The State of Eritrea 厄立特里亚国
【国 名】 厄立特里亚国（The State of Eritrea）。
【面 积】 12.4万平方公里（包括达赫拉克群岛近1000平方公里）。
【人 口】 人口670万，有9个民族：提格雷尼亚（约占人口50%）、提格雷（31.4%）、阿法尔（5%）、萨霍（5%）、希达赖伯（2.5%）、比伦（2.1%）、库纳马（2%）、纳拉（1.5%）和拉沙伊达（0.5%）。各族均有独自语言，全国主要用提格雷尼亚语、阿拉伯语，通用英语、意大利语。国民信仰东正教和伊斯兰教的约各占一半，少数人信奉天主教或传统拜物教。
【首 都】 阿斯马拉（Asmara），人口约71万，海拔2300～2400米；年平均气温16.9℃，降雨量525.5毫米。
【国家元首】 总统伊萨亚斯·阿费沃基（Isaias Afwerki），1993年5月22日当选至今。
【自然概况】 位于东非及非洲之角最北部，扼红海南段。南邻埃塞俄比亚，西靠苏丹，东南与吉布提接壤，东北隔红海与也门和沙特阿拉伯相望。海岸线（包括达赫拉克群岛等355个岛屿）长1350公里。中央高原占国土三分之一，海拔1800～3000米；西部低地丘陵，东部沿海平原。境内最高峰为中部高原的安姆巴-索依拉峰（Amba Soira），海拔3013米，最低点为东部平原的科巴尔低地（Kobar），低于海平面75米，塞迪特河（Setit）为其境内唯一常流河，全长180公里，最大的季节河马雷布河满水期长达440公里。高原地区气候宜人，年平均气温为17℃，降水525毫米。12月～2月平均气温最低，为15℃，5月～6月平均气温最高，为25℃；4月～5月为小雨季，6月～8月为大雨季，其余为旱季。东部和西部低地气候炎热干燥，年平均气温分别为30℃和28℃，年均降水量不到400毫米。红海沿岸多沙漠，3月～10月间白天气温可达40℃以上。
[Country name] The State of Eritrea.
[Dimensions] 124,000 square kilometers (including nearly 1000 square kilometers in the Dakhlaq Islands).
[Population] Population of 6.7 million, with 9 ethnic groups: Tiglinia (about 50% of the population), Tigray (31.4%), Afar (5%), Saho (5%), Hida Reibo (2.5%), Billen (2.1%), Kunama (2%), Nala (1.5%) and Lashaida (0.5%). All ethnic groups have their own language. The country mainly uses Tigrenian, Arabic, General English and Italian. The National Orthodox Church and Islam are about half each, and a few believe in Catholicism or traditional fetishism.
[The capital] Asmara has a population of about 710,000 and an altitude of 2300 to 2400 meters. The annual average temperature is 16.9 °C and the rainfall is 525.5 mm.
[Head of State] President Isaias Afwerki was elected on May 22, 1993.
[Important Festival] Independence Day: May 24 (1993); Anniversary of Armed Struggle: September 1 (1961).
[Nature Overview] Located in the northernmost part of East Africa and the Horn of Africa, in the southern part of the Red Sea. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, Djibouti in the southeast, and Yemen and Saudi Arabia in the northeast. The coastline (including 355 islands such as the Dakhrak archipelago) is 1,350 kilometers long. The central plateau accounts for one-third of the country’s territory, with an altitude of 1800 to 3000 meters; the western lowland hills and the eastern coastal plains. The highest peak in the territory is the Amba Soira in the central plateau, at an altitude of 3013 meters, the lowest point is the Kobar in the eastern plains, 75 meters below sea level, Setit It is the only constant-flow river in its territory, with a total length of 180 kilometers. The largest season, the river Rameb River is 440 kilometers long. The plateau has a pleasant climate with an average annual temperature of 17 ° C and a precipitation of 525 mm. From December to February, the average temperature is the lowest, 15 °C, the average temperature from May to June is the highest, 25 °C; April to May is the light rain season, June to August is the heavy rain season, and the rest is the dry season. The climate in the eastern and western lowlands is hot and dry, with annual average temperatures of 30 ° C and 28 ° C, respectively, with an average annual precipitation of less than 400 mm. There are many deserts along the Red Sea, and the temperature during the daytime from March to October can reach above 40 °C.
【历 史】 公元前8世纪，闪米特人和库希特人迁徙此地。公元3世纪起沿海地带兴起若干部落联盟，先后被阿克苏姆王国、奥斯曼帝国和埃及占领。1869年，意大利殖民者来此拓殖，在阿萨布港建特权区，并不断向厄内陆推进。1889年，意殖民者同绍阿国王签订《乌西阿利条约》，确认意占有阿萨布、马萨瓦、克伦、阿斯马拉等地。1890年，意将占领区合并为统一殖民地，命名为“厄立特里亚”（拉丁语“红海”）。1941年，意军战败，厄成为英国托管地。1950年12月，联合国将厄作为一个自治体同埃塞俄比亚结成联邦。1952年，厄立法会议选举产生地方政府，埃塞俄比亚皇帝派代表驻厄。1962年，埃塞皇帝塞拉西废除联邦，设厄为埃塞第14个省，引发厄立特里亚解放阵线（厄解阵）开展武装斗争。1970年，厄立特里亚人民解放阵线（厄人阵）成立，并主导独立战争。1991年5月，厄人阵同埃塞俄比亚的提格雷人民解放阵线联手推翻门格斯图政权。5月24日，厄人阵解放厄全境，29日成立临时政府，伊萨亚斯·阿费沃基出任临时政府总书记兼武装部队总司令。1993年4月23日～25日，厄在联合国监督下举行公决，99.8%的民众选择独立。埃塞过渡政府接受公决结果，承认厄独立。5月22日，伊萨亚斯出任总统；24日，厄正式宣告独立并举行开国庆典，厄立特里亚国正式成立。
【政 治】 独立后，厄政府注重政权建设，加紧经济重建，政局保持基本稳定。1998年～2000年，厄与埃塞俄比亚发生边界战争。2000年两国签署和平协议。2001年上半年，厄公布“选举法”和“政党组织法”草案，拟于当年底举行大选，逐步实行多党制。但随后党内发生严重政治分歧，选举无限期推迟。2002年，厄颁布《选举法》，明确提出“多党制不符合厄现状”。近年来，伊萨亚斯总统将巩固政权、维护国家安全作为首要任务，加强地方党政军力量，严控境内外反对派，同时采取利民措施，保持了政局的基本稳定。
【宪 法】 1994年成立制宪委员会，1996年7月宪法草案出台。1996年12月，厄成立制宪议会，1997年5月23日，制宪议会通过宪法并正式颁布实施。宪法规定，国民议会是国家最高权力机构和立法机关；实行总统内阁制，总统由国民议会选举产生，任期5年；总统拥有任命政府高官、成立或解散有关政府部门和机构等权力；政教分离，宗教平等；民族语言一律平等，不确定国家官方语言；人民享有平等、自由、选举等基本权利。2014年5月，伊萨亚斯总统在独立日庆典上宣布将启动新宪法起草进程。目前，新宪法仍在起草中。
【议 会】 国民议会设150个议席，包括人阵党中央委员会成员75名、制宪议会成员60名及厄旅外侨胞代表15名，其中22%为女议员。议长由全体议员选举产生，任期5年，现由伊萨亚斯总统兼任。国民议会负责国家立法，批准预算和选举国家元首。1993年～2000年国民议会共召开13次大会，此后一直休会。
