The Republic of Togo 多哥共和国
【国名】多哥共和国（The Republic of Togo, La République Togolaise）。
【国家元首】总统福雷·埃索齐姆纳·纳辛贝（Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé），2005年5月就任,2010年3月和2015年4月两次连任。
[Country name] The Republic of Togo, La République Togolaise.
[Area] 56,785 square kilometers.
[Population] 7.8 million (2017). There are 41 tribes in the country: the Eva and Mina are in the south, accounting for 22% and 6% of the national population respectively; the central Akeboso and Akaibu are 33%; the northern Kabulis are 13 %. The official language is French. The national language is more common in Ewe and Kabri. About 70% of the residents believe in fetishism, 20% believe in Christianity, and 10% believe in Islam.
[The capital] Lomé has a population of 1.57 million and an average annual temperature of about 27 °C.
[Head of State] President Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé, who took office in May 2005 and was re-elected twice in March 2010 and April 2015.
[Important Festival] Liberation Day: January 13th; National Day: April 27.
[Profile] It is located in the west of Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea in the south, in Benin in the east, in Ghana in the west, and in Burkina Faso in the north. The coastline is 56 kilometers long. The southern part has a tropical rainforest climate and the north has a savanna climate. The annual average temperature is 27 °C in the coastal area and 30 °C in the north.
Since the 15th century, Portuguese colonists have invaded the coastal area of Togo. In 1884 it became a German colony. In September 1920, the west and east of Togo were occupied by Britain and France. After the Second World War, the British and French were respectively “hosted”. When Ghana became independent in 1957, the British-hosted western Togo merged into Ghana. Togo in the east became the “autonomous republic” of the French Community in August 1956, and officially declared independence on April 27, 1960, and was named the Republic of Togo. Olympio became the first president. In 1963, Ou was stabbed to death and Grunitzky became president. On January 13, 1967, Eyadema became president. Since then, Egypt has reelected the President in December 1979, December 1986, August 1993, June 1998 and June 2003. In February 2005, Ein died of a heart attack.
【政治】埃去世后，其子福雷接管权力。2月7日，福宣誓就任多总统。国际社会强烈反对，西非国家经济共同体和非盟先后宣布对多制裁，欧盟、美国、法国予以遣责。迫于压力，福于2月25日辞去总统职务。4月，多举行总统选举，福获胜当选。6月，福组建以温和反对党泛非爱国统一党主席埃德姆·科乔为总理的民族团结政府。2006年8月，多全国政治对话取得成果，朝野各方共同签署一揽子政治协议，就重组政府、立法选举等重要问题达成一致。9月，福重组政府，传统反对党领导人、振兴行动委员会主席亚沃维·马吉·阿博伊博出任总理。2007年10月，多顺利举行立法选举，执政党多哥人民联盟（联盟党）获胜，继续掌控议会主导权。12月，福雷任命联盟党的马利为总理。2008年9月，福雷改组政府，任命经济专家洪博担任政府总理。2010年3月，多哥举行总统大选，福雷获胜连任。2012年4月，福雷宣布解散联盟党，成立新的总统多数派政党——保卫共和联盟，并兼任党主席。7月，福雷改组政府，任命原商业与私营行业促进部长阿胡梅-祖努为总理。2013年7月，多哥议会选举顺利举行，保卫共和联盟赢得91个议席中的62席，达马·德拉马尼（Dama Dramani）出任议长。9月，福雷组成新一届政府，阿胡梅-祖努留任总理。2015年4月，多哥总统选举顺利举行，福雷再次胜选连任，开启第三个任期。6月5日，福雷任命科米·塞洛姆·克拉苏（Komi Selom Klassou）为新一届政府总理。2017年8月中旬以来，多反对派多次组织示威游行,要求修宪限制总统任期，尽快实现政权更迭。朝野双方围绕宪改方案相持不下。2018年2至6月，政府与反对派举行了4次政治对话。7月底，西共体峰会在洛美召开，就解决多哥政治危机达成路线图。12月20日，议会选举如期举行，保卫共和联盟赢得91席中的59席。
[Politics] After the death of Egypt, his son, Fore, took over the power. On February 7, Fu was sworn in as president. The international community strongly opposes that the Economic Community of West African States and the African Union have successively announced sanctions against the EU, the United States and France. Under pressure, Blessing resigned from the presidency on February 25. In April, more presidential elections were held, and Fu won the election. In June, the Fu Group established the National Unity Government with the Prime Minister of the Pan-African Patriotic Unity Party, Edm Kojo, as the Prime Minister. In August 2006, many national political dialogues achieved results. The ruling and opposition parties signed a package of political agreements and reached an agreement on reorganizing the government and legislative elections. In September, Fu Fu reorganized the government, and the leader of the traditional opposition party and the chairman of the revitalization action committee, Yavivi Magee Aboj, became the prime minister. In October 2007, more successful legislative elections were held. The ruling party, the Togolese People’s Alliance (Alliance Party), won and continued to control the parliamentary leadership. In December, Foley appointed Marley of the Alliance Party as Prime Minister. In September 2008, Foley reorganized the government and appointed economic expert Hong Bo as the prime minister. In March 2010, Togo held a presidential election and Forre won the reelection. In April 2012, Foley announced the dissolution of the coalition party and the establishment of a new presidential majority party – defending the Republican Union and serving as the party chairman. In July, Foley reorganized the government and appointed former Minister of Commerce and Private Sector Promotion Ahumei Zunu as Prime Minister. In July 2013, the Togolese parliamentary elections were successfully held, defending the Republican Union to win 62 of the 91 seats, and Dama Dramani as the speaker. In September, Foley formed a new government, and Ahumei Zunu remained as prime minister. In April 2015, the Togolese presidential election was successfully held, and Foley once again won the re-election and opened the third term. On June 5, Foley appointed Komi Selom Klassou as the new Prime Minister. Since mid-August 2017, many opposition parties have organized demonstrations on several occasions, demanding that the constitution be amended to limit the term of the president and to achieve political change as soon as possible. The two sides of the ruling and opposition parties are not consistent with the constitutional reform plan. From February to June 2018, the government held four political dialogues with the opposition. At the end of July, the ECOWAS summit was held in Lomé to reach a road map for resolving the political crisis in Togo. On December 20th, the parliamentary elections were held as scheduled, and the Republican Alliance won 59 of the 91 seats.
