The Republic of Zimbabwe 津巴布韦共和国
【国名】津巴布韦共和国（The Republic of Zimbabwe）。
【国家元首】总统埃默森·姆南加古瓦（Emmerson Mnangagwa ），2017年11月24日就任，2018年8月当选连任。
[Country name] The Republic of Zimbabwe.
[Area] 390,000 square kilometers.
[Population] 16.9 million. There are mainly Shaoners (84.5%) and Ndebelais (14.9%). The official languages are English, Shona and Ndebele. 58% of the residents believe in Christianity, 40% believe in primitive religion, and 1% believe in Islam.
[Capital] Harare, with a population of 1.87 million. The average temperature in September-November is 16-32 °C, and the average temperature in April-August is 7-21 °C.
[Head of State] President Emmerson Mnangagwa, took office on November 24, 2017, and was re-elected in August 2018.
[Important Festival] Independence Day: April 18th; Heroes Day: August 11th; Army Day: August 12th; Unity Day: December 22.
[profile] landlocked countries in southeastern Africa. It borders Mozambique in the east, South Africa in the south, and Botswana and Zambia in the west and northwest. It has a savanna climate with an average annual temperature of 22 °C; the highest temperature in October is 32 °C; the lowest temperature in July is 13-17 °C.
The centralized state began to form around 1100 AD. In the 13th century, the Karenga established the kingdom of Monomoda, and the kingdom reached its peak in the early 15th century. In 1890 he became a colony of the British South African company and was named Southern Rhodesia in 1895. In 1923, the British government took over the land and granted the status of “self-governing leader”. In 1953, the United Kingdom grouped South Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia (present-day Zambia) and Niassaran (now Malawi) into the “Central African Federation.” The “Federal” disintegrated at the end of 1963. In 1964, the white right-wing forces of Southern Rhodesia formed a government headed by Ian Smith and declared independence in November 1965. In the 1960s, the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (NPC) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (NLD) were established to carry out armed struggle against white racist rule. In 1979, the Zimbabwean factions held the London Constitutional Convention under the auspices of the United Kingdom. The parliamentary elections were held at the end of February 1980, and the NLD led by Mugabe won. Independence on April 18 of the same year, the name of the country was Zimbabwe.
[Politics] After independence, the political situation has been stable for a long time. From 2000 to 2002, the Tianjin government implemented the “quick land reform plan” and levied white land for the placement of black farmers with no land or less land, which led to intensification of social conflicts, economic downturn, political and economic crisis, and sharp confrontation between the ruling and the opposition. Western countries imposed economic sanctions on Tianjin, imposed a series of “precise sanctions” on Jin Gaoguan’s ban on entry, supported the opposition party, and demanded that President Mugabe step down.
On March 29, 2008, Tianjin held a “three-in-one” election for the president, parliament and local governments. In the House of Representatives elections, the NLD lost to the Philippine squadron for the first time, losing the majority of seats. In the presidential election, the squad of the squad, the Tsvangirai candidate, 47.9%, the NLD candidate People Mugabe got 43.2% of the votes. The election results were not announced in time and caused controversy. Since the number of votes was not more than half, the second round of presidential elections was held on June 27, 2008. Tsvangirai withdrew before the election. Mugabe was elected with 85.5% of the votes, but the opposition and the Western countries did not. Admitted. On September 15, under the mediation of South African President Thabo Mbeki, the Zimbabwe, the National Revolutionary Mencius and the Mutan Barak signed a “Comprehensive Political Agreement” to form a coalition government. On February 13, 2009, the Tianjin Union Government was established. Mugabe continued to serve as president, Tsvangirai was prime minister, Mutanbara, president of the National Revolutionary Movement, and Kuppe, vice president of the Cypriot side, served as deputy prime minister. After the establishment of the Tianjin United Government, it was functioning normally and the domestic situation was basically stable. On July 31, 2013, Tianjin held a “three-in-one” election for the president, parliament and local government. Mugabe defeated Tsvangirai with a 61% vote (approximately 34%) and was elected as the new president. The NLD led by the Mu has won more than two-thirds of the House. On August 22, President Mugabe was sworn in. In November 2017, there was a sudden change in the Jinzheng Bureau. Mugabe resigned as president under the pressure of all parties, and Mnanagaguwa became the president. On July 30, 2018, Tianjin held the “three-in-one” elections of the president, the parliament and the local government. Mnanagaguwa was elected president by 50.8%. On August 26, President Mnanagaguva was sworn in. The NLD won two or more seats in the House of Representatives. From December 11 to 16, 2018, the NLD held its seventh national congress, and Mnanagaguwa was elected as the only candidate for the 2023 presidential election of the NLD.
