the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 越南社会主义共和国

【国 名】 越南社会主义共和国(the Socialist Republic of Vietnam)。

【面 积】 329556平方公里。

【人 口】 9170万(2015年12月),有54个民族,京族占总人口86%,岱依族、傣族、芒族、华人、侬族人口均超过50万。主要语言为越南语(官方语言、通用语言、主要民族语言)。主要宗教:佛教、天主教、和好教与高台教。

【首 都】 河内(Ha Noi),面积3340平方公里,人口756万人(2015年)。夏季平均气温28.9℃,冬季平均气温18.9℃。

【国家元首】 国家主席阮富仲(Nguyen Phu Trong),2018年10月当选。

【重要节日】 越南共产党成立日:2月3日(1930年)。越南国庆日:9月2日(1945年)。越南南方解放日:4月30日(1975年)。胡志明诞辰日:5月19日(1890年)。

[Country name] The Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

[area] 329,556 square kilometers.

[People] 91.7 million (December 2015), there are 54 ethnic groups, the Jing population accounts for 86% of the total population, and the population of the Yi, Zhai, Mang, Chinese, and Yi people exceeds 500,000. The main language is Vietnamese (official language, general language, major national language). Main religions: Buddhism, Catholicism, and good teaching and high education.

[Capital] Ha Noi, with an area of 3,340 square kilometers and a population of 7.56 million (2015). The average summer temperature is 28.9 ° C, and the average winter temperature is 18.9 ° C.

[National Head of State] National President Nguyen Phu Trong was elected in October 2018.

[Important Festival] The founding day of the Communist Party of Vietnam: February 3 (1930). Vietnam National Day: September 2 (1945). Southern Liberation Day of Vietnam: April 30 (1975). Ho Chi Minh’s birthday: May 19 (1890).

【简 况】 位于中南半岛东部,北与中国接壤,西与老挝、柬埔寨交界,东面和南面临南海。海岸线长3260多公里。地处北回归线以南,属热带季风气候,高温多雨。年平均气温24℃左右。年平均降雨量为1500~2000毫米。北方分春、夏、秋、冬四季。南方雨旱两季分明,大部分地区5~10月为雨季,11月至次年4月为旱季。

公元968年成为独立的封建国家。1884年沦为法国保护国。1945年9月2日宣布独立,成立越南民主共和国。同年9月法国再次入侵越南,越南进行了艰苦的抗法战争。1954年7月,关于恢复印度支那和平的日内瓦协定签署,越南北方获得解放,南方仍由法国(后成立由美国扶植的南越政权)统治。1961年起越南开始进行抗美救国战争,1973年1月越美在巴黎签订关于在越南结束战争、恢复和平的协定,美军开始从南方撤走。1975年5月南方全部解放,1976年4月选出统一的国会,7月宣布全国统一,定国名为越南社会主义共和国。

【政 治】 2011年1月召开的越共十一大总结了革新25年、《社会主义过渡时期国家建设纲领》实施20年、《2001~2010年经济社会发展战略》落实10年来的理论和实践,讨论并通过了经补充和修改完善的《社会主义过渡时期国家建设纲领》,通过《2011~2020年经济社会发展战略》,补充和修改党章,并提出要继续提高党的领导能力和战斗力,发挥全民族的力量,全面推进革新事业,为到2020年把越南基本建成迈向现代化的工业国奠定基础。2016年1月召开的越共十二大总结了革新30周年、《社会主义过渡时期国家建设纲领》(2011年补充案)实施5年、《2011-2020年经济社会发展战略》落实5年来的理论和实践,通过《2016-2020年社会经济发展方向和任务》等纲领性文件,提出要加强建设廉洁、稳健的越南共产党,发挥全民族力量和发扬社会主义民主,全面、同步推进革新事业,牢牢捍卫国家,维护和平、稳定环境,力争早日将越南基本建设成为迈向现代化的工业国。

【宪 法】越南现行宪法是第五部宪法,于2013年11月在十三届国会第六次会议上通过,2014年1月1日正式生效,是1946年、1959年、1980年、1992年宪法的继承和发展,体现了越南社会主义过渡时期的国家建设纲领。

【议 会】称国会,是国家最高权力机关,任期四年,通常每年举行两次例会。现为第14届国会,共有494名国会代表。现任国会主席阮氏金银(Nguyen Thi Kim Ngan),2016年3月当选。

[Profile] It is located in the eastern part of the Central South Peninsula, bordering China in the north, Laos and Cambodia in the west, and the South China Sea in the east and south. The coastline is more than 3,260 kilometers long. Located in the south of the Tropic of Cancer, it has a tropical monsoon climate and is hot and rainy. The annual average temperature is around 24 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1500-2000 mm. The north is divided into spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons. The rainy and arid seasons in the south are distinct. Most areas are rainy season from May to October, and dry season from November to April.

