The Republic of the Union of Myanmar 缅甸联邦共和国

【国 名】 缅甸联邦共和国(The Republic of the Union of Myanmar)。

【面 积】 676578平方公里。

【人 口】 5390万(2015年),共有135个民族,主要有缅族、克伦族、掸族、克钦族、钦族、克耶族、孟族和若开族等,缅族约占总人口的65%。各少数民族均有自己的语言,其中克钦、克伦、掸和孟等民族有文字。全国85%以上的人信奉佛教,约8%的人信奉伊斯兰教。

【首 都】 内比都(Nay Pyi Taw)。同缅甸有外交关系的国家将使馆设在仰光。

【国家元首】 总统温敏(U Win Myint),2018年3月28日当选为缅甸联邦共和国总统,3月30日正式宣誓就职。

【重要节日】 独立节:1月4日;建军节:3月27日;泼水节:4月中旬。

[Country name] The Republic of the Union of Myanmar.

[area] 676578 square kilometers.

[Population] 53.9 million (2015), a total of 135 ethnic groups, mainly Burmese, Karen, Yi, Kachin, Chin, Kaya, Meng and Rakhine, etc. 65% of the total population. All ethnic minorities have their own language, and ethnic groups such as Kachin, Karen, Yi and Meng have written languages. More than 85% of the country believe in Buddhism, and about 8% believe in Islam.

[Capital] Nay Pyi Taw. The countries with diplomatic relations with Myanmar will set up the embassy in Yangon.

[Head of State] President U Win Myint was elected President of the Federal Republic of Myanmar on March 28, 2018, and was officially sworn in on March 30.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: January 4th; Army Day: March 27th; Songkran Festival: Mid-April.

位于中南半岛西部。东北与中国毗邻,西北与印度、孟加拉国相接,东南与老挝、泰国交界,西南濒临孟加拉湾和安达曼海。海岸线长3200公里。属热带季风气候,年平均气温27℃。

1044年形成统一国家后,经历了蒲甘、东吁和贡榜三个封建王朝。19世纪英国发动三次侵略战争后占领了缅甸,1886年将缅甸划为英属印度的一个省。1937年缅甸脱离英属印度,直接受英国总督统治,1942年5月被日本占领,1945年3月全国总起义,缅甸光复,但随后被英国重新控制。1948年1月4日,缅脱离英联邦宣布独立,以吴努为首的政府实行多党民主议会制。1962年3月,缅国防军总参谋长奈温将军发动政变,推翻吴努政府,成立革命委员会。1974年1月,颁布新宪法,成立人民议会,组建了“社会主义纲领党”(简称“纲领党”),奈温任“纲领党”主席,定国名为“缅甸联邦社会主义共和国”。1988年9月,军队接管政权,成立“国家恢复法律与秩序委员会”(后改为“国家和平与发展委员会”,简称“和发委”),改国名为“缅甸联邦”。

2010年11月7日,缅甸举行全国多党民主制大选。根据缅甸联邦选举委员会公布的选举结果,联邦巩固与发展党(简称“巩发党”)以绝对优势赢得大选,其当选议员约占全部当选议员的76.4%。2011年1月31日,缅甸联邦议会召开首次会议,正式将国名改为“缅甸联邦共和国”,并启用新的国旗和国徽。2月,登盛当选为总统。3月30日,登盛宣誓就任,“和发委”正式解散。

2015年11月8日举行新一轮全国大选,昂山素季领导民盟赢得压倒性胜利,获组阁权。2016年2月,缅甸召开新一届议会,选举温敏为人民院议长,曼温楷丹为民族院议长。根据2008年宪法,曼温楷丹在本届议会(任期5年)前30个月兼任联邦议会议长。3月15日,联邦议会选举廷觉为总统,敏瑞和亨利班提育为副总统。3月30日,廷觉总统、两位副总统及新政府内阁成员正式宣誓就职,新一届政府于4月1日正式运作。4月6日,昂山素季被任命为国务资政。2018年3月21日,廷觉总统辞职,同日人民院议长温敏辞职。3月22日,迪昆妙当选人民院议长并就职。3月28日,温敏当选总统,并于3月30日宣誓就职。

Located in the western part of the Central South Peninsula. The northeast is adjacent to China, the northwest is connected with India and Bangladesh, the southeast is bordered by Laos and Thailand, and the southwest is bordering the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The coastline is 3,200 kilometers long. It has a tropical monsoon climate with an average annual temperature of 27 °C.

After forming a unified country in 1044, he experienced three feudal dynasties: Bagan, Dongyu and Gongbang. In the 19th century, the British occupied Myanmar after three wars of aggression. In 1886, Myanmar was classified as a province of British India. In 1937, Burma was separated from British India and was directly ruled by the British Governor. It was occupied by Japan in May 1942. In March 1945, the national total uprising, Myanmar was restored, but was subsequently re-controlled by the British. On January 4, 1948, Burma was separated from the Commonwealth and declared independence. The government headed by Wu Nu implemented a multi-party democratic parliamentary system. In March 1962, the General Staff of the Myanmar National Defence Force, General Ne Win, launched a coup, overthrew the Wunu government and established the Revolutionary Committee. In January 1974, the new constitution was promulgated, the People’s Assembly was established, the “Socialist Platform Party” (referred to as the “Programme Party”), Newin was the chairman of the “Programme Party”, and the country was named “Myanmar Federal Socialist Republic.” In September 1988, the military took over the political power and established the “National Commission for the Restoration of Law and Order” (later renamed “the National Peace and Development Council”, referred to as “the Peace and Development Commission”), and changed its name to the “Myanmar Federation.”

On November 7, 2010, Myanmar held a national multi-party democratic election. According to the results of the elections announced by the Myanmar Federal Election Commission, the Federal Consolidation and Development Party (“Gongfa Party”) won the election by absolute advantage, and its elected members accounted for 76.4% of all elected members. On January 31, 2011, the first meeting of the Federal Parliament of Myanmar was officially changed to the name of the “Federal Republic of Myanmar” and the new national flag and national emblem were launched. In February, Deng Sheng was elected president. On March 30, Deng Sheng was sworn in and the “SDC” was officially dissolved.