[Constitution] The first constitution was enacted in December 1979 under the auspices of the United Kingdom by the main parties of Zimbabwe at the Constitutional Convention held in Lancaster Building, London. It became effective at the time of independence and was revised several times. The Constitution stipulates that the presidential cabinet system is implemented. In 2005, the National Assembly passed the No. 17 constitutional amendment to add a Senate, stipulating that the Jin Parliament will implement a bicameral system. In 2007, the Tianjin Parliament passed the No. 18 constitutional amendment, which stipulated that the term of office of the president should be changed from six years to five years, the same as the term of office of the members of parliament; the presidential, parliamentary and local government elections were held simultaneously, and the number of seats and the way of production of the seats were adjusted. According to the decentralization agreement signed by the three parties of the two parties on September 15, 2008, the Tianjin Parliament passed the No. 19 constitutional amendment in February 2009, establishing the framework of the coalition government, and will complete it within two years of the establishment of the Tianjin coalition government. Formulate a new constitution. In March 2013, the draft constitution of Jinxin passed the referendum successfully and was signed into force in May by President Mugabe. The new constitution restricts the presidential power, stipulating that the president’s term of office must not exceed two (10 years later), and the president’s major decision to dissolve the parliament must be passed by a two-thirds majority of the parliament.
[Parliament] The current parliament was elected in July 2018 and took office on September 3. There are 270 seats in the House of Representatives, including 179 seats in the NLD, 88 seats in the National Revolutionary Movement League, 1 seat in the National Revolutionary Opportunities, 1 seat in the National Patriotic Front, and 1 in the by-election. The Speaker of the House of Representatives, Jacob Mudenda (NLD), took office in September 2013 and was re-elected in September 2018. There are 80 seats in the Senate, 34 in the NLD, 25 in the National Revolutionary League, 1 in the Civil War, 18 in the Emirates, and 2 in the disabled. The Senate President, Maibul Chinomona (NLD, female), took office in September 2018.
【政府】实行总统内阁制，内阁成员由总统任命。2018年9月组成新一届内阁，目前主要成员如下：总统埃默森·姆南加古瓦（Emmerson Mnangagwa），副总统康斯坦丁诺·奇温加（Constantino Chiwenga）、副总统肯博·莫哈迪（Kembo Mohadi），财政和经济发展部长穆苏利·恩库贝（Mthuli Ncube），国防和老兵部长奥帕·穆欣古里（Oppah Muchinguri），地方政府、公共工程和国家住房部长朱利·莫约（July Moyo），外交和国际贸易部长西布西索·莫约（Sibusiso Moyo），公共服务、劳工和社会福利部长塞克赛·恩曾扎（Sekesai Nzenza），工商部长曼加利索·恩德洛武（Mangaliso Ndlovu），内政和文化遗产部长凯恩·马泰马（Cain Mathema），高等教育和科技发展部长阿蒙·穆尔维拉（Amon Murwira），基础教育部长保罗·马维马（Paul Mavima），土地、农业、水资源、文化和农村重新安置部长佩兰斯·希里（Perrance Shiri），矿业部长温斯顿·奇坦杜（Winston Chitando），能源和电力开发部长乔勒姆·贡博（Jorum Gumbo），交通和基础设施发展部长乔尔·马蒂扎（Joel Matiza），新闻、宣传和广播服务部长莫妮卡·穆茨万古瓦（Monica Mutsvangwa），信息通讯和邮政部长卡赞贝·卡赞贝（Kazembe Kazembe），环境、旅游和接待行业部长普丽斯卡·穆普富米拉（Priscah Mupfumira），青年、体育、艺术和娱乐部长柯丝蒂·考文垂（Kirsty Coventry），卫生和儿童福利部长奥贝迪亚·莫约（Obediah Moyo），司法和议会事务部长齐扬比·齐扬比（Ziyambi Ziyambi），妇女事务、社区和中小企业发展部长西滕比索·尼奥尼（Sithembiso Nyoni）。