In 968 AD became an independent feudal state. In 1884 he became a French protectorate. On September 2, 1945, it declared independence and established the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In September of the same year, France invaded Vietnam again, and Vietnam waged a tough war against the law. In July 1954, the signing of the Geneva Agreement on Restoring Peace in Indochina, the northern part of Viet Nam was liberated, and the South was still ruled by France (later established by the United States-funded South Vietnamese regime). In 1961, Vietnam began the war against the United States. In January 1973, Vietnam signed an agreement in Paris to end the war and restore peace in Vietnam. The US military began to withdraw from the south. In May 1975, the South was completely liberated. In April 1976, the unified parliament was elected. In July, the national reunification was announced. The country was named the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

[Politics] The 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in January 2011 summarized the theory and practice of 25 years of reform, 20 years of implementation of the National Socialist Transitional Period, and 10 years of implementation of the 2001-2010 Economic and Social Development Strategy. Discussed and adopted the Supplementary and Revised “Guidelines for National Construction in the Socialist Transition Period”, supplemented and revised the Party Constitution through the “2011-2020 Economic and Social Development Strategy”, and proposed to continue to improve the party’s leadership and combat effectiveness. We will give full play to the strength of the whole nation and comprehensively promote the cause of innovation, laying the foundation for the basic construction of Vietnam into a modern industrial country by 2020. The 12th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam held in January 2016 summarized the 30th anniversary of the reform, the implementation of the National Socialist Transitional National Construction Agenda (2011 Supplementary Case) for 5 years, and the implementation of the Economic and Social Development Strategy 2011-2020 for 5 years. Theory and practice, through the programmatic documents such as “2016-2020 Social and Economic Development Direction and Tasks”, proposes to strengthen the building of a clean and stable Communist Party of Vietnam, give full play to the national strength and carry forward socialist democracy, and comprehensively and simultaneously promote the cause of innovation. We will firmly defend the country, maintain peace and stabilize the environment, and strive to make Vietnam’s capital construction an industrial country that is modernized at an early date.

[Constitution] The current Constitution of Vietnam is the fifth constitution. It was adopted at the 6th Congress of the 13th Congress in November 2013 and became effective on January 1, 2014. It was 1946, 1959, 1980, 1992. The inheritance and development of the Constitution embodies the national construction program during the transition period of socialism in Vietnam.

[Parliament] said that Congress is the highest authority of the state for a four-year term, usually two regular meetings a year. Now in the 14th Congress, there are 494 Congressional representatives. The current president of the National Assembly, Nguyen Thi Kim Ngan, was elected in March 2016.

【政 府】国家最高行政机关。本届政府于2016年7月组成。总理阮春福(Nguyen Xuan Phuc),副总理张和平(Truong Hoa Binh),副总理(兼外交部长)范平明(Pham Binh Minh),副总理王庭惠(Vuong Dinh Hue),副总理武德担(Vu Duc Dam),副总理郑庭勇(Trinh Dinh Dung),国防部长吴春历(Ngo Xuan Lich),公安部长苏林(To Lam),内务部长黎永新(Le Vinh Tan),财政部长丁进勇(Dinh Tien Dung),政府办公厅主任梅进勇(Mai Tien Dung),农业与农村发展部长阮春强(Nguyen Xuan Cuong),卫生部长阮氏金进(Nguyen Thi Kim Tien),工贸部长陈俊英(Tran Tuan Anh),教育培训部长冯春雅(Phung Xuan Nha),资源环境部长陈红河(Tran Hong Ha),文化体育旅游部长阮玉善(Nguyen Ngoc Thien),民族委员会主任杜文战(Do Van Chien),通信传媒部长张明俊(Truong Minh Tuan),科技部长朱玉英(Chu Ngoc Anh),计划投资部长阮志勇(Nguyen Chi Dung),劳动荣军与社会部长陶玉容(Dao Ngoc Dung),司法部长黎成龙(Le Thanh Long),建设部长范红河(Pham Hong Ha),国家银行行长黎明兴(Le Minh Hung),监察总署总监察长黎明概(Le Minh Khai),交通运输部长阮文体(Nguyen Van The)。

【行政区划】全国划分为58个省和5个直辖市。

【司法机构】由最高人民法院、最高人民检察院及地方法院、地方检察院和军事法院组成。最高人民法院院长阮和平(Nguyen Hoa Binh),2016年4月就任,最高人民检察院检察长黎明志(Le Minh Chi),2016年4月就任。

