The State of Kuwait 科威特国
【国 名】 科威特国（The State of Kuwait）
【面 积】 17818平方公里
【人 口】 443万，其中科威特籍人约占30%。
【宗 教】 伊斯兰教为国教，居民中85%信奉伊斯兰教，其中约70%属逊尼派，30%为什叶派。
【首 都】 科威特城（Kuwait City）。
【国家元首】 萨巴赫·艾哈迈德·贾比尔·萨巴赫（Sabah Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah），2006年1月29日即位，为第十五任埃米尔。
[State name] The State of Kuwait
[area] 17818 square kilometers
[People] 4.43 million, of which about 30% are from Kuwaiti.
[Official language] Arabic
[Discipline] Islam is a state religion, and 85% of its residents believe in Islam. About 70% of them are Sunni and 30% are Shia.
[Capital] Kuwait City (Kuwait City).
[Head of State] Sabah Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, on January 29, 2006, was the fifteenth Emir.
[Important Festival] February 25 (National Day, the eleventh Emirian enthroned day).
[Natural Geography] Located on the northwestern shore of the Persian Gulf in western Asia. Adjacent to Saudi Arabia and Iraq, the Persian Gulf in the east is across the sea from Iran. The coastline is 290 kilometers long. There are 9 islands including Bubiyan and Faraka, with a water area of 5,625 square kilometers. Most of the land is desert, and the terrain is relatively flat. There are no mountains, rivers and lakes in the territory, and underground fresh water is scarce. It is a tropical desert climate. It is hot and dry in summer, with a maximum temperature of 51 °C. It is short, wet and rainy in winter, and the lowest temperature can reach -6 °C. The annual precipitation is 25-177 mm.
【简 史】 公元7世纪是阿拉伯帝国的一部分。1710年，居住在阿拉伯半岛内志的阿奈扎部落中的萨巴赫家族迁移到科，1756年取得统治权，建立科威特酋长国。1871年成为奥斯曼帝国巴士拉省的一个县。1939年沦为英国保护国。1961年6月19日宣布独立，同年成为阿拉伯国家联盟和联合国成员国。1990年8月2日被伊拉克侵吞，1991年2月26日复国。
【政 治】 君主世袭制酋长国。埃米尔是国家元首兼武装部队最高统帅。一切法律以及与外国签订的条约和协定均由埃米尔批准生效。科威特主张维护民族独立、国家主权与领土完整，发展民族经济，实行高福利制度。海湾战争后，科威特迅速开始战后重建工作，加强国防建设，在政府部门和经济机构中逐步推行科威特化，放松对反对派的限制。科威特禁止一切政党活动。目前，萨巴赫家族统治地位牢固，政局相对稳定，安全形势良好。
【宪 法】 1962年11月12日正式颁布宪法。宪法规定，科是一个主权完整、独立的阿拉伯国家；伊斯兰教为国教，其教义是科立法的基础；埃米尔必须由第七任埃米尔穆巴拉克·萨巴赫后裔世袭；立法权由埃米尔和议会行使，埃米尔有权解散议会和推迟议会会期；行政权由埃米尔、首相和内阁大臣行使；司法权由法院在宪法规定范围内以埃米尔名义行使；王储由埃米尔提名，议会通过；埃米尔任免首相，并根据首相提名任免内阁大臣等。
【议 会】 国民议会于1963年1月23日成立，是立法机构，一院制。主要职能是制定和通过国家的各项法令法规；监督国家财政执行情况；行使各项政治权力。议会通过的法案需经埃米尔批准才能生效，埃米尔有权否决或提请议会复议某项法案，但如议会仍以三分之二的多数通过或在以后某届议会以简单多数通过，该法案则自动生效。议会有权就政府内外政策及有关事务向首相和大臣提出质询，要求其解释有关情况；组成调查委员会对任何事务进行调查；自由表达其观点和看法；通过对大臣投不信任票罢免其职务。议会由50名经全国选举产生的议员和现任大臣组成，每届任期4年。第15届议会于2016年12月选举产生，议长是马尔祖格·加尼姆（Marzouq Al-Ghanim）。
【政 府】 本届政府于2017年12月13日成立，为科威特第36届政府。主要成员包括：首相贾比尔·穆巴拉克·哈马德·萨巴赫（Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah），第一副首相兼国防大臣纳赛尔·萨巴赫·艾哈迈德·萨巴赫（Nasser Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah），副首相兼外交大臣萨巴赫·哈立德·哈马德·萨巴赫（Sabah Al-Khalid Al-Hamad Al-Sabah），副首相兼内政大臣哈立德·贾拉赫·萨巴赫（Khaled Al-Jarrah Al-Sabah），副首相兼内阁事务大臣艾奈斯·哈立德·萨利赫（Anas Al-Khalid Al-Saleh）。
[History] The 7th century AD was part of the Arab Empire. In 1710, the Sabah family in the Aneza tribe living in the Arabian Peninsula moved to the branch, and in 1756 gained control and established the Kuwaiti emirate. In 1871 became a county in the Ottoman Basra province. In 1939, he became a British protectorate. On June 19, 1961, he declared independence and became the member of the League of Arab States and the United Nations in the same year. He was embezzled by Iraq on August 2, 1990 and reinstated on February 26, 1991.