【行政区划】 2004年2月全国行政区划调整，由8个省增加到10个省，各省的名称分别为：马尼卡兰（Manicaland）、东马绍纳兰（Mashonaland East）、中马绍纳兰（Mashonaland Central）、西马绍纳兰（Mashonaland West）、马旬戈（Masvingo）、北马塔贝莱兰（Matabeleland North）、南马塔贝莱兰（Matabeleland South）、中部（Midlands）、哈拉雷（Harare）和布拉瓦约（Bulawaya）。
【司法机构】津全国司法首脑为首席大法官，也是宪法法院和最高法院的首脑，由总统任命。现任首席大法官戈弗雷·奇迪奥西库（Godfrey Chidyausiku），2001年8月就职。司法系统由以下法院组成：宪法法院、最高法院、高等法院、劳工法院、行政法院、地方法院、习惯法法院等。总检控官约翰内斯·托马纳（Johannes Tomana）。
（1）津巴布韦非洲民族联盟—爱国阵线（Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front）：简称民盟，津独立以来执政至今。1963年8月8日成立，1987年与津巴布韦非洲人民联盟合并，仍称津巴布韦非洲民族联盟（爱国阵线）， 约有300万党员。党的宗旨是“建立和保持一个依据我们的历史、文化和社会实际的社会主义社会，并为实现经济独立、繁荣和平均分配国家财富创造条件”。 2017年12月，民盟举行全国代表大会，姆南加古瓦出任党主席兼第一书记。同月，奇温加、莫哈迪出任副主席兼第二书记。
（2）争取民主变革运动（Movement for Democratic Change）：简称民革运，最大反对党。约有120万党员。1999年9月在哈拉雷成立，得到大部分城镇居民和一些白人的支持。2001年以来，其候选人先后当选马旬戈、布拉瓦约、哈拉雷等市市长。在2002年3月举行的总统选举中，其候选人获得42％的选票。2005年下半年，民革运在是否参加参议院选举问题上陷入内部纷争，并于2006年初分裂为“参选派”和“抵制派”。两派均自称民革运正统，分别选举各自的组织机构。“抵制派”主席为摩根·茨万吉拉伊（Morgan Tsvangirai）。“参选派”主席原为亚瑟·穆坦巴拉（Arthur Mutambara）。2011年1月，该派举行全国代表大会，选举该党原秘书长、联合政府工商部部长纽比为新主席。此后，“穆派”改称为“纽派”。2014年10月31日至11月1 日，民革运茨派举行第四届全国代表大会，茨万吉拉伊连任党主席。2018年2月，茨万吉拉伊去世，茨派原副主席查米萨联合穆祖瑞等党内大佬，完成党内力量整合。同年3月，查米萨被任命为茨派主席。但另一名茨派原副主席库佩不承认查米萨领导地位，并继续使用茨派党徽。2018年7月大选前，查米萨领导茨派联合纽派等其他6个小党，组成民革运联盟并成为该联盟总统候选人。在总统选举中，查米萨以44.3%的得票率位居第二。
[Government] implements the presidential cabinet system, and members of the cabinet are appointed by the president. The new cabinet was formed in September 2018. The main members are as follows: President Emerson Mnangagwa, Vice President Constantino Chiwenga, Vice President Ken Bomo Kembo Mohadi, Minister of Finance and Economic Development Mthuli Ncube, Defense and Veteran Minister Oppah Muchinguri, Minister of Local Government, Public Works and National Housing, Julie · July Moyo, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Sibusiso Moyo, Minister of Public Service, Labor and Social Welfare Sekesai Nzenza, Minister of Industry and Commerce Mangaliso · Mangaliso Ndlovu, Minister of Home Affairs and Cultural Heritage Cain Mathema, Minister of Higher Education and Technology Development Amon Murwira, Minister of Basic Education Paul Mawi Paul Mavima, Minister of Land, Agriculture, Water Resources, Culture and Rural Resettlement Perrance Shiri, Minister of Mines Winston Chittan (Winst On Chitando), Energy and Power Development Minister Jorum Gumbo, Minister of Transport and Infrastructure Development Joel Matiza, Minister of News, Publicity and Broadcasting Services Monica Mutz Monica Mutsvangwa, Minister of Information, Communications and Posts Kazembe Kazembe, Minister of Environment, Tourism and Hospitality Industry Priscah Mupfumira, Youth, Sports, Minister of Arts and Entertainment Kirsty Coventry, Minister of Health and Child Welfare, Obediah Moyo, Minister of Justice and Parliamentary Affairs, Ziyambi Ziyambi, Sithembiso Nyoni, Minister of Women’s Affairs, Community and SME Development.
