The Republic of Zimbabwe 津巴布韦共和国

【国名】津巴布韦共和国(The Republic of Zimbabwe)。

【面积】39万平方公里。

【人口】1690万。主要有绍纳族(占84.5%)和恩德贝莱族(占14.9%)。官方语言为英语、绍纳语和恩德贝莱语。58%的居民信奉基督教,40%信奉原始宗教,1%信奉伊斯兰教。

【首都】哈拉雷(Harare),人口187万。9~11月平均气温为16~32℃,4~8月平均气温为7~21℃。

【国家元首】总统埃默森·姆南加古瓦(Emmerson Mnangagwa ),2017年11月24日就任,2018年8月当选连任。

【重要节日】独立日:4月18日;英雄节:8月11日;建军节:8月12日;团结日:12月22日。

【简况】非洲东南部内陆国。东邻莫桑比克,南接南非,西和西北与博茨瓦纳、赞比亚毗邻。属热带草原气候,年均气温22℃;10月温度最高,平均32℃;7月温度最低,平均13~17℃。

公元1100年前后开始形成中央集权国家。13世纪,卡伦加人建立莫诺莫塔帕王国,15世纪初王国达到鼎盛时期。1890年沦为英国南非公司殖民地,1895年被命名为南罗得西亚。1923年英国政府接管该地,给予“自治领”地位。1953年,英国将南罗得西亚、北罗得西亚(今赞比亚)和尼亚萨兰(今马拉维)合组为“中非联邦”。1963年底“联邦”解体。1964年,南罗得西亚白人右翼势力组成以伊恩·史密斯为首的政府,并于1965年11月宣布独立。20世纪60年代,津巴布韦非洲人民联盟(简称人盟)和津巴布韦非洲民族联盟(简称民盟)先后成立,进行反对白人种族主义统治的武装斗争。1979年,津巴布韦各派在英国主持下召开伦敦制宪会议。1980年2月底举行议会选举,穆加贝领导的民盟获胜。同年4月18日独立,定国名为津巴布韦共和国。

[Country name] The Republic of Zimbabwe.

[Area] 390,000 square kilometers.

[Population] 16.9 million. There are mainly Shaoners (84.5%) and Ndebelais (14.9%). The official languages ​​are English, Shona and Ndebele. 58% of the residents believe in Christianity, 40% believe in primitive religion, and 1% believe in Islam.

[Capital] Harare, with a population of 1.87 million. The average temperature in September-November is 16-32 °C, and the average temperature in April-August is 7-21 °C.

[Head of State] President Emmerson Mnangagwa, took office on November 24, 2017, and was re-elected in August 2018.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: April 18th; Heroes Day: August 11th; Army Day: August 12th; Unity Day: December 22. 

[profile] landlocked countries in southeastern Africa. It borders Mozambique in the east, South Africa in the south, and Botswana and Zambia in the west and northwest. It has a savanna climate with an average annual temperature of 22 °C; the highest temperature in October is 32 °C; the lowest temperature in July is 13-17 °C.

The centralized state began to form around 1100 AD. In the 13th century, the Karenga established the kingdom of Monomoda, and the kingdom reached its peak in the early 15th century. In 1890 he became a colony of the British South African company and was named Southern Rhodesia in 1895. In 1923, the British government took over the land and granted the status of “self-governing leader”. In 1953, the United Kingdom grouped South Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia (present-day Zambia) and Niassaran (now Malawi) into the “Central African Federation.” The “Federal” disintegrated at the end of 1963. In 1964, the white right-wing forces of Southern Rhodesia formed a government headed by Ian Smith and declared independence in November 1965. In the 1960s, the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (NPC) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (NLD) were established to carry out armed struggle against white racist rule. In 1979, the Zimbabwean factions held the London Constitutional Convention under the auspices of the United Kingdom. The parliamentary elections were held at the end of February 1980, and the NLD led by Mugabe won. Independence on April 18 of the same year, the name of the country was Zimbabwe.

【政治】独立后,政局曾长期稳定。2000年至2002年,津政府实施“快速土改计划”,征收白人土地,用于安置无地或少地的黑人农民,导致社会矛盾激化,经济下滑,陷入政、经危机,朝野尖锐对立。西方国家对津实施经济制裁,对津高官实行禁止入境等一系列“精确制裁”,支持反对党,要求穆加贝总统下台。

2008年3月29日,津举行总统、议会和地方政府“三合一”选举。在议会众议院选举中,民盟首次输给民革运茨万吉拉伊派,失去多数席位,在总统选举中,民革运茨万吉拉伊派候选人茨万吉拉伊得票47.9%,民盟候选人穆加贝得票43.2%。选举结果未及时公布并因此引发争议。由于二人票数均未过半,2008年6月27日津举行第二轮总统选举,茨万吉拉伊在选前退出,穆加贝以85.5%的得票率当选,但反对党和西方国家对此不予承认。9月15日,在南非总统姆贝基的调解下,津民盟、民革运茨万吉拉伊派和民革运穆坦巴拉派签署组建联合政府的《全面政治协议》。2009年2月13日,津联合政府成立。穆加贝继续担任总统,茨万吉拉伊任总理,民革运穆派总裁穆坦巴拉、茨派副总裁库佩任副总理。津联合政府成立后运转正常,国内局势基本稳定。2013年7月31日,津举行总统、议会和地方政府“三合一”选举。穆加贝以61%的得票率击败茨万吉拉伊(得票率约为34%),当选津新一届总统,穆领导的民盟获得众议院2/3以上议席。8月22日,穆加贝总统宣誓就职。2017年11月,津政局发生突变,穆加贝在各方压力下辞去总统职务,姆南加古瓦就任总统。2018年7月30日,津举行总统、议会和地方政府“三合一”选举,姆南加古瓦以50.8%得票率当选总统。8月26日,姆南加古瓦总统宣誓就职。民盟获得众议院2/3以上议席。2018年12月11日至16日,民盟举行第七次全国代表大会,姆南加古瓦被推举为2023年总统选举民盟唯一候选人。