On November 8, 2015, a new round of national elections was held. Aung San Suu Kyi led the NLD to win an overwhelming victory and was given the right to form a cabinet. In February 2016, Myanmar held a new parliament, elected Wen Min as the Speaker of the People’s Court, and Man Wendan as the Speaker of the Nationalities. According to the 2008 Constitution, Man Wendan served as the President of the Federal Parliament 30 months before the current parliament (for a five-year term). On March 15, the Federal Parliament elected Tingjue as president, and Minry and Henry Ban were promoted to vice presidents. On March 30, President Tingjue, two vice presidents and members of the new government cabinet were officially sworn in. The new government officially opened on April 1. On April 6, Aung San Suu Kyi was appointed as a state affairs official. On March 21, 2018, President Tingjue resigned, and on the same day, Speaker of the People’s Court Wen Min resigned. On March 22, Di Kun was elected as the Speaker of the People’s Court and took office. On March 28, Wen Min was elected president and was sworn in on March 30.

【宪 法】 1974年缅甸制定了《缅甸社会主义联邦宪法》。1988年军政府接管政权后,宣布废除宪法,并于1993年起召开国民大会制定新宪法。2008年5月,新宪法草案经全民公决通过,并于2011年1月31日正式生效。

【政 府】 主要成员有:国务资政、外交部部长兼总统府部部长昂山素季(Daw Aung San Suu Kyi),内政部部长觉瑞中将(Lt-Gen Kyaw Swe),国防部部长盛温中将(Lt-Gen Sein Win),边境事务部部长耶昂中将(Lt-Gen Ye Aung),国务资政府部部长觉丁瑞(U Kyaw Tint Swe),宣传部部长培敏博士(Dr. Pe Myint),宗教事务和文化部部长都拉昂哥(Thura U Aung Ko),农业、畜牧和灌溉部部长昂都(Dr. Aung Thu),交通和通讯部部长丹欣貌(U Thant Sin Maung),自然资源和环境保护部部长翁温(U Ohn Win),电力和能源部部长温楷(U Win Khaing),劳工、移民和人口部部长登瑞(U Thein Swe),工业部部长钦貌秋(U Khin Maung Cho),商务部部长丹敏(Dr. Than Myint),教育部部长苗登基博士(Dr. Myo Thein Gyi),卫生和体育部部长敏推(Dr. Myint Htwe),计划和财政部部长梭温(U Soe Win),投资与对外经济关系部部长当吞(U Thaung Tun),建设部部长汉佐(U Han Zaw),社会福利和救济安置部部长温妙埃(Dr. Win Myat Aye),饭店和旅游部部长翁貌(U Ohn Maung),少数民族事务部部长奈岱伦(Nai Thet Lwin),国际合作部部长觉丁(U Kyaw Tin),联邦大法官吞吞乌(U Htun Htun Oo)。

【行政区划】 全国分七个省、七个邦和联邦区。省是缅族主要聚居区,邦为各少数民族聚居地,联邦区是首都内比都。

【司法机构】 缅甸法院和检察院共分4级。设最高法院和最高检察院,下设省邦、县及镇区3级法院和检察院。最高法院为国家最高司法机关,最高检察院为国家最高检察机关。

【政党和团体】 1988年9月18日,缅甸军队接管国家政权,宣布废除一党制,实行多党民主制。1990年5月27日,举行首次多党制大选,有93个政党参加竞选,后大批政党自行解散或被取缔。2010年11月7日,缅举行全国多党民主制大选,共有37个获准注册的政党参选,包括4个原合法政党和33个新成立政党。2012年4月1日,缅甸议会对45个空缺席位进行了补选。2015年11月,缅甸举行全国大选,90余个政党参与选举。现有主要政党:

(1)全国民主联盟(National League for Democracy):执政党。简称“民盟”,总部设在仰光,成立于1988年9月27日,昂山素季任党主席。在1990年5月大选中,该党获得485个议席中的396席,后因军政府拒绝移交权力而与政府进行了长期斗争。在2010年11月大选期间,民盟拒绝重新注册参选,失去合法政党资格。2011年11月18日,民盟决定向联邦选举委员会申请重新注册政党。2012年1月5日,联邦选举委员会正式批准民盟申请,民盟重新成为合法政党,在4月1日议会补选及2015年11月8日全国大选中获得大胜。

(2)联邦巩固与发展党(The Union Solidarity and Development Party):简称“巩发党”。该党由1993年成立的缅甸联邦巩固与发展协会转变而成,2010年5月正式注册成为政党,总部设在内比都。其宗旨是实现国家永固,主权独立,民族团结,和平稳定,繁荣发展,保护百姓的安全、改善民生,维护人权,实现民主。奉行多党民主制度、市场经济制度和独立、积极的外交政策。现任党主席丹泰,总书记岱乃温。

[Constitution] In 1974, Myanmar enacted the Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Myanmar. After the military government took over the political power in 1988, it announced the abolition of the Constitution, and in 1993, the National Assembly was convened to formulate a new constitution. In May 2008, the draft new constitution was passed by a referendum and entered into force on January 31, 2011.

[Government] The main members are: Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of the Interior, Lt-Gen Kyaw Swe, Minister of Defense Lt-Gen Sein Win, Minister of Border Affairs Lt-Gen Ye Aung, U Kyaw Tint Swe, Minister of State for Government Affairs, Dr. Pei Min, Minister of Propaganda Dr. Pe Myint), Minister of Religious Affairs and Culture, Thura U Aung Ko, Minister of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation, Dr. Aung Thu, Minister of Transport and Communications, U Thant Sin Maung), Minister of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection U Ohn Win, Minister of Electricity and Energy U Win Khaing, Minister of Labor, Immigration and Population U Thein Swe, Minister of Industry U Khin Maung Cho, Minister of Commerce Dr. Than Myint, Minister of Education Dr. Myo Thein Gyi, Minister of Health and Sports Dr. Myint Htwe, U Soe Win, Minister of Planning and Finance, invests Minister of Foreign Economic Relations U Thaung Tun, Minister of Construction U Han Zaw, Minister of Social Welfare and Relief and Resettlement Dr. Win Myat Aye, Minister of Hotel and Tourism U Ohn Maung), Minister of Minority Affairs Nai Thet Lwin, Minister of International Cooperation U Kyaw Tin, Federal Chancellor U Htun Htun Oo.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into seven provinces, seven states and the federal district. The province is the main settlement of the Burmese, the state is the settlement of ethnic minorities, and the federal district is the capital of Nay Pyi Taw.