[Constitution] On September 27, 1992, the referendum passed the Constitution of the Fourth Republic. On December 30, 2002, the Parliament amended some of the provisions of the Constitution. The Constitution stipulates that Togo implements a semi-presidential system. The president is the head of state and the supreme commander of the army. It is directly elected by the voters. The majority of the winners win for a five-year term and can be re-elected. The president has the power to dissolve the parliament, enact laws passed by the parliament, and impose pardons. The Prime Minister is from the majority of the parliament and is appointed by the President and is responsible to the Parliament. The parliament can raise a case of no confidence in the prime minister and a two-thirds majority of the parliament can be used to request the appointment of a new prime minister. The constitution can be amended on the proposal of the president and the parliament, and passed by parliament or referendum.
[Parliament] The constitution amended on December 30, 2002 stipulates that the multi-parliament implements a bicameral system consisting of the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly exercises legislative power and supervises government work. Members are elected by direct elections for a term of five years and are eligible for re-election. The current parliament was elected in December 2018 with a total of 91 seats. The Parliament consists of seven committees on defence and security, finance and trade, social and cultural, economic development and territorial remediation, external relations and cooperation, legal and administrative regulations, and human rights. The seats were allocated as follows: 59 seats for the Republican Alliance, 18 seats for independent candidates, 7 seats for the Revolutionary Forces Alliance, 3 seats for the New Commitment Party, 2 seats for the Democratic Development Patriotic Movement, 1 Pan African Democratic Party, and 1 Republican Middle School Movement. The radical opposition 14-party coalition boycotted the election process and did not participate in the election. The last National Assembly’s largest opposition party, the National Change Alliance, lost all 18 seats. On January 23, 2019, the defending republican general manager, Yawa Djigbodi TSEGAN (female), was elected as the speaker.
【政府】本届政府于2019年1月组成，共有包括总理在内的26名成员，主要有：总理科米·塞洛姆·克拉苏（Komi Selom Klassou），基础发展、手工业与青年部长维克图瓦•托梅加-多贝（Victoire Tomégah Dogbé），公职、劳动、行政改革与社会保护部长吉贝尔·巴瓦拉（Gilbert Bawara），邮政、数字经济与技术创新部长西娜·劳森（Cina Lawson），安全与公民保护部长雅克·达梅哈内（Yark Damehane），外交、非洲一体化与海外侨民部长罗贝尔·迪塞（Robert Dussey），领土管理、权利下放与地方机构部长帕亚多瓦·布佩西（Payadowa Boukpéssi），
经济和财政部长萨尼•亚雅（Sani Yaya），掌玺与司法部长皮尤斯•阿贝托梅（Pius Agbetomey），矿产与能源部长德德里韦·阿布利•比达蒙（Dèdèriwè Ably Bidamon），健康与公共卫生部长穆斯塔法•米吉亚瓦（Moustafa Mijiyawa），共和国总统事务部长阿鲁纳·巴蒂安•西利·帕布雷（Arouna Batiem Silly Kpabre），商业、工业、私营行业发展与本地消费促进部长科乔·阿德泽（Kodjo Adedze），技术教育、培训与职业融入部长塔伊鲁·巴比耶格（Tairou Babiègue），发展规划与合作部长邓巴·蒂尼奥克帕（Demba Tignokpa），社会行动、妇女促进与扫盲部长查比南迪•科拉尼•延查雷（Tchabinandi Kolani Yentchare），水资源、农村设施与乡村水利部长安托万·莱克帕·贝贝尼（Antoine Lekpa Gbegbeni），人权及共和国机构关系部长克里斯蒂安·特里姆瓦（Christian Trimua ），基础设施和交通部长祖雷亚图·查孔多-卡萨·塔拉奥雷（Zouréatou Tchakondo-Kassa Traoré），高等教育与科研部长科菲·阿帕加纳（Koffi Akpagana），环境、可持续发展与自然保护部长奥拉托昆·沃努·达维德（Olatokoun Wonou David），文化、旅游和休闲部长科西维·埃格贝托尼翁（Kossivi Egbetognon），水资源、农村设施与乡村水利部长部长级代表坎菲蒂纳·伊萨·切德（Kanfitine Issa Tchede），新闻、体育与公民意识和公民责任教育部长福利·巴齐·卡塔里（Foli Bazi Katari），城市、城市化、住房和公共卫生部长科科·阿耶瓦（Koko Ayeva），农业、畜牧业与渔业部长巴塔卡·库特拉（Bataka Koutera）。此外，国防与退伍军人部由总统府代管。
【行政区划】全国分为滨海区（Region maritime）、高原区（Region des plateaux）、中部区（Region centrale）、卡拉区（Region de Kara）和草原区（Region des savanes）五大经济区。经济区为地理经济概念，未设行政机构。全国有30个省和4个专区。省下设县、乡（镇）、自治村和村。
[Government] The current government was formed in January 2019. There are 26 members including the Prime Minister, mainly including: Prime Minister Komi Selom Klassou, Minister of Basic Development, Handicrafts and Youth. Victoire Tomégah Dogbé, Minister of Public Service, Labor, Administrative Reform and Social Protection, Gilbert Bawara, Minister of Post, Digital Economy and Technology Innovation, Xena Lawson (Cina Lawson), Minister of Security and Citizen Protection Yark Damehane, Minister of Foreign Affairs, African Integration and Overseas Residents Robert Dussey, Territorial Administration, Decentralization and Local Institutional Minister Payadowa Boukpéssi,
Minister of Economy and Finance Sani Yaya, Minister of Justice and Attorney General Pius Agbetomey, Minister of Minerals and Energy Dèdèriwè Ably Bidamon ), Moustafa Mijiyawa, Minister of Health and Public Health, and Arouna Batiem Silly Kpabre, Minister of the Republic of the Republic, commercial, industrial, private sector development With local consumption promotion minister Kodjo Adedze, technical education, training and career integration minister Tairou Babiègue, development planning and cooperation minister Dunbar Tiniokpa Demba Tignokpa), Minister of Social Action, Women’s Promotion and Literacy, Tchabinandi Kolani Yentchare, Minister of Water Resources, Rural Facilities and Rural Waters, Antoine Lakeba Bébini Antoine Lekpa Gbegbeni), Minister of Human Rights and Republical Institutional Relations Christian Trimua, Minister of Infrastructure and Transport Zouréatou Tchakondo-Kassa Traoré, Minister of Higher Education and Research Koffi Akpagana, Minister of Environment, Sustainable Development and Nature Conservation Ola Olatokoun Wonou David, Minister of Culture, Tourism and Leisure, Kossivi Egbetognon, Minister of Water Resources, Rural Facilities and Rural Waters, Campanti Kanfitine Issa Tchede, Minister of Journalism, Sport and Citizenship and Citizenship Education Foli Bazi Katari, Minister of Urban, Urbanization, Housing and Public Health · Koko Ayeva, Minister of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Bataka Koutera. In addition, the Ministry of Defence and Veterans is hosted by the Presidential Palace.