[Administrative Division] In February 2004, the administrative division of the country was adjusted from 8 provinces to 10 provinces. The names of the provinces were: Manicaland, Mashonaland East, and Zhong Ma Shao. Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands , Harare and Bulawaya.
[Judiciary] The National Judicial Head of Jin is the Chief Justice and the head of the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court, appointed by the President. The current Chief Justice, Godfrey Chidyausiku, took office in August 2001. The judicial system consists of the following courts: the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the High Court, the Labor Court, the Administrative Court, the District Court, and the Customary Court. Chief Prosecutor Johannes Tomana.
[Party] implements a multi-party system. The main political parties are:
(1) Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front): referred to as the NLD. It was established on August 8, 1963. It merged with the Zimbabwe African People’s Union in 1987. It is still called the Zimbabwe African National Union (Patriotic Front) and has about 3 million members. The party’s aim is to “establish and maintain a socialist society based on our history, culture and social reality, and create conditions for economic independence, prosperity and the even distribution of national wealth.” In December 2017, the NLD held a national congress, and Mnanaga Gawa became the party chairman and first secretary. In the same month, Chiwenga and Mohadi served as vice chairman and second secretary.
(2) Movement for Democratic Change: referred to as the National Revolutionary Movement, the largest opposition party. There are about 1.2 million party members. It was established in Harare in September 1999 and is supported by most urban residents and some white people. Since 2001, his candidate has been elected as mayor of Ma Teng Ge, Bulawayo, Harare and so on. In the presidential elections held in March 2002, its candidates received 42% of the votes. In the second half of 2005, the National Revolutionary Movement was caught in internal disputes on whether to participate in the Senate elections. In early 2006, it split into “selectionists” and “boycotts”. Both factions claimed to be orthodox in the National Revolutionary Movement and elected their respective organizations. The chairman of the “boycott” is Morgan Tsvangirai. The chairman of the “Participating Party” was originally Arthur Mutambara. In January 2011, the school held a national congress to elect the former Secretary-General of the party and the Minister of Industry and Commerce of the United Government, Newby, as the new chairman. Since then, “Mu Pai” has been renamed “New Zealand”. From October 31 to November 1, 2014, the National Revolutionary Opportunities held the Fourth National Congress and Tsvangirai was re-elected as Party Chairman. In February 2018, Tsvangirai died, and the former vice-president of Chapa, Chamisa, and Muzuri, and other party members, completed the integration of power within the party. In March of the same year, Chamisa was appointed as the chairman of the school. But another former Cypriot vice-president, Cooper, did not recognize Chamisa’s leadership and continued to use the Cypriot party emblem. Before the general election in July 2018, Chamisa led the other two small parties, including the New Zealand, to form the League of Civilian Movement and became the presidential candidate of the alliance. In the presidential election, Chamisa ranked second with 44.3% of the votes.
[Important] Emerson Mnanagaguwa: President, Chairman and First Secretary of the NLD. Born in September 1942. In the early years, he participated in the struggle for independence of the Jin nationality. After independence in 1980, he served as Minister of National Security, Minister of Justice, Law and Parliamentary Affairs, Acting Minister of Finance, Speaker of the House, Minister of Rural Housing and Social Harmony, Minister of Defence, Minister of Justice. Since December 2014, he has served as Vice President and Minister of Justice, Vice Chairman and Second Secretary of the NLD. From October to November 2017, he was dismissed from the position of Minister of Justice, Vice President, Vice President and Second Secretary of the NLD, and was expelled from the party. After the sudden change of the Jinzheng Bureau, the NPC Vice Chairman and the second secretary were reinstated on November 19. On the 24th, he took over as president. In December, he became the party chairman and first secretary and became the presidential candidate of the 2018 general election. He has visited China many times in different identities, came to China for a state visit in April 2018, and came to China to attend the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in September.