【政 党】越南共产党是唯一政党,1930年2月3日成立,同年10月改名为印度支那共产党,1951年更名为越南劳动党,1976年改用现名。现有党员约450多万人,基层组织近5.4万个,同世界上180多个政党建有党际关系。

越共十二届中央总书记为阮富仲(Nguyen Phu Trong)。政治局委员(17人):阮富仲、阮氏金银、吴春历、苏林、阮春福、阮善仁(Nguyen Thien Nhan)、丁世兄(Dinh The Huynh)、范明政(Pham Minh Chinh)、丛氏放(Tong Thi Phong)、王庭惠、陈国旺(Tran Quoc Vuong)、范平明、张氏梅(Truong Thi Mai)、张和平、阮文平(Nguyen Van Binh)、武文赏(Vo Van Thuong)、黄忠海(Hoang Trung Hai);中央书记处书记(14人):阮富仲、丁世兄、陈国旺、范明政、武文赏、张氏梅、阮文平、阮文年(Nguyen Van Nen)、张和平、梁强(Luong Cuong)、潘庭濯(Phan Dinh Trac)、阮春胜(Nguyen Xuan Thang)陈锦绣(Tran Cam Tu)、陈青敏(Tran Thanh Man);中央检查委员会委员(21人):陈锦绣、裴氏明怀(Bui Thi Minh Hoai)、梅直(Mai Truc)、阮青山(Nguyen Thanh Son)、黎氏水(Le Thi Thuy)、苏光秋(To Quang Thu)、沙如和(Sa Nhu Hoa)、阮文仁(Nguyen Van Nhan)、黄文茶(Hoang Van Tra)、武明姜(Vo Minh Khuong)、阮文营(Nguyen Van Doanh)、阮氏碧娥(Nguyen Thi Bich Nga)、何国治(Ha Quoc Tri)、高文统(Cao Van Thong)、武克雄(Vu Khac Hung)、严富强(Nghiem Phu Cuong)、阮世全(Nguyen The Toan)、阮国协(Nguyen Quoc Hiep)、黄氏春岚(Huynh Thi Xuan Lam)、陈进兴(Tran Tien Hung)。

越南祖国阵线(Mat Tran To Quoc Viet Nam)是越南的统一战线组织,成立于1955年9月,南北方统一后于1977年同越南南方民族解放阵线和越南民族、民主及和平力量联盟合并。第八届祖国阵线中央主席团主席陈青敏,2017年6月当选。

[Government] The highest administrative organ of the state. The current government was formed in July 2016. Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc, Deputy Prime Minister Truong Hoa Binh, Deputy Prime Minister (and Foreign Minister) Pham Binh Minh, Deputy Prime Minister Vuong Dinh Hue, Deputy Prime Minister Vu Duc Dam ), Deputy Prime Minister Trinh Dinh Dung, Defense Minister Ngo Xuan Lich, Public Security Minister To Lam, Interior Minister Le Vinh Tan, Finance Minister Dinh Tien Dung, Government Office Director Mai Tien Dung, Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Nguyen Xuan Cuong, Minister of Health Nguyen Thi Kim Tien, Minister of Industry and Trade Tran Tuan Anh, Minister of Education and Training Feng Chunya (Phung Xuan Nha), Minister of Resources and Environment, Tran Hong Ha, Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Nguyen Ngoc Thien, Director of the National Committee, Do Van Chien, Minister of Communications and Media, Truong Minh Tuan, Technology Minister Chu Ngoc Anh, Planning Investment Minister Nguyen Chi Dung, Labor Rongjun Minister of Social Affairs Dao Ngoc Dung, Minister of Justice Le Thanh Long, Minister of Construction Pham Hong Ha, President of the National Bank Le Minh Hung, Director of the General Inspector General Dawn Le Minh Khai), Minister of Transportation Nguyen Van The.

[Administrative division] The country is divided into 58 provinces and 5 municipalities.

[Judiciary] It is composed of the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate and the local courts, local procuratorates and military courts. Nguyen Hoa Binh, President of the Supreme People’s Court, took office in April 2016, and the Chief Prosecutor of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Le Minh Chi, took office in April 2016.

[Political Party] The Communist Party of Vietnam is the only political party. It was established on February 3, 1930. In October of the same year, it was renamed the Communist Party of Indochina. In 1951, it was renamed the Vietnamese Labor Party. In 1976, it changed its current name. There are more than 4.5 million party members and nearly 54,000 grassroots organizations. They have established inter-party relations with more than 180 political parties in the world.

