The State of Israel 以色列国
【国 名】 以色列国（The State of Isreal）
【面 积】 根据1947年联合国关于巴勒斯坦分治决议的规定，以色列国的面积为1.52万平方公里。1948-1973年间，以色列在四次阿以战争中占领了大片阿拉伯国家领土，80年代以后陆续部分撤出。目前以色列实际控制面积约2.5万平方公里。
【人 口】 884.2万（2018年4月），其中犹太人约占74.5%，其余为阿拉伯人、德鲁兹人等。
【语 言】 希伯来语为官方语言，通用英语。
【宗 教】 大部分居民信奉犹太教，其余信奉伊斯兰教、基督教和其他宗教。
【首 都】 建国时在特拉维夫（TEL AVIV），1950年迁往耶路撒冷（JERUSALEM），但未获国际社会普遍承认。1980年7月30日，以议会通过法案，宣布耶路撒冷是以色列“永恒的与不可分割的首都”。对于耶路撒冷的地位和归属，阿拉伯国家同以色列一直存有争议。目前，国际社会同以建交的国家均将使馆设在特拉维夫或其周边城市。2018年5月，美国、危地马拉、巴拉圭将驻以使馆迁至耶路撒冷。
【国家元首】 鲁温·瑞夫林（REUVEN RIVLIN），2014年7月就职，为以色列第10任总统，任期7年。
【地 理】 位于亚洲最西端。毗邻巴勒斯坦。东接约旦，东北部与叙利亚为邻，南连亚喀巴湾，西南部与埃及为邻，西濒地中海，北与黎巴嫩接壤。海岸线长度198公里。
【气 候】 地中海型气候，夏季炎热干燥，最高气温39℃；冬季温和湿润，最低气温4℃左右。
[State name] The State of Isreal
[Dimensions] According to the 1947 United Nations resolution on the partition of Palestine, the area of the State of Israel is 15,200 square kilometers. Between 1948 and 1973, Israel occupied a large number of Arab territories in the four Arab-Israeli wars, and some of them were withdrawn after the 1980s. At present, Israel actually controls an area of about 25,000 square kilometers.
[People] 8.842 million (April 2018), of which Jews accounted for 74.5%, and the rest were Arabs, Druzes, etc.
[Language] Hebrew is the official language, general English.
[Discipline] Most residents believe in Judaism and the rest believe in Islam, Christianity and other religions.
[The capital] In Tel Aviv (TEL AVIV) when it was founded, it moved to Jerusalem (JERUSALEM) in 1950, but it was not widely recognized by the international community. On July 30, 1980, the parliament passed a bill declaring that Jerusalem is Israel’s “eternal and inalienable capital.” The Arab countries have always been controversial with Israel regarding the status and ownership of Jerusalem. At present, the countries that have established diplomatic relations with the international community have set up embassies in Tel Aviv or its surrounding cities. In May 2018, the United States, Guatemala, and Paraguay moved their embassies to Jerusalem.
[Head of State] REUVEN RIVLIN, inaugurated in July 2014, is the 10th president of Israel for a term of seven years.
[Important Festival] Jewish New Year (about September of the Gregorian calendar), Yom Kippur (about 9 or 10 months of the Gregorian calendar), Sukkot (about 9 or 10 months of the Gregorian calendar), Passover (about 3 or 4 months of the Gregorian calendar), Memorial of the Holocaust Day (about 4th and 5th of the Gregorian calendar), Independence Day (about 4th and 5th of the Gregorian calendar).
[Region] Located at the western end of Asia. Adjacent to Palestine. It is bordered by Jordan in the east, Syria in the northeast, Aqaba Bay in the south, Egypt in the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and Lebanon in the north. The coastline is 198 kilometers long.
[Weather] Mediterranean climate, hot and dry in summer, the highest temperature is 39 ° C; winter is mild and humid, the lowest temperature is about 4 °C.