[Judiciary] Myanmar courts and procuratorates are divided into four levels. There are Supreme Court and Supreme Procuratorate, and there are provincial, county and township level 3 courts and procuratorates. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the country, and the Supreme Procuratorate is the highest procuratorate of the country.

[Parties and groups] On September 18, 1988, the Burmese army took over the state power and announced the abolition of the one-party system and the implementation of a multi-party democracy. On May 27, 1990, the first multi-party general election was held. 93 political parties participated in the election, and a large number of political parties disbanded or were banned. On November 7, 2010, Myanmar held a national multi-party democratic election. A total of 37 approved political parties were elected, including four former legitimate political parties and 33 newly formed political parties. On April 1, 2012, the Myanmar Parliament held a by-election for 45 vacant seats. In November 2015, Myanmar held a national election and more than 90 political parties participated in the election. Existing major political parties:

(1) National League for Democracy: The ruling party. Referred to as “NLD”, headquartered in Yangon, was established on September 27, 1988, Aung San Suu Kyi as the party chairman. In the May 1990 general election, the party won 396 of the 485 seats, and the government has long struggled with the government because it refused to transfer power. During the November 2010 general election, the NLD refused to re-register for election and lost the qualification of a legitimate party. On November 18, 2011, the NLD decided to apply to the Federal Election Commission for re-registration of political parties. On January 5, 2012, the Federal Election Commission officially approved the NLD application, and the NLD re-established as a legitimate political party, winning a big victory on the April 1st parliamentary by-election and the national election on November 8, 2015.

(2) The Union Solidarity and Development Party: referred to as the “Gongfa Party”. The party was transformed from the Myanmar Consolidation and Development Association, established in 1993, and was officially registered as a political party in May 2010, with its headquarters in Naypyidaw. Its purpose is to achieve the country’s perseverance, sovereign independence, national unity, peace and stability, prosperity and development, protect the safety of the people, improve people’s livelihood, safeguard human rights and achieve democracy. Pursue a multi-party democracy, a market economy system, and an independent and active foreign policy. The current party chairman Dan Tai, general secretary Yan Naiwen.

【重要人物】

温敏(U Win Myint):总统,1951年11月出生,缅族。1976年毕业于仰光综合大学,获地理学学士学位。1985年进入缅甸最高法院工作,1988年离开高法加入民盟,先后担任民盟德努漂镇区党部新闻负责人和民盟伊洛瓦底省委员会书记。2012年在人民院补选中当选伊洛瓦底省德努漂镇区议员,被任命为民盟议会事务委员会秘书长。2015年11月当选人民院仰光省丹梅镇区议员。2016年2月1日在第二届议会人民院首次会议当选人民院议长。2018年3月21日辞去人民院议长职务,3月28日当选总统,3月30日宣誓就职。已婚,有1女。

昂山素季(Daw Aung San Suu Kyi):国务资政,外交部部长兼总统府部部长,全国民主联盟主席。1945年6月19日出生,系缅甸独立运动领袖昂山将军之女。15岁时随时任驻印度大使的母亲赴印,先后在印度、英国求学,获牛津大学哲学、政治学和经济学学士学位,后又入伦敦大学东方和非洲学院攻读硕士。其间,担任过联合国秘书处行政和预算咨询委员会助理秘书、不丹外交部和印度西姆拉发展研究院研究员,并在日本京都大学南亚研究中心从事过学术研究。1988年回到缅甸,组建全国民主联盟。2012年4月议会补选中当选人民院议员。2013年3月,在民盟全国代表大会上当选民盟主席。2016年3月底缅新政府成立,担任外交部部长兼总统府部部长,后担任国务资政。丧偶,有2子。

敏瑞(U Myint Swe):副总统,1951年5月出生,孟族。1971年毕业于国防学院第15期。毕业后先后任第十一轻步兵队司令、东南军区司令、仰光军区司令。2001年起先后任缅甸国家和平与发展委员会委员、仰光省和平与发展委员会主席、第五特战局局长。2005年擢升中将,2010年退役,2011年被任命为仰光省行政长官。2016年3月当选第一副总统。已婚,有1子1女。

亨利班提育(U Henry Van Thio):副总统,1958年8月出生,钦族。曾就读于曼德勒科技大学和仰光科技大学,获硕士学位。毕业后加入缅国防军,曾在葡萄、八安、毛淡棉等地服役21年,官至少校军衔。2000年退役,进入第一工业部工作,先后任曼德勒弗吉尼亚卷烟厂厂长和比林酿酒厂副总经理。2009年起同家人分别在菲律宾马尼拉和新西兰达尼丁生活了2年和4年,2016年返回缅甸,3月当选第二副总统。已婚,有2子1女。

迪昆妙(U T Khun Myat):人民院议长,1950年10月出生,克钦族。曾在联邦最高检察院任职。2010年和2015年两次代表联邦巩固与发展党参加大选并当选议员。上届议会期间任人民院法案委员会主席。2016年2月本届议会成立后,任人民院副议长。2018年3月21日人民院议长温敏辞职后,3月22日当选人民院议长并就职。

曼温楷丹(Mahn Win Khaing Than):民族院议长,1952年4月出生,克伦族。1975年毕业于仰光大学,获法学学士学位。大学毕业后长期从事克伦民族事务,曾担任克伦语言文化协会秘书。1990年加入克伦联邦联盟。2013年加入民盟,2015年11月当选民族院克伦邦妙瓦底镇区议员。2016年2月3日在第二届议会民族院首次会议上当选民族院议长。

敏昂莱(Senior-General Min Aung Hlaing):国防军总司令,缅族。2002年任缅三角军区总司令。2008年任国防军第二特战局局长。2010年8月升任国防军总参谋长。2011年3月出任国防军总司令。2013年3月晋升大将。2016年1月,缅军方宣布敏昂莱退休年限延长5年。已婚,有1子1女。