The General Secretary of the 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam is Nguyen Phu Trong. Member of the Political Bureau (17 people): Yu Fuzhong, Yanshi Jinyin, Wu Chunli, Su Lin, Qi Chunfu, Nguyen Thien Nhan, Dinh The Huynh, Pham Minh Chinh, Cong Shifang Tong Thi Phong), Wang Tinghui, Tran Quoc Vuong, Fan Pingming, Truong Thi Mai, Zhang Heping, Nguyen Van Binh, Vo Van Thuong, Hoang Trung Hai ); Secretary of the Central Secretariat (14 people): Yan Fuzhong, Ding Shixiong, Chen Guowang, Fan Mingzheng, Wu Wenshu, Zhang Shimei, Yan Wenping, Nguyen Van Nen, Zhang Heping, Luong Cuong, Pan Tingyi (Phan) Dinh Trac), Nguyen Xuan Thang, Tan Cam Tu, and Tran Thanh Man; member of the Central Inspection Committee (21): Chen Jinxiu, Bui Thi Minh Hoai, Mei Zhi (Mai Truc), Nguyen Thanh Son, Le Thi Thuy, To Quang Thu, Sa Nhu Hoa, Nguyen Van Nhan, Huang Wen (Hoang Van Tra), Vo Minh Khuong, Nguyen Van Doanh, Nguyen Thi Bich Nga, Ha Quoc Tri, Gao Wentong (Cao Van Thong), Wu Kexiong ( Vu Khac Hung), Nghiem Phu Cuong, Nguyen The Toan, Nguyen Quoc Hiep, Huynh Thi Xuan Lam, and Tran Tien Hung.

Mat Tran To Quoc Viet Nam is a united front organization of Vietnam. It was established in September 1955. After the reunification of the South and the North, it merged with the Vietnam Southern National Liberation Front and the Vietnam National Alliance for National, Democratic and Peaceful Forces in 1977. Chen Qingmin, Chairman of the Central Presidium of the 8th Motherland Front, was elected in June 2017.

【重要人物】阮富仲:越共中央总书记、国家主席。1944年生于河内市东英县东会乡。政治学博士。1983~1996年历任《共产主义》杂志党建部副主任、主任、编委会委员、党委副书记、书记、副总编辑、总编辑。1994年1月在越共七届七中全会上补选为中央委员。1996年8月至1998年2月任河内市委副书记。1997年12月在越共八届四中全会上当选越共中央政治局委员。1998年3月任中央理论委员会副主席。1999年8月至2000年4月任中央政治局常委。2000年1月至2006年6月任河内市委书记。2001年11月起兼任中央理论委员会主席。2001年4月在越共九大上再次当选中央政治局委员。2006年4月在越共十大上当选连任,同年6月当选国会主席。2007年7月连任国会主席。2011年1月,在越共十一大上当选越共中央总书记。2016年1月在越共十二大上再次当选越共中央总书记。2018年10月,越南十四届国会六次会议选举其为新一任国家主席,接替病逝的陈大光。曾于1992年、1997年和2001年访华,2003年10月率团赴北京出席中越两党理论研讨会。2007年4月、2011年10月、2015年4月、2017年1月访华。

阮春福:越南政府总理。1954年7月20日生于广南省桂山县桂富乡。经济学学士。1982年5月12日入党。1978年至1979年在广南—岘港省经济管理委员会工作。1980年至1996年历任广南—岘港省人民委员会办公厅副主任、主任,省旅游厅、计划投资厅厅长。1997年至2001年历任广南省人民委员会副主席、常务副主席兼工业区管理委员会主任。2001年至2006年任广南省委副书记、省人民委员会主席。2006年3月至5月任政府监察总署副总监察长。2006年6月至2011年8月历任政府办公厅常务副主任、主任。2011年8月,在第十三届国会第一次会议上被任命为副总理。2016年4月在第十三届国会第十一次会议上当选总理,7月第十四届国会第一次会议上当选连任。越共十一、十二届中央政治局委员。2009年10月,陪同阮晋勇总理访华。2010年10月,来华出席上海世博会闭幕式。2011年10月来华出席第八届中国—东盟博览会。2015年9月访华并出席第十二届中国—东盟博览会。2016年9月访华并出席第十三届中国—东盟博览会。2018年11月,来华出席首届中国国际进口博览会。

【经 济】 越南系发展中国家。1986年开始实行革新开放。1996年越共八大提出要大力推进国家工业化、现代化。2001年越共九大确定建立社会主义定向的市场经济体制,并确定了三大经济战略重点,即以工业化和现代化为中心,发展多种经济成分、发挥国有经济主导地位,建立市场经济的配套管理体制。2006年越共十大提出发挥全民族力量,全面推进革新事业,使越南早日摆脱欠发达状况。2016年越共十二大通过了《2016~2020年经济社会发展战略》,提出2016~2020年经济年均增速达到6.5%—7%,至2020年,人均GDP增至3200—3500美元。