【简 史】 犹太人远祖是古代闪族的支脉希伯来人。原居住于美索不达米亚平原，公元前13世纪末开始从埃及迁居巴勒斯坦地区。公元前1000年左右，建立以色列国。此后先后被亚述、巴比伦、波斯、古希腊和罗马帝国征服。公元70年被罗马人赶出巴勒斯坦地区，开始长达近2000年流亡生活。19世纪末，犹太复国主义运动兴起，犹太人开始大批移居巴勒斯坦。第一次世界大战结束后，英国对巴勒斯坦实行委任统治。1917年，英国政府发表《贝尔福宣言》，表示赞成在巴勒斯坦为犹太人建立民族家园。1947年11月29日，联合国大会通过决议，决定在巴勒斯坦地区分别建立阿拉伯国和犹太国。1948年5月14日，以色列国正式成立。
【宪 法】 没有正式的成文宪法，仅有《议会法》、《国家土地法》、《总统法》、《政府法》、《国家经济法》、《国防军法》、《耶路撒冷法》、《司法制度法》、《国家审计长法》、《人的尊严与自由法》、《职业自由法》和《犹太民族国家法》共12部基本法。
【议 会】 一院制，设有120个席位，是国家最高权力机构，拥有立法权，负责制定和修改国家法律，对重大政治问题表决，批准内阁成员并监督政府工作，选举总统、议长。议员由普选产生，选举采用比例代表制，候选人以政党为单位参加竞选，选民只需将选票投给各自支持的政党。获得3.25%以上选票的各政党根据得票多少按比例分配议席。
【政 府】 政府由议会中占多数席位的一个或几个政党联合组成。议会选举结果揭晓后，总统在综合议会各党派意见基础上提名总理人选，授权其组阁。总理由成功完成组阁者担任。
【司法机构】 最高法院、地区法院和基层法院三级制组织系统，此外还有军事法庭、宗教法院和劳资法院。最高法院院长以斯帖·哈犹特（ESTHER HAYUT）。
[History] The Jewish ancestors were the Hebrews of the ancient Semitic. Originally residing in the plains of Mesopotamia, he moved from Egypt to the Palestinian territories at the end of the 13th century BC. The State of Israel was established around 1000 BC. Since then it has been conquered by Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. In the 70th century, the Romans were driven out of the Palestinian area and began to live in exile for nearly 2000 years. At the end of the 19th century, the Zionist movement rose and the Jews began to move to Palestine in large numbers. After the end of the First World War, Britain imposed an appointment on Palestine. In 1917, the British government issued the “Belfort Declaration”, expressing its support for the establishment of a national home for Jews in Palestine. On November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution deciding to establish the Arab and Jewish states in the Palestinian territories. On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel was formally established.
[Constitution] There is no formal written constitution, only the “Parliamentary Law”, “National Land Law”, “Presidential Law”, “Government Law”, “National Economic Law”, “Defence Army Law”, “Jerusalem Law”, “Judicial The Institutional Law, the National Auditor’s Law, the Human Dignity and Freedom Act, the Professional Freedom Act and the Jewish National Law have 12 basic laws.
[Parliamentary] The one-chamber system, with 120 seats, is the highest authority of the state. It has legislative powers, is responsible for formulating and amending national laws, voting on major political issues, approving cabinet members and supervising government work, and elects presidents and speaker. Members are elected by universal suffrage. The election adopts a proportional representation system. The candidates participate in the election by political parties. The voters only need to vote for the political parties they support. The political parties that obtained more than 3.25% of the votes were allocated seats on a pro rata basis.
Speaker: YULI EDELSTEIN, took office on March 18, 2013, re-elected in May 2015, from the Likud Group.
[Government] The government is composed of one or several political parties with a majority in the parliament. After the results of the parliamentary elections were announced, the president nominated the candidates for the prime minister on the basis of the opinions of the various parties in the comprehensive parliament and authorized him to form a cabinet. The general reason for successfully completing the cabinet is to serve.
At present, the main members of the government are:
Prime Minister Benjamin NETANYAHU, Likud Group. Also serves as the foreign minister.
NAFTALI BENNETT, Minister of Education, Minister of Dispersal Affairs, “Jewish Home” Party.
Finance Minister Moses Karon (MOSHE KAHLON), “All of us.”
DAVID AZOULAY, Minister of Religious Affairs, Shas Party.
Minister of Public Security, Minister of Information and Minister of Strategic Affairs GILAD ERDAN, Likud Group.
[Administrative Division] There are 75 cities, 265 local committees and 53 regional committees in the country.
[Judiciary] The three-tier system of the Supreme Court, the District Court and the Basic Court, in addition to military courts, religious courts and labor courts. Supreme Court President ESTHER HAYUT.