【VIP】

U Win Myint: President, born in November 1951, Burmese. He graduated from Yangon University in 1976 with a bachelor’s degree in geography. He joined the Supreme Court of Myanmar in 1985. He left the High Law to join the NLD in 1988. He served as the head of the Party Department of the NLD Denufu Township and the Secretary of the Democratic League Irrawaddy Provincial Committee. In 2012, he was elected as a member of the District Council of Denu, in the Irrawaddy Province, and was appointed as the Secretary General of the NLD Parliamentary Affairs Committee. In November 2015, he was elected as a member of the People’s Hospital of Yangmei Province, Danmei Town. On February 1, 2016, the first meeting of the Second Parliamentary People’s Court was elected as Speaker of the People’s Court. On March 21, 2018, he resigned from the post of Speaker of the People’s Court. He was elected president on March 28 and was sworn in on March 30. Married with 1 woman.

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi: Minister of State Affairs, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of the Presidential Office, Chairman of the National League for Democracy. Born on June 19, 1945, he was the daughter of General Aung San, the leader of the Myanmar independence movement. When he was 15 years old, he was the ambassador of the Indian ambassador to India. He studied in India and the United Kingdom, obtained a bachelor’s degree in philosophy, political science and economics from Oxford University, and then went to the University of London’s Oriental and African College to pursue a master’s degree. In the meantime, he served as Assistant Secretary of the Administrative and Budgetary Advisory Committee of the United Nations Secretariat, Research Fellow of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bhutan and the Shimla Development Institute of India, and conducted academic research at the South Asian Research Center of Kyoto University, Japan. In 1988, he returned to Myanmar to form the National League for Democracy. In April 2012, the parliamentary by-election was elected to the House of Representatives. In March 2013, he was elected as the chairman of the NLD at the NLD National Congress. At the end of March 2016, the new government of Myanmar was established as the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of the Presidency, and later served as the Minister of State. Widowed, there are 2 children.

U Myint Swe: Vice President, born in May 1951, Mon. Graduated from the National Defense Academy in 1971. After graduation, he served as commander of the 11th Light Infantry, commander of the Southeast Military Region, and commander of the Yangon Military Region. Since 2001, he has served as a member of the Myanmar National Peace and Development Committee, chairman of the Yangon Provincial Peace and Development Committee, and director of the Fifth Special Operations Bureau. In 2005, he was promoted to Lieutenant General and retired in 2010. In 2011, he was appointed as the Chief Executive of Yangon Province. In March 2016, he was elected the first vice president. Married with 1 child and 1 woman.

U Henry Van Thio: Vice President, born in August 1958, Chin. He studied at Mandalay University of Technology and Yangon University of Technology with a master’s degree. After graduating, he joined the Myanmar National Defence Force. He served in the grape, Ba An, Mao Danmian and other places for 21 years. He retired in 2000 and entered the work of the First Ministry of Industry. He was the director of the Mandalay Virginia Cigarette Factory and the deputy general manager of the Billing Brewery. Since 2009, he has lived in Manila, Philippines and Dunedin, New Zealand for 2 and 4 years respectively. He returned to Myanmar in 2016 and was elected second vice president in March. Married with 2 children and 1 woman.

U T Khun Myat: Speaker of the People’s House, born in October 1950, Kachin. He has served in the Federal Prosecutor’s Office. In 2010 and 2015, he represented the Federal Consolidation and Development Party in the general election and was elected to the parliament. Chairman of the Bills Committee of the People’s Court during the last parliament. After the establishment of the current parliament in February 2016, he served as deputy speaker of the People’s Court. On March 21, 2018, after the resignation of Speaker of the People’s Court, Wen Min, he was elected as Speaker of the People’s Court on March 22 and took office.

Mahn Win Khaing Than: Speaker of the Nationalities Institute, born in April 1952, Karen. He graduated from Yangon University in 1975 with a bachelor’s degree in law. After graduating from college, he has been engaged in Karen ethnic affairs for a long time. He was the secretary of the Karen Language and Culture Association. Joined the Karen Federal Union in 1990. In 2013, he joined the NLD and in November 2015 he was elected to the Kremlin District of Kremlin. On February 3, 2016, he was elected as Speaker of the Nationalities Institute at the first meeting of the Second Parliamentary Nationalities.

Senior-General Min Aung Hlaing: Commander-in-Chief of the National Defence Force, Burmese. In 2002, he served as commander-in-chief of the Myanmar Triangle Military Region. In 2008, he served as the director of the Second Special Defense Agency of the National Defence Force. In August 2010, he was promoted to the Chief of Staff of the National Defence Force. In March 2011, he became the commander-in-chief of the National Defence Force. In March 2013, he was promoted to the generals. In January 2016, the Burmese military announced that Minanglai’s retirement period was extended by five years. Married with 1 child and 1 woman.

【经 济】 缅甸自然条件优越,资源丰富。1948年独立后到1962年实行市场经济,1962年到1988年实行计划经济,1988年后实行市场经济。2016年7月,缅政府颁布“12点国家经济政策”。10月18日,缅甸《投资法》经总统廷觉签署正式生效。

2017/2018财年,缅甸国内生产总值约690亿美元,人均约1300美元,吸引外国直接投资58亿美元。主要贸易伙伴是中国、泰国、新加坡、日本、韩国。

货币名称:缅币(Kyat)。1美元约合1540缅币。

【资 源】 矿产资源主要有锡、钨、锌、铝、锑、锰、金、银等,宝石和玉石在世界上享有盛誉。缅商务部数据显示,2015/2016财年缅甸出口包括玉石在内的矿产品达9.3亿美元。石油和天然气在内陆及沿海均有较大蕴藏量。截至2013年6月,探明煤储量逾4.9亿吨,探明大陆架石油储量达22.73亿桶,天然气8.1万亿立方英尺,共有陆地及近海油气区块77个。水利资源丰富,伊洛瓦底江、钦敦江、萨尔温江、锡唐江四大水系纵贯南北,水利资源占东盟国家水利资源总量的40%,但由于缺少水利设施,尚未得到充分利用。