[History] In the 8th century BC, the Semites and the Kuchts migrated here. In the 3rd century AD, a number of tribal alliances were established in the coastal zone, which were successively occupied by the Axum Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire and Egypt. In 1869, Italian colonists came to colonize and built privileged areas in Assab Port, and continued to advance to Urn. In 1889, the Italian colonists signed the Uzbeli Treaty with King Shah, confirming the intention to occupy Assab, Masawa, Karen, Asmara and other places. In 1890, the Italian occupation was merged into a unified colony and named “Eritrea” (Latin “Red Sea”). In 1941, the Italian army was defeated and the United Kingdom became the British trustee. In December 1950, the United Nations established Ecuador as a municipality and formed a federation with Ethiopia. In 1952, the Ecuadorian Legislative Assembly elected a local government, and the Ethiopian emperor sent a representative to Ecuador. In 1962, the emperor Selassie abolished the Union and set up Eritrea as the 14th province of Ethiopia, triggering the armed struggle of the Eritrean Liberation Front (Eritrea). In 1970, the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (Emirates) was established and led the War of Independence. In May 1991, the Eritretan and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front of Ethiopia joined forces to overthrow the Mongerstu regime. On May 24th, the Iraqi corps liberated the entire territory, and on the 29th established an interim government. Isaias Afwerki served as the interim government general secretary and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. From April 23 to 25, 1993, Ecuador held a referendum under the supervision of the United Nations, and 99.8% of the people chose independence. The Ethiopian Transitional Government accepted the results of the referendum and acknowledged the independence of Ecuador. On May 22, Isaias became president; on the 24th, Eritrea officially declared independence and held a founding ceremony, and the Eritrean state was formally established.
[Politics] After independence, the Ecuadorian government focused on building political power, stepping up economic reconstruction, and maintaining a stable political situation. From 1998 to 2000, there was a border war between Ecuador and Ethiopia. In 2000, the two countries signed a peace agreement. In the first half of 2001, Ecuador promulgated the “Election Law” and the “Party Organization Law” draft, and it is planned to hold general elections at the end of the year and gradually implement a multi-party system. However, serious political differences broke out within the party and the election was postponed indefinitely. In 2002, Eritrea enacted the Electoral Law, which clearly stated that “the multi-party system does not conform to the status quo.” In recent years, President Isaias has made it a top priority to consolidate political power and safeguard national security, strengthen local party and government forces, strictly control domestic and foreign opposition parties, and adopt measures to protect the people and maintain the basic stability of the political situation.
[Constitution] The Constitutional Commission was established in 1994 and the draft constitution was promulgated in July 1996. In December 1996, Eritrea established the Constituent Assembly. On May 23, 1997, the Constituent Assembly passed the Constitution and officially promulgated it. The Constitution stipulates that the National Assembly is the highest authority and legislature of the state; the presidential cabinet system is adopted; the president is elected by the National Assembly for a term of five years; the president has the power to appoint senior government officials, establish or dissolve relevant government departments and institutions; Religious equality; national languages are equal, uncertain about the official language of the country; the people enjoy basic rights such as equality, freedom, and elections. In May 2014, President Isaias announced at the Independence Day celebration that a new constitution drafting process would be launched. At present, the new constitution is still being drafted.
[Parliament] The National Assembly has 150 seats, including 75 members of the Central Committee of the People’s Party, 60 members of the Constituent Assembly, and 15 representatives of overseas Chinese, including 22% of women. The Speaker is elected by all members of Parliament for a term of five years and is currently chaired by President Isaias. The National Assembly is responsible for national legislation, approving the budget and electing heads of state. The National Assembly held 13 conferences from 1993 to 2000 and has since been adjourned.