（4）以色列工党（ISRAEL LABOUR PARTY）：前身是1930年成立的以色列工人党（“马帕伊”），1968年与部分小党合并后改称“以色列工党”。以色列建国后至1977年，该党曾长期连续执政。本-古里安、梅厄、拉宾、佩雷斯等多位总理均来自该党。2007年6月，埃胡德·巴拉克当选工党主席。2009年，工党在第18届议会选举中获13席，成为第四大党。2011年1月巴拉克退出工党。9月，谢利·雅齐莫维奇当选工党第13任主席。2013年，工党在第19届议会选举中获15席，未加入政府，成为最大反对党。11月，伊萨克·赫尔佐克当选工党第14任主席。2015年1月，工党同运动党组成犹太复国主义联盟参加第20届议会选举，获得24席，成为以最大的反对党（联盟）。2017年7月，阿维·加佰当选工党第15任主席。
（5）“犹太家园”党（HABAYIT HAYEHUDI-THE JEWISH HOME），2008年11月成立。在2009年第18届议会中获得3席，加入政府。在2013年第19届议会选举中获得12席，加入政府，党主席纳夫塔利·本内特任教育部长、大流散事务部长。2015年第20届议会选举中获8席，本内特任教育部长兼耶路撒冷和大流散事务部长。
[Parties and organizations] Israeli political parties are complex and constantly changing, mainly including:
(1) Likud Group (LIKUD): In September 1973, it was composed of the Gahal Group, the Freedom Center, the Ram Party, the People’s Party, and the National Integrity Movement. In 1977, he won the election for the first time and was in power. Bejing, Shamir, Netanyahu and Sharon from the party have served as prime ministers. In August 2005, the then Prime Minister Sharon vigorously promoted the “unilateral detachment plan”, causing division within the party. Sharon led his supporters to withdraw from Likud in November and set up the Kadima Party. In December of the same year, Netanyahu was re-elected as Chairman of the Likud Group and re-elected to this day. In 2009, Likud won 27 seats in the 18th parliamentary election and became the second largest party in the parliament and successfully formed a cabinet. In 2013, Likud formed a campaign alliance with the “Our Homeland Israel” party in the 19th parliamentary election, which won a total of 31 seats. Netanyahu once again successfully formed a cabinet and re-elected the prime minister. In 2015, the Likud Group won 30 seats in the 20th parliamentary election and was re-elected as prime minister.
(2) “YISRAEL BEITEINU”: A right-wing party established in 1999. The main supporters are Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and the chairman is Avigdor Lieberman. In the 19th parliamentary elections in 2013, he formed a campaign alliance with the Likud Group and won 31 seats to join the government. In the 20th parliamentary elections in 2015, he won 6 seats and did not join the ruling coalition at first. After the government was reorganized in May 2016, he joined the ruling coalition. In November 2018, he was dissatisfied with the government’s acceptance of the Gaza ceasefire agreement and withdrew from the ruling coalition.
(3) “Future” Party (YESH ATID): A secular middle party established in April 2012. The main supporter is the middle class and the chairman is Yair Lapid. In the 19th parliamentary elections in 2013, he won 19 seats in one fell swoop and became the second largest party in the parliament. He joined the government and obtained five ministerial positions in finance, education and science and technology. In the 20th parliamentary elections in 2015, he won 11 seats and did not join the ruling coalition.
(4) ISRAEL LABOUR PARTY: The predecessor was the Israel Workers’ Party (“Mapai”), which was established in 1930. In 1968, it merged with some small parties and renamed the “Israeli Labour Party.” After the founding of Israel, by 1977, the party had been in power for a long time. Ben Gurion, Meir, Rabin, Perez and many other prime ministers all came from the party. In June 2007, Ehud Barak was elected chairman of the Labor Party. In 2009, the Labor Party won 13 seats in the 18th parliamentary election and became the fourth largest party. In January 2011, Barak withdrew from the Labor Party. In September, Shelly Yazimovich was elected the 13th chairman of the Labor Party. In 2013, the Labor Party won 15 seats in the 19th parliamentary elections and did not join the government to become the largest opposition party. In November, Isaac Herzog was elected the 14th chairman of the Labor Party. In January 2015, the Labor Party and the Movement Party formed the Zionist Alliance to participate in the 20th parliamentary election and won 24 seats, becoming the largest opposition party (alliance). In July 2017, Avi Coron was elected as the 15th chairman of the Labor Party.
(5) HABAYIT HAYEHUDI-THE JEWISH HOME, established in November 2008. In the 18th parliament in 2009, he won 3 seats and joined the government. In the 19th parliamentary elections in 2013, he won 12 seats and joined the government. Party chairman Naftali Bennett was appointed Minister of Education and Minister of Dispersal Affairs. In the 20th parliamentary elections in 2015, he won 8 seats. Bennett is the Minister of Education and Minister of Jerusalem and the Minister of Dispersal Affairs.
(6) Shass Party (SHAS): A Orthodox Jewish political party that was founded in 1984 to represent the Eastern Jews. The chairman is Ari Delhi. In the 19th parliamentary elections in 2013, he won 11 seats and became an opposition party. In the 20th parliamentary elections in 2015, he won 7 seats and joined the ruling coalition.
