The State of Israel 以色列国

【国 名】 以色列国(The State of Isreal)

【面 积】 根据1947年联合国关于巴勒斯坦分治决议的规定,以色列国的面积为1.52万平方公里。1948-1973年间,以色列在四次阿以战争中占领了大片阿拉伯国家领土,80年代以后陆续部分撤出。目前以色列实际控制面积约2.5万平方公里。

【人 口】 884.2万(2018年4月),其中犹太人约占74.5%,其余为阿拉伯人、德鲁兹人等。

【语 言】 希伯来语为官方语言,通用英语。

【宗 教】 大部分居民信奉犹太教,其余信奉伊斯兰教、基督教和其他宗教。

【首 都】 建国时在特拉维夫(TEL AVIV),1950年迁往耶路撒冷(JERUSALEM),但未获国际社会普遍承认。1980年7月30日,以议会通过法案,宣布耶路撒冷是以色列“永恒的与不可分割的首都”。对于耶路撒冷的地位和归属,阿拉伯国家同以色列一直存有争议。目前,国际社会同以建交的国家均将使馆设在特拉维夫或其周边城市。2018年5月,美国、危地马拉、巴拉圭将驻以使馆迁至耶路撒冷。

【国家元首】 鲁温·瑞夫林(REUVEN RIVLIN),2014年7月就职,为以色列第10任总统,任期7年。

【重要节日】 犹太新年(约公历9月)、赎罪日(约公历9、10月)、住棚节(约公历9、10月)、逾越节(约公历3、4月)、大屠杀纪念日(约公历4、5月)、独立日(约公历4、5月)。

【地 理】 位于亚洲最西端。毗邻巴勒斯坦。东接约旦,东北部与叙利亚为邻,南连亚喀巴湾,西南部与埃及为邻,西濒地中海,北与黎巴嫩接壤。海岸线长度198公里。

【气 候】 地中海型气候,夏季炎热干燥,最高气温39℃;冬季温和湿润,最低气温4℃左右。

[State name] The State of Isreal

[Dimensions] According to the 1947 United Nations resolution on the partition of Palestine, the area of ​​the State of Israel is 15,200 square kilometers. Between 1948 and 1973, Israel occupied a large number of Arab territories in the four Arab-Israeli wars, and some of them were withdrawn after the 1980s. At present, Israel actually controls an area of ​​about 25,000 square kilometers.

[People] 8.842 million (April 2018), of which Jews accounted for 74.5%, and the rest were Arabs, Druzes, etc.

[Language] Hebrew is the official language, general English.

[Discipline] Most residents believe in Judaism and the rest believe in Islam, Christianity and other religions.

[The capital] In Tel Aviv (TEL AVIV) when it was founded, it moved to Jerusalem (JERUSALEM) in 1950, but it was not widely recognized by the international community. On July 30, 1980, the parliament passed a bill declaring that Jerusalem is Israel’s “eternal and inalienable capital.” The Arab countries have always been controversial with Israel regarding the status and ownership of Jerusalem. At present, the countries that have established diplomatic relations with the international community have set up embassies in Tel Aviv or its surrounding cities. In May 2018, the United States, Guatemala, and Paraguay moved their embassies to Jerusalem.

[Head of State] REUVEN RIVLIN, inaugurated in July 2014, is the 10th president of Israel for a term of seven years.

[Important Festival] Jewish New Year (about September of the Gregorian calendar), Yom Kippur (about 9 or 10 months of the Gregorian calendar), Sukkot (about 9 or 10 months of the Gregorian calendar), Passover (about 3 or 4 months of the Gregorian calendar), Memorial of the Holocaust Day (about 4th and 5th of the Gregorian calendar), Independence Day (about 4th and 5th of the Gregorian calendar).

[Region] Located at the western end of Asia. Adjacent to Palestine. It is bordered by Jordan in the east, Syria in the northeast, Aqaba Bay in the south, Egypt in the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and Lebanon in the north. The coastline is 198 kilometers long.

[Weather] Mediterranean climate, hot and dry in summer, the highest temperature is 39 ° C; winter is mild and humid, the lowest temperature is about 4 °C.

【简 史】 犹太人远祖是古代闪族的支脉希伯来人。原居住于美索不达米亚平原,公元前13世纪末开始从埃及迁居巴勒斯坦地区。公元前1000年左右,建立以色列国。此后先后被亚述、巴比伦、波斯、古希腊和罗马帝国征服。公元70年被罗马人赶出巴勒斯坦地区,开始长达近2000年流亡生活。19世纪末,犹太复国主义运动兴起,犹太人开始大批移居巴勒斯坦。第一次世界大战结束后,英国对巴勒斯坦实行委任统治。1917年,英国政府发表《贝尔福宣言》,表示赞成在巴勒斯坦为犹太人建立民族家园。1947年11月29日,联合国大会通过决议,决定在巴勒斯坦地区分别建立阿拉伯国和犹太国。1948年5月14日,以色列国正式成立。

【宪 法】 没有正式的成文宪法,仅有《议会法》、《国家土地法》、《总统法》、《政府法》、《国家经济法》、《国防军法》、《耶路撒冷法》、《司法制度法》、《国家审计长法》、《人的尊严与自由法》、《职业自由法》和《犹太民族国家法》共12部基本法。

【议 会】 一院制,设有120个席位,是国家最高权力机构,拥有立法权,负责制定和修改国家法律,对重大政治问题表决,批准内阁成员并监督政府工作,选举总统、议长。议员由普选产生,选举采用比例代表制,候选人以政党为单位参加竞选,选民只需将选票投给各自支持的政党。获得3.25%以上选票的各政党根据得票多少按比例分配议席。

议长:尤利·埃德尔斯坦(YULI EDELSTEIN),2013年3月18日就职,2015年5月连任,来自利库德集团。

【政 府】 政府由议会中占多数席位的一个或几个政党联合组成。议会选举结果揭晓后,总统在综合议会各党派意见基础上提名总理人选,授权其组阁。总理由成功完成组阁者担任。

目前,政府主要成员有:

总理本雅明·内塔尼亚胡(BENJAMIN NETANYAHU),利库德集团。兼任外交部长。

教育部长、大流散事务部长纳夫塔利·本内特(NAFTALI BENNETT),“犹太家园”党。

财政部长摩西·卡隆(MOSHE KAHLON),“我们大家党”。

宗教事务部长大卫·阿祖莱(DAVID AZOULAY),沙斯党。

公安部长、信息部长和战略事务部长吉拉德·埃尔丹(GILAD ERDAN),利库德集团。

【行政区划】 全国共有75个市,265个地方委员会,53个地区委员会。

【司法机构】 最高法院、地区法院和基层法院三级制组织系统,此外还有军事法庭、宗教法院和劳资法院。最高法院院长以斯帖·哈犹特(ESTHER HAYUT)。

[History] The Jewish ancestors were the Hebrews of the ancient Semitic. Originally residing in the plains of Mesopotamia, he moved from Egypt to the Palestinian territories at the end of the 13th century BC. The State of Israel was established around 1000 BC. Since then it has been conquered by Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. In the 70th century, the Romans were driven out of the Palestinian area and began to live in exile for nearly 2000 years. At the end of the 19th century, the Zionist movement rose and the Jews began to move to Palestine in large numbers. After the end of the First World War, Britain imposed an appointment on Palestine. In 1917, the British government issued the “Belfort Declaration”, expressing its support for the establishment of a national home for Jews in Palestine. On November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution deciding to establish the Arab and Jewish states in the Palestinian territories. On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel was formally established.