【宪法】首部宪法于1979年12月在英国主持下由津巴布韦各主要党派在伦敦兰开斯特大厦举行的制宪会议上制订,独立时开始生效,后经数次修改。宪法规定津实行总统内阁制。2005年,国民议会通过第17号宪法修正案,增设参议院,规定津议会实行两院制。2007年,津议会通过第18号宪法修正案,规定总统任期由6年改为5年,与议员任期相同;总统、议会和地方政府选举同时举行,并对议会议席数量和产生方式进行调整。根据2008年9月15日津两党三方签订的分权协议,津议会于2009年2月通过了第19号宪法修正案,确立联合政府的框架结构,并将在津联合政府成立两年内完成制定新宪法。2013年3月,津新宪法草案顺利通过全民公投,并于5月经穆加贝总统签署生效。新宪法对总统权力予以限制,规定总统任期不得超过两届(十年后生效),总统作出解散议会等重大决定须经议会三分之二多数通过等。

【议会】本届议会于2018年7月选举产生,9月3日就职。众议院有270个议席,其中民盟占179席,民革运联盟占88席,民革运茨派占1席,全国爱国阵线占1席,另有1席待补选。 众议长雅各布·穆登达(民盟),2013年9月就任,2018年9月连任。参议院共有80个议席,民盟占34席,民革运联盟占25席,民革运茨派占1席,酋长18席,残疾人代表2席。参议长迈布尔·奇诺莫娜(民盟,女),2018年9月就任。

[Politics] After independence, the political situation has been stable for a long time. From 2000 to 2002, the Tianjin government implemented the “quick land reform plan” and levied white land for the placement of black farmers with no land or less land, which led to intensification of social conflicts, economic downturn, political and economic crisis, and sharp confrontation between the ruling and the opposition. Western countries imposed economic sanctions on Tianjin, imposed a series of “precise sanctions” on Jin Gaoguan’s ban on entry, supported the opposition party, and demanded that President Mugabe step down.

On March 29, 2008, Tianjin held a “three-in-one” election for the president, parliament and local governments. In the House of Representatives elections, the NLD lost to the Philippine squadron for the first time, losing the majority of seats. In the presidential election, the squad of the squad, the Tsvangirai candidate, 47.9%, the NLD candidate People Mugabe got 43.2% of the votes. The election results were not announced in time and caused controversy. Since the number of votes was not more than half, the second round of presidential elections was held on June 27, 2008. Tsvangirai withdrew before the election. Mugabe was elected with 85.5% of the votes, but the opposition and the Western countries did not. Admitted. On September 15, under the mediation of South African President Thabo Mbeki, the Zimbabwe, the National Revolutionary Mencius and the Mutan Barak signed a “Comprehensive Political Agreement” to form a coalition government. On February 13, 2009, the Tianjin Union Government was established. Mugabe continued to serve as president, Tsvangirai was prime minister, Mutanbara, president of the National Revolutionary Movement, and Kuppe, vice president of the Cypriot side, served as deputy prime minister. After the establishment of the Tianjin United Government, it was functioning normally and the domestic situation was basically stable. On July 31, 2013, Tianjin held a “three-in-one” election for the president, parliament and local government. Mugabe defeated Tsvangirai with a 61% vote (approximately 34%) and was elected as the new president. The NLD led by the Mu has won more than two-thirds of the House. On August 22, President Mugabe was sworn in. In November 2017, there was a sudden change in the Jinzheng Bureau. Mugabe resigned as president under the pressure of all parties, and Mnanagaguwa became the president. On July 30, 2018, Tianjin held the “three-in-one” elections of the president, the parliament and the local government. Mnanagaguwa was elected president by 50.8%. On August 26, President Mnanagaguva was sworn in. The NLD won two or more seats in the House of Representatives. From December 11 to 16, 2018, the NLD held its seventh national congress, and Mnanagaguwa was elected as the only candidate for the 2023 presidential election of the NLD.

[Constitution] The first constitution was enacted in December 1979 under the auspices of the United Kingdom by the main parties of Zimbabwe at the Constitutional Convention held in Lancaster Building, London. It became effective at the time of independence and was revised several times. The Constitution stipulates that the presidential cabinet system is implemented. In 2005, the National Assembly passed the No. 17 constitutional amendment to add a Senate, stipulating that the Jin Parliament will implement a bicameral system. In 2007, the Tianjin Parliament passed the No. 18 constitutional amendment, which stipulated that the term of office of the president should be changed from six years to five years, the same as the term of office of the members of parliament; the presidential, parliamentary and local government elections were held simultaneously, and the number of seats and the way of production of the seats were adjusted. According to the decentralization agreement signed by the three parties of the two parties on September 15, 2008, the Tianjin Parliament passed the No. 19 constitutional amendment in February 2009, establishing the framework of the coalition government, and will complete it within two years of the establishment of the Tianjin coalition government. Formulate a new constitution. In March 2013, the draft constitution of Jinxin passed the referendum successfully and was signed into force in May by President Mugabe. The new constitution restricts the presidential power, stipulating that the president’s term of office must not exceed two (10 years later), and the president’s major decision to dissolve the parliament must be passed by a two-thirds majority of the parliament.

[Parliament] The current parliament was elected in July 2018 and took office on September 3. There are 270 seats in the House of Representatives, including 179 seats in the NLD, 88 seats in the National Revolutionary Movement League, 1 seat in the National Revolutionary Opportunities, 1 seat in the National Patriotic Front, and 1 in the by-election. The Speaker of the House of Representatives, Jacob Mudenda (NLD), took office in September 2013 and was re-elected in September 2018. There are 80 seats in the Senate, 34 in the NLD, 25 in the National Revolutionary League, 1 in the Civil War, 18 in the Emirates, and 2 in the disabled. The Senate President, Maibul Chinomona (NLD, female), took office in September 2018.

