The Republic of the Marshall Islands 马绍尔群岛共和国

【国 名】 马绍尔群岛共和国(The Republic of the Marshall Islands)。

【面 积】 陆地面积181.3平方公里(包括比基尼环礁、埃尼威托克环礁和夸贾林环礁),海洋专属经济区面积213.1万平方公里。

【人 口】 5.43万(2017年),多属密克罗尼西亚人种。马绍尔语为官方语言,通用英语。54.8%的居民为新教徒,25.8%为神召会教徒,8.7%为天主教徒。

【首 都】 马朱罗(Majuro)。

【国家元首】 希尔达·海因(女,Hilda Heine),2016年1月当选。

【重要节日】 宪法日:5月1日。

【简 况】 位于中太平洋密克罗尼西亚地区。由29个环礁岛群和五个小岛共1225个岛礁组成。东南面岛礁统称为日出群岛,西北面的统称为日落群岛,两部分中间相隔约208公里。绝大多数人口集中在首都马朱罗和夸贾林环礁(Kwajalein)的埃贝耶岛。海岸线长370.4公里。属热带气候,年均气温27℃,年均降水量为3350毫米,5-11月为雨季,12月-翌年4月为旱季。

16世纪初西方航海者抵此。1788年英船长约翰·马绍尔到此勘察,该群岛由此得名。1886年成为德国的保护领地。第一次世界大战之初被日本占领,第二次世界大战中成为日本在太平洋作战的基地。1944-1947年美国对其实行军管。1947年7月,马绍尔群岛被联合国交给美国托管,后与帕劳共和国、北马里亚纳群岛和密克罗尼西亚联邦构成太平洋岛屿托管地的四个政治实体。1983年6月25日与美国正式签署《自由联系条约》(1986年10月生效)。根据该条约,马获得内政、外交自主权,安全防务15年内由美国负责,可参加地区组织,但不能参加联合国。1990年12月,联合国安理会通过终止部分太平洋托管领土托管协定决议,结束马的托管地位。1991年9月,马成为联合国成员。

【宪 法】 1979年3月通过,5月1日生效。宪法规定马绍尔群岛实行总统制。总统为国家元首,也是政府首脑,由议会选举产生。

【议 会】 称国会,一院制,由33名议员组成,任期四年。本届议会于2016年1月大选产生。现任议长肯尼思·凯迪(Kenneth Kedi)。此外,马绍尔群岛大酋长委员会(The Council of Iroji)在政治和社会生活中也发挥着重要作用。

【政 府】 2016年1月27日,新一届议会选举希尔达·海因(Hilda Heine,女)为马绍尔群岛第八任总统。本届内阁于2016年2月产生,2017年8月和2018年1月小幅改组,现内阁成员为:总统助理与环境部长大卫·保罗(David Paul),外交与贸易部长约翰·西里克(John Silk),财政、银行与邮政部长布伦森·瓦斯(Brenson S. Wase),文化与内政部长阿曼塔·马修(Amenta Matthew,女),卫生与大众服务部长卡拉尼·卡内考(Kalani Kaneko),教育、体育与训练部长威尔伯·海因(Wilbur Heine),交通、通讯与信息技术部长托马斯·海因(Thomas Heine),司法、移民与劳工部长杰克·阿丁(Jack J. Ading),自然资源与商务部长丹尼斯·莫莫塔洛(Dennis Momotaro),工程、基础设施与公共事业部长托尼·穆勒(Tony Muller)。

[Country name] The Republic of the Marshall Islands.

[Dimensions] The land area is 181.3 square kilometers (including Bikini Atoll, Eniwetok Atoll and Kwajale Atoll), and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of ​​2.131 million square kilometers.

[People] 54.40 million (2017), mostly in the Micronesian race. Marshallese is the official language, general English. 54.8% of the residents were Protestants, 25.8% were Protestants, and 8.7% were Catholics.

[The capital] Majuro.

[Head of State] Hilda Heine (Hilda Heine), elected in January 2016.

[Important Festival] Constitution Day: May 1.

[Profile] Located in the Central Pacific Micronesia. It consists of a total of 1,225 island reefs in 29 atolls and five small islands. The southeastern island reefs are collectively referred to as the Sunrise Islands, and the northwestern ones are collectively referred to as the Sunset Islands. The two parts are separated by approximately 208 km. The vast majority of the population is concentrated in the capitals of Majuro and the island of Ebaya in Kwajalein. The coastline is 370.4 kilometers long. It has a tropical climate with an average annual temperature of 27 °C, an average annual precipitation of 3,350 mm, a rainy season from May to November, and a dry season from December to April.