[Constitution] There is no formal written constitution, only the “Parliamentary Law”, “National Land Law”, “Presidential Law”, “Government Law”, “National Economic Law”, “Defence Army Law”, “Jerusalem Law”, “Judicial The Institutional Law, the National Auditor’s Law, the Human Dignity and Freedom Act, the Professional Freedom Act and the Jewish National Law have 12 basic laws.

[Parliamentary] The one-chamber system, with 120 seats, is the highest authority of the state. It has legislative powers, is responsible for formulating and amending national laws, voting on major political issues, approving cabinet members and supervising government work, and elects presidents and speaker. Members are elected by universal suffrage. The election adopts a proportional representation system. The candidates participate in the election by political parties. The voters only need to vote for the political parties they support. The political parties that obtained more than 3.25% of the votes were allocated seats on a pro rata basis.

Speaker: YULI EDELSTEIN, took office on March 18, 2013, re-elected in May 2015, from the Likud Group.

[Government] The government is composed of one or several political parties with a majority in the parliament. After the results of the parliamentary elections were announced, the president nominated the candidates for the prime minister on the basis of the opinions of the various parties in the comprehensive parliament and authorized him to form a cabinet. The general reason for successfully completing the cabinet is to serve.

At present, the main members of the government are:

Prime Minister Benjamin NETANYAHU, Likud Group. Also serves as the foreign minister.

NAFTALI BENNETT, Minister of Education, Minister of Dispersal Affairs, “Jewish Home” Party.

Finance Minister Moses Karon (MOSHE KAHLON), “All of us.”

DAVID AZOULAY, Minister of Religious Affairs, Shas Party.

Minister of Public Security, Minister of Information and Minister of Strategic Affairs GILAD ERDAN, Likud Group.

[Administrative Division] There are 75 cities, 265 local committees and 53 regional committees in the country.

[Judiciary] The three-tier system of the Supreme Court, the District Court and the Basic Court, in addition to military courts, religious courts and labor courts. Supreme Court President ESTHER HAYUT.

【政党和组织】 以色列政党繁杂,且不断变化,主要有:

(1)利库德集团(LIKUD):1973年9月由加哈尔集团、自由中心、拉姆党、人民党、国土完整运动等党联合组成。1977年首次在大选中获胜并执政。来自该党的贝京、沙米尔、内塔尼亚胡、沙龙曾先后出任总理。2005年8月,时任总理沙龙强力推行“单边脱离计划”,造成党内分裂,沙龙带领其支持者于11月退出利库德,另组前进党。同年12月,内塔尼亚胡再次当选利库德集团主席并连任至今。2009年,利库德在第18届议会选举中获27席,成为议会第二大党并成功组阁。2013年,利库德在第19届议会选举中与“我们的家园以色列”党组成竞选联盟,共获得31席,内塔尼亚胡再次成功组阁,连任总理。2015年,利库德集团在第20届议会选举中获得30席,内再次连任总理。

(2)“我们的家园以色列”党(YISRAEL BEITEINU):1999年成立的右翼政党,主要支持者是来自前苏联的犹太移民,主席为阿维格多·利伯曼。2013年第19届议会选举中与利库德集团组成竞选联盟,共获得31席,加入政府。2015年第20届议会选举中获6席,起初未加入执政联盟。2016年5月以政府改组后,加入执政联盟。2018年11月,因不满政府接受加沙停火协议,退出执政联盟。

(3)“未来”党(YESH ATID):2012年4月成立的世俗中间党派,主要支持者为中产阶级,主席为亚伊尔·拉皮德。在2013年第19届议会选举中一举获得19席,成为议会第二大党,并加入政府,获得财政、教育、科技等5个部长职位。2015年第20届议会选举获11席,未加入执政联盟。

(4)以色列工党(ISRAEL LABOUR PARTY):前身是1930年成立的以色列工人党(“马帕伊”),1968年与部分小党合并后改称“以色列工党”。以色列建国后至1977年,该党曾长期连续执政。本-古里安、梅厄、拉宾、佩雷斯等多位总理均来自该党。2007年6月,埃胡德·巴拉克当选工党主席。2009年,工党在第18届议会选举中获13席,成为第四大党。2011年1月巴拉克退出工党。9月,谢利·雅齐莫维奇当选工党第13任主席。2013年,工党在第19届议会选举中获15席,未加入政府,成为最大反对党。11月,伊萨克·赫尔佐克当选工党第14任主席。2015年1月,工党同运动党组成犹太复国主义联盟参加第20届议会选举,获得24席,成为以最大的反对党(联盟)。2017年7月,阿维·加佰当选工党第15任主席。

(5)“犹太家园”党(HABAYIT HAYEHUDI-THE JEWISH HOME),2008年11月成立。在2009年第18届议会中获得3席,加入政府。在2013年第19届议会选举中获得12席,加入政府,党主席纳夫塔利·本内特任教育部长、大流散事务部长。2015年第20届议会选举中获8席,本内特任教育部长兼耶路撒冷和大流散事务部长。

(6)沙斯党(SHAS):1984年成立的代表东方犹太人的正教派犹太人政党。主席为阿瑞·德里。在2013年第19届议会选举中获得11席,成为反对党。2015年第20届议会选举中获7席,加入执政联盟。

[Parties and organizations] Israeli political parties are complex and constantly changing, mainly including:

(1) Likud Group (LIKUD): In September 1973, it was composed of the Gahal Group, the Freedom Center, the Ram Party, the People’s Party, and the National Integrity Movement. In 1977, he won the election for the first time and was in power. Bejing, Shamir, Netanyahu and Sharon from the party have served as prime ministers. In August 2005, the then Prime Minister Sharon vigorously promoted the “unilateral detachment plan”, causing division within the party. Sharon led his supporters to withdraw from Likud in November and set up the Kadima Party. In December of the same year, Netanyahu was re-elected as Chairman of the Likud Group and re-elected to this day. In 2009, Likud won 27 seats in the 18th parliamentary election and became the second largest party in the parliament and successfully formed a cabinet. In 2013, Likud formed a campaign alliance with the “Our Homeland Israel” party in the 19th parliamentary election, which won a total of 31 seats. Netanyahu once again successfully formed a cabinet and re-elected the prime minister. In 2015, the Likud Group won 30 seats in the 20th parliamentary election and was re-elected as prime minister.