【重要人物】 鲁温·瑞夫林（REUVEN RIVLIN）：总统。1939年生于耶路撒冷。耶路撒冷希伯来大学法学学士学位。1986年至1988年，人以色列右翼政党“自由运动”耶路撒冷支部负责人。1988年，“自由运动”并入利库德集团，以利库德成员身份当选议会议员。曾于1992年落选，但又于1996年再次当选并连任至今。2001年至2003年，任通讯部长。2003年至2006年，任议长。2007年，参加总统竞选败北。2009年至2013年再次担任议长。2014年7月起，任以色列第10任总统。
【经 济】 混合型经济，工业化程度较高，以知识密集型产业为主，高附加值农业、生化、电子、军工等部门技术水平较高。以色列总体经济实力较强，竞争力居世界先列。
【资 源】 矿产资源较贫乏。主要有钾盐、石灰石、铜、铁、磷酸盐、镁、锰、硫磺等。国土森林覆盖率约5.7%，总面积为127万杜纳亩（1杜纳亩约合1.4市亩）。
[important person] REUVEN RIVLIN: President. Born in Jerusalem in 1939. Bachelor of Laws, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. From 1986 to 1988, the head of the Jerusalem branch of the “Freedom Movement” of the Israeli right-wing party. In 1988, the “Freedom Movement” was incorporated into the Likud Group and was elected to Parliament as a member of Likud. He was unsuccessful in 1992 but was re-elected and re-elected in 1996. From 2001 to 2003, he served as Minister of Communications. From 2003 to 2006, he served as the speaker. In 2007, he participated in the presidential election and lost. From 2009 to 2013, he served as the speaker again. Since July 2014, he has been the 10th president of Israel.
BENJAMIN NETANYAHU: Prime Minister. Born in Tel Aviv in 1949, he received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He served as deputy director of the Embassy in the United States and a permanent representative to the United Nations. Elected as a member in 1988. In 1993, he was elected chairman of the Likud Group. In 1996, he was elected prime minister. Since 1998, he has also served as foreign minister. After failing to participate in the prime minister’s election in May 1999, he resigned as Likud’s leader and announced his withdrawal from politics. From 2002 to 2005, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Finance. In December 2005, he was re-elected as Chairman of the Likud Group. In March 2009, he served as Prime Minister. In March 2013, he re-elected the cabinet and re-elected the prime minister. In May 2015, he was re-elected as prime minister.
[Economy] A mixed economy, with a high degree of industrialization, is mainly based on knowledge-intensive industries, and has high technical standards in high value-added agriculture, biochemistry, electronics, and military industries. Israel’s overall economic strength is strong, and its competitiveness ranks first in the world.
Main economic data for 2017:
Gross domestic product: $350.8 billion
GDP growth rate: 4%
Per capita GDP: $40,285
Unemployment rate: 4.2%
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 3.6 NIS
[Resources] Mineral resources are relatively scarce. There are mainly potassium salts, limestone, copper, iron, phosphate, magnesium, manganese, sulfur and the like. The national forest coverage rate is about 5.7%, and the total area is 1.27 million duna (1 duna is about 1.4 mu).
【工 业】 主要发展能耗少、资金和技术密集型产业，注重对科技研发的投入。工业部门门类集中在高新技术产业及宝石加工行业，在电子技术、计算机软件、医疗设备、生物技术、信息和通讯技术、钻石加工等领域达到世界尖端水平。
【交通运输】 陆、海、空运输业发达。其中陆地运输的货物占一半，船舶和航空运输各占四分之一。全国公路通车总里程为18096公里，铁路总长度为1001.4公里。主要港口有海法、阿什杜德和埃拉特。全国共有48个机场，主要机场是本－古里安国际机场。主要航空公司有以色列航空公司（EL AL）。
【军 事】 以色列国防军正式成立于1948年5月26日，其前身是犹太民兵组织“哈加纳”。国防最高决策权和国防军的最高统帅权属于政府。国防部长是国防系统的最高领导，总参谋部是军队最高指挥机关，具体负责全军的作战指挥和军事训练。实行普遍义务兵役制，现役部队18万人，预备役人员45万人。国防预算多年保持在国内生产总值的7%。
【教 育】 政府重视教育事业，教育投入长期保持在国内生产总值的8.5%左右。主要大学有：希伯来大学、特拉维夫大学、海法大学、以色列理工学院、魏茨曼科学研究院、巴伊兰大学和本-古里安大学。
【新闻出版】 新闻出版业较发达。主要报刊有：《国土报》（HA’ARETZ），创刊于1918年，希伯来文日报；《晚报》（MA’ARIV），创刊于1948年，希伯来文日报；《新消息报》（YEDIOTH AHRONOTH）,创刊于1939年，希伯来文日报；《耶路撒冷邮报》（THE JERUSALEM POST），创刊于1932年，英文日报。
[Industrial] Mainly develop industries with low energy consumption, capital and technology-intensive industries, and focus on investment in science and technology research and development. The industrial sector is concentrated in the high-tech industry and gem processing industry, reaching the world’s cutting-edge level in the fields of electronic technology, computer software, medical equipment, biotechnology, information and communication technology, and diamond processing.