【工 业】 主要工业有石油和天然气开采、小型机械制造、纺织、印染、碾米、木材加工、制糖、造纸、化肥和制药等。

【农林牧渔业】 农业为国民经济基础,可耕地面积约1800万公顷,尚有400多万公顷的空闲地待开发,农业产值占国民生产总值的四成左右,主要农作物有水稻、小麦、玉米、花生、芝麻、棉花、豆类、甘蔗、油棕、烟草和黄麻等。缅甸商务部数据显示,2015/2016财年缅甸出口大米150万吨,农产品出口总额为25亿美元。2017/2018财年前十个月(2017年4月至2018年1月),缅甸出口大米282万吨,出口额达8.76亿美元。缅甸自然资源与环境保护部数据显示,截至2015年,缅森林覆盖率为45%。

【旅 游】 风景优美,名胜古迹众多。主要景点有世界闻名的仰光大金塔、文化古都曼德勒、万塔之城蒲甘、茵莱湖水上村庄以及额布里海滩等。缅政府大力发展旅游业,积极吸引外资,建设旅游设施。较著名的饭店有:仰光的喜多娜酒店、茵雅湖酒店、苏雷香格里拉酒店、皇家公园酒店,内比都的妙多温酒店、丁格哈酒店、阿玛拉酒店,曼德勒的喜多娜饭店、曼德勒山酒店,蒲甘的丹岱饭店、蒲甘饭店等。

[Economy] Myanmar has excellent natural conditions and abundant resources. After independence in 1948, the market economy was implemented in 1962, the planned economy was implemented from 1962 to 1988, and the market economy was implemented after 1988. In July 2016, the Myanmar government promulgated the “12-point national economic policy.” On October 18th, Myanmar’s Investment Law was signed into force by President Tingjue.

In the 2017/2018 fiscal year, Myanmar’s GDP was about $69 billion, with a per capita income of about $1,300, attracting foreign direct investment of $5.8 billion. The main trading partners are China, Thailand, Singapore, Japan, and Korea.

Currency name: Kyat. One dollar is about 1540 kyats.

[Resources] Mineral resources mainly include tin, tungsten, zinc, aluminum, antimony, manganese, gold, silver, etc. Gemstones and jade have a good reputation in the world. According to data from the Ministry of Commerce of Myanmar, Myanmar’s exports of mineral products, including jade, reached US$930 million in the 2015/2016 fiscal year. Oil and natural gas have large reserves in the inland and coastal areas. As of June 2013, the proven coal reserves exceeded 490 million tons, and the proved continental shelf oil reserves reached 2.273 billion barrels, natural gas 8.1 trillion cubic feet, and 77 land and offshore oil and gas blocks. Rich in water resources, the Irrawaddy River, Chin Dun River, Salween River and Xitang River run through the north and south. Water resources account for 40% of the total water resources of ASEAN countries. However, due to the lack of water conservancy facilities, they have not been fully utilized.

[Industrial] Major industries include oil and gas exploration, small machinery manufacturing, textile, printing and dyeing, rice milling, wood processing, sugar, paper, fertilizer and pharmaceuticals.

[Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] Agriculture is the foundation of the national economy. The area of ​​arable land is about 18 million hectares. There are still more than 4 million hectares of free land to be developed. The agricultural output value accounts for about 40% of the gross national product. The main crops are rice and wheat. , corn, peanuts, sesame, cotton, beans, sugar cane, oil palm, tobacco and jute. According to data from the Ministry of Commerce of Myanmar, Myanmar exported 1.5 million tons of rice in the 2015/2016 fiscal year, and the total export value of agricultural products was 2.5 billion US dollars. In the ten months before the 2017/2018 fiscal year (April 2017 to January 2018), Myanmar exported 2.82 million tons of rice and exported 876 million US dollars. According to data from the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of Myanmar, as of 2015, the forest coverage rate in Myanmar is 45%.

【Travel】 Beautiful scenery, numerous places of interest and historical sites. The main attractions are the world-famous Shwedagon Pagoda, the cultural capital of Mandalay, the city of Vantaa Bagan, the Inle Lake Floating Village and the Ebri Beach. The Myanmar government vigorously develops tourism, actively attracts foreign investment, and builds tourist facilities. Some of the more famous hotels are: Sedona Hotel in Yangon, Inya Lake Hotel, Sule Shangri-La Hotel, Royal Park Hotel, Miao Duo Wen Hotel, Dingeha Hotel, Amara Hotel, Mandalay Sedona Hotel, Mandalay Hill Hotel, Tanjung Hotel in Bagan, Bagan Hotel, etc.

【交 通】 交通以水运为主,铁路多为窄轨。主要港口有仰光港、勃生港和毛淡棉港,其中仰光港是缅甸最大港口。仰光目前已开通的主要国际航线有北京、昆明、广州、南宁、香港、曼谷、清迈、新加坡、吉隆坡、河内、胡志明市、东京、首尔、多哈、法兰克福航线。国内大城市和主要旅游景点均已通航。主要航空公司有缅甸航空公司、缅甸国际航空公司、曼德勒航空公司、仰光航空公司、甘波扎航空公司、蒲甘航空公司、亚洲之翼航空公司、金色缅甸航空公司等。主要机场有仰光机场、曼德勒机场、内比都机场、黑河机场、蒲甘机场、丹兑机场等,仰光、内比都和曼德勒机场为国际机场。

【金 融】 缅甸有五家国有银行,分别为:缅甸中央银行(1948年成立,前身为缅甸联邦银行,1990年改称中央银行)、缅甸农业银行(1953年成立)、缅甸经济银行(1967年成立)、缅甸外贸银行(1967年成立)和缅甸投资与商业银行(1989年成立)。从1992年起,允许私人开办银行,近年开始允许外国银行在缅设立代表处。主要私人银行有19家:妙瓦底银行、甘波扎银行、合作社银行、伊洛瓦底银行、亚洲绿色发展银行、佑玛银行、环球银行和东方银行等。目前已有中国工商银行、越南投资与发展银行等20余家外国银行在缅设有代表处。1993年起,外汇券在缅甸流通,缅币对外汇券汇率与缅币对美元汇率基本相同,截至2012年12月31日,缅甸发行流通的外汇券价值3092万美元。2013年3月20日,缅甸联邦议会通过取消外汇券的议案。