【政 府】 厄实行总统内阁制，总统伊萨亚斯兼任政府首脑。厄首届政府成立于1993年6月7日。此后，伊萨亚斯总统不定期对内阁进行改组，本届内阁成立于2016年7月，成员共有17人：外交部长奥斯曼·萨利赫（Osman Saleh）、能源与矿产部长塞巴特·埃弗雷姆（Sebhat Ephrem）、司法部长法齐娅·哈希姆（Fawzia Hashim，女）、旅游部长阿丝卡露·门克里奥斯（Askalu Menkerios，女）、水土环境部长特斯法伊·格布雷塞拉西（Tesfai Ghebreselassie）、农业部长阿雷费恩·贝尔赫（Arefaine Berhe）、教育部长塞梅雷·鲁索姆（ Semere Russom）、卫生部长阿明娜·努尔·侯赛因（Amina Nur Hussein，女）、公共工程部长阿布拉哈·阿斯法哈（Abraha Asfaha）、海洋资源部长泰沃尔德·克莱蒂（Tewelde Kelati）、财政部长贝尔哈内·哈布特马里亚姆（Berhane Habtemariam）、交通与通信部长特斯法塞拉西·贝尔哈内（Tesfaselassie Berhane）、贸易与工业部长内斯海丁·贝希特（Nesredin MS Ali Bekit）、新闻部长耶玛尼·格布雷麦斯克尔（Yemane Ghebremeskel）等。国防部长暂时空缺。
【司法机构】 独立后沿用原埃塞俄比亚民法、刑法，略有修改。厄法院分乡、县、省、高等法院四级。高等法院的判决为终审判决，设法官18名，均由总统任命，现任最高法院院长门克里奥斯·贝拉基（Menkerios Beraki）。省级法官由高等法院院长提名经司法部长批准。厄检察机构设于司法部，总检察长由总统任命，现任总检察长阿莱姆塞吉德·海尔·塞拉西（Alemseged Haile Selasie）。
【政 党】 厄立特里亚人民民主和正义阵线（People’s Front for Democracy & Justice，PFDJ，简称人阵党）现为厄唯一合法政党。有党员60万人，主席伊萨亚斯。该党成立于1970年，原名“厄立特里亚人民解放阵线”（简称“厄人阵”），1994年第三次全国代表大会决定改为现名，并选举75人中央委员会为最高领导机关，现有41名委员；中央执行委员会在中央委员会休会期间行使中央委员会的职权，共16名委员，现为12人。
[Government] Ecuador implements the presidential cabinet system, and President Isaias serves as the head of government. The first government of Ecuador was established on June 7, 1993. Since then, President Isaias has reorganized the cabinet from time to time. The current cabinet was established in July 2016 with 17 members: Foreign Minister Osman Saleh, Energy and Minerals Minister Sebat Eve Sebhat Ephrem, Attorney General Fawzia Hashim (female), Minister of Tourism Askalu Menkerios (female), Minister of Water and Soil Environment Tesfay Tesfai Ghebreselassie, Minister of Agriculture Arefaine Berhe, Minister of Education Semere Russom, Minister of Health Amena Nur Hussein (Amina Nur Hussein, female), Minister of Public Works Abraha Asfaha, Minister of Marine Resources Tewelde Kelati, Minister of Finance Belhane Habtmari Berhane Habtemariam, Minister of Transport and Communications Tesfaselassie Berhane, Minister of Trade and Industry Nesredin MS Ali Bekit, News Long Ye Mani · 格布雷麦斯 Kerr (Yemane Ghebremeskel) and so on. The Minister of Defense is temporarily vacant.
[Administrative Division] The local government of Ecuador is divided into four levels: provincial, county, township and village. There are 6 provinces (Zoba, Region) in the country: South Red Sea Province, Northern Red Sea Province, Anseba Province, Gash-Barka Province, Southern Province and Central Province.
[Judiciary] The original Ethiopian civil law and criminal law were slightly modified after independence. The Eritrean Court is divided into four levels: township, county, province, and high court. The judgment of the High Court is the final judgment. There are 18 judges, all appointed by the President. The current Supreme Court President Menkerios Beraki. Provincial judges are nominated by the President of the High Court and approved by the Minister of Justice. The Prosecutor’s Office is located in the Ministry of Justice, and the Attorney General is appointed by the President. The current Attorney General, Alemseged Haile Selasie.
[Political Party] The People’s Front for Democracy & Justice (PFDJ) is now the only legal party in Ecuador. There are 600,000 members, President Isaias. The party was founded in 1970, formerly known as the “Eritrean People’s Liberation Front” (“Eritrean People’s Front”). In 1994, the Third National Congress decided to change its current name and elected the 75-member Central Committee as the highest leading body. 41 members; the Central Executive Committee exercises the powers of the Central Committee during the adjournment of the Central Committee, with a total of 16 members, currently 12 members.
[Important figures] Isaias Afwerki: President, concurrently chairman of the National Assembly, head of government and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, chairman of the People’s Party. Born in 1946 in a small merchant family in the former Hamasian province of central Ecuador, he believed in the Orthodox Church. After graduating from high school in 1962, he was admitted to the Department of Engineering at the University of Haile Selassie (now the University of Addis Ababa) in Ethiopia. After three years, he dropped out of school to participate in the election. Because of political differences, he left the Eurasia in 1969 and participated in the creation of the Eritret. In 1977, he was elected deputy general secretary of the Emirates, and in 1987 he was the general secretary. He served as General Secretary of the European Interim Government since May 1991 and was elected as the first President on May 22, 1993. Proficient in Tigrenian, Amharic, English and Arabic, French and Italian.
【经 济】 以农业为主，80%的人口从事农牧业。独立后，政府着力经济重建，制定了以私有经济为主导的市场经济发展战略。提倡自力更生，建设基础设施，争取国外贷款和其他援助，特别是鼓励侨汇。政府先后出台了土地法、投资法和贸易、金融、税收等有关规定，积极参与双边和多边经济贸易机制，1997年发行本国货币纳克法。
【资 源】 主要矿产有铜、铁、金、镍、锰，重晶石、长石、高岭土、钾碱、岩盐、石膏、石棉、大理石。地热资源丰富，红海沿岸和西部地区可能有石油和天然气，迄未探明储量。2011年3月，厄同加拿大合资开发的世界第五大金、铜、锌、银混成矿碧沙金矿投产。厄水资源缺乏，境内河川不多，且多为季节性河流，土地面积10.1万平方公里，森林覆盖率15.8%。
[Economy] Agriculture is the mainstay, and 80% of the population is engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. After independence, the government focused on economic reconstruction and formulated a market economy development strategy led by the private economy. Promote self-reliance, build infrastructure, and seek foreign loans and other assistance, especially to encourage remittances. The government has successively promulgated the land law, investment law and trade, finance, taxation and other relevant regulations, actively participated in bilateral and multilateral economic and trade mechanisms, and issued the national currency Nakfa in 1997.