[Government website] www.republicoftogo.com
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into five major economic zones: Region maritime, Region des Plateaux, Region centrale, Region de Kara, and Region des savanes. The economic zone is a geographical economy concept and there is no administrative agency. There are 30 provinces and 4 special zones across the country. There are counties, townships (towns), autonomous villages and villages under the province.
[Judiciary] The Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal and the Primary Court. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body. It consists of two judicial and administrative courts, composed of the president and judges. The President of the Supreme Court must be a professional judge appointed by the President. The current Supreme Court President Gamatho Akakpovi. Prosecutorial powers are exercised by the Attorney General at various levels of courts.
（1）保卫共和联盟（L’Union pour la République）：执政党。系福雷总统于2012年4月14日宣布成立的新党。以原执政党多哥人民联盟（联盟党）为主体。联盟党曾是多最大政党，福雷在该党第5次特别代表大会上宣布将其解散并与其他政党组织合并成立保卫共和联盟，表示愿吸纳所有认同其施政理念的政党、社会团体和个人。2017年10月，保卫共和联盟召开第一次全国代表大会，大会以“凝聚力量、共创和谐发展”为主题，选举产生了新一届中央领导机构，福雷继续担任党主席，设立7名副主席、1名负责党内日常事务的执行书记和1名总司库。
（2）变革力量联盟（L’Union des Forces du Changement）：参政党。由前总统奥林匹欧之子吉尔克雷斯特·奥林匹欧（Gilchrist Olympio）创建并担任主席。势力主要集中在南部地区。主张建立以多党制为基础、尊重人权的民主法治国家。奥长期流亡加纳，曾在1998年总统选举中获34%的选票，使该党成为影响最大的反对党。2010年5月，该党与执政党多哥人民联盟签署合作协议，成为参政党。7名该党成员入阁担任部长职务。
（3）全国变革联盟（Alliance Nationale pour le Changement）：反对党。成立于2010年10月10日，势力主要集中在洛美至阿内霍的南部沿海地区，支持者主要为埃维族人。由被变革力量联盟全国党主席奥林匹欧开除党籍的前变盟总书记让–皮埃尔·法布雷（Jean-Pierre Fabré）发起成立并担任党主席。该党宗旨为与奥林匹欧领导的变革力量联盟划清界限，坚持斗争路线以实现政权更迭，以建立民主、自由多哥为目标。该党是2017年8月以来反对派示威游行的主要发起者之一。
（4）振兴行动委员会（Le Comite d’Action pour le Renouveau）：反对党。成立于1991年4月30日。主张“法律至上，法官独立，尊重人权”。名誉主席为前总理亚沃维·马吉·阿博伊博（Yaovi Madji Agboyibo），总书记让·基希（Jean Kissi）。2012年8月，振兴行动委员会联合部分反对党成立彩虹联盟。
（5）泛非民族党（Parti National Panafrican ）：反对党。成立于2014年11月，创始人和领导人为萨利夫·阿查达姆（Salif Atchadam），支持者主要为中部特姆族人。该党自2017年8月起率先在洛美、索科代等城市多次发起示威游行，呼吁回归92年宪法，实现政权更迭。
（6）新生力量联盟（La Coordination des Forces Nouvelles）：反对党。成立于1993年6月。主张实现全国和解。主席为科库·约瑟夫·科菲戈（Kokou Joseph Koffigoh）。
（7）泛非爱国统一党（Convergence Patriotique Panafricaine）：反对党。成立于1999年8月15日，由多哥民主联盟（UTD）、民主行动党（PAD）、民主团结联盟（UDS）和争取团结民主党（PDU）四党合并组成。主张改革现行国家机构，建设民主、自由的法治国家，实现全国和解。主席为前总理埃德姆·科乔（Edem Kodjo）。
[Party] There are nearly 70 legal parties, mainly including:
(1) L’Union pour la République: The ruling party. It was the new party announced by President Foley on April 14, 2012. The original ruling party, the Togolese People’s Union (Alliance Party), is the main body. The coalition party was once the largest political party. Foley announced at the 5th special congress of the party that it would be dissolved and merged with other political parties to form a defending republican alliance. He expressed his willingness to absorb all political parties, social groups and individuals who agree with their governance philosophy. . In October 2017, the Security Republican Alliance held the first national congress. The theme of the conference was “Collecting Strength and Creating Harmonious Development”, and elected a new central leadership. Foley continued to serve as the party chairman and set up 7 Vice-Chairman, 1 executive secretary responsible for daily affairs within the party and 1 general treasurer.
(2) L’Union des Forces du Changement: Participating parties. Created and chaired by Gilchrist Olympio, the son of former President Olympio. The forces are mainly concentrated in the southern region. It advocates the establishment of a democratic and rule-of-law country based on a multi-party system and respecting human rights. Austria’s long-term exile in Ghana, which won 34% of the votes in the 1998 presidential election, made the party the most influential opposition party. In May 2010, the party signed a cooperation agreement with the ruling party, the Togolese People’s Union, to become a participating party. Seven members of the party entered the cabinet to serve as ministers.
(3) Alliance Nationale pour le Changement: Opposition party. Founded on October 10, 2010, the forces are mainly concentrated in the southern coastal areas of Lomé to Anejo. The supporters are mainly Ewe people. Jean-Pierre Fabré, the former general secretary of the League of Nations who was expelled from the National Party Chairman of the Revolutionary Power Alliance, Olympio, was founded and served as the party chairman. The purpose of the party is to draw a line with the alliance of transformation forces led by Olympia, adhere to the line of struggle to achieve political change, and aim to build democracy and free Togo. The party is one of the main initiators of the opposition demonstrations since August 2017.
