The Republic of Vanuatu 瓦努阿图共和国

【国 名】 瓦努阿图共和国(The Republic of Vanuatu)。

【面 积】 陆地面积1.22万平方公里,海洋专属经济区面积68万平方公里。共有82个岛屿。

【人 口】 28.2万(2017年)。其中98%为瓦努阿图人,属美拉尼西亚人种,其余为法、英、华后裔和越南、波利尼西亚移民以及其他一些附近岛国人。华人华侨约600人。官方语言为英语、法语和比斯拉马语,通用比斯拉马语。84%的人信奉基督教。

【首 都】 维拉港(Port Vila)。

【国家元首】 总统塔利斯·奥贝德·摩西(Tallis Obed Moses),2017年7月就任。

【重要节日】 独立日:7月30日。

【简 况】 位于太平洋西南部。属美拉尼西亚群岛,由82个岛屿(其中68个有人居住)组成。最大的桑托岛(又称圣埃斯皮里图岛)面积3947平方公里。属热带海洋性气候。

数千年前瓦努阿图人即在此生息。1606年被西班牙探险家发现。1768年法国人到此。1774年英国库克船长到此并将该地命名为“新赫布里底”。1906年10月,英法签署了共管公约,该地沦为英法共管殖民地。1963年土著人成立了第一个政党──乡村党,要求收回土地和实现独立。1978年1月实行内部自治。1980年7月30日独立,新赫布里底党(后改名为瓦努阿库党)领袖沃尔特·利尼出任首任总理,索科马努任总统。

【政 治】 2015年10月,瓦议会包括副总理、议长和多名内阁部长的14名议员因受贿案被判入狱并失去议员资格。基尔曼总理未能与反对党就组建联合政府达成一致。瓦总统朗斯代尔于11月25日宣布解散议会并于2016年1月22日提前举行大选。2月11日,由瓦库党、统一运动改良党、民族联合党、土地正义党组成的多党联盟“团结变革阵线”获得组阁权,统一运动改良党主席夏洛特·萨尔维(Charlot Salwai)当选瓦新一届政府总理。

【宪 法】 1979年制定,1980年生效。宪法规定:总统由议会和地方委员会主席组成的选举团选举产生,任期5年。立法权归议会,行政权归部长理事会。总理由议会选举产生,内阁部长由总理任命。宪法规定,瓦努阿图所有土地属土著人及其后裔所有,定10月5日为宪法日。

[Country name] The Republic of Vanuatu.

[Dimensions] The land area is 12,200 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of ​​680,000 square kilometers. There are 82 islands in total.

[People] 28.2 million (2017). 98% of them are Vanuatu, belonging to the Melanesian race, and the rest are French, English and Chinese descendants and Vietnamese, Polynesian immigrants and other nearby islanders. There are about 600 Chinese overseas Chinese. The official languages ​​are English, French and Bislama, and Universal Bislama. 84% believe in Christianity.

[The capital] Port Vila.

[Head of State] President Tallis Obed Moses, who took office in July 2017.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: July 30th.

[Profile] Located in the southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean. It belongs to the Melanesian Islands and consists of 82 islands (68 of which are inhabited). The largest island of Santo (also known as the island of Espirito Santo) covers an area of ​​3,947 square kilometers. It has a tropical maritime climate.

The Vanuatu people lived here thousands of years ago. Discovered by Spanish explorers in 1606. The French came here in 1768. In 1774, Captain Cook of the United Kingdom arrived here and named the place “New Hebrides”. In October 1906, Britain and France signed a condominium convention, which was a British and French colony. In 1963, the indigenous people established the first political party, the Rural Party, which demanded the restoration of land and independence. Internal autonomy was introduced in January 1978. On July 30, 1980, independence, the leader of the New Hebrides (later renamed the Vanuaku Party) Walter Lini became the first prime minister, and Sokomanu was the president.

[Politics] In October 2015, the 14 members of the Wa Council including the Deputy Prime Minister, the Speaker and a number of cabinet ministers were sentenced to jail for bribery and lost their membership. Prime Minister Kilman failed to reach an agreement with the opposition party on the formation of a coalition government. President Vladimir Lancedale announced the dissolution of the parliament on November 25 and the general election on January 22, 2016. On February 11, the multi-party coalition “Unity Reform Front”, composed of the Vaku Party, the Unified Movement Improvement Party, the National United Party, and the Land Justice Party, won the right to form a cabinet, and the chairman of the Unified Movement Improvement Party, Charlotte Salvi (Charlot) Salwai) was elected as the new Prime Minister of the government.

[Constitution] Established in 1979 and entered into force in 1980. The Constitution stipulates that the president shall be elected by an electoral college composed of the chairman of the parliament and the local council for a term of five years. The legislative power belongs to the parliament and the executive power belongs to the council of ministers. The general reason for the parliamentary election is that the cabinet minister is appointed by the prime minister. According to the Constitution, all land in Vanuatu is owned by indigenous people and their descendants, and October 5 is the Constitution Day.