Western voyagers arrived in the early 16th century. In 1788, the British captain John Marshall came here to investigate, and the island was named after it. In 1886 it became the protective territory of Germany. It was occupied by Japan at the beginning of the First World War and became Japan’s base for combat in the Pacific during the Second World War. In 1944-1947, the United States imposed military control over it. In July 1947, the Marshall Islands was handed over to the United States by the United Nations, and later constituted the four political entities of the Pacific Islands Trust Territory with the Republic of Palau, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. On June 25, 1983, the United States officially signed the “Freedom of Association Treaty” (effective October 1986). According to the treaty, Ma obtained internal affairs and diplomatic autonomy. The United States is responsible for security and defense within 15 years. He can participate in regional organizations but cannot participate in the United Nations. In December 1990, the UN Security Council ended the custody status of the horse by terminating the partial trusteeship agreement of the Pacific Trust Territory. In September 1991, Ma became a member of the United Nations.

[Constitution] Passed in March 1979 and entered into force on May 1. The Constitution stipulates that the Marshall Islands has a presidential system. The president is the head of state and the head of government, elected by the parliament.

[Parliament] It is said that the Congress, a one-chamber system, consists of 33 members for a four-year term. The current parliament was elected in January 2016. The current speaker is Kenneth Kedi. In addition, the Council of Iroji plays an important role in political and social life.

[Government] On January 27, 2016, the new parliamentary election Hilda Heine (female) was the eighth president of the Marshall Islands. The current cabinet was produced in February 2016, and was slightly reorganized in August 2017 and January 2018. The current cabinet members are: Presidential Assistant and Environment Minister David Paul, and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade John Crick ( John Silk), Minister of Finance, Banking and Posts, Brenson S. Wase, Minister of Culture and Home Affairs, Amanda Matthew (female), Minister of Health and Human Services, Kalani Kaneko ( Kalani Kaneko), Minister of Education, Sports and Training Wilbur Heine, Minister of Transportation, Communications and Information Technology Thomas Heine, Minister of Justice, Immigration and Labour Jack J. Ading), Minister of Natural Resources and Commerce Dennis Momotaro, Minister of Engineering, Infrastructure and Public Works, Tony Muller.

【行政区划】 全国分为24个市政区域,主要城镇包括马朱罗、埃贝耶、贾卢伊特等。

【司法机构】 设最高法院、高等法院、社区法院和传统权利法院等。

【政 党】 主要政党有:

(1)联合人民党(The United People’s Party,UPP):2007年11月由原“我们的岛屿”党(AKA)联合部分独立议员组成的执政联盟。

(2)联合民主党(The United Democratic Party, UDP):反对党,1999年6月25日成立。

【重要人物】 希尔达·海因:总统。1951年4月生于马绍尔群岛贾卢伊特市。早年于美国学习、工作,在南加利福尼亚州大学获得教育学博士学位。长期致力于太平洋岛国资源、气候变化等领域的教育和科学研究。2013年任教育部长。2016年1月当选总统。

【经 济】 经济落后,严重依赖外援,财政预算的60%以上依靠美国及其他国家和地区财政捐助。2006年以来,政府积极推行国有企业私有化政策,减轻政府债务水平,加大对教育的投入,加强基础设施建设,经济取得一定发展。

2017年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:1.99亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:3753美元。

国内生产总值增长率:2.5%。

货币名称:美元。

【资 源】 海域面积广大,海底有钴壳和锰结核等矿产资源。部分岛屿蕴藏磷酸盐,渔业资源丰富,海产养殖及捕鱼业有较大发展潜力。

【农 业】 产椰子、香蕉、芋头、面包果等。近来,渔业生产增幅较大,椰干产量略有增加,由于收购价格提高,产值增幅较大。

【交通运输】 以海运为主。

公路:总长152公里。

水运:马是仅次于巴拿马的世界第二大船舶注册国,在马注册、悬挂马国旗船舶共3937艘,总吨位达13730万吨。马朱罗为主要港口。来往于美国、澳大利亚和日本的定期远洋客货轮在马经停。马经营的四艘船只航行于国内各主要岛屿之间。

空运:有15个机场,其中只有四个机场有铺设较好的跑道。主要机场在马朱罗,能起降波音737客机。马绍尔航空公司有定期航班飞往国内许多岛屿和邻近太平洋岛国。美国联合航空公司和瑙鲁航空公司每周有班机来往于檀香山、关岛、马朱罗及邻近太平洋岛国。

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 24 municipal areas, the main towns including Majuro, Ebeye, and Jaluit.