After the ceasefire on the border between Ecuador and Ethiopia in 2000, the two countries have long been “no war and no peace” and the Ecuadorian government resumed “wartime economic policy.” Since 2005, the Ecuadorian government has tightened foreign exchange controls by closing some private enterprises, restricting the import of private enterprises, canceling the free exchange of foreign exchange, and purchasing and marketing. According to the statistics of the Ecuadorian government, the average economic growth rate was 7-8% from 1992 to 1997, and the average economic growth rate from 1998 to 2010 was 2%. The inflation rate index is between 9% and 12% due to energy and food prices and currency depreciation. The ratio of fiscal deficit to GDP increased from 8% to 19%. In recent years, the Ecuadorian government has actively promoted the development of mining, fisheries, and tourism, increased investment in agricultural infrastructure, and further strengthened economic and trade cooperation with relevant countries. The development of mineral resources has progressed. In March 2011, the world’s fifth largest gold, copper, zinc and silver mixed ore Bisha gold mine jointly developed by Canada and Canada was put into operation. The copper mine flotation plant was completed on time in June 2013. Start copper mining. The Ecuadorian government has taken active measures to focus on developing mining, increasing agricultural input, improving education and infrastructure development, improving medical conditions, and maintaining economic and social stability.
The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: US$ 6.327 billion.
Gross domestic product growth rate: 5.4%.
Currency name: Nakfa.
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 15.38 ng method.
Inflation rate: 13%.
Total foreign trade: 1.935 billion US dollars.
Foreign exchange reserves: $240 million.
Foreign debt balance: $823 million.
(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, May 2019)
[Resources] The main minerals are copper, iron, gold, nickel, manganese, barite, feldspar, kaolin, potash, rock salt, gypsum, asbestos and marble. Rich in geothermal resources, there may be oil and natural gas along the coast of the Red Sea and the western region, and no proven reserves have been made. In March 2011, the world’s fifth largest gold, copper, zinc and silver blending ore mine in the joint venture developed by Canada and Canada was put into operation. There is a lack of water resources, and there are not many rivers in the territory, and most of them are seasonal rivers with a land area of 101,000 square kilometers and a forest coverage rate of 15.8%.
【能 源】 是全球能源消费量最小的国家之一，其中66.3%是生物能源消费（包括木材、草料和农作物残余）；31.6%是进口石油产品，厄每年支付1.5亿美元用于进口能源；只有2.1%是电力能源消费。在电力能源消费中，厄工业用电占57%，居民用电占22%，商业用电占21%。厄只有80%左右的大中城镇地区和不到5%的农村地区（约160个村庄）实现通电。2016年厄电力总装机容量为141兆瓦，其中马萨瓦电厂装机容量88兆瓦，阿斯马拉电厂装机容量15兆瓦，全部为燃油发电。厄国家电网主要覆盖马萨瓦、阿斯马拉和门德法拉等首都附近的大中城镇。在厄国家电网未覆盖地区，一些较大城镇有自己的地方电网，用柴油发电。2012年以来，厄国内出现严重能源和电力短缺，国家工农业生产和人民生活受影响。在厄2010-2020年国家十年规划中，厄能矿部计划在2010-2020年期间将目前电力服务未覆盖而只能依靠不可持续的生物能源生活的人口减少一半，到2020年实现所有教育和卫生机构的清洁能源和可靠饮水供应。
【工 业】 主要工业有纺织、制革、农畜产品加工、金属加工、塑料制品加工、建材等。全国共有大中型企业255家，其中食品、饮料类企业89家，纺织、皮革、服装类企业34家，造纸、印刷出版类企业13家，化工、油漆、制药类企业24家，塑料、橡胶类企业12家，非金属类建材企业34家，金属加工类企业18家，家具类企业31家。
【农 业】 农业占国内生产总值的14.5%。可耕地面积550万公顷。主要粮食作物有玉米、大麦、高粱、小麦、豆类；经济作物有油菜籽、芝麻、花生、亚麻、剑麻、棉花、蔬菜和水果。1998年～2000年，农业受边界战争和干旱影响，耕种面积大幅缩减，粮食年产量约8.5万吨。2006年政府实施粮食安全战略，兴修水利，推广先进农业技术，40%农田实现机械化耕种。2007年，雨水充足，农业增产，粮食自给率破记录逾70%。得益于长期以来对农业的重视和投入，厄在确保粮食安全方面已取得一定成效。近年来，粮食年产量维持在35万吨至45万吨之间。2011年在非洲之角国家出现大范围旱情与饥荒之际，厄农业收成良好，市场上各类食品价格虽略有上升但供应充足。当年实耕地面积222万公顷，其中水浇地8%，谷物平均产量1000公斤/公顷，粮食总产量约为42万吨。
[Energy] is one of the countries with the smallest energy consumption in the world, of which 66.3% are bioenergy consumption (including wood, forage and crop residues); 31.6% are imported petroleum products, and Erie pays US$150 million annually for imported energy; 2.1% is electricity and energy consumption. In the power consumption of electricity, industrial electricity accounts for 57%, residential electricity accounts for 22%, and commercial electricity accounts for 21%. Only about 80% of large and medium-sized urban areas and less than 5% of rural areas (about 160 villages) are electrified. In 2016, the total installed capacity of the company was 141 megawatts, of which the installed capacity of the Masawa power plant was 88 megawatts, and the installed capacity of the Asmara power plant was 15 megawatts, all of which were fuel-fired. The State Grid mainly covers large and medium-sized towns near the capitals of Masawa, Asmara and Mendefara. In areas not covered by the State Grid, some of the larger towns have their own local grids that use diesel to generate electricity. Since 2012, there have been serious shortages of energy and electricity in the country, and the country’s industrial and agricultural production and people’s lives have been affected. In the 2010-2020 National Decade, the Ener Mines Department plans to reduce the number of people who are currently covered by electricity services and cannot rely on unsustainable bioenergy for half of 2010-2020, and achieve all education by 2020. Clean energy and reliable drinking water supplies to health facilities.
[Industrial] The main industries are textiles, leather, agricultural and livestock products processing, metal processing, plastic products processing, and building materials. There are 255 large and medium-sized enterprises in the country, including 89 food and beverage enterprises, 34 textile, leather and garment enterprises, 13 paper, printing and publishing companies, 24 chemical, paint and pharmaceutical companies, plastics and rubber. There are 12 enterprises, 34 non-metallic building materials enterprises, 18 metal processing enterprises and 31 furniture enterprises.