(4) Le Comite d’Action pour le Renouveau: Opposition party. Established on April 30, 1991. Advocating “the law is supreme, judges are independent, and respect human rights.” The honorary chairman is former Prime Minister Yaovi Madji Agboyibo, General Secretary Jean Kissi. In August 2012, the Revitalization Action Committee and some opposition parties formed the Rainbow Alliance.
(5) Parti National Panafrican: Opposition. Founded in November 2014, the founder and leader is Salif Atchadam, and the supporters are mainly Central Tham. Since August 2017, the party has taken the lead in many demonstrations in cities such as Lomé and Sokodai, calling for a return to the 1992 Constitution and the realization of political change.
(6) La Coordination des Forces Nouvelles: Opposition. Established in June 1993. Advocate for national reconciliation. The chairman is Kokou Joseph Koffigoh.
(7) Convergence Patriotique Panafricaine: Opposition. Founded on August 15, 1999, it consists of a merger of the Togolese Democratic Alliance (UTD), the Democratic Action Party (PAD), the Democratic Solidarity Coalition (UDS), and the Unity for Democracy (PDU). It advocates reforming existing state institutions, building a democratic and free country under the rule of law, and achieving national reconciliation. The chairman is former Prime Minister Edem Kodjo.
(8) The rise of the Togo (Sursaut-Togo): opposition party. Established in 2010 to target the establishment of a democratic and humanitarian society in Togo. Its founder and leader, Kofi Yamgnane, is a former African adviser to French President Hollande.
Other political parties include: New Commitment Party (NET), Democratic Development Patriotic Movement (MPDD), Pan-African Democratic Party (PDP), Republican Median Movement (MRC), Comprehensive Development Democracy Coalition (ADDI), African People’s Democratic Congress (CDPA), Independent Free People’s Alliance (ULI), Democratic Revitalization Party (PDR), etc.
【重要人物】总统福雷·埃索齐姆纳·纳辛贝（Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé）。系多前总统埃亚德马第三子，1966年6月6日生于多哥的阿法尼昂。曾就读于法国巴黎第九大学和美国乔治·华盛顿大学，获管理学学士学位和工商管理硕士学位。回国后进入公职部门，并两次当选议员。2003年7月起任装备、矿业、邮政和电信部长。2005年2月其父病逝后，在军方支持下接掌政权，后迫于内外压力辞去总统职务。同年4月参加总统大选并胜出，5月宣誓就职。2010年3月和2015年4月两次胜选连任。
总理科米·塞洛姆·克拉苏（Komi Selom Klassou）。1960年生于南方高原区。自然地理学家，获法国波尔多第三大学热带地理学硕士和水文气候学博士学位。历任文化、青年和体育部长，国民议会议员，初等和中等教育部长，议会第一副议长等职。2015年6月5日，出任总理。2019年1月25日连任。
[Important person] President Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé. The third son of former President Eyadema was born on June 6, 1966 in Afonion, Togo. He studied at the University of Paris IX and the University of George Washington, USA, with a bachelor’s degree in management and a master’s degree in business administration. After returning to China, he entered the public service and was elected twice. Since July 2003, he has been the Minister of Equipment, Mining, Post and Telecommunications. After his father died in February 2005, he took over the political power with the support of the military and was forced to resign from the presidency after internal and external pressure. In April of the same year, he participated in the presidential election and won, and was sworn in in May. In March 2010 and April 2015, he was re-elected twice.
Prime Minister Komi Selom Klassou. Born in the southern plateau in 1960. A natural geographer with a master’s degree in tropical geography and a doctorate in hydroclimatology from the University of Bordeaux, France. He has served as Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports, Member of the National Assembly, Minister of Elementary and Secondary Education, and First Deputy Speaker of the Parliament. On June 5, 2015, he became the premier. Re-elected on January 25, 2019.
[Economy] One of the world’s least developed countries announced by the United Nations. Agriculture, phosphate and entrepot trade are the three pillar industries. The economic restructuring plan was implemented in 1983. In 1989, the Lomé Free Trade Zone was established to attract foreign investment. In the early 1990s, due to political turmoil, the economy was once in serious crisis. After 1994, as the political situation stabilized, the economy gradually stepped out of the trough. In December 2010, it reached the completion point of “heavily indebted poor countries” and was exempted from foreign debt of US$1.8 billion. Since 2011, many governments have implemented the National Agricultural Investment and Food Security Plan to expand agricultural production; increase investment in the phosphate industry, strengthen cooperation with foreign capital to develop new mines; and strengthen infrastructure construction such as Lomé Port and Lomé Airport. Improve the investment environment, and the overall economy will maintain an upward trend. Since 2013, many governments have initiated the “Togo Development Channel Plan”, which seeks to promote the coordinated development of industries such as agriculture, mining, logistics, communications and services in the surrounding areas through the opening of North-South railways, highways and the construction of power stations and telecommunications infrastructure along the route. To achieve the purpose of promoting Togo’s economic development. The government has also actively promoted financial system reform, established Togo investment and holding companies, and actively attracted foreign investment. Since his re-election in 2015, President Foley has actively promoted economic reforms, is committed to improving the business environment, improving the financing conditions for small and micro enterprises, and maintaining steady economic growth. However, due to the weak foundation and single structure, and the political instability since August 2017, the overall economic situation is still difficult.
The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: US$5.53 billion.
Gross domestic product per capita: approximately US$ 691.
GDP growth rate: 4.7%.
Currency name: African Financial Community Franc (FCFA, referred to as African Franc).
Exchange rate (average 2018): 1 US dollar is about 555.7 African francs.
Inflation rate: 0.9%.
(Source: April 2019, London Economic Quarterly Review)
[Resources] The main mining resource is phosphate, which is in the forefront of sub-Saharan Africa. It has proven reserves of 260 million tons of high-quality minerals and about 1 billion tons of carbonate. Other mineral deposits include limestone, marble, iron and manganese.
[Industry] The industrial base is weak. Industrial output accounts for 21% of GDP. The main industrial categories are mining, agricultural products processing, textiles, leather, chemicals, and building materials. 75% of industrial enterprises are small and medium enterprises. Social unrest in the early 1990s caused industrial production to shrink. Since 1994, industrial and mining production has gradually recovered. In 2004, phosphate production reached 1.5 million tons. However, due to social unrest, production in 2005 fell to 1 million tons, and in 2009 it fell to 700,000 tons. The output in 2013 was 900,000 tons, a year-on-year increase of 3.4%.
[Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] 42.2% of the country’s population is engaged in agricultural production activities (planting, hunting, forestry). The arable land area is about 3.4 million hectares, the land area has been about 1.4 million hectares, and the grain crop planting area is about 850,000 hectares. Agricultural output accounts for about 30% of GDP. The main crops are corn, sorghum, cassava and rice, which account for 67% of agricultural output; economic crops account for about 20%, mainly cotton, coffee and cocoa. In 2012, the total grain output was about 4.48 million tons, and the total cotton output was 100,000 tons.
The livestock industry is mainly concentrated in the central and northern regions, with output value accounting for 15% of agricultural output. In 2001, the number of major livestock stocks was 262,000 cattle, 2.347 million sheep, 381,000 pigs, and 9.359 million chickens. In 2007, the livestock production index increased by 22% compared with 2001. The annual fishing volume is 15,383 tons, and the self-sufficiency rate is 50%.
[Tourism] Since the 1980s, tourism in Togo has developed rapidly. Now it has 52 hotels, 2,100 rooms and 4,163 beds, including 923 rooms with more than three stars and more than 1,300 employees. In 1989, the tourism industry reached its peak and received 1245,000 tourists. After the social unrest, the tourism industry was very depressed. In 1994, as society became more stable, tourism began to improve. In 2005, due to political instability, the number of tourists received dropped to 94,000, down 3% year-on-year, but tourism revenue reached 15 million US dollars, an increase of 13%. In order to revitalize the tourism economy, more than the restoration of the Tourism Qualifications Selection Committee in October 2006, the introduction of international standards to improve service levels. The main tourist spots are Lomé, Togo Lake, Palime Scenic Area and Kara City. At present, it has received 230,000 tourists for many years and earned about 30 million US dollars.
[Transportation] Highways are the mainstay, and road and port transportation is one of the pillar industries of the national economy. Transportation and trade account for about 35% of national income, and its transportation network plays an important role in the sub-region.
Highway: The total length is 12040 kilometers, the national highway is 2926 kilometers, of which the asphalt road is 1650 kilometers, and the rest is dirt road. There are four main roads connecting Burkina Faso, Ghana and Benin, with an international cargo volume of 330,000 tons.
Railway: The total length is 575 kilometers. The main route is 276 kilometers from Lomé to Brit, and 161 kilometers from Lomé to Palime. Due to the outdated facilities and poor railway transportation capacity, only 395 kilometers of railways can be put into operation.
Water transport: The main port of Lomé Port is 14-16 meters deep and is one of the important ports in West Africa. The throughput in 2016 is about 14 million tons. It can simultaneously park 4 ships of 25,000 tons and has an annual handling capacity of more than 8 million tons. . However, the containers in Hong Kong are fully loaded and the departing containers are mostly vacant, and the exported goods account for only 21% of the total throughput.
Air transport: There are 2 international airports and 6 small airports in the country. Eyadema International Airport is the main airport, with large passenger aircraft taking off and landing, and the runway is 3,000 meters long. With an annual passenger capacity of 700,000 passengers and a cargo capacity of 11,000 tons, it ranks third in West Africa. In December 2001, Togo Airways was established and flew directly to Paris twice a week. In addition, Air France, non-aviation, Burkina Faso Airlines, Côte d’Ivoire, and Ethiopian Airlines also have flights to Togo. Founded in 2007, ASKY is headquartered in Lomé, Togo, and provides flight services to Western and Central African countries, including 23 destination cities including Abidjan, Abuja and Conakry.
【军事】武装部队始建于1961年11月，总统为军队最高统帅，国防部是最高军事决策机构。现任总参谋长为费利克斯·阿巴洛·卡丹加（Felix Abalo Kadangha）。实行义务兵和志愿兵相结合的兵役制度，义务兵服役期两年。凡年龄在18～25岁的青年均可报名入伍。
[Military] The armed forces were founded in November 1961, the president is the supreme commander of the army, and the Ministry of National Defense is the highest military decision-making body. The current Chief of Staff is Felix Abalo Kadangha. A military service system combining compulsory soldiers and volunteers is implemented, and the conscripts serve for two years. Young people between the ages of 18 and 25 can enroll in the army.
The total strength is about 9,300, of which 8,550 are land, sea and air (including 750 presidential guards) and 750 are gendarmerie. The Army is equipped with chariots, light tanks, armored vehicles, field guns, etc.; the Navy has two patrol boats; the Air Force has fighter aircraft, 18 transport aircraft, and three helicopters.
[Cultural Education] The general education system is divided into first-level education (primary school), secondary education (junior high school), tertiary education (high school), and fourth-level education (university). There are 5019 national primary schools with 915,000 students, 88% enrollment rate, 23,000 primary school teachers, 686 junior high school students, 204,000 students, 22% enrollment rate, more than 5,400 teachers, 105 high schools and 39,000 students. More than 1,700 teachers. In addition, there are 68 national technical education and vocational training schools (including public, private and church schools). According to the World Bank, the overall literacy rate for adults is 65%.
There are Lomé University in colleges and universities. In 1970, there were 5 colleges, 5 departments, 2 research institutes and 2 training centers. There are about 17,000 students and about 1,000 teachers. In early 1999, the government decided to build a second university in Karachi, the hometown of President Eyadema. It was completed in 2004 and has 6,000 to 7,000 students.
[Press and Publication] “Togo News”: The official daily newspaper, which was founded in 1962. From 1972 to 1991, he was renamed “New Journey”. On October 14, 1991, the original name was restored and the circulation was about 6,000 copies. Since 1990, more than 20 private newspapers have appeared, including: Observer, Crocodile, African Echo, Scorpion, People’s Combat, New Age Report and Democrats.
Togo News Agency: The National News Agency, established in 1975, is responsible for compiling domestic news and copying international news from foreign news agencies. It publishes five issues of “Daily News” every week, mainly based on domestic news.
Lomé Radio: Built in August 1953, broadcast in usage, English and German, and broadcast news in national languages such as Evey and Cabriel. Broadcast 18.5 hours a day. Kara Radio: Built in 1975, it is responsible for broadcasting to the northern region, mainly broadcasting in French, broadcasting news and advertisements in Ewe and Kabri, and broadcasting 3 times a day, each time for 3 to 7 hours.
Togo TV: Built in 1973, the only official TV station. The program is mainly played in French, and the news is regularly played in Ewe and Kabri. Kara Television: Built in 1993.