【议 会】 一院制,共52席,任期4年。每年举行两次例会,应议员多数、议长或总理的请求,议会可举行特别会议。本届议会于2016年1月选举产生,2月正式成立,现任议长为瓦库党议员埃斯蒙·赛蒙(Esmon Saimon)。

【政 府】 内阁又称部长理事会(Council of Ministers)。现内阁主要成员有:总理夏洛特·萨尔维,副总理兼旅游和商务部长鲍勃·拉夫曼 (Bob Loughman),外交部长拉尔夫·雷根瓦努(Ralph Regenvanu),基础设施与公共事业部长克里斯托弗·埃米利(Christophe Emelee),财政与经济管理部长盖特恩·皮基乌恩(Gaetan Pikioune),司法和社区服务部长唐·肯(Don Ken),内政部长安德鲁·纳珀特(Andrew Napuat),土地、地质和自然资源部长艾尔弗雷德·马奥(Alfred Maoh),农、林、畜、渔及生物安全部长霍齐亚·内乌(Hosea Nevu),教育部长让·皮埃尔·尼鲁阿(Jean Pierre Nirua),卫生部长诺里斯·卡尔米特(Norris Kalmet),气候变化适应、气象、地质灾害、环境与能源部长哈姆·利尼(Ham Lini),青年发展、培训和体育部长瑟尔·西米恩(Seoule Simeon)。

【行政区划】 瓦全国分为六省两市:托尔巴、桑马、帕纳马、马兰帕、谢法和塔菲阿省;维拉港和卢甘维尔市。

[Meetings] One-chamber system, a total of 52 seats, for a term of four years. The regular meeting is held twice a year, and at the request of the majority of the members, the speaker or the prime minister, the parliament may hold a special meeting. The current parliament was elected in January 2016 and was formally established in February. The current speaker is the Evamon Party member Esmon Saimon.

[Government] The Cabinet is also known as the Council of Ministers. The main members of the cabinet are: Prime Minister Charlotte Salvi, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Tourism and Commerce Bob Loughman, Foreign Minister Ralph Regenvanu, Infrastructure and Public Sector Minister Christophe Emelee, Minister of Finance and Economic Management Gaetan Pikioune, Minister of Justice and Community Services Don Ken, Interior Minister Andrew Napert (Andrew Napuat), Minister of Lands, Geology and Natural Resources Alfred Maoh, Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock, Fisheries and Biosecurity, Hosea Nevu, Minister of Education · Jean Pierre Nirua, Health Minister Norris Kalmet, Ham Lini, Minister of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geological Hazards, Environment and Energy, Seoule Simeon, Minister of Youth Development, Training and Sports.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into six provinces and two cities: Tolba, Sanma, Panama, Malampa, Xiefa and Tafia; Port Vila and Luganville.

【议 会】 一院制,共52席,任期4年。每年举行两次例会,应议员多数、议长或总理的请求,议会可举行特别会议。本届议会于2016年1月选举产生,2月正式成立,现任议长为瓦库党议员埃斯蒙·赛蒙(Esmon Saimon)。

【政 府】 内阁又称部长理事会(Council of Ministers)。现内阁主要成员有:总理夏洛特·萨尔维,副总理兼旅游和商务部长鲍勃·拉夫曼 (Bob Loughman),外交部长拉尔夫·雷根瓦努(Ralph Regenvanu),基础设施与公共事业部长克里斯托弗·埃米利(Christophe Emelee),财政与经济管理部长盖特恩·皮基乌恩(Gaetan Pikioune),司法和社区服务部长唐·肯(Don Ken),内政部长安德鲁·纳珀特(Andrew Napuat),土地、地质和自然资源部长艾尔弗雷德·马奥(Alfred Maoh),农、林、畜、渔及生物安全部长霍齐亚·内乌(Hosea Nevu),教育部长让·皮埃尔·尼鲁阿(Jean Pierre Nirua),卫生部长诺里斯·卡尔米特(Norris Kalmet),气候变化适应、气象、地质灾害、环境与能源部长哈姆·利尼(Ham Lini),青年发展、培训和体育部长瑟尔·西米恩(Seoule Simeon)。

【行政区划】 瓦全国分为六省两市:托尔巴、桑马、帕纳马、马兰帕、谢法和塔菲阿省;维拉港和卢甘维尔市。

【司法机构】 设上诉法院、最高法院和负责传统事务的地方法院。总检察长伊施梅尔·卡尔萨考(Ishmael Kalsakau)。首席法官由总理提名、总统任命。现任首席法官文森特·吕纳贝克(Vincent Lunabeck)。

[Meetings] One-chamber system, a total of 52 seats, for a term of four years. The regular meeting is held twice a year, and at the request of the majority of the members, the speaker or the prime minister, the parliament may hold a special meeting. The current parliament was elected in January 2016 and was formally established in February. The current speaker is the Evamon Party member Esmon Saimon.

[Government] The Cabinet is also known as the Council of Ministers. The main members of the cabinet are: Prime Minister Charlotte Salvi, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Tourism and Commerce Bob Loughman, Foreign Minister Ralph Regenvanu, Infrastructure and Public Sector Minister Christophe Emelee, Minister of Finance and Economic Management Gaetan Pikioune, Minister of Justice and Community Services Don Ken, Interior Minister Andrew Napert (Andrew Napuat), Minister of Lands, Geology and Natural Resources Alfred Maoh, Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock, Fisheries and Biosecurity, Hosea Nevu, Minister of Education · Jean Pierre Nirua, Health Minister Norris Kalmet, Ham Lini, Minister of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geological Hazards, Environment and Energy, Seoule Simeon, Minister of Youth Development, Training and Sports.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into six provinces and two cities: Tolba, Sanma, Panama, Malampa, Xiefa and Tafia; Port Vila and Luganville.