[Agriculture] Agriculture accounts for 14.5% of GDP. The arable land area is 5.5 million hectares. The main food crops are corn, barley, sorghum, wheat, and beans; cash crops include rapeseed, sesame, peanuts, flax, sisal, cotton, vegetables, and fruits. From 1998 to 2000, agriculture was affected by the border war and drought, and the area under cultivation was greatly reduced. The annual grain output was about 85,000 tons. In 2006, the government implemented a food security strategy, built water conservancy, promoted advanced agricultural technology, and 40% of farmland realized mechanized farming. In 2007, there was sufficient rain, agricultural production increased, and the food self-sufficiency rate exceeded 70%. Thanks to the long-term emphasis and investment in agriculture, Ecuador has achieved certain results in ensuring food security. In recent years, annual grain production has remained between 350,000 and 450,000 tons. In 2011, when there was widespread drought and famine in the countries of the Horn of Africa, the agricultural harvest was good, and the prices of various foods on the market increased slightly but the supply was sufficient. In that year, the area of cultivated land was 2.22 million hectares, of which 8% was irrigated, the average grain output was 1000 kg/ha, and the total grain output was about 420,000 tons.
At present, there are 7 fishing and processing stations in Ecuador and 3,300 fishermen. The supply of fish cannot meet domestic demand. The Marine Resources Department will increase the training of fishermen while introducing new fishing equipment.
[Tourism] Tourism is a major foreign exchange earning industry. It has a long history and there are many remains of the ancient kingdom. The landform is complex and diverse, and the natural landscape is rich. In 2008, Ernst was named one of the seven best destinations in the world by its UK travel website for its “unique landscape and pristine coral reefs”. Asmara, Masawa, Karen and Dakhrak are famous tourist spots. In July 2017, Asmara was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List at the 41st World Heritage Committee Conference in Poland.
The Ecuadorian government encourages the private sector to invest in tourism, but due to the backward infrastructure, lack of supporting services such as tourist hotels, the development of the tourism market is lagging behind. In 2007, there were 80,000 inbound tourists and a revenue of 60 million US dollars. In 2008, the Ministry of Tourism opened a tourist information center in Massawa, Tseni, and Adikai to provide tourist information services. In 2011, the Ministry of Tourism held several tourism industry conferences in major tourist resorts, demanding more efforts to build tourism facilities. In 2011, there were a total of 107,000 overseas Chinese and foreign tourists visiting Ecuador, an increase of 16.5% compared to 2010.
【通 信】 2015年，厄有固定电话用户5.7万户，拥有率为1%，手机用户为42万，拥有率为7%。厄共有4家互联网供应商，互联网用户约占全国人口的1%。互联网总带宽为40兆。
[Transportation] Highway: At the beginning of independence, there were only 4,000 kilometers of roads nationwide. After 20 years of development, the total length of the national highway is 15,123 kilometers, 21 north-south roads, and 18 east-west roads. There are a total of 65,060 vehicles in the country, including 33,723 private cars.
Water transport: There are two major seaports, Masawa and Assab. Masawa has 9 berths with an average annual throughput of 16,000 containers and 835,000 tons of cargo, which can store 2,500 containers and 120,000 tons of cargo at the same time. Assab Port has 12 berths and can store 28,116 containers and 360,000 tons of cargo. From 1992 to 1996, the port of Assab had an average annual throughput of 25,000 containers and 2.039 million tons of cargo. After the Ethiopian border war, Assab was a “dead port” and lost $40 million in annual income. Masawa freight volume has increased. The U.S. government invested 660 million ng to expand the port of Massawa, which was completed in 2002. Eritrea is actively seeking funds to renovate and expand the port of Masawa. There are 3 shipping companies in Ecuador, for a total of 7 freighters. Among them, Eritrean Shipping Company owns 4 freighters and sails to ports such as Sudan, Egypt, Jeddah, Yemen, Qatar and Tanzania.
Aviation: There are currently two state-owned airlines, Erlang and Nasser, and five foreign airlines such as Ethiopian Airlines, Egypt Air, Lufthansa, Sudan Airlines and Yemen Airlines operate in Ecuador. There are 3 international airports including Asmara, Assab and Massawa, 2 asphalt runway domestic airports such as Dakhlaq and Kurmud, and 4 non-asphalt such as Tesseney, Nakfa, Mahmimet and Barentu. Runway domestic airport. There are currently 5 passenger planes, including 3 Boeing and 2 Airbus.
[Communication] In 2015, there were 57,000 fixed-line subscribers, with a ownership rate of 1% and a mobile phone subscriber of 420,000. The ownership rate was 7%. There are 4 Internet providers in Ecuador, and Internet users account for about 1% of the national population. The total bandwidth of the Internet is 40 megabytes.
[Financial Finance] Existing Eritrean Bank (Central Bank, established in 1993), Commercial Bank (1991), Residential and Commercial Bank, Development and Investment Bank (1996), Eritrean National Insurance Company, and Himbol Exchange Service Agency. The Bank has its headquarters in the capital and a branch in Massawa. The Commercial Bank is the largest bank in the country and has 17 branches in cities across the country. Residential and commercial banks are headquartered in Asmara with branches in major cities. The Development and Investment Bank is located in Asmara and has three liaison offices in other regions. To support the development of the private sector, Erhe Development and Investment Bank has accumulated a total of 600 million ng law.
[Foreign Trade] The main exporters of Ecuadorian products are China, United Arab Emirates, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Kenya, Pakistan, etc. The main importing countries are China, United Arab Emirates, Germany, Italy, India and so on. China has become the largest trading partner of Eritrea. The main imported commodities are machinery and equipment, medical supplies, food, electrical appliances and electronic products, building materials, stationery, furniture, etc. used in construction, agriculture, minerals and traffic lights. The export products are textiles, leather products, rapeseed and gum. , tobacco, salt, marble, fish, wine, gold, etc., mainly raw materials and primary products.
In 2018, the total import and export trade volume was 1.935 billion US dollars, of which exports were 760 million US dollars and imports were 1.175 billion US dollars.