Constantino Chifinga: Vice President, Vice Chairman and Second Secretary of the NLD. Born in July 1956. Joined the NLD in 1973. He has received military training in Zambia and Tanzania. In 1978, he served as deputy political commissar of the highest military command of the NLD. Since 1981, he has served as the brigade commander of the Tianjin Army, the head of the logistics department of the Army Command, the chief of staff of the army, and the commander of the army. In 2004, he became the commander of the National Defense Force and was promoted to the rank of general. In December 2017, he stepped down as the commander of the National Defence Force and retired from service. He served as Vice President and Minister of National Defense and Veterans, Vice Chairman and Second Secretary of the NLD. He has visited China many times. In September 2018, he was re-elected as vice president.
Kenbo Mohadi: Vice President, Vice Chairman and Second Secretary of the NLD. Born in November 1949. In 1972, he went to Zambia to participate in the struggle for national liberation and joined the League of People. He then joined the People’s League military organization, the People’s Liberation Army of Africa. He went to Moscow for military training. He was arrested in 1976 and released after independence in 1980. In 1985, he was elected to the House of Representatives. Since 1981, he has served as an education official in the Beit Bridge area, a secretary of the NLD Youth League, a deputy minister of sports, entertainment and culture, a minister of the interior, and a minister of state security. In November 2017, he became the Minister of National Defense, Security and Veterans. In December, he served as Vice President and Minister of National Peace and Reconciliation, Vice Chairman and Second Secretary of the NLD. In September 2018, he was re-elected as vice president.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe: Former President. Born in February 1924. Engaged in education since 1942, while continuing to receive higher education. He graduated from the University of Heilburg in South Africa in 1951 with a Bachelor of Arts degree. He then received a Bachelor of Education from the University of Basutolan and a Bachelor of Economics, Law and Administration from the University of London. In 1960, he joined the political activities and served as the propaganda secretary of the National Democratic Party and the People’s League. In 1963, he founded the NLD with Sitolai and others and served as general secretary. He was arrested and imprisoned in August 1964 and released in November 1974. In early 1975, he went to Mozambique to lead the armed struggle in Tianjin and in 1977 he was elected president of the NLD. In October 1976 and September 1979, he led a delegation to attend the Geneva negotiations on the issue of independence of Tianjin and the London Constitutional Convention. In April 1980, Tianjin became an independent prime minister (real power). In August 1984, December 1989, September 1994, December 1999 and December 2004, he was re-elected as Chairman and First Secretary of the NLD. He became president in December 1987 and was re-elected after the presidential elections in March 1990, March 1996 and March 2002. In February 2009, he served as president of the coalition government. In August 2013, he was re-elected in the general election. Resigned from the presidency in November 2017. I have come to China many times.
[Economy] The natural resources are abundant, the industrial and agricultural base is good, and the normal annual food is self-sufficient. It was once the world’s third largest tobacco exporter. Since 2000, due to the implementation of the “quick land reform plan” by Western sanctions, the economy has shrunk dramatically. Shortages in foreign exchange, fuel and daily necessities have led to a surge in inflation and a large influx of people into neighbouring countries. After March 2008, the economic situation deteriorated further. By the end of the year, the economy had basically collapsed, and key sectors such as finance, finance, and taxation basically ceased to function. The public management functions of hydropower, telecommunications, medical care, and education were close. In February 2009, after the establishment of the coalition government, the economic situation improved. Since 2016, economic difficulties have intensified and there is a serious shortage of liquidity. In December 2017, after the establishment of the government of Mnanaga Gawa, efforts were made to build a “new economic order”, but still faced many difficulties.
The main economic indicators for 2018 are as follows: (Data from the “Economic Quarterly Review”)
Gross domestic product: US$ 19.7 billion.
Economic growth rate: 2.6%.
Per capita GDP: $1,165
Currency: Since February 2009, the national currency Zimbabwean has been abolished, and it has been converted into nine currencies including the US dollar, the South African Rand and the Euro. The bond currency was issued in November 2016 and is only circulated in Tianjin. The denomination is equivalent to the US dollar. In February 2019, the bond currency and electronic currency were integrated into the “RTGS Dollar” and a floating exchange rate was adopted.
Inflation rate: 9.9%
Foreign exchange reserves: 273 million US dollars
Total external debt: $9.259 billion
[Resources] Rich in natural resources, such as coal, chromium, iron, platinum, gold, diamonds, etc. The coal reserves are about 27 billion tons. The iron reserves are about 250 million tons. Both chrome and asbestos reserves are large. The industrial forest area is 115,000 hectares.