革新开放以来,越南经济保持较快增长,经济总量不断扩大,三产结构趋向协调,对外开放水平不断提高,基本形成了以国有经济为主导、多种经济成分共同发展的格局。

主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:2448亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:2587美元。

国内生产总值增长率:7.08%。

货币名称:越南盾。(Dong)。

汇率:1美元≈23200越盾(2019年1月)。

消费品价格上涨指数:3.54%(2018年)

[Important figures] Yu Fuzhong: General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam and President of the State. Born in 1944 in Donghui Township, Dongying County, Hanoi. Doctor of Political Science. From 1983 to 1996, he served as deputy director, director of the Party Construction Department of the Communist Party magazine, member of the editorial board, deputy secretary of the party committee, secretary, deputy editor-in-chief, and editor-in-chief. In January 1994, he was elected as a member of the Central Committee at the Seventh Plenary Session of the Seventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam. From August 1996 to February 1998, he served as deputy secretary of the Hanoi Municipal Committee. In December 1997, he was elected member of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of Vietnam at the Fourth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In March 1998, he served as vice chairman of the Central Committee of Theory. From August 1999 to April 2000, he served as a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee. From January 2000 to June 2006, he served as secretary of the Hanoi Municipal Party Committee. Since November 2001, he has also served as Chairman of the Central Committee of Theory. In April 2001, he was re-elected as a member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee at the 9th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In April 2006, he was re-elected at the 10th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, and was elected president of the National Assembly in June of the same year. In July 2007, he was re-elected as chairman of the National Assembly. In January 2011, he was elected General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam at the 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In January 2016, he was re-elected as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam at the 12th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In October 2018, the sixteenth session of the 14th Congress of Vietnam elected it as the new president of the country, replacing Chen Daguang, who died of illness. He visited China in 1992, 1997 and 2001. In October 2003, he led a delegation to Beijing to attend the Sino-Vietnamese Party Theory Seminar. Visited China in April 2007, October 2011, April 2015, and January 2017.

Qi Chunfu: Prime Minister of the Vietnamese government. Born on July 20, 1954 in Guifu Township, Guishan County, Guangnan Province. Bachelor of Economics. Joined the party on May 12, 1982. From 1978 to 1979, he worked in the Guangnan-Dangang Provincial Economic Management Committee. From 1980 to 1996, he served as deputy director and director of the General Office of the People’s Committee of Guangnan-Dangang Province, and the director of the Provincial Tourism Department and the Planning and Investment Department. From 1997 to 2001, he served as Vice Chairman, Executive Vice Chairman and Director of the Industrial Zone Management Committee of the People’s Committee of Guangnan Province. From 2001 to 2006, he served as deputy secretary of the Guangnan Provincial Party Committee and chairman of the Provincial People’s Committee. From March to May 2006, he served as deputy director of the Government Supervision Department. From June 2006 to August 2011, he served as executive deputy director and director of the government office. In August 2011, he was appointed Deputy Prime Minister at the first meeting of the 13th Congress. In April 2016, he was elected prime minister at the eleventh session of the 13th Congress and was re-elected at the first meeting of the 14th Congress in July. Member of the Political Bureau of the 11th and 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In October 2009, accompanied Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Chung to visit China. In October 2010, he came to China to attend the closing ceremony of the Shanghai World Expo. In October 2011, he came to China to attend the 8th China-ASEAN Expo. He visited China in September 2015 and attended the 12th China-ASEAN Expo. Visited China in September 2016 and attended the 13th China-ASEAN Expo. In November 2018, he came to China to attend the first China International Import Expo.

[Economy] Vietnam is a developing country. In 1986, reform and opening up began. In 1996, the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed to vigorously promote national industrialization and modernization. In 2001, the 9th National Congress of the Communist Party of China decided to establish a socialist-oriented market economic system and identified three major economic strategic priorities, namely, focusing on industrialization and modernization, developing various economic components, giving play to the dominant position of the state-owned economy, and establishing a supporting market economy. Management system. In 2006, the 10th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed to exert the power of the whole nation and comprehensively promote the cause of innovation so that Vietnam can get rid of the underdeveloped situation at an early date. In 2016, the 12th National Congress of the Communist Party of China adopted the “Economic and Social Development Strategy 2016-2020”, which proposed that the average annual economic growth rate from 2016 to 2020 will reach 6.5%-7%. By 2020, the per capita GDP will increase to 3200-3500 US dollars.

Since the reform and opening up, Vietnam’s economy has maintained rapid growth, the economic aggregate has been expanding, the three-product structure has become more coordinated, and the level of opening up has been continuously improved. Basically, a pattern has been formed in which the state-owned economy is dominant and various economic components are developing together.