【政府】实行总统内阁制,内阁成员由总统任命。2018年9月组成新一届内阁,目前主要成员如下:总统埃默森·姆南加古瓦(Emmerson Mnangagwa),副总统康斯坦丁诺·奇温加(Constantino Chiwenga)、副总统肯博·莫哈迪(Kembo Mohadi),财政和经济发展部长穆苏利·恩库贝(Mthuli Ncube),国防和老兵部长奥帕·穆欣古里(Oppah Muchinguri),地方政府、公共工程和国家住房部长朱利·莫约(July Moyo),外交和国际贸易部长西布西索·莫约(Sibusiso Moyo),公共服务、劳工和社会福利部长塞克赛·恩曾扎(Sekesai Nzenza),工商部长曼加利索·恩德洛武(Mangaliso Ndlovu),内政和文化遗产部长凯恩·马泰马(Cain Mathema),高等教育和科技发展部长阿蒙·穆尔维拉(Amon Murwira),基础教育部长保罗·马维马(Paul Mavima),土地、农业、水资源、文化和农村重新安置部长佩兰斯·希里(Perrance Shiri),矿业部长温斯顿·奇坦杜(Winston Chitando),能源和电力开发部长乔勒姆·贡博(Jorum Gumbo),交通和基础设施发展部长乔尔·马蒂扎(Joel Matiza),新闻、宣传和广播服务部长莫妮卡·穆茨万古瓦(Monica Mutsvangwa),信息通讯和邮政部长卡赞贝·卡赞贝(Kazembe Kazembe),环境、旅游和接待行业部长普丽斯卡·穆普富米拉(Priscah Mupfumira),青年、体育、艺术和娱乐部长柯丝蒂·考文垂(Kirsty Coventry),卫生和儿童福利部长奥贝迪亚·莫约(Obediah Moyo),司法和议会事务部长齐扬比·齐扬比(Ziyambi Ziyambi),妇女事务、社区和中小企业发展部长西滕比索·尼奥尼(Sithembiso Nyoni)。

【行政区划】 2004年2月全国行政区划调整,由8个省增加到10个省,各省的名称分别为:马尼卡兰(Manicaland)、东马绍纳兰(Mashonaland East)、中马绍纳兰(Mashonaland Central)、西马绍纳兰(Mashonaland West)、马旬戈(Masvingo)、北马塔贝莱兰(Matabeleland North)、南马塔贝莱兰(Matabeleland South)、中部(Midlands)、哈拉雷(Harare)和布拉瓦约(Bulawaya)。

【司法机构】津全国司法首脑为首席大法官,也是宪法法院和最高法院的首脑,由总统任命。现任首席大法官戈弗雷·奇迪奥西库(Godfrey Chidyausiku),2001年8月就职。司法系统由以下法院组成:宪法法院、最高法院、高等法院、劳工法院、行政法院、地方法院、习惯法法院等。总检控官约翰内斯·托马纳(Johannes Tomana)。

【政党】实行多党制。主要政党有:

(1)津巴布韦非洲民族联盟—爱国阵线(Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front):简称民盟,津独立以来执政至今。1963年8月8日成立,1987年与津巴布韦非洲人民联盟合并,仍称津巴布韦非洲民族联盟(爱国阵线), 约有300万党员。党的宗旨是“建立和保持一个依据我们的历史、文化和社会实际的社会主义社会,并为实现经济独立、繁荣和平均分配国家财富创造条件”。 2017年12月,民盟举行全国代表大会,姆南加古瓦出任党主席兼第一书记。同月,奇温加、莫哈迪出任副主席兼第二书记。

(2)争取民主变革运动(Movement for Democratic Change):简称民革运,最大反对党。约有120万党员。1999年9月在哈拉雷成立,得到大部分城镇居民和一些白人的支持。2001年以来,其候选人先后当选马旬戈、布拉瓦约、哈拉雷等市市长。在2002年3月举行的总统选举中,其候选人获得42%的选票。2005年下半年,民革运在是否参加参议院选举问题上陷入内部纷争,并于2006年初分裂为“参选派”和“抵制派”。两派均自称民革运正统,分别选举各自的组织机构。“抵制派”主席为摩根·茨万吉拉伊(Morgan Tsvangirai)。“参选派”主席原为亚瑟·穆坦巴拉(Arthur Mutambara)。2011年1月,该派举行全国代表大会,选举该党原秘书长、联合政府工商部部长纽比为新主席。此后,“穆派”改称为“纽派”。2014年10月31日至11月1 日,民革运茨派举行第四届全国代表大会,茨万吉拉伊连任党主席。2018年2月,茨万吉拉伊去世,茨派原副主席查米萨联合穆祖瑞等党内大佬,完成党内力量整合。同年3月,查米萨被任命为茨派主席。但另一名茨派原副主席库佩不承认查米萨领导地位,并继续使用茨派党徽。2018年7月大选前,查米萨领导茨派联合纽派等其他6个小党,组成民革运联盟并成为该联盟总统候选人。在总统选举中,查米萨以44.3%的得票率位居第二。