[political] The monarchy hereditary system of the emirate. The Emir is the head of state and the supreme commander of the armed forces. All laws and treaties and agreements with foreign countries are ratified by the Emir. Kuwait advocates safeguarding national independence, national sovereignty and territorial integrity, developing the national economy, and implementing a high welfare system. After the Gulf War, Kuwait quickly began post-war reconstruction work, strengthened national defense construction, and gradually implemented Kuwaitiization in government departments and economic institutions to relax restrictions on the opposition. Kuwait prohibits all political party activities. At present, the Sabah family has a strong dominance, a relatively stable political situation, and a good security situation.
[Constitution] The Constitution was officially promulgated on November 12, 1962. The Constitution stipulates that the branch is a sovereign, complete and independent Arab country; Islam is the state religion; its doctrine is the basis of the legislation; the Amir must be hereditary by the seventh descendant of Emir Mubarak Sabah; legislative power by the Emir Exercising with the parliament, the Emir has the power to dissolve the parliament and postpone the parliamentary session; the executive power is exercised by the Emir, the Prime Minister and the cabinet minister; the judicial power is exercised by the court within the scope of the Constitution in the name of the Emir; the Crown Prince is nominated by the Emir, and the parliament The Amir is appointed as the Prime Minister and is appointed or removed by the Prime Minister.
[Meetings] The National Assembly was established on January 23, 1963. It is a legislative body and a one-chamber system. The main functions are to formulate and adopt national laws and regulations; to supervise the state’s financial implementation; to exercise various political powers. The bill passed by the parliament is subject to the approval of the Amir to take effect. The Emir has the power to veto or ask the parliament to review a bill, but if the parliament still passes a two-thirds majority or a later parliament with a simple majority, the bill It will take effect automatically. The parliament has the right to ask the Prime Minister and ministers about the internal and external policies and related matters of the government, asking them to explain the situation; to form a commission of inquiry to investigate any matter; to express their views and opinions freely; to dismiss their duties by casting a vote of no confidence in the minister. The parliament consists of 50 nationally elected parliamentarians and current ministers, each term of four years. The 15th Parliament was elected in December 2016 and the speaker is Marzouq Al-Ghanim.
[Government] The current government was established on December 13, 2017 and is the 36th government of Kuwait. Key members include: Prime Minister Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah, First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence Nasser Sabah Ahmed Al-Sabah (Nasser Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah), Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Sabah Al-Khalid Al-Hamad Al-Sabah, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior Khalid Khaled Al-Jarrah Al-Sabah, Deputy Prime Minister and Cabinet Minister Anas Al-Khalid Al-Saleh.
萨巴赫·艾哈迈德·贾比尔·萨巴赫（Sabah Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah）：埃米尔。1929年出生。曾任外交大臣，后兼任新闻、石油和内政大臣。1992年任第一副首相兼外交大臣。2003年任首相兼外交大臣。2006年1月29日继任科威特第十五任埃米尔。对华友好，曾于1977年5月、1988年8月、1990年8月和12月、2004年7月、2009 年5月、2018年7月七次访华。
纳瓦夫·艾哈迈德·贾比尔·萨巴赫（Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah）：王储。1937年出生。历任哈瓦里省省长、内政大臣、国防大臣、社会事务和劳工大臣、国民卫队副司令。2003年7月任第一副首相兼内政大臣。2006年1月被任命为王储。
贾比尔·穆巴拉克·哈马德·萨巴赫（Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah）：首相。1942年出生。曾任埃米尔办公厅行政事务督察、主任，行政和财政事务助理次大臣等职。1979年起先后任哈瓦里省省长、艾哈迈迪省省长、社会事务与劳动大臣、新闻大臣、埃米尔办公厅顾问。2001年至2006年任副首相兼国防大臣，2006年至2007年任第一副首相兼国防、内政大臣，2007年至2011年11月任第一副首相兼国防大臣。2011年12月起任首相。对华友好，曾于2003年12月、2014年6月两次访华。
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into six administrative provinces, namely the Capital Province, Hawari Province, Ahmadi Province, Jahhara Province, Farwaña Province and the Greater Mubarak Province.