【军 事】 厄立特里亚国防军归人阵党直接领导，有陆、海、空三军。总统任武装部队总司令，国防部长暂时空缺，总参谋长菲利伯斯·沃尔德约翰尼斯（Filipos Woldeyohannes）。独立后开始分阶段裁军，1997年整编保留4万正规军。1994年开始实行国民服务计划，18～40岁的公民均须参加18个月以上军训或后备役服务。1998年～2000年厄埃边界战争期间，政府大量扩军，曾达30万人。停火后，政府宣布复员20万军人。厄陆军约20万人，海、空军各1000人。空军有4架苏27战机、2架米格29战机和数架直升机，海军有2艘护卫舰及数艘巡逻艇。年度国防开支相当于国内生产总值20%。厄军士兵占全国劳动力11%，广泛参与农业生产、修路筑桥等经济建设活动。2012年下半年起，为维护国家安全和稳定，政府向大批青壮年民众派发枪支。
[Military] The Eritrean Defence Force is directly under the leadership of the People’s Party. It has three armed forces: land, sea and air. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the Minister of Defense is temporarily vacant, and the Chief of Staff, Filipos Woldeyohannes. After independence, the phased disarmament began. In 1997, the 40,000 regular army was retained. The National Service Plan was introduced in 1994, and citizens aged 18 to 40 are required to participate in military training or reserve services for more than 18 months. During the period of the border war between 1998 and 2000, the government expanded its army to a large number of 300,000 people. After the ceasefire, the government announced the demobilization of 200,000 soldiers. The army of the Iraqi army is about 200,000 people, and the sea and the air force each have 1,000 people. The Air Force has four Su-27 fighters, two MiG-29 fighters and several helicopters. The Navy has two frigates and several patrol boats. Annual defense spending is equivalent to 20% of GDP. The Eritrean soldiers account for 11% of the national labor force and are widely involved in economic construction activities such as agricultural production, road construction and bridge construction. Since the second half of 2012, in order to maintain national security and stability, the government has distributed firearms to a large number of young and middle-aged people.
[Press and Publication] In June 1996, the Press Law was promulgated, which stipulated freedom of speech, but it must be legal and in line with the development goals and reality of the country; freedom of the press, but the investment must come from the country.
The official news agency of the Eritrean News Agency, affiliated to the Ministry of Information, was established in September 1991. It has three editorial offices, including domestic news, international news, and manuscripts, and has reporter stations in various provinces across the country. In 2001, there were nine private newspapers and five private magazines. In September of the same year, the government banned all private media.
There are two official newspapers, all hosted by the Ministry of Information. The New Eritrean newspaper is an official daily newspaper in Arabic, Tigrenia and Tigray. The Image is an English-language newspaper published every Wednesday and Saturday.
The “Sound of the Masses” radio station sponsored by the Ministry of Information is a national radio station. It began broadcasting in January 1979. Since 1999, it has been broadcast in 11 languages including Tigrenian, Afar, Tigray, Arabic and Amharic.
Eritrean TV was officially launched in January 1993 and is also part of the Department of Public Information. There are two channels, which broadcast programs in Africa, the Middle East, North America and Australia through 6 satellites. Channel 1 broadcasts more than 70 hours of programming per week, and Channel 2 broadcasts 45 hours of programming per week.
【卫 生】 人均预期寿命60岁，新生儿死亡率23‰，5岁以下儿童夭折率50‰（致死原因多为呼吸道感染、腹泻及其他传染病），产妇死亡率每十万人380人，93%的孕妇有产前保健经历，产妇住院分娩率为55%。厄是非洲国家中为数不多的能够有望同时达到联合国千年发展目标关于降低儿童和产妇死亡率目标的国家。厄在控制疟疾、性病等传染病方面卓有成效，2011年疟疾流行率较1999年下降90%，艾滋病感染率不到1%，肺结核感染率0.28%，儿童接种疫苗普及程度达99%，少见麻疹、脊髓灰质炎等病例。在厄，致死率最高的疾病依次为贫血或营养不良、肺炎、腹泻等。厄卫生机构分为三级，卫生中心和卫生站为初级水平，省级医院和社区医院为二级水平，位于首都的国家级医院为三级水平。全国有28家医院，56个卫生中心，252个卫生站。卫生站设计接诊人数为5千人至1万人，卫生中心设计接诊人数为5万人至10万人。医护人员在各卫生机构的分布极不平衡，厄医院拥有全国72%的医生，55%的护士，仅7大国家级医院就吸纳了41%的医生和32%的护士。医院的支出占全国卫生总预算的50%以上。厄独立之初，全国只有1500名医务人员，2011年达到了4500人。2011年有1200多名医学专业毕业生取得博士、本专科、进修班文凭。全国平均每1.3万人拥有1名医生，每3400人有1名护士。厄卫生部工作人员有60%毕业于医学专业。
【教 育】 学制为学前教育2年，基础教育8年（小学5年，初中3年）和高中4年。大学本科为4年，另外还开设专科、进修班等。厄实行从小学到大学的免费教育。阿斯马拉大学曾是唯一的高等学府，2006年厄政府进行高教改革，将阿斯马拉大学拆分为7所学院，目前阿斯马拉大学仅保留研究生院，并与南非、美国一些大学合作办班。7所学院分别为厄技术学院、商业和经济学院、卫生学院、人文学院、海洋科技学院、奥罗特医学院及哈默马罗农学院，分布于厄6个省。全国有474家学前教育机构、833所小学、302所初中、89所高中、6所职业学校。为做好扫盲工作，厄在1000多所识字中心用各种民族语言开展识字教育，年均招收5000名学生。同时在农村地区建立了70所图书馆。2016/2017年度，厄入学人数为70万人。厄小学教育毛入学率为93%，中学约为70%，高中约为31%，全国识字率80%。
[Hygiene] Life expectancy is 60 years old, neonatal mortality is 23 ‰, and the mortality rate of children under 5 years old is 50 ‰ (the causes of death are mostly respiratory tract infections, diarrhea and other infectious diseases), and the maternal mortality rate is 380 per 100,000 people, 93 % of pregnant women have antenatal care experience, and the rate of maternal hospital delivery is 55%. Ecuador is one of the few countries in Africa that is expected to meet the UN Millennium Development Goals target for reducing child and maternal mortality. Ecuador has achieved remarkable results in controlling infectious diseases such as malaria and sexually transmitted diseases. In 2011, the prevalence of malaria decreased by 90% compared with 1999, the rate of HIV infection was less than 1%, the rate of tuberculosis infection was 0.28%, and the popularity of vaccination among children was 99%. Cases such as polio. In Ecuador, the diseases with the highest mortality rate are anemia or malnutrition, pneumonia, diarrhea and so on. The health institutions are divided into three levels, the health centers and health stations are at the primary level, the provincial hospitals and community hospitals are at the secondary level, and the national hospitals in the capital are at the tertiary level. There are 28 hospitals, 56 health centers and 252 health stations nationwide. The number of health station design consultations is 5,000 to 10,000, and the number of health center design visits is 50,000 to 100,000. The distribution of medical staff in various health institutions is extremely uneven. The hospital has 72% of doctors and 55% of nurses in the country. Only 7 national hospitals absorb 41% of doctors and 32% of nurses. Hospital expenditures account for more than 50% of the national health budget. At the beginning of the independence of Germany, there were only 1,500 medical personnel in the country, and in 2011, it reached 4,500. In 2011, more than 1,200 medical graduates obtained doctoral degrees, specialties, and advanced study diplomas. The national average has 1 doctor per 13,000 people and 1 nurse per 3400 people. 60% of the staff of the Health Department graduated from the medical profession.