(2) “YISRAEL BEITEINU”: A right-wing party established in 1999. The main supporters are Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and the chairman is Avigdor Lieberman. In the 19th parliamentary elections in 2013, he formed a campaign alliance with the Likud Group and won 31 seats to join the government. In the 20th parliamentary elections in 2015, he won 6 seats and did not join the ruling coalition at first. After the government was reorganized in May 2016, he joined the ruling coalition. In November 2018, he was dissatisfied with the government’s acceptance of the Gaza ceasefire agreement and withdrew from the ruling coalition.

(3) “Future” Party (YESH ATID): A secular middle party established in April 2012. The main supporter is the middle class and the chairman is Yair Lapid. In the 19th parliamentary elections in 2013, he won 19 seats in one fell swoop and became the second largest party in the parliament. He joined the government and obtained five ministerial positions in finance, education and science and technology. In the 20th parliamentary elections in 2015, he won 11 seats and did not join the ruling coalition.

(4) ISRAEL LABOUR PARTY: The predecessor was the Israel Workers’ Party (“Mapai”), which was established in 1930. In 1968, it merged with some small parties and renamed the “Israeli Labour Party.” After the founding of Israel, by 1977, the party had been in power for a long time. Ben Gurion, Meir, Rabin, Perez and many other prime ministers all came from the party. In June 2007, Ehud Barak was elected chairman of the Labor Party. In 2009, the Labor Party won 13 seats in the 18th parliamentary election and became the fourth largest party. In January 2011, Barak withdrew from the Labor Party. In September, Shelly Yazimovich was elected the 13th chairman of the Labor Party. In 2013, the Labor Party won 15 seats in the 19th parliamentary elections and did not join the government to become the largest opposition party. In November, Isaac Herzog was elected the 14th chairman of the Labor Party. In January 2015, the Labor Party and the Movement Party formed the Zionist Alliance to participate in the 20th parliamentary election and won 24 seats, becoming the largest opposition party (alliance). In July 2017, Avi Coron was elected as the 15th chairman of the Labor Party.

(5) HABAYIT HAYEHUDI-THE JEWISH HOME, established in November 2008. In the 18th parliament in 2009, he won 3 seats and joined the government. In the 19th parliamentary elections in 2013, he won 12 seats and joined the government. Party chairman Naftali Bennett was appointed Minister of Education and Minister of Dispersal Affairs. In the 20th parliamentary elections in 2015, he won 8 seats. Bennett is the Minister of Education and Minister of Jerusalem and the Minister of Dispersal Affairs.

(6) Shass Party (SHAS): A Orthodox Jewish political party that was founded in 1984 to represent the Eastern Jews. The chairman is Ari Delhi. In the 19th parliamentary elections in 2013, he won 11 seats and became an opposition party. In the 20th parliamentary elections in 2015, he won 7 seats and joined the ruling coalition.

【重要人物】 鲁温·瑞夫林(REUVEN RIVLIN):总统。1939年生于耶路撒冷。耶路撒冷希伯来大学法学学士学位。1986年至1988年,人以色列右翼政党“自由运动”耶路撒冷支部负责人。1988年,“自由运动”并入利库德集团,以利库德成员身份当选议会议员。曾于1992年落选,但又于1996年再次当选并连任至今。2001年至2003年,任通讯部长。2003年至2006年,任议长。2007年,参加总统竞选败北。2009年至2013年再次担任议长。2014年7月起,任以色列第10任总统。

本雅明·内塔尼亚胡(BENJAMIN NETANYAHU):总理。1949年生于特拉维夫,获美国麻省理工学院学士、硕士学位。曾任以驻美使馆副馆长、常驻联合国代表。1988年当选议员。1993年当选利库德集团主席。1996年当选总理。1998年起兼任外长。1999年5月参加总理竞选失败后辞去利库德领导人职务,宣布退出政坛。2002年至2005年,先后任外交部长、财政部长。2005年12月再次当选利库德集团主席。2009年3月,内出任总理。2013年3月,内再次组阁成功,连任总理。2015年5月,再次连任总理。

【经 济】 混合型经济,工业化程度较高,以知识密集型产业为主,高附加值农业、生化、电子、军工等部门技术水平较高。以色列总体经济实力较强,竞争力居世界先列。

2017年主要经济数据:

国内生产总值:3508亿美元

国内生产总值增长率:4%

人均国内生产总值:40285美元

失业率:4.2%

汇率:1美元≈3.6新谢克尔

【资 源】 矿产资源较贫乏。主要有钾盐、石灰石、铜、铁、磷酸盐、镁、锰、硫磺等。国土森林覆盖率约5.7%,总面积为127万杜纳亩(1杜纳亩约合1.4市亩)。

[important person] REUVEN RIVLIN: President. Born in Jerusalem in 1939. Bachelor of Laws, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. From 1986 to 1988, the head of the Jerusalem branch of the “Freedom Movement” of the Israeli right-wing party. In 1988, the “Freedom Movement” was incorporated into the Likud Group and was elected to Parliament as a member of Likud. He was unsuccessful in 1992 but was re-elected and re-elected in 1996. From 2001 to 2003, he served as Minister of Communications. From 2003 to 2006, he served as the speaker. In 2007, he participated in the presidential election and lost. From 2009 to 2013, he served as the speaker again. Since July 2014, he has been the 10th president of Israel.

BENJAMIN NETANYAHU: Prime Minister. Born in Tel Aviv in 1949, he received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He served as deputy director of the Embassy in the United States and a permanent representative to the United Nations. Elected as a member in 1988. In 1993, he was elected chairman of the Likud Group. In 1996, he was elected prime minister. Since 1998, he has also served as foreign minister. After failing to participate in the prime minister’s election in May 1999, he resigned as Likud’s leader and announced his withdrawal from politics. From 2002 to 2005, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Finance. In December 2005, he was re-elected as Chairman of the Likud Group. In March 2009, he served as Prime Minister. In March 2013, he re-elected the cabinet and re-elected the prime minister. In May 2015, he was re-elected as prime minister.

[Economy] A mixed economy, with a high degree of industrialization, is mainly based on knowledge-intensive industries, and has high technical standards in high value-added agriculture, biochemistry, electronics, and military industries. Israel’s overall economic strength is strong, and its competitiveness ranks first in the world.

Main economic data for 2017:

Gross domestic product: $350.8 billion

GDP growth rate: 4%

Per capita GDP: $40,285

Unemployment rate: 4.2%

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 3.6 NIS

[Resources] Mineral resources are relatively scarce. There are mainly potassium salts, limestone, copper, iron, phosphate, magnesium, manganese, sulfur and the like. The national forest coverage rate is about 5.7%, and the total area is 1.27 million duna (1 duna is about 1.4 mu).