The main economic data are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $244.8 billion.

Per capita GDP: $2,587.

Gross domestic product growth rate: 7.08%.

Currency name: Vietnamese Dong. (Dong).

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 23,200 VND (January 2019).

Consumer price rise index: 3.54% (2018)

【资 源】越南矿产资源丰富,种类多样。主要有煤、铁、钛、锰、铬、铝、锡、磷等,其中煤、铁、铝储量较大。有6845种海洋生物,其中鱼类2000种,蟹300种,贝类300种,虾类75种。森林面积约1000万公顷。

【工 业】2018年,越南工业生产指数增长10.2%。主要工业产品有煤炭、原油、天然气、液化气、水产品等。

【农 业】越南是传统农业国,农业人口约占总人口的75%。耕地及林地占总面积的60%。粮食作物包括稻米、玉米、马铃薯、番薯和木薯等,经济作物主要有咖啡、橡胶、胡椒、茶叶、花生、甘蔗等。2018年越南农林渔业总产值占国内生产总值的比重为14.57%,比2017年增长3.76%,其中农、林、渔业产值分别增长2.89%、6.01%、6.46%。

【服务业】近年越南服务业保持较快增长,2018年商品零售和服务业消费额同比增长11.7%。

【旅游业】越南旅游资源丰富,下龙湾等多处风景名胜被联合国教科文组织列为世界自然和文化遗产。近年来旅游业增长迅速,经济效益显著。2018年接待国外游客约1550万人次,比上年增长19.9%。主要客源国(地区)为中国、韩国、日本、美国、台湾地区、马来西亚、澳大利亚、泰国、法国。主要旅游景点有:河内市的还剑湖、胡志明陵墓、文庙、巴亭广场;胡志明市的统一宫、芽龙港口、莲潭公园、古芝地道和广宁省的下龙湾等。

【交通运输】近年来,越南交通运输业经过重组,提高服务质量,取得了较好的经济效益。2018年客运量约46.4亿人次,比上年增长10.7%,货运量16.3亿吨,比上年增长10%。

【财政金融】2018年越南财政收支基本完成计划。2018年财政总收入1240万亿越盾,财政总支出1219.5万亿越盾。

【对外贸易】越南和世界上150多个国家和地区有贸易关系。近年来越南对外贸易保持高速增长,对拉动经济发展起到了重要作用。2018年货物进出口贸易总额约为4822亿美元,其中出口额2447亿美元,增长13.8%,进口额2375亿美元,增长11.5%。

越南主要贸易对象为中国、美国、欧盟、东盟、日本、韩国。主要出口商品有:原油、服装纺织品、水产品、鞋类、大米、木材、电子产品、咖啡。主要出口市场为欧盟、美国、东盟、日本、中国。主要进口商品有:汽车、机械设备及零件、成品油、钢材、纺织原料、电子产品和零件。主要进口市场为中国、东盟、韩国、日本、欧盟、美国。

[Resources] Vietnam is rich in mineral resources and diverse in variety. There are mainly coal, iron, titanium, manganese, chromium, aluminum, tin, phosphorus, etc., of which coal, iron and aluminum have large reserves. There are 6,845 kinds of marine life, including 2000 species of fish, 300 species of crabs, 300 species of shellfish and 75 species of shrimps. The forest area is about 10 million hectares.

[Industrial] In 2018, Vietnam’s industrial production index increased by 10.2%. The main industrial products are coal, crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and aquatic products.

[Agriculture] Vietnam is a traditional agricultural country with an agricultural population accounting for about 75% of the total population. Cultivated land and forest land account for 60% of the total area. Food crops include rice, corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes and cassava. The main economic crops are coffee, rubber, pepper, tea, peanuts and sugar cane. In 2018, Vietnam’s total output value of agriculture, forestry and fishery accounted for 14.57% of GDP, an increase of 3.76% over 2017. The output value of agriculture, forestry and fishery increased by 2.89%, 6.01% and 6.46% respectively.

[Service Industry] Vietnam’s service industry has maintained rapid growth in recent years. In 2018, the consumption of goods retail and service industry increased by 11.7%.

[Tourism] Vietnam is rich in tourism resources, and many scenic spots such as Halong Bay are listed as World Natural and Cultural Heritage by UNESCO. In recent years, tourism has grown rapidly and its economic benefits have been remarkable. In 2018, there were approximately 15.5 million foreign tourists, an increase of 19.9% ​​over the previous year. The main source countries (regions) are China, South Korea, Japan, the United States, Taiwan, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, and France. The main tourist attractions are: Hoan Kiem Lake in Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Temple of Literature, Ba Dinh Square; Ho Chi Minh City’s Reunification Palace, Budlong Port, Liantan Park, Cu Chi Tunnel and Halong Bay in Quang Ninh Province.