【对外贸易】 2017/2018财年缅甸对外贸易额为335.3亿美元,其中出口148.5亿美元,进口186.8亿美元。缅甸主要出口产品为天然气、玉石、大米等,主要进口产品为石油与汽油、商业用机械、汽车零配件等。

【军 事】 缅军成立于1942年,由陆、海、空三军、警察部队、消防部队及民兵组成。国防军总司令部是缅军最高领导决策机构和军事指挥机关,现任总司令为敏昂莱大将,副总司令为梭温副大将。国防军总司令部下设三个军种司令部:陆军司令部、海军司令部和空军司令部,分别负责各军种的作战指挥。

【教 育】 缅甸政府重视发展教育和扫盲工作,全民识字率约94.75%。实行小学义务教育。教育分学前教育、基础教育和高等教育。学前教育包括日托幼儿园和学前学校,招收3-5岁儿童;基础教育学制为10年,1-4年级为小学,5-8年级为普通初级中学,9、10年级为高级中学;高等教育学制3-6年不等。普通高校本科自2012年起改三年制为四年制。

现有基础教育学校40876所,大学与学院108所,师范学院20所,科技与技术大学63所,部属大学与学院22所。著名学府有仰光大学、曼德勒大学等。

【文 化】 缅甸文化深受佛教文化影响,缅甸各民族的文字、文学艺术、音乐、舞蹈、绘画、雕塑、建筑以及风俗习惯等都留下佛教文化的烙印。缅甸独立后,始终维护民族文化传统,保护文化遗产。传统文化在缅甸有广泛影响,占主导地位。缅甸主要文化机构和设施有:国家舞剧团、国家图书馆、国家博物馆、昂山博物馆等。

[Transportation] Traffic is mainly water transport, and railways are mostly narrow gauges. The main ports are Yangon Port, Port Bloom and Mawlamyine Port, of which Yangon Port is the largest port in Myanmar. The major international routes currently opened in Yangon are Beijing, Kunming, Guangzhou, Nanning, Hong Kong, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Tokyo, Seoul, Doha and Frankfurt. Major domestic cities and major tourist attractions have been navigable. The main airlines include Myanmar Airlines, Myanmar International Airlines, Mandalay Airlines, Yangon Airlines, Gamboza Airlines, Bagan Airlines, Asia Wing Airlines, and Golden Myanmar Airlines. The main airports are Yangon Airport, Mandalay Airport, Naypyida Airport, Heihe Airport, Bagan Airport, Tanjung Airport, etc. Yangon, Nay Pyi Taw and Mandalay Airport are international airports.

[Finance] There are five state-owned banks in Myanmar: the Central Bank of Myanmar (established in 1948, formerly known as the Federal Bank of Myanmar, renamed the Central Bank in 1990), the Agricultural Bank of Myanmar (established in 1953), and the Myanmar Economic Bank (established in 1967) ), Myanmar Foreign Trade Bank (established in 1967) and Myanmar Investment and Commercial Bank (established in 1989). Since 1992, private banks have been allowed to open banks. In recent years, foreign banks have been allowed to set up representative offices in Myanmar. There are 19 major private banks: Miaowadi Bank, Gamboza Bank, Cooperative Bank, Irrawaddy Bank, Asian Green Development Bank, Yoma Bank, Global Bank and Oriental Bank. At present, more than 20 foreign banks such as Industrial and Commercial Bank of China and Vietnam Investment and Development Bank have representative offices in Myanmar. Since 1993, foreign exchange vouchers have been circulated in Myanmar. The exchange rate of kyat currency to foreign exchange vouchers is basically the same as that of kyat currency against the US dollar. As of December 31, 2012, the value of foreign exchange vouchers issued by Myanmar was US$30.92 million. On March 20, 2013, the Federal Parliament of Myanmar passed the bill to cancel the foreign exchange vouchers.

[Foreign Trade] Myanmar’s foreign trade volume in the fiscal year 2017/2018 was US$33.53 billion, of which exports were US$14.85 billion and imports were US$18.68 billion. The main export products of Myanmar are natural gas, jade, rice, etc. The main imported products are petroleum and gasoline, commercial machinery and auto parts.

[Military] The Burma Army was established in 1942 and consists of the army, the sea and the air, the police force, the fire brigade and the militia. The General Command of the National Defence Force is the highest-ranking decision-making body and military command organ of the Burmese army. The current commander-in-chief is General Minanglai, and the deputy commander-in-chief is Deputy General Suo Wen. The National Defense Command has three military command headquarters: the Army Command, the Navy Command, and the Air Force Command, which are responsible for the operational command of each service.

[Education] The Myanmar government attaches great importance to the development of education and literacy. The national literacy rate is about 94.75%. Implement compulsory primary education. Education is divided into pre-school education, basic education and higher education. Pre-school education includes day care kindergartens and preschools, enrolling children aged 3-5; basic education system is 10 years, grades 1-4 are primary schools, grades 5-8 are ordinary junior high schools, grades 9 and 10 are high schools; higher education The school system varies from 3 to 6 years. The undergraduate course of the university has been changed from a three-year system to a four-year system since 2012.

There are 40,876 basic education schools, 108 universities and colleges, 20 teachers’ colleges, 63 universities of science and technology, and 22 universities and colleges. Famous universities include Yangon University and Mandalay University.

[Culture] Myanmar culture is deeply influenced by Buddhist culture. The characters, literature and art, music, dance, painting, sculpture, architecture and customs of various ethnic groups in Myanmar have left the brand of Buddhist culture. After Myanmar’s independence, it has always maintained its national cultural traditions and protected its cultural heritage. Traditional culture has a wide-ranging influence in Myanmar and is dominant. The main cultural institutions and facilities in Myanmar include the National Dance Troupe, the National Library, the National Museum, and the Aung San Museum.