[Government] implements the presidential cabinet system, and members of the cabinet are appointed by the president. The new cabinet was formed in September 2018. The main members are as follows: President Emerson Mnangagwa, Vice President Constantino Chiwenga, Vice President Ken Bomo Kembo Mohadi, Minister of Finance and Economic Development Mthuli Ncube, Defense and Veteran Minister Oppah Muchinguri, Minister of Local Government, Public Works and National Housing, Julie · July Moyo, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Sibusiso Moyo, Minister of Public Service, Labor and Social Welfare Sekesai Nzenza, Minister of Industry and Commerce Mangaliso · Mangaliso Ndlovu, Minister of Home Affairs and Cultural Heritage Cain Mathema, Minister of Higher Education and Technology Development Amon Murwira, Minister of Basic Education Paul Mawi Paul Mavima, Minister of Land, Agriculture, Water Resources, Culture and Rural Resettlement Perrance Shiri, Minister of Mines Winston Chittan (Winst On Chitando), Energy and Power Development Minister Jorum Gumbo, Minister of Transport and Infrastructure Development Joel Matiza, Minister of News, Publicity and Broadcasting Services Monica Mutz Monica Mutsvangwa, Minister of Information, Communications and Posts Kazembe Kazembe, Minister of Environment, Tourism and Hospitality Industry Priscah Mupfumira, Youth, Sports, Minister of Arts and Entertainment Kirsty Coventry, Minister of Health and Child Welfare, Obediah Moyo, Minister of Justice and Parliamentary Affairs, Ziyambi Ziyambi, Sithembiso Nyoni, Minister of Women’s Affairs, Community and SME Development.

[Administrative Division] In February 2004, the administrative division of the country was adjusted from 8 provinces to 10 provinces. The names of the provinces were: Manicaland, Mashonaland East, and Zhong Ma Shao. Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands , Harare and Bulawaya.

[Judiciary] The National Judicial Head of Jin is the Chief Justice and the head of the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court, appointed by the President. The current Chief Justice, Godfrey Chidyausiku, took office in August 2001. The judicial system consists of the following courts: the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the High Court, the Labor Court, the Administrative Court, the District Court, and the Customary Court. Chief Prosecutor Johannes Tomana.

[Party] implements a multi-party system. The main political parties are:

(1) Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front): referred to as the NLD. It was established on August 8, 1963. It merged with the Zimbabwe African People’s Union in 1987. It is still called the Zimbabwe African National Union (Patriotic Front) and has about 3 million members. The party’s aim is to “establish and maintain a socialist society based on our history, culture and social reality, and create conditions for economic independence, prosperity and the even distribution of national wealth.” In December 2017, the NLD held a national congress, and Mnanaga Gawa became the party chairman and first secretary. In the same month, Chiwenga and Mohadi served as vice chairman and second secretary.

(2) Movement for Democratic Change: referred to as the National Revolutionary Movement, the largest opposition party. There are about 1.2 million party members. It was established in Harare in September 1999 and is supported by most urban residents and some white people. Since 2001, his candidate has been elected as mayor of Ma Teng Ge, Bulawayo, Harare and so on. In the presidential elections held in March 2002, its candidates received 42% of the votes. In the second half of 2005, the National Revolutionary Movement was caught in internal disputes on whether to participate in the Senate elections. In early 2006, it split into “selectionists” and “boycotts”. Both factions claimed to be orthodox in the National Revolutionary Movement and elected their respective organizations. The chairman of the “boycott” is Morgan Tsvangirai. The chairman of the “Participating Party” was originally Arthur Mutambara. In January 2011, the school held a national congress to elect the former Secretary-General of the party and the Minister of Industry and Commerce of the United Government, Newby, as the new chairman. Since then, “Mu Pai” has been renamed “New Zealand”. From October 31 to November 1, 2014, the National Revolutionary Opportunities held the Fourth National Congress and Tsvangirai was re-elected as Party Chairman. In February 2018, Tsvangirai died, and the former vice-president of Chapa, Chamisa, and Muzuri, and other party members, completed the integration of power within the party. In March of the same year, Chamisa was appointed as the chairman of the school. But another former Cypriot vice-president, Cooper, did not recognize Chamisa’s leadership and continued to use the Cypriot party emblem. Before the general election in July 2018, Chamisa led the other two small parties, including the New Zealand, to form the League of Civilian Movement and became the presidential candidate of the alliance. In the presidential election, Chamisa ranked second with 44.3% of the votes.

【重要人物】埃默森·姆南加古瓦:总统、民盟主席兼第一书记。1942年9月生。早年参加津民族独立斗争。1980年津独立后,历任国家安全部长,司法、法律和议会事务部长,代理财政部长,众议长,农村住房与社会和谐部长,国防部长,司法部长等职。2014年12月起任副总统兼司法部长、民盟副主席兼第二书记。2017年10月至11月,先后被解除司法部长、副总统、民盟副总统兼第二书记职务,并被开除党籍。津政局突变后,于11月19日恢复民盟副主席兼第二书记职务。24日,接任总统。12月,出任党主席兼第一书记并成为2018年大选民盟总统候选人。曾以不同身份多次访华,2018年4月来华国事访问,9月来华出席中非合作论坛北京峰会。

康斯坦丁诺·奇温加:副总统、民盟副主席兼第二书记。1956年7月生。1973年加入民盟。曾在赞比亚和坦桑尼亚接受军事训练。1978年,任民盟最高军事指挥部副政委。1981年起历任津陆军旅长、陆军司令部后勤局局长、陆军参谋长、陆军司令。2004年出任国防军司令,晋升上将。2017年12月卸任国防军司令并退出现役,出任副总统兼国防与老兵部长、民盟副主席兼第二书记。曾多次访华。2018年9月连任副总统。

肯博·莫哈迪:副总统、民盟副主席兼第二书记。1949年11月生。1972年前往赞比亚投身民族解放斗争,加入人盟。随后加入人盟军事组织——非洲人民解放军。曾赴莫斯科接受军事训练。1976年被捕,1980年津独立后获释。1985年当选众议员。1981年起历任贝特桥地区教育官员,民盟青年联盟财政书记,体育、娱乐与文化部副部长,内政部长,国家安全国务部长等职。2017年11月出任国防、安全和老兵部长,12月出任副总统兼国家和平与和解部长、民盟副主席兼第二书记。2018年9月连任副总统。