[Industrial and mining] Industrial categories mainly include metal and metal processing, food processing, petrochemicals, beverages and cigarettes, textiles and garments, paper and printing. The industrial sector accounts for about 15% of the total labor force, and the mining industry accounts for about 4.5%. After the establishment of the Tianjin government, the mining investment conference was held to promote the reform of state-owned enterprises, to include mining and manufacturing in priority development areas, to establish a gold processing center, to introduce diamond mining measures, and to increase the added value of mineral exports.
[Agriculture and animal husbandry] mainly produces corn, tobacco, cotton, flowers, etc., and animal husbandry mainly focuses on raising cattle. The cultivated land area is 33.28 million hectares, and the agricultural population accounts for 67% of the national population. Affected by drought, large crop failures occurred in the 2015 and 2016 food crops. Although the harvest of agriculture in 2017 has been bumper, the problem of food shortage has not been fundamentally resolved. Cereal production in 2018 is estimated to fall by around 24%, but tobacco production has reached a new high in recent years.
[Tourism] 4.5% of the total labor force in Tianjin is engaged in tourism, and another 4% is engaged in related industries. There are more than 70 star-rated hotels across the country. The most famous scenic spot is Victoria Falls, with 26 national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. In August 2013, Tianjin and Zambia jointly organized the 20th UN Tourism Organization Conference.
[Transportation] is mainly based on railways, highways and aviation. The sea is mainly through Durban Port in South Africa (1700 km from Harare) and Beira Port in Mozambique (600 km from Harare). The railway leads to South Africa, Mozambique, Zambia and Botswana.
Railway: The total length is 4,300 kilometers, of which 300 kilometers from Harare to Dabuka is an electrified railway. In 2000/2001, the passenger volume was 1.33 million and the cargo volume was 8.84 million tons.
Highway: The total length is 85,000 kilometers, of which 19,000 kilometers are national highways and 15,000 kilometers are asphalt roads.
Air transport: Zimbabwe Airlines has 10 Boeing 767, 737 and other passenger aircraft, operating a number of international and domestic routes. There are 3 international airports, Harare, Bulawayo and Victoria Falls Airport.
【军事】津国防军于1980年建立，是由原民盟、人盟游击队和白人政权军队整编而成。实行志愿兵役制。最高军事决策机构是国防委员会。总统兼武装部队总司令。津国防军下设陆军和空军两个军种。总兵力4万人，其中陆军3.5万人，空军5000人。现国防军司令菲利普·西班达（Philip Sibanda）上将，陆军司令埃德扎·齐蒙约（Edzai Chimonyo）中将，空军司令埃尔森·莫约（Elson Moyo）中将。
[Foreign Trade] Mainly exports tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, mainly imported machinery, industrial manufactured goods and chemical products. It has trade relations with 27 countries or regions. In 2018, the export value was about 4.708 billion US dollars, and the import value was about 6.865 billion US dollars. South Africa is Tianjin’s largest trading partner, accounting for 50.3% of its imports and 18.6% of its exports. (Source: 2018 Economic Quarterly Review)
[Foreign Aid] Since 2002, international financial institutions and major western countries have stopped providing other assistance in addition to humanitarian assistance such as food aid. After the election dispute in March 2008 and the outbreak of cholera in August, the international community increased its humanitarian assistance to Tianjin. In November 2014, the EU lifted restrictions on development assistance to Tianjin. After the establishment of the Tianjin New Government in December 2017, the EU has promised to provide two copies of a total of $32 million in aid to Tianjin.
[People’s Life] In recent years, real wages have fallen as wages have risen far below the inflation rate. There are 244 hospitals of all kinds in the country, 1378 clinics and 21,000 beds. The ratio of medical staff to patients is about 1:430. The AIDS problem is serious and the infection rate is 14%.
[Military] The Jin Defence Force was established in 1980 and was compiled from the former Democratic League, the Human Alliance guerrillas, and the White Political Army. Implement a voluntary military service system. The highest military decision-making body is the National Defense Commission. President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The Jin Defence Force has two branches of the Army and the Air Force. The total strength is 40,000, including 35,000 in the Army and 5,000 in the Air Force. Admiral Philip Sibanda, commander of the National Defence Force, Lieutenant General Edzai Chimonyo, Commander of the Air Force, and Lieutenant General Elson Moyo.