[Agriculture, animal husbandry, fishery] Agricultural development, high technology content, its drip irrigation equipment, new varieties development is world-famous. The structure of agricultural organizations is dominated by Moshav and Kibbutz. The main crops are wheat, cotton, vegetables, and citrus. Food is close to self-sufficiency, and fruit and vegetable production is self-sufficient and exported.
[Tourism] Tourism plays an important role in the economy and is one of the main sources of foreign exchange. Although the size is small, there are unique tourist attractions and numerous places of interest, attracting millions of tourists every year.
[Transportation] The land, sea and air transportation industry is developed. Among them, half of the goods transported by land, and one quarter of ships and air transport. The total length of the national highway is 18,096 kilometers, and the total length of the railway is 1001.4 kilometers. The main ports are Haifa, Ashdod and Eilat. There are 48 airports across the country and the main airport is Ben-Gurion International Airport. The main airline is Israel Airlines (EL AL).
[Foreign Trade] The domestic market is relatively small, and the economy is highly dependent on foreign countries. Israel is a member of the WTO and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. It has free trade agreements with the United States, Canada, Turkey, Mexico and the European Union, the European Free Trade Association and the Southern Common Market. The EU is Israel’s largest trading partner and the United States is the largest single trading partner.
[Military] The Israel Defense Forces was formally established on May 26, 1948, and its predecessor was the Jewish militia “Hagana.” The highest decision-making power of national defense and the supreme command of the National Defence Force belong to the government. The Minister of Defense is the highest leader of the national defense system. The General Staff is the highest commanding organ of the military, and is responsible for the operational command and military training of the entire army. The general compulsory military service system is implemented, with 180,000 active troops and 450,000 reserve personnel. The defense budget has remained at 7% of GDP for many years.
[Education] The government attaches great importance to education, and education investment has remained at around 8.5% of GDP for a long time. The main universities are: Hebrew University, Tel Aviv University, Haifa University, Israel Institute of Technology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Baylan University and Ben-Gurion University.
[Press and Publication] The press and publication industry is more developed. The main newspapers are: Ha’aretz, published in 1918, Hebrew Daily, MA’ARIV, published in 1948, Hebrew Daily; New News (YEDIOTH AHRONOTH), founded in 1939, the Hebrew Daily; The JERUSALEM POST, founded in 1932, the English-language daily.
[Broadcast TV] The main radio station is the “voice of Israel” led by the Israel Broadcasting Authority and the “voice of the Israel Defense Forces” under the Israel Defense Forces. There is a state-owned television station in Israel, led by the Israel Broadcasting Authority, and nearly 10 commercial TV channels.
[External Relations] Israel currently has diplomatic relations with 162 countries in the world.
(1) Relations with the United States: Established diplomatic relations with the United States on May 14, 1948. The two countries have special strategic allies, and the United States provides about $3 billion in military assistance each year. In March 2015, Prime Minister Netanyahu went to the United States to deliver a speech in Congress. In March 2016, US Vice President Bidden visited. In February 2017, Netanyahu visited the United States. In March, US President Trump International Negotiator Special Representative Greenblatt visited. In April, US Defense Minister Matisse visited. In May, US President Trump visited. In June and August, Trump’s son-in-law and White House senior adviser Kushner visited. In July, US President Trump International Negotiations Special Representative Greenblatt visited. In September, Netanyahu visited the United States. In December, US President Trump announced the recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and announced the launch of the embassy relocation plan. In January 2018, US Vice President Peng Si visited. In March, Netanyahu visited the United States. In April, the new US Secretary of State Pompeo visited. On May 14, the US Embassy officially moved to Jerusalem.