【工 业】 主要发展能耗少、资金和技术密集型产业,注重对科技研发的投入。工业部门门类集中在高新技术产业及宝石加工行业,在电子技术、计算机软件、医疗设备、生物技术、信息和通讯技术、钻石加工等领域达到世界尖端水平。

【农、牧、渔业】 农业发达,科技含量较高,其滴灌设备、新品种开发举世闻名。农业组织结构以莫沙夫和基布兹为主。主要农作物有小麦、棉花、蔬菜、柑橘等。粮食接近自给,水果、蔬菜生产自给有余并大量出口。

【旅游业】 旅游业在经济中占重要地位,是外汇的主要来源之一。以幅员虽小,但有独特的旅游胜地和众多的名胜古迹,每年吸引数以百万计的的游客游览观光。

【交通运输】 陆、海、空运输业发达。其中陆地运输的货物占一半,船舶和航空运输各占四分之一。全国公路通车总里程为18096公里,铁路总长度为1001.4公里。主要港口有海法、阿什杜德和埃拉特。全国共有48个机场,主要机场是本-古里安国际机场。主要航空公司有以色列航空公司(EL AL)。

【对外贸易】 国内市场相对狭小,经济对外依存度高。以色列是世贸组织和经济合作与发展组织成员国,与美国、加拿大、土耳其、墨西哥及欧盟、欧洲自由贸易联盟、南方共同市场签有自由贸易协定。欧盟是以色列最大贸易伙伴,美国是最大单一贸易伙伴国。

【军 事】 以色列国防军正式成立于1948年5月26日,其前身是犹太民兵组织“哈加纳”。国防最高决策权和国防军的最高统帅权属于政府。国防部长是国防系统的最高领导,总参谋部是军队最高指挥机关,具体负责全军的作战指挥和军事训练。实行普遍义务兵役制,现役部队18万人,预备役人员45万人。国防预算多年保持在国内生产总值的7%。

【教 育】 政府重视教育事业,教育投入长期保持在国内生产总值的8.5%左右。主要大学有:希伯来大学、特拉维夫大学、海法大学、以色列理工学院、魏茨曼科学研究院、巴伊兰大学和本-古里安大学。

【新闻出版】 新闻出版业较发达。主要报刊有:《国土报》(HA’ARETZ),创刊于1918年,希伯来文日报;《晚报》(MA’ARIV),创刊于1948年,希伯来文日报;《新消息报》(YEDIOTH AHRONOTH),创刊于1939年,希伯来文日报;《耶路撒冷邮报》(THE JERUSALEM POST),创刊于1932年,英文日报。

【广播电视】 主要广播电台由以色列广播管理局领导的“以色列之声”和以色列国防军下属的“以色列国防军之声”。国有电视台有以色列一台,由以色列广播管理局领导,另有近十家商业电视频道。

[Industrial] Mainly develop industries with low energy consumption, capital and technology-intensive industries, and focus on investment in science and technology research and development. The industrial sector is concentrated in the high-tech industry and gem processing industry, reaching the world’s cutting-edge level in the fields of electronic technology, computer software, medical equipment, biotechnology, information and communication technology, and diamond processing.

[Agriculture, animal husbandry, fishery] Agricultural development, high technology content, its drip irrigation equipment, new varieties development is world-famous. The structure of agricultural organizations is dominated by Moshav and Kibbutz. The main crops are wheat, cotton, vegetables, and citrus. Food is close to self-sufficiency, and fruit and vegetable production is self-sufficient and exported.

[Tourism] Tourism plays an important role in the economy and is one of the main sources of foreign exchange. Although the size is small, there are unique tourist attractions and numerous places of interest, attracting millions of tourists every year.

[Transportation] The land, sea and air transportation industry is developed. Among them, half of the goods transported by land, and one quarter of ships and air transport. The total length of the national highway is 18,096 kilometers, and the total length of the railway is 1001.4 kilometers. The main ports are Haifa, Ashdod and Eilat. There are 48 airports across the country and the main airport is Ben-Gurion International Airport. The main airline is Israel Airlines (EL AL).

[Foreign Trade] The domestic market is relatively small, and the economy is highly dependent on foreign countries. Israel is a member of the WTO and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. It has free trade agreements with the United States, Canada, Turkey, Mexico and the European Union, the European Free Trade Association and the Southern Common Market. The EU is Israel’s largest trading partner and the United States is the largest single trading partner.

[Military] The Israel Defense Forces was formally established on May 26, 1948, and its predecessor was the Jewish militia “Hagana.” The highest decision-making power of national defense and the supreme command of the National Defence Force belong to the government. The Minister of Defense is the highest leader of the national defense system. The General Staff is the highest commanding organ of the military, and is responsible for the operational command and military training of the entire army. The general compulsory military service system is implemented, with 180,000 active troops and 450,000 reserve personnel. The defense budget has remained at 7% of GDP for many years.

[Education] The government attaches great importance to education, and education investment has remained at around 8.5% of GDP for a long time. The main universities are: Hebrew University, Tel Aviv University, Haifa University, Israel Institute of Technology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Baylan University and Ben-Gurion University.

[Press and Publication] The press and publication industry is more developed. The main newspapers are: Ha’aretz, published in 1918, Hebrew Daily, MA’ARIV, published in 1948, Hebrew Daily; New News (YEDIOTH AHRONOTH), founded in 1939, the Hebrew Daily; The JERUSALEM POST, founded in 1932, the English-language daily.

[Broadcast TV] The main radio station is the “voice of Israel” led by the Israel Broadcasting Authority and the “voice of the Israel Defense Forces” under the Israel Defense Forces. There is a state-owned television station in Israel, led by the Israel Broadcasting Authority, and nearly 10 commercial TV channels.

【对外关系】 目前以色列与世界上162个国家有外交关系。

(1)同美国的关系:1948年5月14日与美国建交。两国有着特殊的战略盟友关系,美每年向以提供大约30亿美元的军事援助。2015年3月,以总理内塔尼亚胡赴美在国会发表演讲。2016年3月,美副总统拜登访以。2017年2月,内塔尼亚胡访美。3月,美总统特朗普国际谈判特别代表格林布拉特访以。4月,美国防部长马蒂斯访以。5月,美总统特朗普访以。6月和8月,特朗普女婿、白宫高级顾问库什纳访以。7月,美总统特朗普国际谈判特别代表格林布拉特访以。9月,内塔尼亚胡访美。12月,美总统特朗普宣布承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都并宣布启动驻以使馆搬迁计划。2018年1月,美副总统彭斯访以。3月,内塔尼亚胡访美。4月,美新任国务卿蓬佩奥访以。5月14日,美国驻以使馆正式迁往耶路撒冷。