[Education] The academic system is 2 years of preschool education, 8 years of basic education (5 years of elementary school, 3 years of junior high school) and 4 years of high school. The undergraduate degree is 4 years, and special courses and further courses are also offered. Ecuador implements free education from primary school to university. The University of Asmara was the only institution of higher learning. In 2006, the government of the United States carried out a reform of higher education, splitting the University of Asmara into seven colleges. At present, the University of Asmara only retains graduate schools, and some with South Africa and the United States. University cooperation to run classes. The seven colleges are the Technical College, the School of Business and Economics, the School of Health, the College of Humanities, the College of Marine Science and Technology, the Orot Medical College and the Hammer Maron Agricultural College, which are located in 6 provinces. There are 474 pre-school institutions, 833 primary schools, 302 junior high schools, 89 high schools and 6 vocational schools nationwide. In order to do a good job in literacy, E. has conducted literacy education in various national languages in more than 1,000 literacy centers, and recruits 5,000 students every year. At the same time, 70 libraries were established in rural areas. In 2016/2017, the number of students enrolled in the school is 700,000. The primary school enrollment rate is 93%, the secondary school is about 70%, the high school is about 31%, and the national literacy rate is 80%.
[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid accounts for nearly 30% of the gross national income of Ecuador. From 2004 to 2008, Norway assisted a total of 1 billion nanograms. In 2006, the EU assisted a project of 43 million euros. In 2007, Ecuador received international assistance of approximately $100 million. Of these, the United Nations system provided 47 humanitarian assistance projects to Ecuador, amounting to $24.83 million. The proportion of aid from Libya, Sudan, some Middle Eastern countries and China has increased. As of March 2008, the World Bank has assisted five infrastructure, health and education projects with nearly $210 million. The EU will provide 200 million euros in aid through the 11th European Development Fund from 2014 to 2019, and will provide a low-interest loan of 116 million euros through the European Investment Bank.
[External Relations] Pursuing a foreign policy of peace, non-alignment, good-neighborliness and friendship, it advocates developing relations with other countries on the basis of the principle of peaceful coexistence, but focuses on developing relations with the Middle East, East Asia and Western countries. In recent years, Western countries have repeatedly accused the Eritrean government of violating human rights and reducing economic aid to Ecuador. In 2009 and 2011, the UN Security Council adopted resolutions on sanctions against the U.S. and strengthened sanctions against the U.S., including specific arms embargoes and prohibiting the provision of financial support to the mining sector for possible violations of Security Council resolutions. In recent years, senior leaders of Ecuador have frequently visited neighboring countries to seek political support and economic cooperation. In 2018, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 2444 to lift all sanctions against Ecuador.
It is the observer for the United Nations, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the member States of the Sahel-Saharan Community and the Arab League. He has established diplomatic relations with nearly 100 countries, 20 of which have permanent embassies in Ecuador, and ambassadors to the 30 countries and UN headquarters.
[Attitudes towards the current international situation and major international issues] Call for democratization and legalization of international relations and opposition to international and regional hegemonism.
In contrast to Western democracy, African countries should be cautious about multi-party democracy. The AU still has a lot of work to do in resolving regional conflicts and promoting economic cooperation among African countries. The AU needs reform to improve its effectiveness. The problems in Africa should be resolved by Africans themselves and opposed to external forces intervening in African affairs.
[Relationship with the United States] After the independence of the United States, relations with the United States were close, and President Isaias paid six official visits to the United States. After the outbreak of the Ethiopian border war, the United States sent a special envoy to the two countries to shuttle mediation between the two countries. In August 1999, the United States and Rwanda, Algeria, and the United Nations jointly promoted the implementation of the OAU framework agreement. After the “9.11” incident, the United States and the United States strengthened military cooperation such as intelligence exchanges, and the military groups of the two sides exchanged frequently. In January 2002, the United States accepted Eritrea as a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).
At the beginning of 2002, the two sides had serious differences in their military bases in the United States. At the end of 2003, the United States and Israel were not able to meet the standards of democracy and human rights, and suspended the status of the beneficiary of the AGOA. In August 2005, the Eritrean Government expelled the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and in October asked the United Nations Mission in Europe to leave the United States and Europe. In 2006, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Fraser, instructed the US Permanent Representative to the United Nations to ask the Security Council to “re-examine” the 2002 Eritrean Boundary Commission ruling, and then propose a “new initiative” to resolve the border issue of Egypt and Egypt, and hope to bring the US to create a new The map “visited the Iraqi and was rejected by the Iraqi side. In August 2007, the United States demanded that it close its consulate in Auckland, and stop the visa business of the US Embassy in Ecuador. Since then, on the grounds that the United States and Israel support Somali terrorists, they have repeatedly threatened to include Ecuador in the list of “supporting terrorism countries” and initiated relevant sanctions procedures. The former US ambassador to Ecuador publicly called on the Eritrean people to overthrow the current regime. Fraser, Fraser, twice publicly wanted to “replace the regime.” In January 2008, Donald Penny, a member of the US Democratic Party and the African Subcommittee of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives, visited Ecuador and expressed support for the implementation of the ruling by the Ecuadorian side. In October 2008, the United States listed Germany as a list of countries that banned arms sales. In November, President Isaiah congratulated Obama on his election as President of the United States. His policy on the Horn of Africa could be changed after Obama took office to achieve peace and justice in the region. In August 2014, the United States did not invite Isaias to attend the US-Africa summit. Ecuador has not agreed to the US Ambassador to Ecuador. In April 2018, the US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs visited Eritrea and held bilateral consultations with officials of the Eritrean government. In June 2018, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ecuador visited the United States. In December 2018, US Assistant Secretary of State for Africa, Najib, visited Eritrea. In March 2019, the US Congressman and Chairman of the African Subcommittee of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, Bass visited Ecuador.