(2) Relations with Russia: In 1947, the former Soviet Union voted in favor of the UN General Assembly resolution on the partition of Palestine. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Su was established diplomatic relations with Israel. After the “Six-Five” war in 1967, the two countries broke off. In October 1990, the two countries resumed diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level. In December, it announced the recognition of all countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and successively established diplomatic relations with the 15 countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States including Russia. In April 2012, he visited Russia with National Security Assistant Amedrol. In May, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited. In November, President Peres visited Russia. In June 2013, Vice Foreign Minister Elgin visited Russia. In November, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited Russia. In December, Foreign Minister Lieberman visited Russia. In January 2014, Russian Duma Chairman Nareshkin went to attend the funeral of the former Prime Minister’s salon. In September 2015, June 2016 and March 2017, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited Russia. In June 2017, Dusitchev, Chairman of the Russian Duma Foreign Affairs Committee, visited Israel; In August, Netanyahu visited Russia. In January and May 2018, Netanyahu visited Russia twice.
(3) Relations with European countries: Europe is an important trading partner. Established a free trade zone with the European Community in 1975 and re-signed a free trade agreement with the European Union in 1995. In December 2004, it signed an agreement with the European Union on the European Neighborhood Policy. European countries support the political settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict and actively participate in the Middle East peace process. The EU is one of the “quartet mechanisms” of the Middle East issue. In June 2016 and January 2017, France held two foreign ministers’ meetings on the question of Palestine. Israel did not participate in the meeting and boycotted it. In February and November 2017, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited the UK. In March, Slovak President Gikas visited. In July, Netanyahu visited France and Hungary. In November, President Rivlin visited Spain. In December, Netanyahu visited France and the European Union. In December, the Czech Republic announced that it would recognize West Jerusalem as the capital before 1967. In April 2018, Romanian Prime Minister Denzil visited. In May, Netanyahu went to Cyprus to attend the summit of leaders of Israel, Greece and Cyprus.
(4) Relations with the Arab countries: After the founding of the country, there were four major wars with the Arab countries, which encroached on large areas of the Arab countries. Its actual control of the territory is about twice the size of the 1947 resolution.
Relations with Palestine: On September 13, 1993, the Gaza-Jeriko first autonomy agreement was signed with the PLO. On May 4, 1994, Israel and Palestine formally signed an implementation agreement in Palestine on the pre-autonomy of Palestine in Gaza and Jericho. On January 15, 1997, Israel and Palestine signed the Hebron Agreement to withdraw 80% of the city. On October 23, 1998, Palestine and Israel signed the Wye Agreement in the United States, stipulating the withdrawal of 13.1% of the land from the West Bank. On December 15, the National Committee of Pakistan passed a constitutional amendment to remove the provisions on the destruction. In September 1999, the two sides signed the Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum on the implementation of the Wye agreement. On September 13, the two sides initiated final status negotiations, but the progress was unfavorable because of serious differences on major issues of concern for their interests. Since September 2000, a large-scale violent conflict has erupted between the two sides. After the Annapolis International Conference on Peace in the Middle East in November 2007, Palestine and Israel began negotiations on the final status of Pakistan and the implementation of the “road map” plan. As a result of the continued expansion of settlements, the two sides have serious differences on core issues such as Jerusalem, refugees and borders, and the negotiations have not made substantial progress. Beginning in September 2015, there have been frequent sporadic clashes between Israel and Palestine, causing casualties and persistent Palestinian-Israeli relations.
Beginning on December 27, 2008, Israel imposed a large-scale military operation codenamed “Cast Lead” on the Gaza-controlled Gaza Strip. On January 8, 2009, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1860, demanding an immediate ceasefire. After the US Obama administration took office, it increased its efforts to promote peace, and exerted pressure on the Israeli side on issues such as settlements, and promoted the summit of the three summits of the United States, Israel and Pakistan. In November 2009, Israel announced the suspension of the construction of settlements in the West Bank for 10 months. After the US mediation, the Israeli and Palestinian sides initiated indirect negotiations in May 2010 and restarted direct negotiations in early September. As Israel refused to extend the “limitation order”, the peace talks were interrupted again in early October. In September 2011, Palestine officially applied to become a member of the United Nations, but was unsuccessful because of strong opposition from the United States and Israel. Since 2012, the “quartet