(2)同俄罗斯的关系:1947年,前苏联投票赞成联合国大会关于巴勒斯坦分治的决议。以建国后,苏即与以建立外交关系。1967年“六·五”战争后,两国断交。1990年10月,两国恢复大使级外交关系。12月,以宣布承认独联体所有国家,并相继同包括俄罗斯在内的独联体15国建立外交关系。2012年4月,以国家安全事务助理阿米德罗尔访俄。5月,俄总统普京访以。11月,以总统佩雷斯访俄。2013年6月,以副外长埃尔金访俄。11月,以总理内塔尼亚胡访俄。12月,以外长利伯曼访俄。2014年1月,俄杜马主席纳雷什金赴以出席以前总理沙龙葬礼。2015年9月、2016年6月和2017年3月,以总理内塔尼亚胡访俄。2017年6月,俄杜马外事委员会主席杜萨切夫访以;以议长埃德尔斯坦访俄。8月,内塔尼亚胡访俄。2018年1月和5月,内塔尼亚胡两次访俄。

(3)同欧洲国家的关系:欧洲是以重要贸易伙伴。1975年以与欧共体建立自由贸易区,1995年同欧盟重新签署自由贸易协定。2004年12月,以与欧盟签订“欧洲近邻政策”协定。欧洲各国支持政治解决阿以冲突,积极参加中东和平进程。欧盟是中东问题“四方机制”之一。2016年6月和2017年1月,法国两次召开巴勒斯坦问题外长会,以色列均未参会并予以抵制。2017年2月和11月,以总理内塔尼亚胡访问英国。3月,斯洛伐克总统吉卡斯访以。7月,内塔尼亚胡访问法国、匈牙利。11月,以总统瑞夫林访问西班牙。12月,内塔尼亚胡访问法国和欧盟。12月,捷克宣布承认1967年前的西耶路撒冷为以首都。2018年4月,罗马尼亚总理登齐勒访以。5月,内塔尼亚胡赴塞浦路斯出席以色列、希腊、塞浦路斯三国领导人峰会。

[External Relations] Israel currently has diplomatic relations with 162 countries in the world.

(1) Relations with the United States: Established diplomatic relations with the United States on May 14, 1948. The two countries have special strategic allies, and the United States provides about $3 billion in military assistance each year. In March 2015, Prime Minister Netanyahu went to the United States to deliver a speech in Congress. In March 2016, US Vice President Bidden visited. In February 2017, Netanyahu visited the United States. In March, US President Trump International Negotiator Special Representative Greenblatt visited. In April, US Defense Minister Matisse visited. In May, US President Trump visited. In June and August, Trump’s son-in-law and White House senior adviser Kushner visited. In July, US President Trump International Negotiations Special Representative Greenblatt visited. In September, Netanyahu visited the United States. In December, US President Trump announced the recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and announced the launch of the embassy relocation plan. In January 2018, US Vice President Peng Si visited. In March, Netanyahu visited the United States. In April, the new US Secretary of State Pompeo visited. On May 14, the US Embassy officially moved to Jerusalem.

(2) Relations with Russia: In 1947, the former Soviet Union voted in favor of the UN General Assembly resolution on the partition of Palestine. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Su was established diplomatic relations with Israel. After the “Six-Five” war in 1967, the two countries broke off. In October 1990, the two countries resumed diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level. In December, it announced the recognition of all countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and successively established diplomatic relations with the 15 countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States including Russia. In April 2012, he visited Russia with National Security Assistant Amedrol. In May, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited. In November, President Peres visited Russia. In June 2013, Vice Foreign Minister Elgin visited Russia. In November, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited Russia. In December, Foreign Minister Lieberman visited Russia. In January 2014, Russian Duma Chairman Nareshkin went to attend the funeral of the former Prime Minister’s salon. In September 2015, June 2016 and March 2017, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited Russia. In June 2017, Dusitchev, Chairman of the Russian Duma Foreign Affairs Committee, visited Israel; In August, Netanyahu visited Russia. In January and May 2018, Netanyahu visited Russia twice.

(3) Relations with European countries: Europe is an important trading partner. Established a free trade zone with the European Community in 1975 and re-signed a free trade agreement with the European Union in 1995. In December 2004, it signed an agreement with the European Union on the European Neighborhood Policy. European countries support the political settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict and actively participate in the Middle East peace process. The EU is one of the “quartet mechanisms” of the Middle East issue. In June 2016 and January 2017, France held two foreign ministers’ meetings on the question of Palestine. Israel did not participate in the meeting and boycotted it. In February and November 2017, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited the UK. In March, Slovak President Gikas visited. In July, Netanyahu visited France and Hungary. In November, President Rivlin visited Spain. In December, Netanyahu visited France and the European Union. In December, the Czech Republic announced that it would recognize West Jerusalem as the capital before 1967. In April 2018, Romanian Prime Minister Denzil visited. In May, Netanyahu went to Cyprus to attend the summit of leaders of Israel, Greece and Cyprus.

(4)同阿拉伯国家的关系:以建国后同阿拉伯国家发生了四次大的战争,侵占了阿拉伯国家大片土地。使其实际控制领土面积约达到1947年分治决议规定的两倍。

同巴勒斯坦的关系:1993年9月13日,以同巴解签署加沙-杰里科先行自治协议。1994年5月4日,以巴在开罗正式签署关于巴勒斯坦在加沙、杰里科先行自治的执行协议。1997年1月15日,以巴签署《希伯伦协议》,以撤出希市80%地区。1998年10月23日,巴以在美签署怀伊协议,规定以从约旦河西岸撤出13.1%的土地。12月15日,巴全国委员会通过修宪决议,删除其中的灭以条款。1999年9月,双方就执行怀伊协议签署《沙姆沙伊赫备忘录》。9月13日,双方启动最终地位谈判,但因在攸关切身利益的重大问题上分歧严重而进展不利。2000年9月起,双方爆发大规模暴力冲突。2007年11月安纳波利斯中东和平国际会议召开后,巴以开始就巴最终地位问题、落实“路线图”计划等进行谈判。因以继续扩建定居点,双方在耶路撒冷、难民、边界等核心问题上分歧严重,谈判未取得实质性进展。2015年9月开始,以巴双方在多地不断发生零星冲突,造成人员伤亡,巴以关系持续紧张。