[Judiciary] There is an appellate court, a Supreme Court and a local court responsible for traditional affairs. Attorney General Ishmael Kalsakau. The Chief Justice is nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the President. The current Chief Justice, Vincent Lunabeck.

【政 党】 主要政党有:

(1) 瓦库党(Vanuaaku Party):执政联盟。原名新赫布里底民族党,1971年成立,是瓦努阿图历史最悠久的政党。1977年改为现名。该党自1980年瓦独立以来在已故国父沃尔特·利尼带领下连续执政至1991年。1991年瓦库党分裂,沃尔特·利尼出走成立民族联合党。1999年4月,瓦库党与中国共产党正式建立党际关系,是太平洋岛国第一个与中共建立党际关系的政党。代主席乔·纳图曼。

(2)统一运动改良党(Reunification of Movement for Change):执政联盟。2012年成立。由时任温和党联盟副主席萨尔维出走组成。2016年萨尔维来华出席中共与世界对话会期间与中共建立党际关系。主席夏洛特·萨尔维。

(3)民族联合党(National United Party):执政联盟。1991年成立,由已故国父沃尔特·利尼从瓦库党出走组成。2004年3月与中国共产党正式建立党际关系。主席哈姆·利尼。

(4)土地和正义党(Land and Justice Party):执政联盟。2010年成立。宣称尊重土地和传统,认为酋长、教会、妇女和儿童是瓦国家的四大支柱,要通过保护本国土地和商业促进国家发展。主席拉尔夫·雷根瓦努。

(5)领袖党(Leaders Party of Vanuatu):原属执政联盟,2018年11月加入反对党阵营。2015年成立。由前气候变化部总司长纳帕特创立。该党高举反腐败旗帜,并呼吁瓦努阿图经济、环境、社会可持续发展。主席约坦·纳帕特。

(6)人民进步党(People’s Progressive Party):执政联盟,部分议员加入反对党阵营。2001年成立,由基尔曼从美拉尼西亚进步党出走组成。2005年,该党与中国共产党正式建立党际关系。主席萨托·基尔曼。

(7)温和党联盟(Union of Moderate Parties):执政联盟,部分议员加入反对党阵营。成立于1974年,是瓦最有影响的法语政党之一。1991年在时任主席马克西姆·科尔曼带领下首次执政并持续至1998年。2001年,正式与中国共产党建立党际关系。主席瑟奇·沃霍尔,现反对党领袖为该党负责人、议员伊什梅尔·卡尔萨考。

[Meetings] One-chamber system, a total of 52 seats, for a term of four years. The regular meeting is held twice a year, and at the request of the majority of the members, the speaker or the prime minister, the parliament may hold a special meeting. The current parliament was elected in January 2016 and was formally established in February. The current speaker is the Evamon Party member Esmon Saimon.

[Government] The Cabinet is also known as the Council of Ministers. The main members of the cabinet are: Prime Minister Charlotte Salvi, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Tourism and Commerce Bob Loughman, Foreign Minister Ralph Regenvanu, Infrastructure and Public Sector Minister Christophe Emelee, Minister of Finance and Economic Management Gaetan Pikioune, Minister of Justice and Community Services Don Ken, Interior Minister Andrew Napert (Andrew Napuat), Minister of Lands, Geology and Natural Resources Alfred Maoh, Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock, Fisheries and Biosecurity, Hosea Nevu, Minister of Education · Jean Pierre Nirua, Health Minister Norris Kalmet, Ham Lini, Minister of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geological Hazards, Environment and Energy, Seoule Simeon, Minister of Youth Development, Training and Sports.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into six provinces and two cities: Tolba, Sanma, Panama, Malampa, Xiefa and Tafia; Port Vila and Luganville.

[Judiciary] There is an appellate court, a Supreme Court and a local court responsible for traditional affairs. Attorney General Ishmael Kalsakau. The Chief Justice is nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the President. The current Chief Justice, Vincent Lunabeck.

[political party] The main political parties are:

(1) Vanuaaku Party: The ruling coalition. Formerly known as the New Hebrides National Party, established in 1971, is the oldest political party in Vanuatu. In 1977, it was changed to its current name. Since its independence in 1980, the party has been in power for the leadership of the late founding father Walter Lini until 1991. In 1991, the Waku Party split and Walter Lini set out to form the National United Party. In April 1999, the Vaku Party and the Chinese Communist Party officially established inter-party relations. It was the first political party in the Pacific island countries to establish inter-party relations with the Chinese Communist Party. Acting President Joe Natman.

(2) Reunification of Movement for Change: The ruling coalition. Established in 2012. It was composed of the then Vice Chairman of the moderate party, Salvi. In 2016, Salvi came to China to establish inter-party relations with the Chinese Communist Party during the China-World Dialogue. Chairman Charlotte Salvi.

(3) National United Party: The ruling coalition. It was established in 1991 and consisted of the late founding father Walter Lini from the Waku Party. In March 2004, the Communist Party of China officially established inter-party relations. President Ham Lini.