罗伯特·加布里埃尔·穆加贝:前总统。1924年2月生。1942年起从事教育工作,同时继续接受高等教育。1951年毕业于南非黑尔堡大学并获文学士学位,随后通过函授先后获巴苏陀兰大学教育学士和伦敦大学经济学、法学和行政管理学学士学位。 1960年投身政治活动,先后担任民族民主党和人盟的宣传书记。1963年同西托莱等人创建民盟,并任总书记。1964年8月被捕入狱,1974年11月获释。1975年初赴莫桑比克领导津武装斗争,1977年当选民盟总裁。1976年10月和1979年9月率团出席关于津独立问题的日内瓦谈判和伦敦制宪会议。1980年4月津独立后任总理(实权)。1984年8月、1989年12月、1994年9月、1999年12月和2004年12月连任民盟主席兼第一书记。1987年12月出任总统,1990年3月、1996年3月和2002年3月总统选举后连任。2009年2月任联合政府总统。2013年8月在大选中获胜连任。2017年11月辞去总统职务。曾多次来华。

[Important] Emerson Mnanagaguwa: President, Chairman and First Secretary of the NLD. Born in September 1942. In the early years, he participated in the struggle for independence of the Jin nationality. After independence in 1980, he served as Minister of National Security, Minister of Justice, Law and Parliamentary Affairs, Acting Minister of Finance, Speaker of the House, Minister of Rural Housing and Social Harmony, Minister of Defence, Minister of Justice. Since December 2014, he has served as Vice President and Minister of Justice, Vice Chairman and Second Secretary of the NLD. From October to November 2017, he was dismissed from the position of Minister of Justice, Vice President, Vice President and Second Secretary of the NLD, and was expelled from the party. After the sudden change of the Jinzheng Bureau, the NPC Vice Chairman and the second secretary were reinstated on November 19. On the 24th, he took over as president. In December, he became the party chairman and first secretary and became the presidential candidate of the 2018 general election. He has visited China many times in different identities, came to China for a state visit in April 2018, and came to China to attend the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in September.

Constantino Chifinga: Vice President, Vice Chairman and Second Secretary of the NLD. Born in July 1956. Joined the NLD in 1973. He has received military training in Zambia and Tanzania. In 1978, he served as deputy political commissar of the highest military command of the NLD. Since 1981, he has served as the brigade commander of the Tianjin Army, the head of the logistics department of the Army Command, the chief of staff of the army, and the commander of the army. In 2004, he became the commander of the National Defense Force and was promoted to the rank of general. In December 2017, he stepped down as the commander of the National Defence Force and retired from service. He served as Vice President and Minister of National Defense and Veterans, Vice Chairman and Second Secretary of the NLD. He has visited China many times. In September 2018, he was re-elected as vice president.

Kenbo Mohadi: Vice President, Vice Chairman and Second Secretary of the NLD. Born in November 1949. In 1972, he went to Zambia to participate in the struggle for national liberation and joined the League of People. He then joined the People’s League military organization, the People’s Liberation Army of Africa. He went to Moscow for military training. He was arrested in 1976 and released after independence in 1980. In 1985, he was elected to the House of Representatives. Since 1981, he has served as an education official in the Beit Bridge area, a secretary of the NLD Youth League, a deputy minister of sports, entertainment and culture, a minister of the interior, and a minister of state security. In November 2017, he became the Minister of National Defense, Security and Veterans. In December, he served as Vice President and Minister of National Peace and Reconciliation, Vice Chairman and Second Secretary of the NLD. In September 2018, he was re-elected as vice president.

Robert Gabriel Mugabe: Former President. Born in February 1924. Engaged in education since 1942, while continuing to receive higher education. He graduated from the University of Heilburg in South Africa in 1951 with a Bachelor of Arts degree. He then received a Bachelor of Education from the University of Basutolan and a Bachelor of Economics, Law and Administration from the University of London. In 1960, he joined the political activities and served as the propaganda secretary of the National Democratic Party and the People’s League. In 1963, he founded the NLD with Sitolai and others and served as general secretary. He was arrested and imprisoned in August 1964 and released in November 1974. In early 1975, he went to Mozambique to lead the armed struggle in Tianjin and in 1977 he was elected president of the NLD. In October 1976 and September 1979, he led a delegation to attend the Geneva negotiations on the issue of independence of Tianjin and the London Constitutional Convention. In April 1980, Tianjin became an independent prime minister (real power). In August 1984, December 1989, September 1994, December 1999 and December 2004, he was re-elected as Chairman and First Secretary of the NLD. He became president in December 1987 and was re-elected after the presidential elections in March 1990, March 1996 and March 2002. In February 2009, he served as president of the coalition government. In August 2013, he was re-elected in the general election. Resigned from the presidency in November 2017. I have come to China many times.

【经济】自然资源丰富,工农业基础较好,正常年景粮食自给有余,曾为世界第三大烟草出口国。2000年以来,因实施“快速土改计划”受到西方制裁,经济大幅缩水。外汇、燃油和生活必需品短缺,通货膨胀率激增,大量人口涌入邻国。2008年3月后,经济状况进一步恶化,至当年年底经济基本崩溃,财政、金融和税收等关键部门基本停止运转,水电、通讯、医疗、教育等社会公共管理职能几近瘫痪。2009年2月,联合政府成立后,经济形势有所好转。2016年以来,经济困难加剧,流动性严重短缺。2017年12月,姆南加古瓦政府成立后,努力建设“经济新秩序”,但仍面临诸多困难。

2018年主要经济指标如下:(数据来源于《经济季评》)

国内生产总值:197亿美元。

经济增长率:2.6%。

人均国内生产总值:1165美元

货币:自2009年2月起废除本国货币津巴布韦元,改为流通美元、南非兰特、欧元等9种货币。2016年11月发行债券货币,仅在津国内流通,面额与美元等值。2019年2月将债券货币同电子货币整合为“准津元”(RTGS Dollar),采取浮动汇率。