2008年12月27日开始,以色列对哈马斯控制的加沙地带实施代号为“铸铅”的大规模军事行动。2009年1月8日,安理会通过1860号决议,要求立即停火。美国奥巴马政府上台后,加大促和力度,并就定居点等问题向以方施压,促成美、以、巴三方首脑会晤。2009年11月,以方宣布暂停约旦河西岸定居点建设10个月的“限建令”。经美国斡旋,以巴双方于2010年5月启动间接谈判进而于9月初重启直接谈判。由于以方拒绝延长“限建令”,和谈于10月初再次中断。2011年9月,巴勒斯坦正式申请成为联合国成员国,后因美国、以色列等强烈反对而未果。2012年以来,中东问题“四方机制”、约旦等推动巴以进行多次接触,但未能取得实质性进展。4月、5月,巴以领导人就复谈问题互致信件,以总理内塔尼亚胡还表示支持巴建立“领土连贯”的国家,但双方在定居点、边界等核心问题上分歧依旧,和谈未能重启。11月,联合国大会通过决议,授予巴勒斯坦联合国观察员国地位。以色列随即采取暂时冻结向巴方移交代收税款、宣布新建定居点住宅等措施予以报复。同月14日至22日,以色列对加沙地带实施代号为“防务之柱”的大规模军事行动。2013年7月30日,在美国的斡旋下,巴以双方在美国华盛顿重启和谈,美方表示将在9个月(2014年4月29日到期)完成最终地位谈判。但因双方立场悬殊,和谈于今年5月宣告失败。6月开始,围绕3名以色列青年和1名巴勒斯坦青年分别遭绑架并遇害事件,双方摩擦不断。7月8日,以色列向加沙地带发动代号为“保护边境”的军事行动,军事打击持续51天,造成巴方重大人员伤亡和财产损失。2015年4月,以南部遭到来自加沙的火箭弹袭击,未造成人员伤亡,这是2015年以来以境内首次遭到火箭弹袭击。6月,2名以色列公民在加沙地带被哈马斯扣押;一枚来自加沙的火箭弹落入以南部城市阿什克隆附近空旷地带,以随后予以还击。2015年9月以来,在约旦河西岸、耶路撒冷、加沙边境、特拉维夫等地,以巴间在爆发多起严重暴力冲突,以军警民伤亡人数超过500人。2016年12月,联合国安理会通过2334号决议,要求以色列立即停止一切定居点建设。2017年7月和12月,因耶路撒冷老城阿克萨清真寺入口附近安全事件和美国总统特朗普宣布承认耶路撒冷为以首都事件,以巴局势紧张升级。自2018年3月30日起,巴勒斯坦民众在加沙地带举行“回归大游行”,一直持续至今,已造成一百多名巴人死亡,上万人受伤。近期,以色列同哈马斯武装多次相互袭击,冲突规模为2014年以来最大。加沙局势紧张升级。

同埃及的关系:1979年3月,以埃正式签订和平条约,两国结束战争状态。1980年2月,双方互派大使。1989年3月,以撤出西奈半岛最后一块埃及领土塔巴地区。2011年埃及政局发生变化后,埃及军方承诺继续遵守埃以和约,以方对此表示欢迎。2011年8月,以军误杀数名埃及士兵,引发埃及大规模反以示威。9月,埃示威民众冲击以驻埃使馆,迫使以使馆人员紧急撤离。2012年3月,埃及议会通过决议,要求驱逐以驻埃大使并停止向以输送天然气。4月,埃及宣布停止向以供应天然气。9月,以埃重新互派大使。11月加沙冲突爆发后,埃及召回驻以大使以示抗议,以驻埃大使返以。2014年1月,来自埃及西奈半岛方向的两枚火箭弹击中以南部城市。6月开始,以巴关系趋紧,并于7月爆发大规模军事冲突。埃方多次谴责以方滥用武力。埃方于7月10日重新开放拉法口岸,让滞留在加沙的埃及人回国,并接收和救治巴重伤员,同时通过拉法口岸向加沙人民提供救济物资。14日,埃方公布了其停火和平倡议,内容包括要求以巴双方停止敌对攻击行为;开放边境口岸允许救援物资和伤员通过;任何其他问题均要通过双方协商解决等。8月26日,以巴双方在埃及等各方斡旋下实现临时停火。2015年6月,埃及政府自2012年以来首次任命驻以大使。9月,以驻埃大使馆时隔四年重新开馆。2016年1月,埃新任驻以大使到任。7月,埃外长舒克里访以。12月,以方因安全原因关闭驻埃使馆并撤回驻埃大使。2017年8月,以埃双方就重开以驻埃使馆在开罗磋商。9月,以总理内塔尼亚胡在纽约会见埃及总统塞西。

同约旦的关系:1994年7月25日,以色列和约旦在华盛顿签署和平条约,宣告结束两国长达46年之久的战争状态。同年11月,以、约建交并互派大使,实现两国关系完全正常化。2014年1月,以总理内塔尼亚胡访约。3月,一名约旦公民在通过约以边境卡拉马口岸时被以军士兵射杀,引发约方强烈反应,约众议院巴勒斯坦委员会对以方行径进行谴责,要求约政府立即执行众议院关于“驱逐以驻约大使和召回约驻以大使”的决议,并要求紧急提交关于“修改或废止约以和平协议”的法案。后以方向约方正式道歉,并同意对事件开展联合调查。4月,约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世表示,约方支持通过巴以和谈,在“两国方案”基础上全面、公正实现巴以和平。6—8月以巴冲突期间,约政府多次谴责以方侵略行径,并参与斡旋巴以停火。2014年底,约旦代表阿拉伯国家在安理会推动有关决议草案,要求以于2017年底撤离巴被占领土,遭安理会否决。2017年7月23日,以驻约使馆安全官枪杀两名约旦公民,引发以约外交危机。次日,以驻约使馆人员全部撤回以色列。

(4) Relations with the Arab countries: After the founding of the country, there were four major wars with the Arab countries, which encroached on large areas of the Arab countries. Its actual control of the territory is about twice the size of the 1947 resolution.

Relations with Palestine: On September 13, 1993, the Gaza-Jeriko first autonomy agreement was signed with the PLO. On May 4, 1994, Israel and Palestine formally signed an implementation agreement in Palestine on the pre-autonomy of Palestine in Gaza and Jericho. On January 15, 1997, Israel and Palestine signed the Hebron Agreement to withdraw 80% of the city. On October 23, 1998, Palestine and Israel signed the Wye Agreement in the United States, stipulating the withdrawal of 13.1% of the land from the West Bank. On December 15, the National Committee of Pakistan passed a constitutional amendment to remove the provisions on the destruction. In September 1999, the two sides signed the Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum on the implementation of the Wye agreement. On September 13, the two sides initiated final status negotiations, but the progress was unfavorable because of serious differences on major issues of concern for their interests. Since September 2000, a large-scale violent conflict has erupted between the two sides. After the Annapolis International Conference on Peace in the Middle East in November 2007, Palestine and Israel began negotiations on the final status of Pakistan and the implementation of the “road map” plan. As a result of the continued expansion of settlements, the two sides have serious differences on core issues such as Jerusalem, refugees and borders, and the negotiations have not made substantial progress. Beginning in September 2015, there have been frequent sporadic clashes between Israel and Palestine, causing casualties and persistent Palestinian-Israeli relations.