(4) Land and Justice Party: The ruling coalition. Established in 2010. Declaring respect for land and traditions, it is believed that chiefs, churches, women and children are the four pillars of the country, and they must promote national development by protecting their land and business. Chairman Ralph Regenwanu.

(5) Leaders Party of Vanuatu: Originally a ruling coalition, joined the opposition camp in November 2018. Established in 2015. Founded by the former Director of Climate Change, Napat. The party held high the anti-corruption banner and called for Vanuatu’s economic, environmental and social sustainable development. Chairman Jotan Napat.

(6) People’s Progressive Party: The ruling coalition, some members join the opposition camp. Established in 2001, consisting of Kilman from the Melanesian Progressive Party. In 2005, the party formally established inter-party relations with the Chinese Communist Party. President Sato Kilman.

(7) Union of Moderate Parties: The ruling coalition, some members join the opposition camp. Founded in 1974, it is one of the most influential French political parties. In 1991, under the leadership of then Chairman Maxim Coleman, he took power for the first time and continued until 1998. In 2001, he officially established inter-party relations with the Chinese Communist Party. President Serge Warhol, now the leader of the opposition party, is the head of the party, and member Ishmair Karsak.

【重要人物】

塔利斯·奥贝德·摩西:总统。1954年生于瓦努阿图中部省份马兰帕,毕业于澳大利亚悉尼神学院和瓦努阿图塔卢阿圣经学院,获神学专业毕业证书。1987年后长期从事牧师工作,在瓦国内有较高声望。2009年当选为基督教长老会会议主席,任期4年。2017年7月当选为瓦第九任总统。

夏洛特·萨尔维:总理,统一运动改良党主席。1964年生。早年在法属新喀里多尼亚学习会计学,毕业后在法资优尼科集体电力公司、美拉尼西亚“壳牌”公司、瓦努阿图发展银行任会计。1991年从政,2002年首次当选议员。历任贸工部长、土地资源部长、反对党副领袖、教育部长、财长部长、内政部长等。2016年2月出任总理。

【经 济】 经济落后,被联合国列为最不发达国家之一。农业和旅游业是瓦经济支柱。近年来,瓦经济缓慢增长。以旅游业为主的服务业和建筑业仍是拉动经济的主要动力,但国内家庭消费、产品出口、私营经济等有所下滑。

国内生产总值(2017年):约8.6亿美元,同比增长约4.4%。

人均国内生产总值(2017年):约2200美元。

货币名称:瓦图

汇率:1美元≈110瓦图(2018年12月)。

【资 源】 原有锰矿开采已尽,新探明资源有少量锰矿、铁矿、镍、铜和铝矾土等,还有大量的白硫火山灰,目前没有采矿作业。森林覆盖率36%,其中只有20%具有商业开采价值。渔业资源丰富,盛产金枪鱼。

【工 业】 由于瓦物价和生产成本高,工业产品缺乏出口竞争力,外商投资的工业产品主要是替代进口商品,在瓦本国销售。瓦只有食品、木材加工、肥皂等小工厂。

【农 业】 瓦气候和地形适宜农业和牧草开发,国土41%为肥沃的可耕地,但已开发耕地仅占18%。主要农产品是椰干、卡瓦、可可、咖啡、芋头、木薯、红薯、香蕉等。瓦农村人口占全国人口的80%,但农业生产方式落后,国家投资严重不足,发展缓慢。

【渔 业】 盛产金枪鱼等。目前有70多条外国渔船与瓦合作,在瓦专属经济区捕鱼。按瓦有关规定,外国渔船经瓦方同意后,可在距瓦陆地12-200海里之间的海域进行捕捞作业。只有瓦公民和本国公司可以在12海里内的海域捕鱼,6海里内的捕鱼事宜由当地省政府管辖。本国公民商业性渔业规模小。

【旅游业】 旅游业是瓦支柱产业之一和最大的外汇收入来源,产值约占国民生产总值的三分之一。多数游客来自澳大利亚、新西兰和新喀里多尼亚。主要游览胜地有维拉港、塔纳、桑托、马勒库拉和彭特考斯特岛。2017年瓦全年接待航空与游船游客共计约33.74万人次。

【VIP】

Talis Obeid Moses: President. Born in 1954 in Maranpa, the central province of Vanuatu, he graduated from the Sydney Theological Seminary in Australia and the Talua Bible College in Vanuatu, and obtained a diploma in theology. After 1987, he worked as a pastor for a long time and has a high reputation in the country. In 2009, he was elected chairman of the Presbyterian Church for a four-year term. In July 2017, he was elected as the ninth president of the tile.

Charlotte Salvi: Prime Minister, Chairman of the Unified Movement Improvement Party. Born in 1964. In the early years, he studied accounting in French New Caledonia. After graduation, he worked as an accountant at the French-owned Unico Group Power Company, the Melanesian “Shell” company, and the Vanuatu Development Bank. He was in politics in 1991 and was elected as a member of Parliament for the first time in 2002. He has served as Minister of Trade and Industry, Minister of Land Resources, Deputy Leader of the Opposition, Minister of Education, Minister of Finance, Minister of the Interior, etc. In February 2016, he became Prime Minister.

[Economy] Economically backward, it is listed by the United Nations as one of the least developed countries. Agriculture and tourism are the pillars of the economy. In recent years, the economy of the Wa has grown slowly. The service industry and construction industry, which are mainly based on tourism, are still the main driving force for the economy, but domestic household consumption, product exports, and the private economy have declined.

Gross domestic product (2017): about 860 million US dollars, an increase of about 4.4%.

Per capita GDP (2017): about $2,200.

Currency Name: Vatu

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 110 watts (December 2018).

[Resources] The original manganese ore mining has been completed. The newly discovered resources include a small amount of manganese ore, iron ore, nickel, copper and bauxite, and a large amount of white sulfur volcanic ash. There is currently no mining operation. The forest coverage rate is 36%, of which only 20% have commercial exploitation value. Rich in fishery resources, rich in tuna.

[Industrial] Due to high prices and high production costs, industrial products lack export competitiveness. Foreign-invested industrial products mainly replace imported goods and are sold in the country. Tiles are only small factories such as food, wood processing, and soap.

[Agriculture] The climate and topography are suitable for agriculture and pasture development. 41% of the country is fertile arable land, but only 18% of cultivated land has been developed. The main agricultural products are copra, kava, cocoa, coffee, taro, cassava, sweet potato, banana and so on. The rural population accounts for 80% of the national population, but the agricultural production methods are backward, the state investment is seriously insufficient, and the development is slow.

[fishing industry] rich in tuna and so on. At present, more than 70 foreign fishing boats cooperate with the Wah to fish in the exclusive economic zone of the Wah. According to the relevant regulations of the wattage, foreign fishing vessels can carry out fishing operations in the sea between 12 and 200 nautical miles from the land of the land after the consent of the tile. Only Waka citizens and domestic companies can fish in seas within 12 nautical miles, and fishing within 6 nautical miles is governed by the local provincial government. Domestic citizens have a small scale of commercial fisheries.

[Tourism] Tourism is one of the pillar industries and the largest source of foreign exchange earnings. The output value accounts for about one-third of the gross national product. Most visitors come from Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia. The main tourist attractions are Port Vila, Tana, Santo, Malekula and Pointe Cote. In 2017, the total number of air and cruise passengers received was 337,400.

【交通运输】 交通设施落后,费用昂贵。以海运为主。公路总长约1900公里,绝大部分为土路。

水运:水路总长780公里。岛间运输船舶的最大吨位为200多吨,现有船舶破旧落后。维拉港和桑托港为国际海港,都可停靠万吨商船。

瓦努阿图还是新兴的船旗国,目前有约600条船悬挂瓦国旗。中瓦海运航线有天津/上海─釜山─维拉港,广州─香港─悉尼─维拉港。

空运:各主要岛屿都有机场。维拉港有国际机场,可直飞澳大利亚、新西兰、斐济、所罗门群岛和新喀里多尼亚。瓦努阿图航空公司是瓦唯一经营国际航线的公司。国内有近10条航线。

【财政金融】 2017年政府财政收入约2.8亿美元,支出约2.34亿美元。2016年内外债总额2.63亿美元。 主要银行有:

(1)瓦努阿图储备银行(Reserve Bank of Vanuatu):1981年成立。前称瓦努阿图中央银行,1989年改为现名,为瓦央行。

(2)瓦努阿图国家银行(National Bank of Vanuatu):1991年接管瓦努阿图合作储备银行后成立。1998年11月,同瓦努阿图开发银行合并。属国有银行。

【对外贸易】 2017年瓦外贸总额约4.3亿美元,其中出口6000万美元,进口3.7亿美元。

主要出口产品有椰干、椰油、牛肉、卡瓦、可可等。瓦产品主要出口欧盟、日本、澳大利亚、新西兰、巴布亚新几内亚、所罗门群岛等国;主要进口食品、机械、汽车、化工产品、燃料等,来源主要是日本、澳大利亚、新加坡、法国、新西兰等国。近年来,因西方一些国家以卡瓦对人体健康有害为由禁止进口卡瓦,瓦卡瓦出口量锐减。

2012年4月,瓦正式成为WTO成员国。

【外国资本】 外资主要集中在信托保险、法律、会计、金融、旅游等服务业以及电力、通讯、商业等领域。据瓦努阿图投资促进局统计,2016年瓦新增外国直接投资额138.6亿瓦图(约1.3亿美元)。

【外国援助】 瓦年均接受外援占国内生产总值的17%左右,主要来自澳大利亚、新西兰、欧盟、法国、英国、日本、亚洲开发银行、联合国机构等,一般用于工业、农业、教育、医疗卫生以及防务、司法等具体项目。

【人民生活】 瓦政府规定最低月工资为2.6万瓦图(约240美元)。商品供应较齐全,但价格相对昂贵。全国基本实行免费医疗。

[Transportation] The transportation facilities are backward and expensive. Mainly by sea. The total length of the road is about 1,900 kilometers, most of which are dirt roads.

Water transport: The total length of the waterway is 780 kilometers. The maximum tonnage of inter-island transport vessels is more than 200 tons, and existing ships are worn out. Port Vila and Santo Port are international seaports, all of which can be used to dock 10,000 tons of merchant ships.

Vanuatu is also an emerging flag state, and there are currently about 600 ships flying the flag. The Zhongwa shipping routes are Tianjin/Shanghai-Busan-Port Vila, Guangzhou-Hong Kong-Sydney-Port Vila.

Air transport: There are airports on all major islands. Port Vila has international airports with direct flights to Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Solomon Islands and New Caledonia. Vanuatu Airlines is the only company in the world that operates international routes. There are nearly 10 routes in China.

[Financial Finance] In 2017, the government’s fiscal revenue was about 280 million US dollars, and the expenditure was about 234 million US dollars. In 2016, the total domestic and foreign debts were 263 million US dollars. The main banks are:

(1) Reserve Bank of Vanuatu: Established in 1981. Formerly known as the Vanuatu Central Bank, in 1989 changed its current name to the Central Bank.

(2) National Bank of Vanuatu: Established in 1991 after taking over the Vanuatu Cooperative Reserve Bank. In November 1998, it merged with the Vanuatu Development Bank. It is a state-owned bank.

[Foreign Trade] In 2017, the total foreign trade volume was about 430 million US dollars, of which 60 million US dollars were exported and 370 million US dollars were imported.

The main export products are copra, coconut oil, beef, kava, cocoa and so on. The products are mainly exported to the European Union, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and other countries; mainly imported food, machinery, automobiles, chemical products, fuels, etc., mainly from Japan, Australia, Singapore, France, New Zealand and other countries. In recent years, due to the ban on the import of kava on the grounds that Kava is harmful to human health, the export volume of Wakava has dropped sharply.

In April 2012, Wa officially became a member of the WTO.

[Foreign Capital] Foreign capital is mainly concentrated in the fields of trust insurance, law, accounting, finance, tourism, and power, communications, and commerce. According to statistics from the Vanuatu Investment Promotion Agency, the amount of foreign direct investment added in 2016 was 13.86 billion watts (about 130 million US dollars).

[Foreign Aid] The foreign aid accounted for about 17% of GDP, mainly from Australia, New Zealand, the European Union, France, the United Kingdom, Japan, the Asian Development Bank, and United Nations agencies. It is generally used in industry, agriculture, education, Health care and specific projects such as defense and justice.

[People’s Life] The government has set a minimum monthly wage of 26,000 watts (about 240 US dollars). The supply of goods is relatively complete, but the price is relatively expensive. Free medical care is basically implemented throughout the country.

【军 事】 无正规军队。有警察、机动部队约900人,由内政部管辖。瓦与澳大利亚、新西兰和巴布亚新几内亚签有防务协定。瓦警察和机动部队人员参与联合国在东帝汶、波斯尼亚的维和行动、巴新布干维尔和平监督团以及地区驻所罗门群岛援助团等。

【文 化】 瓦司法、文化、妇女和宗教部为瓦文化工作最高领导机构,由该部任命组成的“全国文化理事会”(National Culture Council)领导文化工作。瓦文化中心为具体组织开展文化活动的机构,下设国家博物馆、国家图书馆、文化遗址登记处、国家音像档案处。

【教 育】 瓦教育制度规定,小学6年,初中4年,高中3-4年。小学入学率达到95%,中学入学率很低。中等职业学校有:国立技术学院、师范学院、护士学校、警察学校等。南太平洋大学法律分校设在维拉港。

【新闻出版】 主要报刊有:《每日邮报》(Daily Post),私营,周一至周六用英文出版,发行量约3000-5000份。

瓦努阿图广播电视总公司(Vanuatu Broadcasting and Television Corporation)为官方新闻机构,拥有瓦努阿图广播公司(Radio Vanuatu)和瓦努阿图电视台(TV Belong Vanuatu)。中国中央电视台英语新闻频道、中国国际广播电台(CRI)分别于2005年和2007年在瓦落地。已在瓦落地的付费国际频道还包括:RFO/Tele Nouvelle Caledonie, TBN, ABC Australian Network, TV NZ, Telsat Pay TV, LPF Pay TV等。

【对外关系】 瓦积极参与国际事务。同74个国家建立了外交关系,是联合国、不结盟组织、英联邦、法语国家共同体、太平洋岛国论坛、美拉尼西亚先锋集团以及世界贸易组织、国际货币基金组织、世界银行和亚洲开发银行的成员。强调在亚太地区保持其建设性的角色,谋求和平、和谐、无核、合作的发展环境。2018年3月,瓦正式成为亚投行成员。

[Military] There is no regular army. There are about 900 police and mobile units, under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior. Wa has a defense agreement with Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. The Pakistani police and mobile forces personnel participated in the United Nations peacekeeping operations in East Timor, Bosnia, the Peaceful Monitoring Mission of Papua New Guinea and the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands.

[Cultural] The Ministry of Justice, Culture, Women and Religion is the highest leading body for the work of the cultural sector. The National Culture Council, which is appointed by the Ministry, leads the cultural work. The Cultural Center of the City organizes cultural activities for specific organizations. It consists of the National Museum, the National Library, the Cultural Relics Registry, and the National Audiovisual Archives.

[education] The education system of the wa is stipulated that the primary school is 6 years, the junior high school is 4 years, and the high school is 3-4 years. The primary school enrollment rate is 95% and the secondary school enrollment rate is very low. Secondary vocational schools include: National Technical College, Teachers College, Nurse School, Police School, etc. The University of South Pacific Law Branch is located in Port Vila.

[Press and Publication] The main newspapers are: “Daily Post” (Daily Post), privately-owned, published in English from Monday to Saturday, with a circulation of about 3,000-5,000 copies.

Vanuatu Broadcasting and Television Corporation is the official news agency with Radio Vanuatu and TV Belong Vanuatu. China Central Television’s English News Channel and China Radio International (CRI) landed in 2005 and 2007 respectively. The paid international channels that have been launched include: RFO/Tele Nouvelle Caledonie, TBN, ABC Australian Network, TV NZ, Telsat Pay TV, LPF Pay TV, etc.

[External Relations] Wa actively participates in international affairs. Established diplomatic relations with 74 countries, including the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Organization, the Commonwealth, the Community of French-speaking Countries, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Melanesian Pioneer Group, and the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. member. Emphasis is placed on maintaining a constructive role in the Asia-Pacific region and seeking a peaceful, harmonious, nuclear-free and cooperative development environment. In March 2018, Wa officially became a member of the AIIB.

【同美国的关系】 瓦美1986年建交。美驻巴布亚新几内亚大使兼任驻瓦大使。1989年,瓦美签署美向瓦派“和平队”的协议,此后美每年派出数十名“和平队”员赴瓦,帮助瓦发展教育事业。美还资助瓦警察和机动部队赴美进行专业培训。2005年,美将瓦列为其千年挑战计划援助国家之一,并于2006年3月与瓦签署协议,此后5年向瓦提供6569万美元,用于瓦基础设施建设。2015年,美国主要通过“和平队”在教育、医疗和人道主义等方面提供了约210万美元援助。此外,美还通过世界银行、联合国儿童发展基金会、世界卫生组织等机构向瓦提供发展援助。2018年12月,美国防部亚太事务助理部长薛瑞福访瓦。

【同澳大利亚的关系】 瓦澳1980年建交。澳是瓦最大的援助国,2015/2016财年向瓦援助4190万澳元,援助重点为教育、医疗、法治等。瓦澳签有防务协定。澳是瓦最大贸易伙伴和进口产品来源。瓦主要从澳进口食品、电脑设备、烟酒和建筑材料,出口牛肉、海产品、木制品等。澳是瓦旅游业的主要客源国,瓦2/3的长期游客来自澳。2015年3月,澳大利亚外长毕晓普访问瓦努阿图。2018年6月,瓦总理萨尔维访问澳大利亚。

【同新西兰的关系】 瓦新1980年建交。1991年两国签署防务合作协定。新是瓦努阿图主要援助国之一,从2007年开始允许瓦季节性工人前往新从事果园管理等工作,2015/2016年度援瓦2550万新元。瓦从新主要进口药物、飞机零件、木材、钢铁、冷冻剂和成品油等,向新主要出口鱼和鱼产品、金属废品和碎料、椰子和棕榈油和咖啡等。新是瓦旅游业主要客源国之一。新在瓦设有高专署。2013年2月,新贸易部长格罗泽访瓦。2016年6月,新西兰外长麦卡利访瓦。8月,瓦总理萨尔维对新西兰进行正式访问,同新西兰总理约翰·基、外长麦卡利、气候变化事务部长贝内特等举行会见、会谈。2017年12月,瓦任命首任瓦驻新西兰高专,并在惠灵顿设高专署。2018年2月,瓦外长雷根瓦努访新。8月,新西兰副总理兼外长彼得斯访瓦。

【同英国和法国的关系】 英、法原为瓦的共管宗主国。近年来,英减少对瓦援助,目前只向教育领域提供援助。2005年英国关闭了驻瓦高专署。法在瓦设有使馆,为瓦主要援助国之一,对瓦援助主要涉及教育、卫生、文化、军事和司法等领域。法国通过驻扎在新喀里多尼亚的法国军队同瓦努阿图开展防务合作。2017年1月,瓦总理萨尔维访问法国。2018年4月,瓦总理萨尔维赴伦敦出席英联邦政府首脑会议。5月,瓦总理萨尔维在新喀里多尼亚会见法国总统马克龙。

【同日本的关系】 瓦日1981年建交。日驻斐济大使兼任驻瓦大使。20世纪90年代以来,瓦日关系发展迅速。双方在渔业、肉类加工、旅游业等方面建立了合资关系。2015年瓦总理纳图曼出席在日本福岛举行的第七届日本—太平洋岛国领导人会议。2017年1月,瓦外长兰肯赴日本出席日本—太平洋岛国外长会议。双方商定于2018年互设使馆。2018年5月,瓦总理萨尔维赴日本出席第八届日本—太平洋岛国领导人会议。

【同欧盟的关系】 瓦与欧盟关系密切。1975至2000年,瓦共接受欧盟8400万美元的援助,其中91%用于渔业、农业、教育和基础设施建设等项目。瓦系欧盟在太平洋岛国中唯一的政府财政受援国。根据欧盟第十一届欧洲发展基金,2014至2020年,欧盟将向瓦提供约3100万欧元的援助。2014年10月,欧盟与瓦在维拉港举行政治磋商,双方就人权、治理和法制等进行深入讨论。2016年6月,欧盟委员会负责国际合作与发展的委员米米卡访瓦。2017年1月,瓦总理萨尔维率团出席在布鲁塞尔举行的第四次欧盟与瓦高级政治对话年会。