[Relationship with Italy] Er was the first colony of Italy in Africa. It was influenced by the economy, architecture and culture. After independence, it maintained its traditional relationship with Italy. It is an important trading partner and major donor of Ecuador. From 1993 to 2005, it provided various types of assistance and loans of USD 387 million. It is intended to open a school in Asmara, with more than 100 Italian teachers, 1400 students, 90% of whom are locals. President Isaiah has visited the country many times. Er attaches importance to the development of relations with the intention, but opposes its interference in the internal affairs of the country. In September 2001, the Ingol confiscated some Italians in the real estate, and the two countries recalled the ambassadors. In 2002, relations between the two countries returned to normal, and in October they re-engaged ambassadors. In August 2005, Italy intended to provide 3 million euros for raising war orphans. In January 2006, the Italian Deputy Foreign Minister publicly accused Eritrean of the current policy and the relationship between the two sides turned cold again. In March, the two countries expelled each other’s diplomats. In December, President Isaias visited. In September 2009, the Foreign Minister of Ecuador visited China. In July 2014, Italian Deputy Foreign Minister visited Ecuador. In October 2018, Italian Prime Minister Conte visited Ecuador and met with President Isaias. In the same month, the Foreign Minister of Ecuador attended the second Italian-African Forum in Rome and met with the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. At present, there are hundreds of expatriates in Italy, and there is an Italian school in Ecuador.
[Relationship with Ethiopia] After independence, he once maintained a special friendly relationship with Ethiopia. In 1993, the two countries signed the “Friends and Cooperation Agreement.” In 1997, Ecuador issued its own currency, stopped using the Ethiopian currency, and trade between the two countries was settled in US dollars. The two sides generated economic disputes and trade frictions. In May 1998, the two countries erupted in a large-scale border armed conflict in the disputed Badme area, and the relationship deteriorated sharply. A peace agreement was signed in 2000 and the United Nations Security Council subsequently established the United Nations Mission in UNMEE. After the Ethiopian decision to accept the refusal of the border committee, the peace process was deadlocked. At the end of July 2008, the United Nations Mission in UNMEE was terminated. In December 2009, under the impetus of Ethiopia, the UN Security Council passed a resolution on sanctions against Ecuador. In December 2011, under the impetus of the East African Intergovernmental Organization for Development Organization, such as Ethiopia, the UN Security Council adopted a resolution to strengthen sanctions against the United States. In June 2016, there was a small-scale exchange of fire in the border area between Ecuador and Ethiopia.
In June 2018, Ethiopia issued a statement saying that Egypt will fully accept and implement the Algiers Peace Agreement signed with the Ecuadorian side in 2000 and the side council’s resolution on the demarcation of the border between the two countries. Since then, the leaders of the two countries have exchanged visits on many occasions, announcing that Ethiopia has ended its war, resumed diplomatic relations, achieved navigation and communication, and signed the “Agreement on Comprehensive Cooperation for Peace and Friendship” in the Saudi city of Jeddah in September.
[Relationship with Sudan] The relationship with the Soviet Union was close before independence. After independence, the relationship between the two countries continued to be tense because the two sides supported each other’s opposition. Since 2005, relations between the two countries have improved markedly, and leaders have frequent exchanges of visits. Ezra presided over the peace talks in the eastern part of the Soviet Union, and promoted the signing of a peace agreement between the Soviet government and the Eastern Front of the Soviet Union, and actively participated in mediating the issue of Sudarfur. In January 2014, Sudanese President Bashir visited Ecuador. In May 2014 and June 2015, President Isaias visited Su. In April 2019, Eritrea condemned the three countries of the Soviet Union, Qatar, and Turkey for supporting the extremist Islamic opposition organizations to undermine the UAE relationship.
[Relationship with Djibouti] Earl had a good relationship with Djibouti at the beginning of independence. In 1996, territorial disputes occurred between the two countries. When the Ethiopian-Egyptian border war broke out in 1998, Eyre accused Ji of favoring Ethiopia, and Ji immediately announced that he had broken diplomatic relations with Ecuador. In March 2000, Ergi returned. In November 2006, President Isaias went to Kyrgyzstan to attend the 11th Summit of the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa and met with Kyrgyz President Geller. In July 2007, the Ecuadorian Defense Minister visited Kyrgyzstan. In June 2008, there was a border dispute with Kyrgyzstan. The Security Council passed resolutions 1862 and 1907 and demanded that Ecuador withdraw its troops from the disputed territory. In 2010, under Qatar’s mediation, Eritrea withdrew from the Erji border. In March 2016, Eritrea released 4 Kyrgyz prisoners. In recent years, the border between the two countries has remained generally calm and personnel exchanges have been normal. In June 2017, because Djibouti lowered its level of diplomatic representation in Qatar, the card withdrew from the peacekeeping force deployed in the Kyrgyz area of the disputed border of Erqi. The situation on the border of Erji was once tense. In July, Foreign Minister Kyrgyz said that Utter had withdrawn from the disputed area and the situation in the region slowed down. In September 2018, President Isaias met with Djibouti President Guelleh in Saudi Jeddah to initiate the normalization of relations between the two countries.
[Relationship with Yemen] Since 1995, the two countries have had armed conflicts due to the sovereignty dispute between the Red Sea and the small Hanish Island. In October 1998, the International Court of Justice ruled that major islands such as the Great Hanish Island belonged to Yemen, and the ruling was accepted and returned to the islands. In November, relations between the two countries returned to normal. In April 2001, the two countries signed an agreement on trade, agriculture, energy, transportation, maritime and technical cooperation, and reached an understanding on maritime arbitration such as fishing rights, but the fishery disputes between the two sides remained. The two sides have established a mixed committee. In January 2005, Foreign Minister Ali visited the country. In March, the ministerial meeting of the two countries was held in the capital of Asmara. In July 2006 and August 2007, the Yemeni President visited Ecuador twice. In September 2009, the foreign minister visited the country.