Beginning on December 27, 2008, Israel imposed a large-scale military operation codenamed “Cast Lead” on the Gaza-controlled Gaza Strip. On January 8, 2009, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1860, demanding an immediate ceasefire. After the US Obama administration took office, it increased its efforts to promote peace, and exerted pressure on the Israeli side on issues such as settlements, and promoted the summit of the three summits of the United States, Israel and Pakistan. In November 2009, Israel announced the suspension of the construction of settlements in the West Bank for 10 months. After the US mediation, the Israeli and Palestinian sides initiated indirect negotiations in May 2010 and restarted direct negotiations in early September. As Israel refused to extend the “limitation order”, the peace talks were interrupted again in early October. In September 2011, Palestine officially applied to become a member of the United Nations, but was unsuccessful because of strong opposition from the United States and Israel. Since 2012, the “quartet mechanism” of the Middle East issue, Jordan and other countries have promoted Palestinian-Israeli contacts, but failed to make substantial progress. In April and May, the Palestinian-Israeli leaders exchanged letters on reconsideration and Prime Minister Netanyahu also expressed support for Pakistan to establish a “territorial coherence”. However, the two sides still have differences on core issues such as settlements and borders. The peace talks failed to restart. In November, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution granting the status of the observer state of the United Nations to Palestine. Israel immediately retaliated by taking measures to temporarily freeze the transfer of taxes to the Palestinians and announce the construction of new settlements. From the 14th to the 22nd of the same month, Israel imposed a large-scale military operation on the Gaza Strip, code-named “The pillar of defense.” On July 30, 2013, under the mediation of the United States, the Palestinians and Israelis resumed peace talks in Washington, DC, and the US indicated that it will complete final status negotiations in nine months (expiring on April 29, 2014). However, due to the disparity in the positions of the two sides, the peace talks failed in May this year. Beginning in June, the two sides of Israel were killed and murdered around three Israeli youths and one Palestinian youth. On July 8, Israel launched a military operation codenamed “Protection of Borders” to the Gaza Strip. The military strike lasted for 51 days, causing heavy casualties and property losses in the Palestinian side. In April 2015, rockets from Gaza were attacked in the south, causing no casualties. This is the first time since 2015 that rockets have been attacked in the territory. In June, two Israeli citizens were detained by Hamas in the Gaza Strip; a rocket from Gaza fell into the open area near the southern city of Ashkel for subsequent counterattacks. Since September 2015, in the West Bank of the Jordan River, Jerusalem, Gaza border, Tel Aviv and other places, there have been many serious violent clashes between Israel and Palestine. The number of casualties of Israeli police and civilians exceeded 500. In December 2016, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 2334, demanding that Israel immediately stop all settlement construction. In July and December 2017, due to security incidents near the entrance to the Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Old City of Jerusalem and President Trump’s announcement of the recognition of Jerusalem as a capital incident, the Israeli-Palestinian situation escalated. Since March 30, 2018, the Palestinian people have held a “return to the parade” in the Gaza Strip. It has continued to this day and has killed more than 100 Palestinians and injured tens of thousands of people. Recently, Israel and Hamas armed forces have repeatedly attacked each other, and the scale of the conflict has been the largest since 2014. The situation in Gaza has escalated.

Relations with Egypt: In March 1979, Israel and Egypt officially signed a peace treaty, and the two countries ended their war. In February 1980, the two sides exchanged ambassadors. In March 1989, the area of ​​Taba, the last Egyptian territory of the Sinai Peninsula, was withdrawn. After the political situation in Egypt changed in 2011, the Egyptian military promised to continue to abide by the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty, which Israel welcomed. In August 2011, the Israeli army accidentally killed several Egyptian soldiers, triggering a large-scale demonstration against Egypt. In September, the Ethiopian people attacked the embassy in Egypt and forced the embassy personnel to evacuate. In March 2012, the Egyptian parliament passed a resolution calling for the expulsion of the ambassador to Egypt and the cessation of natural gas. In April, Egypt announced that it would stop supplying natural gas. In September, Israel renewed its ambassadors. After the outbreak of the conflict in Gaza in November, Egypt recalled the ambassador to protest in protest and returned to the ambassador to Egypt. In January 2014, two rockets from the direction of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt hit the southern city. Beginning in June, Israeli-Palestinian relations have tightened and a large-scale military conflict broke out in July. The Egyptian side has repeatedly condemned Israel’s abuse of force. The Egyptian side reopened the Rafah port on July 10, allowing the Egyptians stranded in Gaza to return to China and receiving and treating the wounded in Pakistan. At the same time, they provided relief supplies to the people of Gaza through the Rafah port. On the 14th, the Egyptian side announced its ceasefire peace initiative, which included requiring Israel and Palestine to stop hostile attacks; opening border crossings allowed relief supplies and wounded people to pass; any other issues should be resolved through consultation between the two sides. On August 26, Israel and Palestine achieved a temporary ceasefire under the mediation of Egypt and other parties. In June 2015, the Egyptian government appointed the ambassador for the first time since 2012. In September, the embassy in Egypt was reopened four years later. In January 2016, Ai Xin was appointed as the ambassador to the office. In July, Foreign Minister Shukri visited. In December, Israel shut down the embassy in Egypt and evacuated the ambassador to Egypt. In August 2017, both sides of Egypt and Egypt reopened their consultations in Cairo with the Embassy of Egypt. In September, Prime Minister Netanyahu met with Egyptian President Seyce in New York.

Relations with Jordan: On July 25, 1994, Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty in Washington, announcing the end of the 46-year war between the two countries. In November of the same year, the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Israeli-Israeli exchanges and the exchange of ambassadors to achieve complete normalization of relations between the two countries. In January 2014, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited the treaty. In March, a Jordanian citizen was shot and killed by Israeli soldiers while passing the border with Karama at the border. This triggered a strong reaction from the Jordanian side. The Palestinian Council of the House of Representatives condemned Israel’s actions and demanded that the government immediately implement the House of Representatives on “expulsion. The ambassador to the ambassador and the recall of the ambassador’s resolution, and requested urgent submission of a bill on “modifying or abolishing the peace agreement”. Afterwards, he officially apologized to the parties and agreed to conduct a joint investigation on the incident. In April, King Abdullah II of Jordan stated that the Jordanian side supports the peaceful and comprehensive realization of Palestinian-Israeli peace on the basis of the “two-state plan” through the Palestinian-Israeli peace talks. During the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in June-August, the government condemned the Israeli aggression and participated in the ceasefire. At the end of 2014, Jordan on behalf of the Arab countries in the Security Council to promote the relevant draft resolution, requesting the withdrawal of the occupied Palestinian territory at the end of 2017, was rejected by the Security Council. On July 23, 2017, two Jordanian citizens were shot and killed by the security officer of the Embassy of the Embassy, ​​triggering a diplomatic crisis. The following day, all the embassy personnel were withdrawn to Israel.