【宗 教】 缅甸有85%以上的人信仰佛教,大约5%的人信仰基督教,8%的人信仰伊斯兰教,约0.5%的人信仰印度教,1.21%的人信仰泛灵论。

缅甸的佛教主要是南传上座部佛教。佛教不但是缅甸人的宗教信仰,而且是他们道德教育的源泉。佛教经文,尤其是《吉祥经》,是缅甸人民的生活哲学,深深地印入人们的心灵。缅甸人日常生活中经常参神拜佛,信众一路赤脚走去,不能穿鞋或袜子。不能对寺庙、佛像、和尚有任何轻率举动,不能穿过短、过透的衣服。在缅甸,信佛教家庭的男孩都须入寺庙当一段时间的和尚,过静修生活后才能还俗结婚。缅甸人对和尚十分尊敬和崇拜,只要有和尚来化缘,他们都不惜拿出家中最好的财物送给和尚。缅甸人虔心向佛,民风淳朴、和善,社会犯罪率比较低。佛家人不杀生,但可以食肉滋养身体。

【外 交】 奉行“不结盟、积极、独立”的外交政策,按照和平共处五项原则处理国与国之间关系。不依附任何大国和大国集团,在国际关系中保持中立,不允许外国在缅驻军,不侵犯别国,不干涉他国内政,不对国际和地区和平与安全构成威胁,是和平共处五项原则的共同倡导者。1988年军政府上台后,以美国为首的西方国家对缅实施经济制裁和贸易禁运,终止对缅经济技术援助,禁止对缅进行投资。1997年加入东盟后,与东盟及周边国家关系有较大发展。近年来,缅政府积极推进民族和解,与西方国家关系逐步缓和。2014年,缅甸担任东盟轮值主席国。

【同美国的关系】 1948年两国建交。缅军队接管政权后,美把驻缅使馆降为代办级,停止对缅提供经援和禁毒援助,撤销给缅的贸易普惠制(GSP),对缅实行武器禁运,阻止国际金融机构向缅提供援助,不向缅高官及其家属发放入境签证。2009年9月,奥巴马政府公布对缅新政策,在维持现有制裁同时,恢复与缅直接接触并有条件扩大对缅人道援助。2011年11月30日,美国务卿希拉里对缅甸进行历史性访问,成为50多年来第一位到访缅甸的美国国务卿,此后两国关系开始改善。2012年1月11日,美国总统奥巴马宣布放松对缅甸制裁,准许美国公司在缅甸投资。2012年10月,美缅举行首次人权对话。2012年11月19日,美国总统奥巴马访问缅甸。奥巴马成为首位在任期间访缅的美国总统。2013年5月,时任缅甸总统登盛访美,成为47年来首位访美的缅甸国家元首。2014年11月,美国总统奥巴马赴缅出席东亚合作领导人系列会议。2015年1月14日至15日,美缅举行第二次人权对话,美助理国务卿马林诺夫斯基率团访问密支那、仰光和内比都。5月2日,缅甸驻洛杉矶总领馆正式开馆,昂觉赞为首任总领事。

2016年3月,缅新政府成立。9月,国务资政昂山素季访美。10月,美军太平洋总部副司令安东尼·克拉奇菲尔德中将访缅。10月17日,美国总统奥巴马签发政令,宣布终止实施针对缅甸的《国别紧急状态法》(1997年5月20日起实施,内容为禁止美国企业和个人同缅特定企业和个人开展投资、贸易等业务往来)。当日,美国财政部发表声明称,美国财政部外国资产管制办公室针对缅甸的经济金融制裁随之失效。2017年11月,美国务卿蒂勒森访缅。

[Religion] More than 85% of people in Myanmar believe in Buddhism, about 5% believe in Christianity, 8% believe in Islam, about 0.5% believe in Hinduism, and 1.21% believe in animism.

Buddhism in Myanmar is mainly Buddhism in the Southern Buddhism. Buddhism is not only the religious belief of the Burmese, but also the source of their moral education. Buddhist scriptures, especially the Auspicious Classics, are the philosophy of life of the Burmese people and are deeply imprinted into people’s hearts. Burmese people often go to worship Buddha in their daily lives. The believers walked barefoot and could not wear shoes or socks. You can’t have any rash actions on temples, statues, or monks, and you can’t go through short, over-transparent clothes. In Myanmar, boys who believe in Buddhist families are required to enter the temple for a period of time, and they can still marry after a quiet life. The Burmese are very respectful and admired by the monks. As long as they have a monk, they will not hesitate to give the best property of their home to the monk. The Burmese people are eager to go to the Buddha, the folk customs are simple and kind, and the social crime rate is relatively low. The Buddha family does not kill, but can eat meat to nourish the body.

[Foreign Exchange] Pursuing the foreign policy of “non-aligned, active, independent” and handling the relationship between countries in accordance with the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. Not adhering to any big country and big country group, maintaining neutrality in international relations, not allowing foreign troops to station in Burma, not invading other countries, not interfering in other countries’ internal affairs, not threatening international and regional peace and security, is the common principle of peaceful coexistence Advocate. After the military government came to power in 1988, the Western countries headed by the United States imposed economic sanctions and trade embargoes on Myanmar, terminated economic aid to Myanmar, and banned investment in Myanmar. After joining ASEAN in 1997, relations with ASEAN and neighboring countries have developed greatly. In recent years, the Myanmar government has actively promoted national reconciliation and gradually eased relations with Western countries. In 2014, Myanmar assumed the presidency of ASEAN.

[Relationship with the United States] In 1948, the two countries established diplomatic relations. After the Burmese army took over the political power, the United States reduced the embassy in Myanmar to the agency level, stopped providing aid and anti-drug assistance to Myanmar, rescinded the GSP to Myanmar, imposed an arms embargo on Myanmar, and prevented international financial institutions from Myanmar provides assistance and does not issue entry visas to Myanmar officials and their families. In September 2009, the Obama administration announced its policy toward Myanmar, while maintaining existing sanctions, resuming direct contact with Myanmar and conditionally expanding aid to Burmese. On November 30, 2011, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton made a historic visit to Myanmar and became the first US Secretary of State to visit Myanmar in more than 50 years. Since then, relations between the two countries have begun to improve. On January 11, 2012, US President Barack Obama announced that he would relax sanctions against Myanmar and allow US companies to invest in Myanmar. In October 2012, the United States and Myanmar held their first human rights dialogue. On November 19, 2012, US President Barack Obama visited Myanmar. Obama became the first US president to visit Myanmar during his tenure. In May 2013, the then President of Myanmar, Deng Sheng, visited the United States and became the first Myanmar head of state to visit the United States in 47 years. In November 2014, US President Barack Obama went to Myanmar to attend the series of leaders of East Asian cooperation leaders. From January 14 to 15, 2015, the United States and Myanmar held a second human rights dialogue. US Assistant Secretary of State Malinowski led a delegation to visit Myitkyina, Yangon and Naypyidaw. On May 2nd, the Consulate General of Myanmar in Los Angeles officially opened, and Angkor praised the first consul general.