[Judiciary] Set up the Supreme Court, the High Court, the Community Court and the Traditional Rights Court.

[political party] The main political parties are:

(1) The United People’s Party (UPP): In November 2007, the former “Our Island” Party (AKA) united a group of independent members of the ruling coalition.

(2) The United Democratic Party (UDP): The opposition party was established on June 25, 1999.

[important figures] Hilda Hein: President. Born in April 1951 in the city of Jaluit in the Marshall Islands. He studied and worked in the United States in his early years and received his Ph.D. in education from the University of Southern California. Long-term commitment to education and scientific research in the areas of Pacific island countries’ resources and climate change. In 2013, he served as Minister of Education. In January 2016, he was elected president.

[Economics] The economy is backward and relies heavily on foreign aid. More than 60% of the budget depends on financial contributions from the United States and other countries and regions. Since 2006, the government has actively promoted the privatization policy of state-owned enterprises, reduced the level of government debt, increased investment in education, strengthened infrastructure construction, and achieved certain development in the economy.

The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $199 million.

Per capita GDP: $3,753.

Gross domestic product growth rate: 2.5%.

Currency name: US dollar.

[Resources] The sea area is vast, and there are mineral resources such as cobalt shells and manganese nodules on the seabed. Some islands contain phosphates, rich in fishery resources, and the mariculture and fishing industries have great potential for development.

[Agriculture] Produces coconut, banana, taro, breadfruit, etc. Recently, fishery production has increased significantly, and copra production has increased slightly. As the purchase price has increased, the output value has increased significantly.

[Transportation] It is mainly based on shipping.

Highway: The total length is 152 kilometers.

Water transport: Horse is the second largest ship registration country in the world after Panama. It has registered 3,937 ships with horse flag and a total tonnage of 13.73 million tons. Majuro is the main port. Regular ocean liner passenger ships to and from the United States, Australia and Japan stop at the Malaysian Pass. The four vessels operated by the horse sailed between the main islands in the country.

Air transport: There are 15 airports, of which only four have better runways. The main airport is in Majuro, which can take off and land Boeing 737 aircraft. Marshall Airlines has scheduled flights to many of the country’s islands and neighboring Pacific island countries. United Airlines and Nauru Airlines have weekly flights to and from Honolulu, Guam, Majuro and neighboring Pacific island countries.

【财政金融】 主要收入来源为海外援款。

主要银行:马绍尔群岛银行(Bank of Marshall Islands),系商业银行,成立于1982年11月。

【对外贸易】 出口产品结构单一,对外贸易连年赤字。主要贸易伙伴为美国、日本和澳大利亚和中国,其中马美贸易额占马贸易总额的80%以上。

主要出口冷冻鱼、椰油、椰饼和手工艺品,进口食品、燃料、烟草、建材、汽车和机械设备。主要进口来源有美国、日本、澳大利亚、新西兰和中国等。

【外国援助】 主要援助方有美国、日本、欧盟和中国台湾地区,其中美国援助最多。

【人民生活】 首都和埃贝耶岛各有一所医院,共有病床113张,医护人员约120名。2010年初,马接通海底光缆,开通了高速网络服务。

【军 事】 根据与美国协议,马绍尔群岛国防由美国负责。

【教 育】 对6-14岁儿童实行义务教育,公立学校学费全免。马绍尔群岛学院(专科),有学生近400名。政府向符合条件的学生提供奖学金。

【新闻出版】 主要报纸为私人办的《马绍尔群岛周报》。政府不定期出版公报。岛上有卫星通信设备。有三个电视台,其中一个是独立台。

【对外关系】 支持民族自决,重视气候变化问题,主张保护海洋资源和环境,发展地区合作,建立南太平洋无核区,积极寻求与亚洲国家发展关系,开展平等互利的友好合作,以促进本国经济发展。

