年3月,阿巴斯访问德国和比利时,同德国总理默克尔、比利时国王及欧盟官员举行会谈。2017年12月,阿巴斯访问法国,同法国总统马克龙会谈。马克龙表示“两国方案”仍是解决巴以问题的唯一方案。美方有关耶城地位的决定使它自身“边缘化”。2018年1月,阿巴斯访问欧盟,同欧盟外交与安全政策高级代表莫盖里尼举行会谈。欧盟表示支持巴勒斯坦和以色列通过和谈解决耶路撒冷地位问题。9月,阿巴斯再次访问法国并会见法总统马克龙,马重申“两国方案”是解决巴以问题的唯一方案。

同俄罗斯的关系:巴解组织与前苏联关系密切。阿拉法特曾多次访苏。2007年阿巴斯解散联合政府后,俄表示支持阿巴斯合法地位,同时呼吁巴各派通过对话解决分歧。2008年4月、12月,2010年1月,阿巴斯访俄。俄倡议在莫斯科召开中东问题国际会议,以全面推动中东和平进程。2011年2月俄总统梅德韦杰夫访巴期间,公开表示支持建立以东耶路撒冷为首都的独立的巴勒斯坦国。5月巴各派实现和解后,俄邀请巴各派在莫斯科就落实和解协议进行磋商。2012年6月,俄总统普京访问巴勒斯坦。11月,第67届联大表决授予巴勒斯坦联合国观察员国地位的决议草案,俄投赞成票。2013年3月和2015年4月,阿巴斯访俄。2017年5月,阿巴斯访俄,同俄总统普京举行会谈。2018年2月,阿巴斯访问俄罗斯,同普京总统举行会谈。

Relations with EU countries: The PLO attaches importance to developing relations with EU countries and is represented in more than 10 EU countries. After the Gulf crisis, EU countries accused PLO of supporting Iraq in the Gulf crisis. On February 6, 1991, the foreign minister of the European Community 12 announced the freezing of contacts with the PLO and Arafat. After the end of the Gulf War, relations between the EU countries and PLO gradually recovered. After the signing of the Palestinian self-government agreement, the EU countries began to set up representative offices in the Palestinian autonomous region or through the Consulate General in Jerusalem to contact the Palestinian self-governing government and provide substantial assistance to the Palestinian National Authority.

After Hamas won the election and formed the cabinet in 2006, the EU asked Hamas to accept the “three conditions.” After Abbas dissolved the coalition government in June 2007, the EU expressed support for Abbas. Since 2010, Abbas has visited Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Greece and other countries to seek EU support for Palestinian independence. Since 2011, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy and other countries have successively announced the promotion of Pakistan’s representative body in the country to a diplomatic mission. However, the EU has different positions on the issue of Pakistan joining the United Nations and other international organizations. In July 2013, the EU introduced new restrictions on Israeli settlements. Since 2014, institutions located in settlements have not been able to receive funding from EU grants, gifts, financial instruments, etc. In October 2014, Sweden recognized the status of the Palestinian state and promoted the Pakistani representative office in Sweden to the embassy. In June 2015, the Vatican formally recognized the State of Palestine. The parliaments of France, Britain, Belgium, Italy and other countries have voted to support the government’s recognition of Pakistan’s status. In June 2015, French Foreign Minister Fabius visited Palestine and Israel. In July, Italian Prime Minister Renzi visited Palestine and Israel. In June 2016 and January 2017, France organized two foreign ministers’ meetings on the question of Palestine. In March 2017, Abbas visited Germany and Belgium and held talks with German Chancellor Merkel, the Belgian King and EU officials. In December 2017, Abbas visited France and met with French President Mark Long. Mark Long said that the “two-state plan” is still the only solution to the Palestinian-Israeli issue. The US decision on the status of Jerusalem has “marginalized” itself. In January 2018, Abbas visited the European Union and held talks with the European Union’s senior representative for foreign policy and security policy, Mogherini. The EU expressed its support for the settlement of the status of Jerusalem by peace talks between Palestine and Israel. In September, Abbas visited France again and met with French President Mark Long. Ma reiterated that the “two-state plan” is the only solution to the Palestinian-Israeli issue.

Relations with Russia: The PLO is closely related to the former Soviet Union. Arafat has visited Su. After Abbas dissolved the coalition government in 2007, Russia expressed support for Abbas’s legal status and called on the Palestinian factions to resolve their differences through dialogue. In April and December 2008, in January 2010, Abbas visited Russia. Russia proposes to convene an international conference on the Middle East in Moscow to comprehensively promote the Middle East peace process. During Russian President Dmitry Medvedev’s visit to Pakistan in February 2011, he publicly expressed support for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital. After the settlement of the Palestinian factions in May, Russia invited the Pakistani factions to hold consultations on the implementation of the settlement agreement in Moscow. In June 2012, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Palestine. In November, the 67th session of the UN General Assembly voted on the draft resolution on the status of the United Nations Observer State in Palestine, and Russia voted in favor. In March 2013 and April 2015, Abbas visited Russia. In May 2017, Abbas visited Russia and held talks with Russian President Putin. In February 2018, Abbas visited Russia and held talks with President Putin.