[Financial Finance] In 2013, the Togolese government budgeted revenue of 779.8 billion francs and expenditures of 786.3 billion francs, focusing on public service areas such as infrastructure construction, education, and health. The financial sector includes the central bank and six commercial banks and non-banking intermediary financial organizations (such as insurance companies). In August 2011, the Togolese government completed preparations for the privatization of state-owned banks for three years. The privatization of the Industrial Bank of Togo, the Togo Development Bank, the International Bank of Togo and the United Bank of Togo entered the international bidding stage. The fiscal budget for 2018 was 1,317.4 billion CFA francs (about 2.4 billion U.S. dollars), an increase of 8.7% over the previous year.
[Foreign Trade] Implement a free trade policy and encourage import and export trade. The total volume of imports and exports accounts for about 73% of GDP. The main export commodities are cotton, phosphate and coffee, mainly imported petroleum products, consumer goods and machinery. In 2017, the total trade volume was 3.442 billion US dollars, the export value was 1.228 billion US dollars, and the import value was 2.214 billion US dollars. In 2018, the total trade volume was 2.872 billion US dollars, the export value was 1.076 billion US dollars, and the import value was 1.796 billion US dollars. The main export destinations are Burkina Faso, Benin, Niger and Côte d’Ivoire; the main importing countries are China, France, Japan and the Netherlands (Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, Second Quarter, 2018, April 2019) London Economic Quarterly Review).
[Foreign Aid] Bilateral assistance mainly comes from France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Japan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other countries; multilateral assistance mainly comes from the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the European Union. Western countries such as France, the United States, and Germany and the European Union have suspended all economic aid except humanitarianism and have since resumed. After more successful national political dialogues in 2006, the parties announced the approval of the provision of the 6th and 7th European Development Fund balances of 20.8 million euros and the start of the 9th development fund of 20.8 million euros. After the 2007 multi-parliamentary elections, the EU announced that it would lift more sanctions and resume more aid. In September 2008, a meeting of development assistance partners was held in Brussels, and more than 900 million euros of aid commitments were obtained. The World Bank, the Paris Club, and the African Development Bank have waived more than $500 million in debt. In December 2010, it reached the completion point of “heavily indebted poor countries” and was exempted from foreign debt of US$1.8 billion. In January 2014, the European Union announced the provision of 11th development fund to Togo, providing a total of 216 million euros between 2014 and 2020. In January 2017, the International Monetary Fund and Togo signed a $238 million interest-free loan agreement; in April, the World Bank and Togo signed three aid and loan agreements totaling 3.9 billion CFA francs. In January 2018, the French Development Agency, the European Union, KfW and Togo signed three agreements to provide 578 million euros in concessional loans and subsidies. In March, the Islamic Development Bank announced a $20 million loan to Togo.
[People’s Life] According to the Human Development Index published by the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report 2018, Togo ranks 165th out of 189 countries. Workers in Togo work 40 hours a week, with a minimum monthly salary of 18,000 CFA francs and an average monthly salary of 20,000 CFA francs for workers in Lomé. The family allowance is 2000 CFA francs per child per month. There are 718 medical and health institutions nationwide, including 3 university medical centers, 1 specialist hospital, 6 regional medical centers, 26 county-level hospitals, 8 comprehensive clinics, 100 social security medical treatment centers, 450 outpatient clinics and 124 hospitals. An infirmary. There are about 7,000 beds and about 7,700 health technicians. The main diseases are malaria, tuberculosis and AIDS. The average life expectancy is 55 years and the neonatal mortality rate is 78‰. 63% of residents drink tap water. At present, there are about 330,000 fixed-line users and 2.6 million mobile phone users, and an average of 5.4 out of every 100 residents use the Internet.
[External Relations] A foreign policy of neutrality, non-alignment and good neighborliness. Attach importance to relations with Western countries, strive for foreign aid and reduce foreign debt. Actively develop relations with developing countries and advocate the unity of developing countries for regional cooperation and economic integration. Adhere to good-neighborly friendship, actively participate in African regional affairs, support the process of African integration, and have sent troops to participate in the African Union’s peacekeeping operations in Central Africa, Guinea-Bissau and Côte d’Ivoire. In recent years, we have vigorously carried out cooperation with countries such as India and Japan. It is a member of the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, and the West African Monetary Union. Established diplomatic relations with more than 70 countries. From January 2012 to December 2013, he served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Since June 2017, President Foley has served as the rotating chairman of the Economic Community of West African States for a one-year term.
[Relationship with France] The law is the former sovereign state, the largest donor country and an important trading partner. The two countries have close ties in various fields and have signed 11 cooperation agreements including diplomatic, financial, cultural and military. President Eyadema has visited the law several times and sought political support and economic assistance. President Chirac and Foreign Minister De Villepin have also visited many. In February 2005, after the death of Egypt, French Foreign Minister Bagner went to attend the funeral. In September, President Foley was invited to visit France and meet with President Chirac. In April 2007, French Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry Breton and UNDP Director Jean-Michel visited. In February 2008, more joint military exercises with “Zio 2008” were held in the armed forces of France and Benin. In November, President Foley was invited to visit France and met with French President Nicolas Sarkozy. In May and July 2010, President Foley went to France to attend the French-African Summit and the French celebration parade. In September 2012, President Foley met with President Hollande during the 67th UN General Assembly. In January 2013, Prime Minister Ahumei Zunu made a friendly working visit to France. In the same month, the French Development Agency’s representative in Togo and the Minister of Economics and Finance signed an agreement on behalf of the two sides, which will provide 6 million euros to the multi-government to support projects such as rural health, drinking water and education. In October, Foreign Minister Desai of the Togo visited France and exchanged views with French Foreign Minister Fabius on bilateral relations and regional issues. In November, President Foley visited France. In January 2015, President Foley visited France and met with French President Hollande and participated in the anti-terrorist peaceful demonstrations. In May, French President Hollande congratulated President Forre for his re-election. In November, President Foley attended the Paris Climate Change Conference, during which he met with French Prime Minister Vals. In April 2016, the Togolese Navy and the French Navy held a joint “NEMO” military exercise in the Togo waters. In May, Foreign Minister Desai visited France and exchanged views with French Foreign Minister Ai Luo on bilateral relations and piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. In July, President Foley called to express condolences to the French terrorist attacks in Nice and the terrorist attacks in Rouen Church. In January 2017, President Foley attended the 27th France-Africa Summit in Bamako, the capital of Mali. In November, during the EU-AU summit in Côte d’Ivoire, French President Mark Long urged the multi-government to guarantee the people’s freedom of demonstration and opposition.