通货膨胀率:9.9%

外汇储备:2.73亿美元

外债总额:92.59亿美元

【资源】自然资源丰富,有煤、铬、铁、铂金、金、钻石等。煤蕴藏量约270亿吨。铁蕴藏量约2.5亿吨。铬和石棉的储量均很大。工业用林面积11.5万公顷。

【工矿业】工业门类主要有金属和金属加工、食品加工、石油化工、饮料和卷烟、纺织服装、造纸和印刷等。工业从业人口约占总劳力的15%,矿业从业人口约占4.5%。津新政府成立后,召开矿业投资大会,推进国有企业改革,将矿业和制造业列入优先发展领域,建立黄金加工中心,出台钻石开采措施,增加矿产品出口附加值。

【农牧业】主要生产玉米、烟草、棉花、花卉等,畜牧业以养牛为主。耕地面积3328万公顷,农业人口占全国人口的67%。受干旱影响,2015年和2016年粮食作物出现大面积歉收。2017年农业虽获得丰收,但缺粮问题未得到根本解决。2018年谷物产量估计下降24%左右,但烟草产量创近年来新高。

【旅游业】津劳动力总数中有4.5%从事旅游业,另有4%从事与此相关行业。全国有70多家星级旅馆。最著名的风景点为维多利亚瀑布,还有26个国家公园和野生动物保护区。2013年8月,津与赞比亚联合举办第20届联合国旅游组织大会。

【交通运输】以铁路、公路和航空为主,海运主要通过南非的德班港(距哈拉雷1700公里)和莫桑比克的贝拉港(距哈拉雷600公里)。铁路通往南非、莫桑比克、赞比亚和博茨瓦纳。

铁路:总长4300公里,其中哈拉雷至达布卡(DABUKA)的300公里为电气化铁路。2000/2001年度客运量133万人次,货运量884万吨。

公路:总长8.5万公里,其中1.9万公里为国家级公路,1.5万公里为沥青路面。

空运:津巴布韦航空公司有波音767、737等客机10架,经营多条国际及国内航线。有3个国际机场,分别为哈拉雷、布拉瓦约和维多利亚瀑布机场。

[Economy] The natural resources are abundant, the industrial and agricultural base is good, and the normal annual food is self-sufficient. It was once the world’s third largest tobacco exporter. Since 2000, due to the implementation of the “quick land reform plan” by Western sanctions, the economy has shrunk dramatically. Shortages in foreign exchange, fuel and daily necessities have led to a surge in inflation and a large influx of people into neighbouring countries. After March 2008, the economic situation deteriorated further. By the end of the year, the economy had basically collapsed, and key sectors such as finance, finance, and taxation basically ceased to function. The public management functions of hydropower, telecommunications, medical care, and education were close. In February 2009, after the establishment of the coalition government, the economic situation improved. Since 2016, economic difficulties have intensified and there is a serious shortage of liquidity. In December 2017, after the establishment of the government of Mnanaga Gawa, efforts were made to build a “new economic order”, but still faced many difficulties.

The main economic indicators for 2018 are as follows: (Data from the “Economic Quarterly Review”)

Gross domestic product: US$ 19.7 billion.

Economic growth rate: 2.6%.

Per capita GDP: $1,165

Currency: Since February 2009, the national currency Zimbabwean has been abolished, and it has been converted into nine currencies including the US dollar, the South African Rand and the Euro. The bond currency was issued in November 2016 and is only circulated in Tianjin. The denomination is equivalent to the US dollar. In February 2019, the bond currency and electronic currency were integrated into the “RTGS Dollar” and a floating exchange rate was adopted.

Inflation rate: 9.9%

Foreign exchange reserves: 273 million US dollars

Total external debt: $9.259 billion

[Resources] Rich in natural resources, such as coal, chromium, iron, platinum, gold, diamonds, etc. The coal reserves are about 27 billion tons. The iron reserves are about 250 million tons. Both chrome and asbestos reserves are large. The industrial forest area is 115,000 hectares.

[Industrial and mining] Industrial categories mainly include metal and metal processing, food processing, petrochemicals, beverages and cigarettes, textiles and garments, paper and printing. The industrial sector accounts for about 15% of the total labor force, and the mining industry accounts for about 4.5%. After the establishment of the Tianjin government, the mining investment conference was held to promote the reform of state-owned enterprises, to include mining and manufacturing in priority development areas, to establish a gold processing center, to introduce diamond mining measures, and to increase the added value of mineral exports.

[Agriculture and animal husbandry] mainly produces corn, tobacco, cotton, flowers, etc., and animal husbandry mainly focuses on raising cattle. The cultivated land area is 33.28 million hectares, and the agricultural population accounts for 67% of the national population. Affected by drought, large crop failures occurred in the 2015 and 2016 food crops. Although the harvest of agriculture in 2017 has been bumper, the problem of food shortage has not been fundamentally resolved. Cereal production in 2018 is estimated to fall by around 24%, but tobacco production has reached a new high in recent years.

[Tourism] 4.5% of the total labor force in Tianjin is engaged in tourism, and another 4% is engaged in related industries. There are more than 70 star-rated hotels across the country. The most famous scenic spot is Victoria Falls, with 26 national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. In August 2013, Tianjin and Zambia jointly organized the 20th UN Tourism Organization Conference.

[Transportation] is mainly based on railways, highways and aviation. The sea is mainly through Durban Port in South Africa (1700 km from Harare) and Beira Port in Mozambique (600 km from Harare). The railway leads to South Africa, Mozambique, Zambia and Botswana.

Railway: The total length is 4,300 kilometers, of which 300 kilometers from Harare to Dabuka is an electrified railway. In 2000/2001, the passenger volume was 1.33 million and the cargo volume was 8.84 million tons.