[Judiciary] The Judiciary is affiliated with the Ministry of Justice. The President of the Supreme Court and the Chief Inspector General are appointed by the Emir, and the court exercises judicial power within the Constitution in the name of the Emir.
Sabah Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah: Emir. Born in 1929. He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and later served as Minister of the News, Oil and Home Affairs. In 1992, he served as the first deputy prime minister and foreign minister. In 2003, he served as Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs. On January 29, 2006, he succeeded the fifteenth Emir of Kuwait. Friendly to China, he visited China seven times in May 1977, August 1988, August and December 1990, July 2004, May 2009, and July 2018.
Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah: Crown Prince. Born in 1937. He has served as Governor of Hawari Province, Minister of the Interior, Minister of National Defense, Minister of Social Affairs and Labor, and Deputy Commander of the National Guard. In July 2003, he served as the first deputy prime minister and minister of the interior. In January 2006, he was appointed Crown Prince.
Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah: Prime Minister. Born in 1942. He served as the administrative inspector and director of the Emirate General Office and the assistant minister of administrative and financial affairs. Since 1979, he has served as Governor of Hawari Province, Governor of Ahmadi Province, Minister of Social Affairs and Labour, Minister of Information, and Advisor to the Emirate Office. From 2001 to 2006, he served as deputy prime minister and defense minister. From 2006 to 2007, he served as the first deputy prime minister and minister of national defense and interior affairs. From 2007 to November 2011, he served as the first deputy prime minister and defense minister. Since December 2011, he has served as prime minister. Friendly to China, he visited China twice in December 2003 and June 2014.
【经 济】 石油、天然气工业为国民经济主要支柱，其产值占国内生产总值的45%，占出口收入的92%。近年来，政府在重点发展石油、石化工业的同时，强调发展多元化经济，着力发展金融、贸易、旅游、会展等行业，并提出2035年发展愿景，将科威特建设成为地区商业和金融中心，发挥私营企业在科威特经济发展中的重要作用，保障人民生活全面均衡发展，实现社会公正。
【资 源】 石油和天然气储量丰富。现已探明的石油储量140亿吨，居世界第六位。天然气储量为1.78万亿立方米，居世界第十八位。
【工 业】 以石油开采、炼化和石油化工为主。2017年原油日产量295.4万桶。科威特石油公司（Kuwait Petroleum Corporation）为世界十大石油公司之一，全面负责科国内外的原油和成品油销售。
[Economy] The oil and natural gas industry is the main pillar of the national economy. Its output value accounts for 45% of GDP and 92% of export revenue. In recent years, while focusing on the development of the petroleum and petrochemical industries, the government has emphasized the development of a diversified economy and focused on the development of industries such as finance, trade, tourism, conventions and exhibitions, and proposed a development vision for 2035 to build Kuwait into a regional business and financial center. The important role of private enterprises in the economic development of Kuwait guarantees the overall and balanced development of people’s lives and the realization of social justice.
Main economic data (2018):
Gross domestic product: $138.7 billion
Per capita GDP: $31,200
Economic growth rate: 1.5%
Total foreign trade: 107.1 billion US dollars
Exports: $71.9 billion
Imports: $35.2 billion
Foreign exchange reserves: $37.1 billion
Exchange rate 1 US dollar = 0.229 dinars
[Resources] Oil and natural gas reserves are abundant. The proven oil reserves are 14 billion tons, ranking sixth in the world. Natural gas reserves are 1.78 trillion cubic meters, ranking 18th in the world.
[Industrial] Mainly engaged in oil exploitation, refining and petrochemical industry. The daily output of crude oil in 2017 was 2.954 million barrels. Kuwait Petroleum Corporation is one of the top ten oil companies in the world and is responsible for the sales of crude oil and refined products at home and abroad.
【农渔业】 可耕地面积约14182公顷，无土培植 面积约156公顷。近年来，政府重视发展农业，农业产值占国内生产总值的0.5%。以生产蔬菜为主，农牧产品主要依靠进口。渔业资源丰富，盛产大虾、石斑鱼和黄花鱼。年产量在1万吨左右，产值约1300万科威特第纳尔。
[Agriculture and Fisheries] The area of arable land is about 14,182 hectares, and the area without soil cultivation is about 156 hectares. In recent years, the government has attached importance to the development of agriculture, with agricultural output accounting for 0.5% of GDP. Mainly to produce vegetables, agricultural and livestock products mainly rely on imports. Rich in fishery resources, it is rich in prawns, groupers and yellow croaker. The annual output is about 10,000 tons and the output value is about 13 million Kuwaiti dinars.