[Relationship with Germany] Most of them were German colonies, and the two countries have close ties. During the multi-political crisis in 2005, Germany accused Foley of unconstitutionality. The relationship between the two countries was affected and resumed. In October 2007, Germany and Germany signed an agreement, and Germany aided 3 million euros for multi-parliamentary elections. In February 2008, German Foreign Minister Steinmeier paid a working visit and President Forre met. In June 2009, President Foley made his first visit to Germany in 15 years. In January 2010, the Minister of Education and Research visited the Ministry of Education. In May 2011, Premier Hong Bo attended the Togolese Day event at the Munich International Economic Forum. In June 2012, the German Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation visited a large number of delegations. In the same year, the two sides signed an agreement to provide Togo with 27 million euros of aid within two years. In February 2014, Foreign Minister Dise made a working visit to Germany. In June, the second German-Dogo Intergovernmental Economic and Technical Cooperation Consultation Meeting was held in Lomé, and Germany decided to provide 40 million euros of assistance during 2015-2016. In June 2015, the President of the German Bundestag congratulated President Forre on his re-election. In the same month, Germany announced to provide Togo with assistance worth 21.5 billion slang (33 million euros). In January 2016, the German Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development visited many. In April, the deputy speaker of the German Bundestag went to Togo to participate in the “Germany – Togo Spring of Cooperation” series of activities. In November, Foreign Minister Desai visited Germany. In April 2017, the second “Germany-Togo Spring of Cooperation” was held in Lomé. In October, Germany provided Togo with 37 million euros for assistance in areas such as multi-rural infrastructure and vocational and technical training. In May 2018, President Foley met with German Chancellor Merkel’s special representative. In October, President Foley went to Berlin, Germany to attend the G20 Africa Investment Summit.
[Relationship with the United States] Established diplomatic relations in 1961. In recent years, relations between the two countries have developed rapidly. In November 2003, the multi-parliament passed an agreement with the United States not to extradite the other citizen to the International Criminal Court. In addition, the United States is also cooperating with oil and gas development, the expansion and expansion of Lomé Port and textiles. In May 2007, US Navy Rear Admiral Stafford Bien and Coast Guard Major General Peter Man visited. In April 2008, the United States announced that it would be included in the countries that enjoy the African Growth and Opportunity Act. In August 2009, Prime Minister Hong Bo visited the United States. In 2010, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Carlson, visited the United States. In 2011, the US Navy escorts visited more and more joint naval training. In January 2012, US Secretary of State Clinton paid an official visit to Togo. In August, US Secretary of the Navy Mabus visited more. In August 2013, the United States and Togo signed an agreement to provide 15 million U.S. dollars in assistance to Togo’s peacekeeping forces dispatched to Mali. In August 2014, President Foley went to the United States to attend the first US-Africa summit. In January and June 2015, Assistant Secretary of State for the US Department of State, Gilmore and Williams, visited Togo. In May, a US State Department spokesperson congratulated President Forre on his re-election. In the same month, Colonel Ajitou, deputy chief of staff of the army, visited the United States. In July, Foreign Minister Desai visited the United States. In February 2016, Foreign Minister Desai visited the United States. In November, President Foley congratulated Trump on his election as President of the United States. In June 2017, Foreign Minister Desai visited the United States and met with US Secretary of State Tillerson. In August, the 16th US African Growth and Opportunity Bill Forum was held in Lomé. In March 2018, Togo participated in a multinational maritime security exercise organized by the US African Command.
[Relationship with neighboring countries] Togo has extensive contacts and cooperation with Nigeria in various fields, and its economic and trade relations are particularly close. In 2005, after more than a constitutional crisis, President Obasanjo accused Foley of being unconstitutional as the AU executive chairman and promoted sanctions against the AU and the Economic Community of West African States. Foley went to Nepal several times to explain his work and seek support. The Austrian attitude changed, and it was immediately recognized after Foley was elected president, and actively resolved the contradiction between Fu and the opposition. High-level mutual visits between the two sides are frequent. In May 2011, President Foley went to Nigeria to attend the inauguration of President Jonathan. In July 2013, President Jonathan visited Togo. In May 2015, President Foley attended Abuja to attend the inauguration of President Buhari. In December, President Foley went to Abuja, Nigeria to attend the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the establishment of the ECOWAS and the regional anti-terrorism summit. In May 2016, President Foley attended the second regional security summit in Abuja, Nigeria. August. President Foley paid a working visit to Nigeria and met with President Buhari. In December, President Foley went to Nigeria to attend the 50th Summit of the Economic Community of West African States. In June 2017, President Foley visited Nigeria and met with Nigerian Vice President Osing Baggio. In June 2018, President Foley visited Nigeria.
In the history of Ghana, there was a dispute over the ownership of “Sidogo”. The son of former President Olympio has been in exile in Ghana for a long time. The relationship between the two countries has been frictional and has deteriorated. In 1995, Ghanaian President Rawlings visited a number of visits to normalize relations between the two countries. Since then, high-level mutual visits have been frequent. In May 2010, Mills attended the inauguration ceremony of President Forre. In March 2012, Ghana’s President Mills visited more. In August, President Foley attended the funeral of former President Mills of Ghana. In January 2013, President Foley went to Ghana to attend the inauguration ceremony of the President of the Republic of Mahama. In September, Ghana’s President Mahama paid a working visit to Togo. In November 2014, President Foley visited Ghana. In April 2015, the rotating president of the ECOWAS and the President of Ghana, Mahama, visited a lot and urged that the new presidential election be held in a peaceful and transparent environment. In the same month, President Foley and President Benin of Yamin visited Ghana and signed a three-nation aviation cooperation agreement. In June, President Foley visited Ghana. In March 2017, President Foley went to Ghana to attend the celebration of the 60th anniversary of Ghana’s independence and met with Ghanaian President Akufo-Addo. In May, President Akufu-Addo visited Togo. In November, President Akufu-Addo visited the company and discussed the multi-crisis solution with President Forre. Later, he sent the Ghanaian Security Minister Dapa to visit the mediation situation. In the first half of 2018, President Akufu-Addo hosted many times to host more dialogues between the ruling and the opposition. In October and November, President Foley made a working visit to Ghana.