Highway: The total length is 85,000 kilometers, of which 19,000 kilometers are national highways and 15,000 kilometers are asphalt roads.

Air transport: Zimbabwe Airlines has 10 Boeing 767, 737 and other passenger aircraft, operating a number of international and domestic routes. There are 3 international airports, Harare, Bulawayo and Victoria Falls Airport.

【对外贸易】主要出口烟草、黄金、铁合金,主要进口机械、工业制成品和化工产品。约与27个国家或地区有贸易关系。2018年出口额约为47.08亿美元,进口额约为68.65亿美元。南非为津最大贸易伙伴,占其进口额的50.3%,出口额的18.6%。(资料来源:2018年《经济季评》)

【外国援助】2002年起,国际金融机构和西方主要国家停止向津提供除粮援等人道主义援助外的其他援助。2008年3月津发生选举争议及8月爆发霍乱疫情后,国际社会加大了对津人道援助。2014年11月,欧盟解除对津发展援助限制。2017年12月津新政府成立后,欧盟先后承诺向津提供两笔共3200万美元援助。

【人民生活】近年来,由于工资上涨幅度远低于通货膨胀率,导致实际工资下降。全国共有各类医院244个,诊所1378个,病床2.1万张,医护人员与病人比例约1:430。艾滋病问题严重,感染率为14%。

【军事】津国防军于1980年建立,是由原民盟、人盟游击队和白人政权军队整编而成。实行志愿兵役制。最高军事决策机构是国防委员会。总统兼武装部队总司令。津国防军下设陆军和空军两个军种。总兵力4万人,其中陆军3.5万人,空军5000人。现国防军司令菲利普·西班达(Philip Sibanda)上将,陆军司令埃德扎·齐蒙约(Edzai Chimonyo)中将,空军司令埃尔森·莫约(Elson Moyo)中将。

【教育】实行中小学低收费普及教育。现有小学4734所,中学1570所,高等学校13所。1996~2002年,小学入学率年平均80%。成人识字率为89%, 其中男性为93%,女性为85%。津巴布韦大学是津最著名的综合性大学,始建于1953年。

【新闻出版】《先驱报》为津最大日报,发行量16.5万份。该报主要反映政府观点,政府拥有该报50%的股份。其他主要报纸有《星期日邮报》、《新闻日报》、《每日新闻报》《记事报》、《金融公报》、《津巴布韦独立报》等。

津巴布韦全非通讯社(ZIANA):成立于1981年10月。为津官方通讯社。

津巴布韦广播公司(ZBC):1933年成立,为政府所有。分电台和电视台两部分。电台有4个台,即英语台、非洲台、音乐台和教育台,分别以英 语、绍纳语和恩德贝莱语播出;电视台建于1960年。

[Foreign Trade] Mainly exports tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, mainly imported machinery, industrial manufactured goods and chemical products. It has trade relations with 27 countries or regions. In 2018, the export value was about 4.708 billion US dollars, and the import value was about 6.865 billion US dollars. South Africa is Tianjin’s largest trading partner, accounting for 50.3% of its imports and 18.6% of its exports. (Source: 2018 Economic Quarterly Review)

[Foreign Aid] Since 2002, international financial institutions and major western countries have stopped providing other assistance in addition to humanitarian assistance such as food aid. After the election dispute in March 2008 and the outbreak of cholera in August, the international community increased its humanitarian assistance to Tianjin. In November 2014, the EU lifted restrictions on development assistance to Tianjin. After the establishment of the Tianjin New Government in December 2017, the EU has promised to provide two copies of a total of $32 million in aid to Tianjin.

[People’s Life] In recent years, real wages have fallen as wages have risen far below the inflation rate. There are 244 hospitals of all kinds in the country, 1378 clinics and 21,000 beds. The ratio of medical staff to patients is about 1:430. The AIDS problem is serious and the infection rate is 14%.

[Military] The Jin Defence Force was established in 1980 and was compiled from the former Democratic League, the Human Alliance guerrillas, and the White Political Army. Implement a voluntary military service system. The highest military decision-making body is the National Defense Commission. President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The Jin Defence Force has two branches of the Army and the Air Force. The total strength is 40,000, including 35,000 in the Army and 5,000 in the Air Force. Admiral Philip Sibanda, commander of the National Defence Force, Lieutenant General Edzai Chimonyo, Commander of the Air Force, and Lieutenant General Elson Moyo.

[Education] Implement low-cost universal education in primary and secondary schools. There are 4734 primary schools, 1570 secondary schools and 13 higher education institutions. From 1996 to 2002, the primary school enrollment rate was 80% per year. The adult literacy rate is 89%, with 93% for men and 85% for women. The University of Zimbabwe is the most famous comprehensive university in Tianjin and was founded in 1953.

[Press and Publication] The Herald is the largest daily newspaper in Tianjin with a circulation of 165,000 copies. The newspaper mainly reflects the government’s view that the government owns 50% of the shares of the newspaper. Other major newspapers include The Sunday Post, News Daily, Daily News, Notepad, Financial Bulletin, and Zimbabwe Independent.

Zimbabwe All-African News Agency (ZIANA): Established in October 1981. For Jin official news agency.

Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC): Established in 1933 and owned by the government. It is divided into two parts: radio and TV. The station has four stations, namely English, African, Music and Education, which are broadcast in English, Shona and Ndebele respectively; the TV station was built in 1960.