[Transportation] Transportation is very developed. The total length of the national highway is 40,000 kilometers. The number of cars owned is 968,000, including 800,000 private cars. Kuwait has an international civil airport and two military airports. The number of airport movements was 33,000 times/year, the passenger flow was 3.7 million person-times/year, and the cargo volume was 140,000 tons/year. The main ports are Shuweh Port and Shuiba Port.
[Foreign Trade] occupies an important position in the economy. Export commodities mainly include petroleum and chemical products, and oil exports account for 95% of total exports. Imported goods include machinery, transportation equipment, industrial products, food and food. The main trade targets are: the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, South Korea, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Singapore and so on.
[Foreign Aid] Approximately 3.8% of its GDP is used annually to assist developing countries. In 1961, the Kuwait Arab Economic Development Foundation was established to provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries on behalf of the government to fund the development and construction of infrastructure projects in developing countries.
[People’s Life] Implement a high welfare system, exempt from personal income tax, enjoy free education and medical care, and provide subsidies for employment, prices, rent, and marriage. There are 15 public hospitals with 4,400 beds, as well as health centers and private hospitals. On average, there are 18.3 doctors per 1,000 people, 48.5 nursing staff and 2.8 beds.
【军 事】 实行义务兵役制，义务兵期限2年（大学生1年），预备役期14年。现科军总兵力为24,754人。埃米尔为武装部队最高统帅。
【教 育】 实行免费教育，全国小学、初中、高中均为四年制。全国现有各类学校1056所，其中公立学校613所，私立学校336所，其余为成人教育学校和特殊教育学校等。在校学生共46万多，教师为3.7万人。教育经费为政府财政预算的10%左右。政府重视扫盲，1982年颁布义务扫盲法，建立了62个扫盲中心，文盲率已不到10%。
【新闻出版】 科威特新闻制度相对开放、自由，报刊多为私营。全国主要有8 家日报，其中阿拉伯文报5家：《舆论报》、《政治报》、《火炬报》、《祖国报》和《消息报》；英文报3家：《科威特时报》、《阿拉伯时报》和《每日星报》。有3家官方新闻机构：科威特通讯社、科威特广播电台和科威特电视台。科威特通讯社系国家通讯社，建于1956年10月，1980年起用阿拉伯文、英文向国外发稿。科威特广播电台建于1951年，用阿拉伯语、英语等广播。科威特电视台建于1962年12月，用四个频道播放阿拉伯语和英语节目。1992年起，租用阿拉伯卫星对外播放本国节目，还通过卫星接收站转播埃及卫星电视节目。
[Military] The compulsory military service system is implemented. The duration of the conscripts is 2 years (1 year for college students) and 14 years for the reserve. The current total strength of the KLA is 24,754. The Amir is the supreme commander of the armed forces.
[Education] Free education is implemented. The national elementary school, junior high school and high school are all four years old. There are 1056 schools of various types in the country, including 613 public schools, 336 private schools, and the rest are adult education schools and special education schools. There are more than 460,000 students and 37,000 teachers. Education funds are about 10% of the government’s budget. The government attaches importance to literacy. In 1982, the voluntary literacy law was promulgated and 62 literacy centers were established. The illiteracy rate is less than 10%.
[Press and Publication] The Kuwaiti news system is relatively open and free, and newspapers and periodicals are mostly private. There are 8 daily newspapers in the country, including 5 Arabic newspapers: The Public Opinion, The Political Newspaper, The Torch, The Motherland and The News. Three in English: The Kuwait Times and The Arab Times and The Daily Star. There are three official news agencies: Kuwait News Agency, Kuwait Radio and Kuwait TV. The Kuwaiti News Agency is a national news agency. It was established in October 1956 and has been published abroad in Arabic and English since 1980. The Kuwait Radio Station was built in 1951 and broadcast in Arabic and English. Kuwait TV was built in December 1962 to broadcast Arabic and English programs on four channels. Since 1992, Arab satellites have been rented to broadcast domestic programs, and Egyptian satellite television programs have been broadcast through satellite receiving stations.
[External Relations] Pursue a moderate and balanced foreign policy. Committed to maintaining the unity of Arab countries and the coordination and cooperation of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries to maintain security and stability in the Gulf region, while attaching great importance to relations with other major powers. The Section is a member of international and regional organizations such as the United Nations, the League of Arab States and the Gulf Cooperation Council. So far, it has established diplomatic relations with 120 countries.