Togo has a close relationship with Benin. The two countries have built a Nanbeto hydropower station on the Mono River. In the early 1990s, relations between the two countries were once cold. After Krekou was elected President of Benin in March 1996, the friendly relations between the two countries resumed and the high-level exchanges between the two sides were frequent. In May 2010, President Yayi attended the inauguration ceremony of President Foley. In February 2011, President Foley made a working visit to Benin. In April, President Foley went to Benin to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Yayi. In April 2014, President Foley made a working visit to Benin. In January 2015, President Foley went to Benin to attend the 18th WAEMU Summit. In December, President Foley went to Benin to attend the funeral of former President Krekou of Benin. In January 2016, President Foley went to Benin to attend the 19th West African Economic and Monetary Union Summit. In October 2017, Benin’s President Talon visited the situation of Togo in Togo twice. In November 2018, Benin’s President Talon visited Togo.
Togo has a good relationship with Burkina Faso. The two presidents have exchanged visits on many occasions. After more than a constitutional crisis in 2005, President Compaoré was elected as a mediator of many national political dialogues and successfully promoted the signing of a “package of political agreements” by the parties to the dialogue. In May 2010, President Compaoré attended the inauguration ceremony of President Foley. In December, President Foley attended the inauguration ceremony of President Compaoré. In May 2011, Foley made a working visit to the cloth. In April 2013, President Foley went to Buddhism to meet with President Conboré. In June, President Compaoré paid a working visit to Togo. In May 2014, President Foley visited Bu. After the “constitutional crisis” in October, President Foley actively participated in the mediation and attended the inauguration ceremony of the interim President Kafando in November. In May 2015, the Prime Minister of the Transitional Government of Zambia visited Zid. In December, President Foley went to Burkina Faso to attend the inauguration ceremony of the new President Kabore. In January 2016, President Foley sent a letter of condolences to President Kabore, expressing strong condemnation of the terrorist attack in Ouagadougou. In February, the foreign minister visited more. In August 2017, Prime Minister Krassu went to Burkina Faso to meet with President Kabore and handed over the letter of condolences from President Forre on the attack. In March 2018, President Foley went to Ouagadougou as the chairman of the Western Community to inspect the scene on March 2 and met with President Kabor.
Togo maintains good relations with other African countries. In 2010, President Foley received a number of visits from President Mali and visited Libya, Sudan, Rwanda and other countries. In 2011, President Foley visited Chad, Senegal, Uganda and other countries. In 2012, President Foley visited Senegal, Namibia and other countries. In 2013, President Forre received President Mali and the President of Côte d’Ivoire to visit Egypt and send troops to participate in military operations in Mali. In 2014, President Foley hosted a visit to the Guinea-Bissau president and visited Congo (Brazzaville), Niger, Côte d’Ivoire and Gabon. In 2015, President Foley visited Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Niger, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Congo (Brazzaville), Zimbabwe and other countries, Côte d’Ivoire President Ouattara, Congo (Brazza) President Sasso, and Chairman of the EC Committee Vidra Aoguo visited Togo. From January to June 2016, President Foley visited Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Zimbabwe, and President Kietta of Guinea and President Biss of Guinea-Bissau visited Togo. In July, President Foley went to Niger to attend the summit meeting of the member states of the Consultative Committee and took the chairmanship of the committee. In the same month, he went to Rwanda to attend the AU summit meeting, during which he met with the presidents of Rwanda, Congo (Brazzaville) and Egypt. In 2017, President Foley visited Egypt, Congo (Brazzaville), Liberia, Guinea, Zambia, Sierra Leone and went to Angola to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Lorenzo. In 2018, President Foley visited Guinea, Gabon, Côte d’Ivoire and attended the inauguration ceremony of the President of Liberia, the inauguration ceremony of the President of Sierra Leone, the 60th anniversary of the independence of Niger, and received the visiting Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau. In January 2019, President Foley visited Côte d’Ivoire.
Togo is actively involved in regional and international cooperation. In 2010, President Foley attended the 15th AU Summit and the Millennium Development Goals Africa Coordination Forum. In 2011, President Foley attended the WAEMU Summit, the 16th AU Summit, the 39th Summit of Heads of State and Government of the ECOWAS and the 37th FAO Conference, and in Lomé. Hosted the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly. In February 2012, at the initiative of Togo, the UN Security Council held an open debate on “Organized transnational crime affecting peace, security and stability in West Africa and the Sahel.” President Foley led a delegation to the United States. In 2012, President Foley attended the 18th AU Summit, the informal meeting of leaders of AU member states, the special summit of the ECOWAS, the 67th UN General Assembly, the 14th franchise organization summit, and in Lomé Hosted the 16th summit of the West African Economic and Monetary Union. In 2013, President Foley attended the 42nd Summit of the ECOWAS and went to New York to host the high-level open debate of the Security Council to combat African terrorism in the context of maintaining international peace and stability and adopted the presidential statement of the Security Council. In 2014, President Foley attended the summit of the Japan-ECOWAS member states, the 22nd AU Summit, the 24th World Economic Forum Africa Summit, and the Francophone Organization Summit. In May 2015, President Foley attended the 47th ECOWAS Summit and announced the end of the Ebola epidemic in Liberia in the capacity of the ECB to fight against the Ebola outbreak. In September, President Foley attended the special meeting of the heads of member states of the ECOWAS and went to New York to attend the series of summits of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations and delivered a speech at the UN General Assembly. In October, Foreign Minister Desai represented Togo at the Third India-Africa Summit, during which he met with the Indian Foreign Minister. In the same month, Togo was elected as a member of the UN Human Rights Council for a three-year term. In 2016, President Foley attended the 26th AU Summit, the 50th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations Development Programme, the 31st session of the UN Human Rights Council, and the 71st UN General Assembly. In January 2017, President Foley attended the 28th AU Summit. In June, President Foley attended the 51st Summit of the ECOWAS in Monrovia, the capital of Liberia, and was elected President of the ECOWAS. In December, President Foley attended the 52nd ECOWAS Summit in Abuja, Nigeria, as the rotating chairman of the Western Community. In 2018, President Foley attended the 30th and 31st AU Summits, went to South Africa to participate in the BRICS dialogue with African leaders, went to the United States to attend the 73rd UN General Assembly, hosted the special summit of the ECOWAS, ECOWAS-CCP Joint Summit. In February 2019, President Foley went to Ghana to attend the summit on regional security issues.