In March 2016, the New Myanmar Government was established. In September, State Affairs Aung San Suu Kyi visited the United States. In October, Lieutenant General Anthony Crazyfield, deputy commander of the US Pacific Command, visited Myanmar. On October 17, US President Barack Obama issued a decree declaring the termination of the National Emergency Law for Myanmar (implemented on May 20, 1997, which prohibits US companies and individuals from investing in specific businesses and individuals in Myanmar, Trade and other business contacts). On the same day, the US Treasury Department issued a statement saying that the US Department of Finance’s Office of Foreign Assets Control’s economic and financial sanctions against Myanmar have disappeared. In November 2017, US Secretary of State Tillerson visited Myanmar.

【同其他国家关系】 2016年5月,总统廷觉对老挝进行国事访问,国务资政昂山素季陪同。6月,新加坡总理李显龙访缅,成为新政府成立后接待的首位外国领导人;同月,蒙古总统额勒贝格道尔吉访缅,昂山素季访问泰国。8月,老挝国家主席本扬访缅,廷觉访问印度。10月,廷觉对越南进行国事访问。11月,昂山素季访问日本。11月底12月初,昂山素季访问新加坡。2017年2月,廷觉访问柬埔寨。3月,菲律宾总统杜特尔特访缅。5月,昂山素季访问比利时、意大利、英国和欧盟总部。6月,昂山素季访问加拿大和瑞典。10月,昂山素季赴文莱出席苏丹哈桑纳尔登基50周年庆祝活动。12月,廷觉访问日本。2018年1月,老挝总理通伦访缅。6月,总统温敏访问泰国。8月,温敏访问尼泊尔,昂山素季访问新加坡。10月,昂山素季访问日本。12月,昂山素季访问尼泊尔。

【参加国际和地区会议】 2016年5月,总统廷觉赴俄罗斯出席东盟-俄罗斯建立对话关系20周年纪念活动。7月,廷觉赴蒙古出席亚欧首脑会议,昂山素季以外交部长身份赴老挝出席东亚合作系列外长会。9月,昂山素季以国务资政身份出席东亚合作领导人系列会议。10月,昂山素季赴印度出席金砖-环孟加拉湾合作峰会并正式访问印度。2017年11月,昂山素季出席在越南举行的亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议和在菲律宾举行的东亚合作领导人系列会议。2018年1月,副总统敏瑞出席赴柬埔寨出席澜沧江-湄公河合作第二次领导人会议,昂山素季赴印度出席印度-东盟建立对话关系25周年纪念峰会,3月,昂山素季赴澳大利亚出席澳大利亚-东盟特别峰会。4月,总统温敏赴新加坡出席第32届东盟峰会。6月,温敏出席在泰国曼谷举行的“伊洛瓦底江-湄南河-湄公河三河流域经济合作战略”第八届峰会。11月,昂山素季赴新加坡出席东亚合作领导人系列会议。

[Relationship with other countries] In May 2016, President Tingjue paid a state visit to Laos, accompanied by State Affairs Aung San Suu Kyi. In June, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong visited Myanmar and became the first foreign leader to receive the new government. In the same month, Mongolian President Elbegdorj visited Myanmar and Aung San Suu Kyi visited Thailand. In August, Laos President Ben Yang visited Myanmar and Tingju visited India. In October, Tingjue paid a state visit to Vietnam. In November, Aung San Suu Kyi visited Japan. At the end of November and early December, Aung San Suu Kyi visited Singapore. In February 2017, Tingjue visited Cambodia. In March, Philippine President Duterte visited Myanmar. In May, Aung San Suu Kyi visited Belgium, Italy, the UK and the European Union headquarters. In June, Aung San Suu Kyi visited Canada and Sweden. In October, Aung San Suu Kyi went to Brunei to attend the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Sultan Hassanal’s accession to the throne. In December, Tingjue visited Japan. In January 2018, Laotian Prime Minister Tong Lun visited Myanmar. In June, President Wen Min visited Thailand. In August, Wen Min visited Nepal and Aung San Suu Kyi visited Singapore. In October, Aung San Suu Kyi visited Japan. In December, Aung San Suu Kyi visited Nepal.

[Participating in international and regional conferences] In May 2016, President Tingjue went to Russia to attend the 20th anniversary of the establishment of dialogue between ASEAN and Russia. In July, Tingjue went to Mongolia to attend the ASEM Summit. Aung San Suu Kyi went to Laos as a Foreign Minister to attend the East Asian Cooperation Series Foreign Ministers’ Meeting. In September, Aung San Suu Kyi attended the series of leaders of East Asian cooperation leaders as a state affairs official. In October, Aung San Suu Kyi went to India to attend the BRIC-Bang Bay Cooperation Summit and officially visited India. In November 2017, Aung San Suu Kyi attended the APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting in Vietnam and the East Asian Cooperation Leaders’ Meeting in the Philippines. In January 2018, Vice President Minry attended the second summit meeting of the Lancang-Mekong River cooperation in Cambodia. Aung San Suu Kyi went to India to attend the 25th anniversary of the establishment of dialogue between India and ASEAN. In March, Aung San Suu Kyi went to Australia attended the Australia-ASEAN Special Summit. In April, President Wen Min went to Singapore to attend the 32nd ASEAN Summit. In June, Wen Min attended the 8th Summit of the Economic Development Strategy of the Irrawaddy River-Wannan River-Mekong River Three Rivers in Bangkok, Thailand. In November, Aung San Suu Kyi went to Singapore to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation.