The Republic of Uzbekistan 乌兹别克斯坦共和国

【国名】乌兹别克斯坦共和国(The Republic of Uzbekistan, Республика Узбекистан),简称乌兹别克斯坦(Uzbekistan,Узбекистан)。

【面积】44.89万平方公里。

【人口】3308万(截至2018年12月)

【首都】塔什干。常住人口249.79万(2018年)。1月平均气温0℃,7月平均气温28℃。

【国家元首】总统沙夫卡特·米罗莫诺维奇·米尔济约耶夫(Шавкат Миромонович Мирзиёев)。2016年9月8日被推举为代总统,在12月4日举行的总统大选中胜选,12月14日正式就任。

【民族】共有130多个民族。乌兹别克族占80%,俄罗斯族占5.5%,塔吉克族占4%,哈萨克族占3%,卡拉卡尔帕克族占2.5%,鞑靼族占1.5%,吉尔吉斯族占1%,朝鲜族占0.7%。此外,还有土库曼、乌克兰、维吾尔、亚美尼亚、土耳其、白俄罗斯族等。

【语言】乌兹别克语为官方语言,俄语为通用语言。

【宗教】多数居民信奉伊斯兰教(逊尼派),其余多信奉东正教。

【重大节日】新年:1月1日;古尔邦节:伊斯兰历12月10日;纳乌鲁斯节(乌兹别克春节):3月21日;纪念和荣誉日(原胜利日):5月9日;独立日:9月1日;宪法日:12月8日。

【货币】苏姆(1美元约合8300苏姆)

[Country name] The Republic of Uzbekistan, Республика Узбекистан, referred to as Uzbekistan (Узбекистан).

[Area] 448,900 square kilometers.

[population] 33.08 million (as of December 2018)

[Capital] Tashkent. The resident population is 2,497,900 (2018). The average temperature in January is 0 °C, and the average temperature in July is 28 °C.

[Head of State] President Shafkat Miromonovich Mierziyev (Шавкат Миромонович Мирзиёев). On September 8, 2016, he was elected as the acting president. He won the presidential election on December 4 and officially took office on December 14.

[National] There are more than 130 ethnic groups. Uzbeks account for 80%, Russians for 5.5%, Tajiks for 4%, Kazakhs for 3%, Karakalp for 2.5%, Yis for 1.5%, Kyrgyz for 1%, and Koreans for 0.7%. . In addition, there are Turkmen, Ukraine, Uighur, Armenia, Turkey, Belarus and so on.

[Language] Uzbek is the official language and Russian is the common language.

[Religion] Most residents believe in Islam (Sunni), and the rest believe in Orthodox Christianity.

[Major Festival] New Year: January 1st; Gurban Festival: December 10th of the Islamic calendar; Naurus Festival (Uzbek Spring Festival): March 21st; Memorial and Honor Day (former Victory Day): May 9th Independence Day: September 1st; Constitution Day: December 8.

[Currency] Sum (1 US dollar is about 8300 um)

【简况】位于中亚腹地的“双内陆国”,全部5个邻国均无出海口。南靠阿富汗,北部和东北与哈萨克斯坦接壤,东、东南与吉尔吉斯斯坦和塔吉克斯坦相连,西与土库曼斯坦毗邻。属严重干旱的大陆性气候,7月平均气温25—32℃,l月平均气温–6—–3℃。

9—11世纪,乌兹别克民族形成。13世纪被蒙古人征服。14世纪中叶,阿米尔·帖木儿建立以撒马尔罕为首都的庞大帝国。16—18世纪,建立布哈拉汗国、希瓦汗国和浩罕国。19世纪60—70年代,部分领土(现撒马尔罕州和费尔干纳州)并入俄罗斯。1917—1918年建立苏维埃政权,1924年10月成立乌兹别克苏维埃社会主义共和国并加入苏联。1991年8月31日宣布独立,定9月1日为独立日。

【政治】独立之始,首任总统卡里莫夫提出按“乌兹别克斯坦发展模式”建设国家的“五项原则”:经济优先,国家调控,法律至上,循序渐进,社会保障。在该“五项原则”指导下,乌致力于复兴民族精神和宗教传统,提高社会宽容度,增进族际互容,对弱势阶层和群体实施社会保障。同时将保障国家安全作为国家主要任务之一。

米尔济约耶夫当选总统后宣布遵循“乌兹别克发展模式”,同时制定2017—2021年国家发展五大优先方向行动战略,加速推进经济、司法、行政等领域改革,开通网上受访渠道,及时回应民众关切。

【宪法】1992年12月8日通过第一部宪法,规定乌是主权、民主国家,实行立法、行政、司法分立;总统为国家元首、武装部队最高统帅,每届任期7年,连任不得超过两届;经济以多种所有制为基础。1993、2003、2007、2008、2011年3月和12月、2012、2014年共八次修改宪法。2011年3月修宪扩大议会和政党权力,规定总理由立法院中占多数席位的政党或党团提名,议会有权对政府提出不信任案,有权就国家政治经济生活的重大问题向总理提出质询,总统无法理政时,由参议院主席直接代行总统权力,直至选出新总统;2011年12月修宪将总统任期由7年减少至5年;2014年修宪规定将部分总统权力移交总理,扩大政府和议会职权,强化中央选举委员会的独立性。2017年5月30日,乌最高会议参议院批准旨在加强国家民主进程的宪法修订案。

[Profile] In the “double landlocked countries” in the hinterland of Central Asia, all five neighboring countries have no seaports. It is bordered by Afghanistan in the south, Kazakhstan in the north and northeast, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in the east and southeast, and Turkmenistan in the west. It is a severely arid continental climate with an average temperature of 25-32 °C in July and an average temperature of 6–3 °C in January.

In the 9th and 11th centuries, the Uzbek nation was formed. The 13th century was conquered by the Mongols. In the middle of the 14th century, Amir Timur established the great empire with Samarkand as its capital. In the 16th and 18th centuries, the Bukhara Khanate, the Shiva Khanate and the Khanh State were established. In the 1960s and 1970s, some territories (now Samarkand and Ferghana) were incorporated into Russia. The Soviet regime was established in 1917-1918, and the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was established in October 1924 and joined the Soviet Union. On August 31, 1991, independence was declared, and September 1st was set as the Independence Day.

[Politics] At the beginning of independence, the first president, Karimov, proposed the “five principles” of building a country according to the “Uzbekistan development model”: economic priority, state regulation, law supremacy, gradual progress, and social security. Under the guidance of the “five principles”, Uzbekistan is committed to rejuvenating the national spirit and religious traditions, improving social tolerance, enhancing inter-ethnic compatibility, and implementing social security for vulnerable groups and groups. At the same time, safeguarding national security is one of the main tasks of the country.

After being elected president, Milziyev announced that he would follow the “Uzbek development model” and formulate five major priorities for national development in 2017-2021, accelerate the reform of the economic, judicial, and administrative fields, open online interview channels, and respond to the public in a timely manner. Concern.

[Constitution] On December 8, 1992, the first constitution was passed, stipulating that Uzbekistan is a sovereign and democratic country, and that legislative, administrative, and judicial divisions are implemented; the president is the head of state and the highest commander of the armed forces. Each term is seven years, and the term of office cannot exceed Two sessions; the economy is based on multiple ownership systems. The Constitution was amended eight times in 1993, 2003, 2007, 2008, March and December, 2012, and 2014. In March 2011, the constitution was amended to expand the power of parliament and political parties, stipulating that the prime minister is nominated by a political party or a party group with a majority in the Legislative Yuan. The parliament has the right to raise a case of no confidence in the government and has the right to question the Prime Minister on major issues concerning the country’s political and economic life. When the president is unable to govern, the president of the Senate directly acts as president until the election of a new president; in December 2011, the constitutional amendment reduced the president’s term from seven years to five years; in 2014, the constitutional amendments transferred some presidential powers to the prime minister. Expand government and parliamentary powers and strengthen the independence of the Central Election Commission. On May 30, 2017, the U.S. Supreme Council Senate approved a constitutional amendment to strengthen the national democratic process.

【议会】乌兹别克斯坦议会称为最高会议,是行使立法权的最高国家代表机关。实行两院制,由参议院和立法院组成。参议院为上院,本届参议院于2015年1月产生,主席为尼格马季拉·图尔基诺维奇·尤尔达舍夫(Нигматилла Тулкинович Юлдашев)。立法院为下院,本届立法院于2015年1月选举产生,立法院主席为努尔丁江·姆伊金哈诺维奇·伊斯莫伊洛夫 (Нурдинжон Муйдинханович Исмоилов)。

【政府】称内阁,由乌兹别克斯坦共和国总理、副总理、各部部长及各国家委员会主席组成。根据乌宪法第98条规定,卡拉卡尔帕克斯坦共和国内阁主席进入乌兹别克斯坦共和国内阁担任相关职务。本届政府于2016年12月组成,为1名总理、1名第一副总理、8名副总理、21个部、12个委员会。总理阿卜杜拉·尼格马托维奇·阿里波夫(Абдулла Нигматович Арипов)。

【行政区划】全国划分为1个共和国、12个州和1个直辖市:卡拉卡尔帕克斯坦自治共和国、安集延州、布哈拉州、吉扎克州、卡什卡达里亚州、纳沃伊州、纳曼干州、撒马尔罕州、苏尔汉河州、锡尔河州、塔什干州、费尔干纳州、花拉子模州、塔什干市。

【经济】国民经济支柱产业是“四金”:黄金、“白金”(棉花)、“乌金”(石油)、“蓝金”(天然气)。米尔济约耶夫就任总统后在经济开放和自由化、吸引外资方面采取了系列举措,乌经济保持向上势头。根据乌国家统计委员会2018年1月发布的数据,2017年乌国内生产总值为249.14万亿苏姆,同比增长5.3%;人均GDP769.2万苏姆,同比增长3.6%;私有经济对GDP的贡献率为81%,国有经济对GDP的贡献率占19%;全年通货膨胀率为14.4%。

【资源】资源丰富,矿产资源储量总价值约为3.5万亿美元。现探明有近100种矿产品。其中,黄金探明储量3350吨(世界第四),石油探明储量为1亿吨,凝析油探明储量为1.9亿吨,天然气探明储量为1.1万亿立方米,煤储量为18.3亿吨,铀储量为18.58万吨(世界第七,占世界铀储量的4%),铜、钨等矿藏也较为丰富。森林覆盖率为12%。截至2016年,乌天然气开采量居世界第11位,黄金开采量居第9位,铀矿开采量居第5位。

【军事】1992年1月建军。乌武装力量由陆军、空防军、特种部队、反恐步兵军及技术和后勤保障部队等构成,总统为武装力量最高统帅。实行义务兵役制和合同制结合的混合兵役制。乌军有5所高等军事院校。

[Parliament] The Uzbek Parliament is called the Supreme Council and is the highest national representative body exercising legislative power. The bicameral system is composed of the Senate and the Legislative Yuan. The Senate is the upper house. The current Senate was produced in January 2015. The chairman is Nigmatilla Turkinovich Yordashev (Нигматилла Тулкинович Юлдашев). The Legislative Yuan is the lower house. The current Legislative Yuan was elected in January 2015. The chairman of the Legislative Yuan is Nurdinjiang Mjjinhanovich Ismoilov (Нурдинжон Муйдинханович Исмоилов).

[Government] The cabinet is composed of the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister, the ministers of various ministries, and the chairmen of the national committees of the Republic of Uzbekistan. According to Article 98 of the Ukrainian Constitution, the Chairman of the Cabinet of the Republic of Karakalpakstan entered the Cabinet of the Republic of Uzbekistan to hold relevant positions. The current government was formed in December 2016. It is a prime minister, a first deputy prime minister, eight deputy prime ministers, 21 ministries, and 12 committees. Prime Minister Abdullah Negmatovich Alibov (Абдулла Нигматович Арипов).

[Administrative division] The country is divided into 1 republic, 12 states and 1 municipality: Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic, Andijan, Bukhara, Gizak, Kashkaria, Navoi State, Namangan, Samarkand, Sulhan, Syr Darya, Tashkent, Ferghana, Huarazzi, Tashkent.

[Economy] The pillar industries of the national economy are “four golds”: gold, “platinum” (cotton), “wujin” (oil), and “blue gold” (natural gas). After taking office as President, Milziyev took a series of measures in the face of economic openness and liberalization and attracting foreign investment. The Ukrainian economy maintained its upward momentum. According to data released by the Ukrainian National Statistical Committee in January 2018, Uzbekistan’s GDP in 2017 was 249.14 trillion som, up 5.3% year-on-year; per capita GDP was 7,692,000 som, up 3.6% year-on-year; private economy to GDP The contribution rate is 81%, the contribution rate of the state-owned economy to GDP is 19%, and the annual inflation rate is 14.4%.

[Resources] Rich in resources, the total value of mineral resources reserves is about 3.5 trillion US dollars. It is now known that there are nearly 100 kinds of mineral products. Among them, the proven reserves of gold are 3,350 tons (the fourth in the world), the proven reserves of oil are 100 million tons, the proven reserves of condensate are 190 million tons, the proven reserves of natural gas are 1.1 trillion cubic meters, and the reserves of coal are 1.83 billion. Tons, uranium reserves are 185,800 tons (the seventh in the world, accounting for 4% of the world’s uranium reserves), and copper, tungsten and other mineral deposits are also abundant. The forest coverage rate is 12%. As of 2016, Uzbekistan’s natural gas extraction ranks 11th in the world, gold mining ranks 9th, and uranium mining ranks 5th.

[Military] Army was established in January 1992. The U.S. armed forces are composed of the army, air defense forces, special forces, anti-terrorist infantry units, and technical and logistical support units. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces. A mixed military service system combining compulsory military service and contract system. The Ukrainian army has five higher military academies.