[Transportation] In recent years, Vietnam’s transportation industry has undergone restructuring to improve service quality and achieved good economic returns. In 2018, passenger traffic was about 4.64 billion passengers, an increase of 10.7% over the previous year. The freight volume was 1.63 billion tons, an increase of 10% over the previous year.

[Financial Finance] In 2018, Vietnam’s fiscal revenue and expenditure were basically completed. In 2018, the total fiscal revenue was 1240 trillion VND and the total fiscal expenditure was 1219.5 trillion VND.

[Foreign Trade] Vietnam has trade relations with more than 150 countries and regions in the world. In recent years, Vietnam’s foreign trade has maintained rapid growth, which has played an important role in stimulating economic development. The total import and export trade of goods in 2018 was about 482.2 billion US dollars, of which exports were 244.7 billion US dollars, up 13.8%, and imports were 237.5 billion US dollars, up 11.5%.

Vietnam’s main trade targets are China, the United States, the European Union, ASEAN, Japan, and South Korea. The main export commodities are: crude oil, clothing and textiles, aquatic products, footwear, rice, wood, electronic products, coffee. The main export markets are the European Union, the United States, ASEAN, Japan, and China. The main imported goods are: automobiles, machinery and parts, refined oil, steel, textile raw materials, electronic products and parts. The main import markets are China, ASEAN, South Korea, Japan, the European Union, and the United States.

【外国资本】外资的进入对越引进先进生产技术和管理经验,推动经济增长,解决就业起到了重要作用。

截至2018年12月20日,越南吸引3046个新签投资项目,协议金额达179亿美元,同比减少15.5%。2018年对越新增投资排名前三位的国家依次是日本、韩国、新加坡。

【外国援助】1993年国际社会恢复对越援助,2010—2015年越南获得的官方发展援助(ODA)和优惠贷款总金额约达306.16亿美元。

【人民生活】2018年,越南居民生活稳定,城市居民的生活水平有所提高。全国贫困户和贫困地区的数量继续减少。2018年失业率为2%。

【军 事】越南人民军于1944年12月22日建军。实行主力部队、地方部队和民兵组成的三结合“全民国防”体制。越共中央政治局为最高军事决策机构,通过国防部对部队实行统一领导。目前总兵力约为45万,其中陆军26万,海军3.5万,空军4.5万。实行义务兵役制,服役年限2~4年不等。2012年军费开支约33亿美元。

【教 育】目前越南已形成包括幼儿教育、初等教育、中等教育、高等教育、师范教育、职业教育及成人教育在内的教育体系。普通教育学制为12年,分为三个阶段:第一阶段为5年小学,第二阶段为4年初中,第三阶段为3年高中。2000年越南宣布已基本实现普及小学义务教育目标。2001年开始普及九年义务教育。全国共有376所高等院校。著名高校有河内国家大学、胡志明市国家大学、顺化大学、岘港大学等。

【新闻出版】越南新闻出版法规定报纸由国家控制。中央及地方新闻单位共450家。主要出版社有国家政治出版社、文化出版社、文学出版社、科技出版社、教育出版社和世界出版社等。各种出版物13515种,年发行量2.18亿册。报社约150家,其余为行业小报。主要报刊有:《人民报》,越共中央机关报,1951年创刊,1998年5月开设电子版;《人民军队报》,越南人民军总政治局机关报;《大团结报》,祖国阵线中央机关报;《西贡解放报》(越文和中文版),越共胡志明市委机关报;《共产主义》月刊,越共中央政治理论刊物,1956年创刊,2001年设电子版;《全民国防》月刊。

越南通讯社:国家通讯社,1945年创立,1976年越南南方解放通讯社与之合并。在全国各省市均设有分社,驻外分社有27个。1998年8月开设互联网(越、英、法、西班牙文)。

“越南之声”广播电台:成立于1954年,有四套对内节目,用越南语及数种少数民族语言播音;对外广播用中国普通话、广东话、俄语、英语、法语、西班牙语、日语、泰语、老挝语、柬埔寨语、印尼语、马来语等。

越南中央电视台:成立于1971年,目前有7套节目。

[Foreign Capital] The entry of foreign capital has played an important role in introducing advanced production technology and management experience, promoting economic growth and solving employment.

As of December 20, 2018, Vietnam attracted 3,046 new investment projects, with a total amount of US$17.9 billion, a year-on-year decrease of 15.5%. The top three countries in the 2018 increase in investment in Vietnam are Japan, South Korea, and Singapore.

[Foreign Aid] In 1993, the international community resumed aid to Vietnam. The total amount of official development assistance (ODA) and concessional loans received by Vietnam in 2010-2015 was approximately US$30.616 billion.