1996年9月,马绍尔群岛在全面禁核试条约上签字。2010年7月,在巴西举行的联合国教科文组织第34届年会表决通过将马绍尔群岛比基尼环礁核试遗址列入世界文化遗产名录(1946-1958年美共在此进行67次核试验)。

同70多个国家建交,系联合国、国际民航组织、太平洋岛国论坛、亚洲开发银行等20多个国际和地区组织成员。在美国、斐济、日本和联合国总部设使馆并派常驻大使。

【同美国的关系】 受美托管多年,与美关系密切。根据1986年生效的马美《自由联系条约》,马享有内政、外交自主权,但防务15年内由美负责,马公民可以自由出入美国。2003年5月,马美续签该条约,美承诺将在20年内继续向马提供经济援助,同时逐步为马建立信托基金。1986-2002年,美向马提供的经济援助超过10亿美元。

马在华盛顿和夏威夷分别设有使馆和领馆。美在马设有使馆。

【同日本的关系】 曾被日本占领。马日关系密切。日每年平均对马援助额约400万-500万美元。1997年,日在马设使馆并派大使。日自1991年起向马派志愿者。2018年5月,马总统希尔达·海因赴日参加第8届日本与太平洋岛国领导人会议(PALM8)。

[Financial Finance] The main source of income is overseas aid.

Major banks: The Bank of Marshall Islands, a commercial bank, was established in November 1982.

[Foreign Trade] The structure of export products is single, and foreign trade has been in deficit for years. The main trading partners are the United States, Japan, Australia and China, of which the trade volume of Mamei accounts for more than 80% of the total trade of Malaysia.

It mainly exports frozen fish, coconut oil, coconut cakes and handicrafts, imported food, fuel, tobacco, building materials, automobiles and machinery. The main import sources are the United States, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and China.

[Foreign Aid] The main aid parties are the United States, Japan, the European Union and Taiwan, of which the United States has the most assistance.

[People’s Life] There is a hospital in the capital and Ebeye Island, with 113 beds and about 120 medical staff. At the beginning of 2010, Ma connected to the submarine cable and opened a high-speed network service.

[Military] According to the agreement with the United States, the defense of the Marshall Islands is the responsibility of the United States.

[Education] Compulsory education is provided for children aged 6-14, and tuition fees are free in public schools. Marshall Islands College (specialist), with nearly 400 students. The government provides scholarships to eligible students.

[Press and Publication] The main newspaper is the privately held Marshall Islands Weekly. The government publishes bulletins from time to time. There are satellite communication devices on the island. There are three TV stations, one of which is an independent station.

[External Relations] Supporting national self-determination, attaching importance to climate change issues, advocating the protection of marine resources and the environment, developing regional cooperation, establishing a nuclear-free zone in the South Pacific, actively seeking to develop relations with Asian countries, and conducting friendly and cooperative cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual benefit to promote the domestic economy. development of.

In September 1996, the Marshall Islands signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In July 2010, the 34th annual meeting of UNESCO held in Brazil voted to include the Marshall Islands Bikini Atoll nuclear test site on the World Cultural Heritage List (the United States conducted 67 nuclear tests here in 1946-1958) .

Established diplomatic relations with more than 70 countries and is a member of more than 20 international and regional organizations such as the United Nations, ICAO, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asian Development Bank. Embassy in the United States, Fiji, Japan and the United Nations headquarters and sent permanent ambassadors.

[Relationship with the United States] Trusted by the United States for many years, it has close ties with the United States. According to the Ma Mei “Freedom of Association Treaty” that came into force in 1986, Ma enjoys internal and diplomatic autonomy, but the defense is under the responsibility of the United States within 15 years, and Ma citizens can freely enter and leave the United States. In May 2003, Ma Mei renewed the treaty, and the United States promised to continue to provide economic assistance to Malaysia within 20 years, while gradually establishing a trust fund for Malaysia. From 1986 to 2002, the United States provided economic assistance to Malaysia over $1 billion.

Ma has embassies and consulates in Washington and Hawaii, respectively. The United States has an embassy in Ma.

[Relationship with Japan] Once occupied by Japan. The horses and the Japanese are closely related. On average, the annual aid to Malaysia is about 4 million to 5 million US dollars. In 1997, the embassy was appointed at the Embassy in Malaysia. Since 1991, he has sent volunteers to Malaysia. In May 2018, Malaysian President Hilda Hein went to Japan to attend the 8th Japan and Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting (PALM8).