【同其他太平洋岛国的关系】 瓦与巴布亚新几内亚、所罗门群岛和斐济同为“美拉尼西亚先锋集团”(MSG)成员。该集团每年举行一次会议,协调在地区事务上的立场。集团秘书处现设在维拉港。2017年9月,瓦总理萨尔维正式签署《太平洋更紧密经济关系协定》。

[Relationship with the United States] Wamei established diplomatic relations in 1986. The US Ambassador to Papua New Guinea is also the Ambassador to the Wall. In 1989, Wamei signed an agreement with the US Peace Corps “Peace Team”. Since then, the United States has sent dozens of “Peace Team” members to the Wazhou to help the development of education. The United States also funded the police and mobile units to conduct professional training in the United States. In 2005, the United States listed Wal-Mart as one of its Millennium Challenge assistance countries, and signed an agreement with Wah in March 2006. In the following five years, it provided $56.69 million to the Wah for the construction of watt infrastructure. In 2015, the United States provided approximately $2.1 million in aid through education, medical care, and humanitarian services, primarily through the Peace Corps. In addition, the United States provides development assistance to the World Bank through the World Bank, the United Nations Development Fund for Children, and the World Health Organization. In December 2018, Assistant Secretary of the Asia-Pacific Affairs of the US Department of Defense, Xue Ruifu, visited Va.

[Relationship with Australia] Waao established diplomatic relations in 1980. Australia is the largest donor to the country. In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, it assisted the company with 41.9 million Australian dollars. The focus of assistance is education, medical care, and the rule of law. Wau has signed a defense agreement. Australia is the largest trading partner and source of imported products. Tiles mainly import food, computer equipment, tobacco and alcohol and construction materials from Australia, and export beef, seafood and wood products. Australia is the main source of tourism for the tourism industry, and 2/3 of the long-term tourists from Australia are from Australia. In March 2015, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Vanuatu. In June 2018, Prime Minister Salvi visited Australia.

[Relationship with New Zealand] Waxin established diplomatic relations in 1980. In 1991, the two countries signed an agreement on defense cooperation. New is one of the main donors in Vanuatu. Since 2007, seasonal workers have been allowed to travel to new orchard management. In 2015/2016, the amount of subsidies was 2,550,000 Singapore dollars. From the new main imported drugs, aircraft parts, wood, steel, refrigerants and refined oil, the company exports fish and fish products, metal scrap and scrap, coconut and palm oil and coffee to the new main. New is one of the main source countries of the tourism industry. The new office has a high-tech office. In February 2013, the new trade minister Groze visited Va. In June 2016, New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely visited Va. In August, Prime Minister Salvi paid an official visit to New Zealand and held talks and talks with New Zealand Prime Minister John Key, Foreign Minister McAlely and Climate Change Minister Bennett. In December 2017, Wah appointed the first station in New Zealand and established a high-level office in Wellington. In February 2018, Foreign Minister Regenvanu visited the new. In August, New Zealand’s Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Peters visited Va.

[Relationship with the United Kingdom and France] Britain and France were the co-owners of the vassal. In recent years, Britain has reduced aid to the United States and is currently only providing assistance in the field of education. In 2005, the United Kingdom closed its office in Waigao. There is an embassy in France, which is one of the main aid countries. The aid to the tile mainly involves education, health, culture, military and judicial fields. France conducts defense cooperation with Vanuatu through the French army stationed in New Caledonia. In January 2017, Prime Minister Salvi visited France. In April 2018, Prime Minister Salvi went to London to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting. In May, Prime Minister Salvi met with French President Mark Long in New Caledonia.

[Relationship with Japan] Waji established diplomatic relations in 1981. The ambassador to Fiji also served as ambassador to the Philippines. Since the 1990s, the relationship between Vaughan and Japan has developed rapidly. The two sides have established joint ventures in fisheries, meat processing, and tourism. In 2015, Prime Minister Natuman attended the 7th Japan-Pacific Island Leaders’ Meeting in Fukushima, Japan. In January 2017, Foreign Minister Lanken went to Japan to attend the Japan-Pacific Island Foreign Ministers Meeting. The two sides agreed to establish an embassy in 2018. In May 2018, Prime Minister Salvi went to Japan to attend the 8th Japan-Pacific Island Leaders Meeting.

[Relationship with the EU] The relationship between the tile and the EU is close. From 1975 to 2000, the Vatican received $84 million in assistance from the European Union, 91% of which was used in fisheries, agriculture, education and infrastructure construction. The only government financial recipient of the EU in the Pacific island countries. According to the 11th European Development Fund of the European Union, the EU will provide about 31 million euros in aid to the market from 2014 to 2020. In October 2014, the EU and Vaula held political consultations in Port Vila, and the two sides held in-depth discussions on human rights, governance and the rule of law. In June 2016, Commissioner of International Cooperation and Development of the European Commission visited Mimika. In January 2017, Prime Minister Salvi led a delegation to attend the fourth annual meeting of the EU and the High Political Dialogue in Brussels.

[Relationship with other Pacific island countries] Wa and Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Fiji are members of the “Merranic Pioneer Group” (MSG). The group meets once a year to coordinate its position on regional affairs. The group secretariat is now located in Port Vila. In September 2017, Prime Minister Salvi officially signed the Agreement on Closer Economic Relations in the Pacific.