【对外关系】奉行积极的不结盟政策。推行睦邻友好方针,以发展同非洲国家特别是南部非洲国家关系为外交重点。大力推行“东向”政策,加强与其他发展中国家尤其是亚洲国家的关系。在“民主、人权”等问题上与西方国家存在严重分歧。与西方国家关系紧张,受到英国、美国及欧盟等制裁,但津新政府成立后双方关系有所缓和。积极参与地区和国际事务,是不结盟运动、77国集团、非洲联盟、南部非洲发展共同体成员国。同110多个国家建立了外交关系。

【同美国的关系】美曾为津的主要援助国之一。2001年以来,两国关系恶化。2001年8月,美国会参议院通过《津巴布韦民主和经济恢复法案》,其中包含多条制裁津的内容,津政府对此予以批评。2002年以来,美国对津领导人实行禁止入境等制裁。2005年1月,美将津列为全球6个“暴政前哨国家”之一。2008年3月津大选后,美不承认选举结果,要求穆加贝总统下台。2008年7月,美与英国一道强行推动联合国安理会表决制裁津决议草案,有关决议草案最终被否决。 2009年2月,津联合政府成立后,美对津政策有所缓和,加大了对津人道援助。2013年以来,美国务院负责非洲事务的副助理国务卿布里吉提、前驻联合国代表安德鲁·杨先后访津,美并放松对津制裁,但未邀请穆加贝总统出席于2014年8月举行的美非峰会。2017年1月奥巴马总统发表公告,决定将对津制裁再延长一年。津新政府上台后,美恢复对津高层接触。2018年和2019年,特朗普总统两次决定将对津巴布韦制裁再延长一年。

【同英国的关系】津英关系曾十分密切。英国是津主要贸易伙伴,并在津有大量投资。2000年,由于津政府推行快速土改触动英利益,两国关系恶化。2002年津大选后,英国指责民盟政府舞弊,对津实行禁止高官入境、冻结其海外财产、禁售军火等制裁并一再延长、扩大。2003年12月,英联邦首脑会议在英推动下决定继续中止津成员国资格,津随即退出英联邦。2008年3月津大选后,英公开要求穆加贝总统下台,并与美联手强行推动联合国安理会表决制裁津决议草案。津新政府成立后,英对津政策有所缓和。2014年以来,欧盟大幅减轻对津制裁,目前仅保留对穆加贝总统夫妇及一家公司制裁。英国对津制裁与欧盟保持一致。姆南加古瓦就任总统后,英方先后派出3位首相特使访津,推动英津关系正常化。

【同非洲国家的关系】重视发展同非洲国家的友好合作关系,积极参与地区政治事务和经济合作;与莫桑比克签有友好条约和防务协定;与安哥拉、纳米比亚和刚果(金)关系密切,签有共同防务协定;与南非、赞比亚和马拉维等周边国家保持睦邻关系,重视与南非在经贸领域的合作。

[External Relations] pursues a positive non-alignment policy. Promoting a good-neighborly and friendly policy and developing diplomatic relations with African countries, especially southern African countries. Vigorously promote the “eastward” policy and strengthen relations with other developing countries, especially Asian countries. There are serious differences with Western countries on issues such as “democracy and human rights.” The relationship with the Western countries is tense and has been sanctioned by the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union. However, the relationship between the two countries has eased since the establishment of the new government. Active participation in regional and international affairs is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77, the African Union and the Southern African Development Community. With more than 110 countries built « diplomatic relations.

[Relationship with the United States] The United States was one of the main donors to Tianjin. Since 2001, relations between the two countries have deteriorated. In August 2001, the US Senate passed the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act, which contained a number of sanctions, and the Tianjin government criticized it. Since 2002, the United States imposed sanctions on the immigration of the leaders of Tianjin. In January 2005, the United States listed the United States as one of the six “outposts of the tyranny”. After the election in Tianjin in March 2008, the United States did not recognize the election results and demanded that President Mugabe step down. In July 2008, the United States and the United Kingdom jointly forced the UN Security Council to vote on the sanctions draft resolution, and the relevant draft resolution was finally rejected. In February 2009, after the establishment of the Tianjin United Government, the US policy on Tianjin was eased and humanitarian assistance to Tianjin was increased. Since 2013, US Deputy Secretary of State for African Affairs, Brigid, and former UN representative Andrew Yang have visited Tianjin, and the United States has relaxed sanctions against Tianjin, but did not invite President Mugabe to attend the event in August 2014. The United States and Africa summit. In January 2017, President Obama issued an announcement and decided to extend the sanctions against Tianjin for another year. After the Jinxin government took office, the United States resumed contact with Tianjin. In 2018 and 2019, President Trump twice decided to extend Zimbabwe’s sanctions for another year.

[Relationship with the United Kingdom] The relationship between Jin and Ying was very close. The UK is a major trading partner of Tianjin and has a large investment in Tianjin. In 2000, relations between the two countries deteriorated due to the rapid land reform initiated by the Tianjin government to touch the interests of the UK. After the election in 2002, the United Kingdom accused the NLD government of fraud and imposed sanctions on the prohibition of entry of senior officials, freezing of its overseas property, and arms sales. In December 2003, the Commonwealth Summit decided to continue to suspend the membership of Tianjin under the impetus of the British, and Jin immediately withdrew from the Commonwealth. After the election in March 2008, the British publicly demanded that President Mugabe step down and cooperate with the United States to force the UN Security Council to vote on the sanctions draft. After the establishment of the Tianjin government, the British policy toward Tianjin has eased. Since 2014, the EU has substantially reduced its sanctions against Tianjin, and currently only retains sanctions against President Mugabe and a company. The UK’s sanctions against Tianjin are consistent with the EU. After Mnanagaguwa became president, the British side sent three prime ministers to visit Tianjin to promote the normalization of the Anglo-Tianjin relationship.

[Relationship with African countries] Attach importance to developing friendly relations and cooperation with African countries, actively participate in regional political affairs and economic cooperation; sign friendly treaty and defense agreement with Mozambique; close relationship with Angola, Namibia and Congo (Gold) Joint defense agreement; maintaining good-neighborly relations with neighboring countries such as South Africa, Zambia and Malawi, and attaching importance to cooperation with South Africa in the economic and trade field.