同黎巴嫩的关系:1982年6月,以入侵黎巴嫩,1985年6月撤出时在黎南部保留约850平方公里的安全区,扶植约3000人的“南黎军”,并经常同黎巴嫩和巴勒斯坦武装发生冲突。2000年5月,以单方面从黎南部撤军。但黎、叙坚持以应同时撤出谢巴农场地区。2006年7月,以对黎发动大规模军事行动。8月14日,黎以根据安理会第1701号决议实现停火。目前,以黎在谢巴农场归属、地中海海上边界划定等问题上仍有争议。2013年8月,以色列北部无人地带遭到来自黎境内4枚“喀秋莎”火箭弹袭击,黎总统发表声明,谴责向此举违反安理会1701号决议。2014年2月,以战机空袭黎东部地区。3月,黎南部地区再遭以方炮击。7月,来自黎南部的2枚火箭弹击中以北部地区,未造成人员伤亡,以军遂动用炮火予以还击。2015年1月,以军空袭叙境内目标,炸死多名黎真主党成员,引发以黎边境局势紧张。2018年12月,以军在以黎边境以国土范围内开展“北部屏障行动”,排查和摧毁黎真主党在边境地区挖掘的隧道。

同叙利亚的关系:1991年11月,以议会通过“捍卫戈兰高地法”。1992年9月,以首次表明以“土地换和平”的原则也适用于戈兰高地,之后,以叙和谈断断续续地进行。2008年5月,以叙双方宣布在土耳其斡旋下展开非直接谈判,谈判进行了四轮,因2008年底的加沙冲突中止。2011年6月5日,巴勒斯坦和叙利亚示威者在戈兰高地集会,纪念第三次中东战争爆发44周年,与以军发生冲突,造成20多人死亡。叙局势动荡以来,以多次对叙境内目标实施空袭。2018年2月以来,以多次对叙境内伊朗军事目标实施空袭,并反复警告绝不容忍伊朗在叙保持军事存在。

同其他阿拉伯国家的关系:1994年至1996年,以色列先后与摩洛哥、突尼斯、阿曼互设利益办事处或办公室。1999年11月,毛里塔尼亚与以色列建交。2009年3月,毛里塔尼亚与以色列断交。2010年10月,摩洛哥、突尼斯、阿曼宣布冻结与以色列的关系。

2002年2月,沙特提出关于中东和平的新建议,即以色列从1967年阿拉伯被占领土上全部撤军,阿拉伯国家同以实现关系正常化。3月,在贝鲁特举行的第14次阿拉伯国家联盟首脑会议通过以沙特和平建议为基础的“阿拉伯和平倡议”。倡议要求以色列全面撤出1967年以来占领的所有阿拉伯领土,接受建立以东耶路撒冷为首都、拥有主权、独立的巴勒斯坦国,并根据联合国第194号决议公正解决巴勒斯坦难民问题。在此基础上,阿拉伯国家将同以色列签署和平协议,并在实现全面和平的前提下逐步与以色列建立正常关系。2013年4月,阿拉伯国家代表团访美,表示愿在1967年边界基础上,通过少量土地置换实现巴以“两国方案”。

2018年10月,内塔尼亚胡总理对阿曼进行正式访问,与阿曼苏丹卡布斯举行会晤。以方表示这是以方加强同中东国家关系的重要一步。

Relations with Lebanon: In June 1982, invading Lebanon, when it was withdrawn in June 1985, it retained a safe area of ​​about 850 square kilometers in southern Lebanon, supporting the “Nanli Army” of about 3,000 people, and often with Lebanon and Palestine. Armed conflicts. In May 2000, the troops were withdrawn from southern Lebanon unilaterally. However, Li and Syria insisted that they should withdraw from the Sheba farm area at the same time. In July 2006, a large-scale military operation was launched against Lebanon. On August 14, Lebanon and Israel achieved a ceasefire in accordance with Security Council resolution 1701. At present, there are still controversies on the issue of the attribution of Lebanon to the Sheba farm and the demarcation of the Mediterranean sea border. In August 2013, no man’s land in northern Israel was attacked by four “Katyusha” rockets from Lebanon. President Li issued a statement condemning the violation of Security Council resolution 1701. In February 2014, the aircraft was airstrikeed in the eastern part of Lebanon. In March, the southern part of Lebanon was again shelled by Israelis. In July, two rockets from southern Lebanon hit the northern region without causing casualties. The Israeli army used gunfire to fight back. In January 2015, Israeli air strikes targeted domestic targets and killed several members of the Hezbollah party, triggering tensions on the Israeli-Lebanese border. In December 2018, the Israeli army carried out the “Northern Barrier Operation” within the territory of Israel and Lebanon to investigate and destroy the tunnels that Hezbollah excavated in the border areas.

Relations with Syria: In November 1991, the “Defense of the Golan Heights Act” was passed by Parliament. In September 1992, the principle of “land for peace” was also applied for the first time, and it was also applied to the Golan Heights. After that, the Syrian peace talks were carried out intermittently. In May 2008, the Syrian and Syrian sides announced that they would conduct non-direct negotiations under the mediation of Turkey. The negotiations took place in four rounds, due to the suspension of the Gaza conflict at the end of 2008. On June 5, 2011, Palestinian and Syrian demonstrators gathered in the Golan Heights to commemorate the 44th anniversary of the third Middle East war and clashed with Israeli troops, killing more than 20 people. Since the turmoil in Syria, many air strikes have been carried out against the targets in Syria. Since February 2018, he has carried out air strikes against Iranian military targets in Syria, and repeatedly warned that Iran will not tolerate military presence in Syria.

Relations with other Arab countries: From 1994 to 1996, Israel had an interest office or office with Morocco, Tunisia and Oman. In November 1999, Mauritania established diplomatic relations with Israel. In March 2009, Mauritania broke off diplomatic relations with Israel. In October 2010, Morocco, Tunisia and Oman announced the freezing of relations with Israel.

In February 2002, Saudi Arabia proposed a new proposal for peace in the Middle East, that is, Israel’s total withdrawal from the occupied Arab territories in 1967, and the Arab countries normalized relations. In March, the 14th Arab League Summit in Beirut adopted the Arab Peace Initiative based on Saudi peace proposals. The initiative calls for Israel to withdraw completely from all Arab territories occupied since 1967, accept the establishment of a sovereign, independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital, and resolve the issue of Palestine refugees in a fair manner in accordance with UN Resolution 194. On this basis, the Arab countries will sign a peace agreement with Israel and gradually establish normal relations with Israel on the premise of achieving comprehensive peace. In April 2013, the Arab delegation visited the United States and expressed its willingness to realize the “two-state plan” between Palestine and Israel through a small amount of land replacement on the basis of the 1967 border.

In October 2018, Prime Minister Netanyahu paid an official visit to Oman and met with Sultan Qaboos of Oman. The Israeli side stated that this is an important step in strengthening relations with the Middle East countries.