mechanism” of the Middle East issue, Jordan and other countries have promoted Palestinian-Israeli contacts, but failed to make substantial progress. In April and May, the Palestinian-Israeli leaders exchanged letters on reconsideration and Prime Minister Netanyahu also expressed support for Pakistan to establish a “territorial coherence”. However, the two sides still have differences on core issues such as settlements and borders. The peace talks failed to restart. In November, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution granting the status of the observer state of the United Nations to Palestine. Israel immediately retaliated by taking measures to temporarily freeze the transfer of taxes to the Palestinians and announce the construction of new settlements. From the 14th to the 22nd of the same month, Israel imposed a large-scale military operation on the Gaza Strip, code-named “The pillar of defense.” On July 30, 2013, under the mediation of the United States, the Palestinians and Israelis resumed peace talks in Washington, DC, and the US indicated that it will complete final status negotiations in nine months (expiring on April 29, 2014). However, due to the disparity in the positions of the two sides, the peace talks failed in May this year. Beginning in June, the two sides of Israel were killed and murdered around three Israeli youths and one Palestinian youth. On July 8, Israel launched a military operation codenamed “Protection of Borders” to the Gaza Strip. The military strike lasted for 51 days, causing heavy casualties and property losses in the Palestinian side. In April 2015, rockets from Gaza were attacked in the south, causing no casualties. This is the first time since 2015 that rockets have been attacked in the territory. In June, two Israeli citizens were detained by Hamas in the Gaza Strip; a rocket from Gaza fell into the open area near the southern city of Ashkel for subsequent counterattacks. Since September 2015, in the West Bank of the Jordan River, Jerusalem, Gaza border, Tel Aviv and other places, there have been many serious violent clashes between Israel and Palestine. The number of casualties of Israeli police and civilians exceeded 500. In December 2016, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 2334, demanding that Israel immediately stop all settlement construction. In July and December 2017, due to security incidents near the entrance to the Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Old City of Jerusalem and President Trump’s announcement of the recognition of Jerusalem as a capital incident, the Israeli-Palestinian situation escalated. Since March 30, 2018, the Palestinian people have held a “return to the parade” in the Gaza Strip. It has continued to this day and has killed more than 100 Palestinians and injured tens of thousands of people. Recently, Israel and Hamas armed forces have repeatedly attacked each other, and the scale of the conflict has been the largest since 2014. The situation in Gaza has escalated.
Relations with Egypt: In March 1979, Israel and Egypt officially signed a peace treaty, and the two countries ended their war. In February 1980, the two sides exchanged ambassadors. In March 1989, the area of Taba, the last Egyptian territory of the Sinai Peninsula, was withdrawn. After the political situation in Egypt changed in 2011, the Egyptian military promised to continue to abide by the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty, which Israel welcomed. In August 2011, the Israeli army accidentally killed several Egyptian soldiers, triggering a large-scale demonstration against Egypt. In September, the Ethiopian people attacked the embassy in Egypt and forced the embassy personnel to evacuate. In March 2012, the Egyptian parliament passed a resolution calling for the expulsion of the ambassador to Egypt and the cessation of natural gas. In April, Egypt announced that it would stop supplying natural gas. In September, Israel renewed its ambassadors. After the outbreak of the conflict in Gaza in November, Egypt recalled the ambassador to protest in protest and returned to the ambassador to Egypt. In January 2014, two rockets from the direction of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt hit the southern city. Beginning in June, Israeli-Palestinian relations have tightened and a large-scale military conflict broke out in July. The Egyptian side has repeatedly condemned Israel’s abuse of force. The Egyptian side reopened the Rafah port on July 10, allowing the Egyptians stranded in Gaza to return to China and receiving and treating the wounded in Pakistan. At the same time, they provided relief supplies to the people of Gaza through the Rafah port. On the 14th, the Egyptian side announced its ceasefire peace initiative, which included requiring Israel and Palestine to stop hostile attacks; opening border crossings allowed relief supplies and wounded people to pass; any other issues should be resolved through consultation between the two sides. On August 26, Israel and Palestine achieved a temporary ceasefire under the mediation of Egypt and other parties. In June 2015, the Egyptian government appointed the ambassador for the first time since 2012. In September, the embassy in Egypt was reopened four years later. In January 2016, Ai Xin was appointed as the ambassador to the office. In July, Foreign Minister Shukri visited. In December, Israel shut down the embassy in Egypt and evacuated the ambassador to Egypt. In August 2017, both sides of Egypt and Egypt reopened their consultations in Cairo with the Embassy of Egypt. In September, Prime Minister Netanyahu met with Egyptian President Seyce in New York.