[Education] Implement low-cost universal education in primary and secondary schools. There are 4734 primary schools, 1570 secondary schools and 13 higher education institutions. From 1996 to 2002, the primary school enrollment rate was 80% per year. The adult literacy rate is 89%, with 93% for men and 85% for women. The University of Zimbabwe is the most famous comprehensive university in Tianjin and was founded in 1953.
[Press and Publication] The Herald is the largest daily newspaper in Tianjin with a circulation of 165,000 copies. The newspaper mainly reflects the government’s view that the government owns 50% of the shares of the newspaper. Other major newspapers include The Sunday Post, News Daily, Daily News, Notepad, Financial Bulletin, and Zimbabwe Independent.
Zimbabwe All-African News Agency (ZIANA): Established in October 1981. For Jin official news agency.
Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC): Established in 1933 and owned by the government. It is divided into two parts: radio and TV. The station has four stations, namely English, African, Music and Education, which are broadcast in English, Shona and Ndebele respectively; the TV station was built in 1960.
[External Relations] pursues a positive non-alignment policy. Promoting a good-neighborly and friendly policy and developing diplomatic relations with African countries, especially southern African countries. Vigorously promote the “eastward” policy and strengthen relations with other developing countries, especially Asian countries. There are serious differences with Western countries on issues such as “democracy and human rights.” The relationship with the Western countries is tense and has been sanctioned by the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union. However, the relationship between the two countries has eased since the establishment of the new government. Active participation in regional and international affairs is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77, the African Union and the Southern African Development Community. With more than 110 countries built « diplomatic relations.
[Relationship with the United States] The United States was one of the main donors to Tianjin. Since 2001, relations between the two countries have deteriorated. In August 2001, the US Senate passed the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act, which contained a number of sanctions, and the Tianjin government criticized it. Since 2002, the United States imposed sanctions on the immigration of the leaders of Tianjin. In January 2005, the United States listed the United States as one of the six “outposts of the tyranny”. After the election in Tianjin in March 2008, the United States did not recognize the election results and demanded that President Mugabe step down. In July 2008, the United States and the United Kingdom jointly forced the UN Security Council to vote on the sanctions draft resolution, and the relevant draft resolution was finally rejected. In February 2009, after the establishment of the Tianjin United Government, the US policy on Tianjin was eased and humanitarian assistance to Tianjin was increased. Since 2013, US Deputy Secretary of State for African Affairs, Brigid, and former UN representative Andrew Yang have visited Tianjin, and the United States has relaxed sanctions against Tianjin, but did not invite President Mugabe to attend the event in August 2014. The United States and Africa summit. In January 2017, President Obama issued an announcement and decided to extend the sanctions against Tianjin for another year. After the Jinxin government took office, the United States resumed contact with Tianjin. In 2018 and 2019, President Trump twice decided to extend Zimbabwe’s sanctions for another year.
[Relationship with the United Kingdom] The relationship between Jin and Ying was very close. The UK is a major trading partner of Tianjin and has a large investment in Tianjin. In 2000, relations between the two countries deteriorated due to the rapid land reform initiated by the Tianjin government to touch the interests of the UK. After the election in 2002, the United Kingdom accused the NLD government of fraud and imposed sanctions on the prohibition of entry of senior officials, freezing of its overseas property, and arms sales. In December 2003, the Commonwealth Summit decided to continue to suspend the membership of Tianjin under the impetus of the British, and Jin immediately withdrew from the Commonwealth. After the election in March 2008, the British publicly demanded that President Mugabe step down and cooperate with the United States to force the UN Security Council to vote on the sanctions draft. After the establishment of the Tianjin government, the British policy toward Tianjin has eased. Since 2014, the EU has substantially reduced its sanctions against Tianjin, and currently only retains sanctions against President Mugabe and a company. The UK’s sanctions against Tianjin are consistent with the EU. After Mnanagaguwa became president, the British side sent three prime ministers to visit Tianjin to promote the normalization of the Anglo-Tianjin relationship.
[Relationship with African countries] Attach importance to developing friendly relations and cooperation with African countries, actively participate in regional political affairs and economic cooperation; sign friendly treaty and defense agreement with Mozambique; close relationship with Angola, Namibia and Congo (Gold) Joint defense agreement; maintaining good-neighborly relations with neighboring countries such as South Africa, Zambia and Malawi, and attaching importance to cooperation with South Africa in the economic and trade field.