[People’s Life] In 2018, Vietnamese residents lived in a stable life and the living standards of urban residents improved. The number of poor households and poor areas in the country continues to decrease. The unemployment rate was 2% in 2018.

[Military] The Vietnamese People’s Army built its army on December 22, 1944. The three-in-one “national defense” system consisting of the main force, local troops and militia is implemented. The Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam is the highest military decision-making body and exercises unified leadership over the troops through the Ministry of National Defense. At present, the total strength is about 450,000, including 260,000 Army, 35,000 Navy, and 45,000 Air Force. The compulsory military service system is implemented, and the service period is 2 to 4 years. In 2012, military spending was about $3.3 billion.

[Education] At present, Vietnam has formed an education system including early childhood education, primary education, secondary education, higher education, teacher education, vocational education and adult education. The general education system is 12 years and is divided into three stages: the first stage is a five-year primary school, the second stage is a four-year junior high school, and the third stage is a three-year high school. In 2000, Vietnam announced that it had basically achieved the goal of universal primary school compulsory education. In 2001, nine-year compulsory education was popularized. There are 376 colleges and universities across the country. Famous universities include Hanoi National University, Ho Chi Minh City National University, Hue University, and Da Nang University.

[Press and Publication] The Vietnam Press and Publication Law stipulates that newspapers are controlled by the state. There are 450 central and local news organizations. The main publishers include the National Political Publishing House, Cultural Publishing House, Literary Publishing House, Science and Technology Press, Education Press and World Publishing House. There are 13515 kinds of publications, with an annual circulation of 218 million copies. There are about 150 newspapers and the rest are industry tabloids. The main newspapers and periodicals include: “People’s Daily”, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, founded in 1951, opened an electronic version in May 1998; “People’s Army”, the General Political Bureau of the People’s Army of Vietnam; “Great Unity”, the motherland front Central Organs Newspaper; “Saigon Liberation News” (Vietnamese and Chinese version), the Communist Party of Vietnam’s Ho Chi Minh City Committee; “Communism” monthly magazine, the political theory publication of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, founded in 1956, electronic version in 2001; “National National Defense “Monthly.

Vietnam News Agency: National News Agency, founded in 1945, merged with the Southern Vietnam Liberation News Agency in 1976. There are branches in all provinces and cities across the country, and there are 27 overseas branches. Internet was opened in August 1998 (Vietnam, English, French, Spanish).

“Voice of Vietnam” radio station: Founded in 1954, there are four sets of in-house programs, broadcast in Vietnamese and several minority languages; Chinese radio, Mandarin, Cantonese, Russian, English, French, Spanish, Japanese , Thai, Lao, Cambodian, Indonesian, Malay, etc.

Vietnam Central Television: Established in 1971, there are currently 7 programs.

主要网址:越南通讯社:http://www.vnagency.com.vn/ ;越南人民报:http://www.nhandan.org.vn/ ;越南共产党电子报:http://www.cpv.org.vn/ ;越南国会:http://www.na.gov.vn/ ;越南外交部:http://www.mofa.gov.vn/。

【对外关系】越共十二大重申继续奉行独立、自主、和平、合作与发展、全方位、多样化外交路线,实行开放、全方位、多样化的对外政策,积极主动地融入国际社会,做国际社会可信赖的朋友和伙伴、负责任的一员。

2018年越南积极开展对外交往。同美国关系发展迅速,同欧盟合作扩大,同日本、俄罗斯等本地区大国关系良好,同东盟成员国的合作加强,多边外交活跃。已与180个国家建交,并同20个国际组织及480多个非政府组织建立合作关系。

Main website: Vietnam News Agency: http://www.vnagency.com.vn/; Vietnamese People’s Daily: http://www.nhandan.org.vn/; Vietnam Communist Party Newsletter: http://www.cpv.org .vn/ ;Vietnam Congress: http://www.na.gov.vn/ ; Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Vietnam: http://www.mofa.gov.vn/.

[External Relations] The 12th National Congress of the Communist Party of China reaffirms that it will continue to pursue an independent, independent, peaceful, cooperative and development, all-round and diversified diplomatic line, implement an open, all-round and diversified foreign policy, and actively integrate into the international community. A trusted friend and partner of the international community, a responsible member.

In 2018, Vietnam actively carried out foreign exchanges. Relations with the United States have developed rapidly, cooperation with the EU has expanded, relations with major countries such as Japan and Russia have been good, cooperation with ASEAN member states has been strengthened, and multilateral diplomacy has been active. It has established diplomatic relations with 180 countries and established cooperative relations with 20 international organizations and more than 480 non-governmental organizations.