Relations with Jordan: On July 25, 1994, Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty in Washington, announcing the end of the 46-year war between the two countries. In November of the same year, the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Israeli-Israeli exchanges and the exchange of ambassadors to achieve complete normalization of relations between the two countries. In January 2014, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited the treaty. In March, a Jordanian citizen was shot and killed by Israeli soldiers while passing the border with Karama at the border. This triggered a strong reaction from the Jordanian side. The Palestinian Council of the House of Representatives condemned Israel’s actions and demanded that the government immediately implement the House of Representatives on “expulsion. The ambassador to the ambassador and the recall of the ambassador’s resolution, and requested urgent submission of a bill on “modifying or abolishing the peace agreement”. Afterwards, he officially apologized to the parties and agreed to conduct a joint investigation on the incident. In April, King Abdullah II of Jordan stated that the Jordanian side supports the peaceful and comprehensive realization of Palestinian-Israeli peace on the basis of the “two-state plan” through the Palestinian-Israeli peace talks. During the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in June-August, the government condemned the Israeli aggression and participated in the ceasefire. At the end of 2014, Jordan on behalf of the Arab countries in the Security Council to promote the relevant draft resolution, requesting the withdrawal of the occupied Palestinian territory at the end of 2017, was rejected by the Security Council. On July 23, 2017, two Jordanian citizens were shot and killed by the security officer of the Embassy of the Embassy, triggering a diplomatic crisis. The following day, all the embassy personnel were withdrawn to Israel.
Relations with Lebanon: In June 1982, invading Lebanon, when it was withdrawn in June 1985, it retained a safe area of about 850 square kilometers in southern Lebanon, supporting the “Nanli Army” of about 3,000 people, and often with Lebanon and Palestine. Armed conflicts. In May 2000, the troops were withdrawn from southern Lebanon unilaterally. However, Li and Syria insisted that they should withdraw from the Sheba farm area at the same time. In July 2006, a large-scale military operation was launched against Lebanon. On August 14, Lebanon and Israel achieved a ceasefire in accordance with Security Council resolution 1701. At present, there are still controversies on the issue of the attribution of Lebanon to the Sheba farm and the demarcation of the Mediterranean sea border. In August 2013, no man’s land in northern Israel was attacked by four “Katyusha” rockets from Lebanon. President Li issued a statement condemning the violation of Security Council resolution 1701. In February 2014, the aircraft was airstrikeed in the eastern part of Lebanon. In March, the southern part of Lebanon was again shelled by Israelis. In July, two rockets from southern Lebanon hit the northern region without causing casualties. The Israeli army used gunfire to fight back. In January 2015, Israeli air strikes targeted domestic targets and killed several members of the Hezbollah party, triggering tensions on the Israeli-Lebanese border. In December 2018, the Israeli army carried out the “Northern Barrier Operation” within the territory of Israel and Lebanon to investigate and destroy the tunnels that Hezbollah excavated in the border areas.
Relations with Syria: In November 1991, the “Defense of the Golan Heights Act” was passed by Parliament. In September 1992, the principle of “land for peace” was also applied for the first time, and it was also applied to the Golan Heights. After that, the Syrian peace talks were carried out intermittently. In May 2008, the Syrian and Syrian sides announced that they would conduct non-direct negotiations under the mediation of Turkey. The negotiations took place in four rounds, due to the suspension of the Gaza conflict at the end of 2008. On June 5, 2011, Palestinian and Syrian demonstrators gathered in the Golan Heights to commemorate the 44th anniversary of the third Middle East war and clashed with Israeli troops, killing more than 20 people. Since the turmoil in Syria, many air strikes have been carried out against the targets in Syria. Since February 2018, he has carried out air strikes against Iranian military targets in Syria, and repeatedly warned that Iran will not tolerate military presence in Syria.
Relations with other Arab countries: From 1994 to 1996, Israel had an interest office or office with Morocco, Tunisia and Oman. In November 1999, Mauritania established diplomatic relations with Israel. In March 2009, Mauritania broke off diplomatic relations with Israel. In October 2010, Morocco, Tunisia and Oman announced the freezing of relations with Israel.
In February 2002, Saudi Arabia proposed a new proposal for peace in the Middle East, that is, Israel’s total withdrawal from the occupied Arab territories in 1967, and the Arab countries normalized relations. In March, the 14th Arab League Summit in Beirut adopted the Arab Peace Initiative based on Saudi peace proposals. The initiative calls for Israel to withdraw completely from all Arab territories occupied since 1967, accept the establishment of a sovereign, independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital, and resolve the issue of Palestine refugees in a fair manner in accordance with UN Resolution 194. On this basis, the Arab countries will sign a peace agreement with Israel and gradually establish normal relations with Israel on the premise of achieving comprehensive peace. In April 2013, the Arab delegation visited the United States and expressed its willingness to realize the “two-state plan” between Palestine and Israel through a small amount of land replacement on the basis of the 1967 border.
In October 2018, Prime Minister Netanyahu paid an official visit to Oman and met with Sultan Qaboos of Oman. The Israeli side stated that this is an important step in strengthening relations with the Middle East countries.