The Republic of The Gambia 冈比亚共和国

【国 名】 冈比亚共和国(The Republic of The Gambia)。

【面 积】 11295平方公里。

【人 口】 210万(2017年)。主要民族有:曼丁哥族(占人口的42%)、富拉族(又称颇尔族,占16%)、沃洛夫族(占16%)、朱拉族(占10%)和塞拉胡里族(占9%)。官方语言为英语,民族语言有曼丁哥语、沃洛夫语、富拉语(又称颇尔语)和塞拉胡里语等。居民90%信奉伊斯兰教,其余信奉基督教新教、天主教和原始宗教。

【首 都】 班珠尔(Banjul),人口3.13万(2017年)。

【国家元首】 阿达马·巴罗(Adama Barrow),2016年12月当选。

【重要节日】 独立日:2月18日。

【简 况】 位于非洲西部,为一狭长平原嵌入塞内加尔共和国境内。西濒大西洋,海岸线长48公里。属热带草原气候,内地平均气温约27℃。

15~16世纪,葡萄牙人曾入侵。此后,英国和法国殖民者也相继侵入。1783年,《凡尔赛和约》把冈比亚河两岸划归英国,把塞内加尔划归法国。1889年,英、法达成协议,划定当今冈边界。1965年2月18日,冈正式独立。1970年4月24日成立共和国。独立后人民进步党长期执政,贾瓦拉多次连任总统。1994年7月,叶海亚·贾梅中尉发动兵变,推翻贾瓦拉和人民进步党的统治,成立了以贾梅为主席的武装力量临时执政委员会。1996年9月,贾梅当选总统,并于2001年、2006年和2011年3次蝉联。

[Country name] The Republic of The Gambia.

[area] 11295 square kilometers.

[People] 2.1 million (2017). The main ethnic groups are: Mandingo (42% of the population), Fula (also known as Pall, 16%), Wolof (16%), and Jura (10%). Selahuri (9%). The official language is English, and the national languages ​​include Mandingo, Wolof, Fula (also known as Pall) and Sela Huri. 90% of residents believe in Islam, and the rest believe in Protestantism, Catholicism and primitive religion.

[City] Banjul, with a population of 31,300 (2017).

[Head of State] Adama Barrow, elected in December 2016.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: February 18.

[Profile] Located in western Africa, it is embedded in the territory of the Republic of Senegal for a narrow plain. West of the Atlantic Ocean, the coastline is 48 kilometers long. It has a savanna climate and the average temperature in the interior is about 27 °C.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Portuguese had invaded. Since then, British and French colonists have also invaded. In 1783, the Treaty of Versailles placed the two sides of the Gambia river in the United Kingdom and placed Senegal in France. In 1889, Britain and France reached an agreement to define the current borders of the country. On February 18, 1965, Gang was formally independent. The Republic was established on April 24, 1970. After independence, the People’s Progressive Party was in power for a long time, and Jawara was re-elected for many times. In July 1994, Lieutenant Yahya Jaime launched a mutiny, overthrew the rule of Jawala and the People’s Progressive Party, and established the Interim Governing Council of Armed Forces chaired by Jamme. In September 1996, Jame was elected president and was re-elected three times in 2001, 2006 and 2011.

【政 治】 2016年12月1日,冈比亚举行新一届总统选举,最大反对党联合民主党出身的阿达马·巴罗在7个反对党支持下,以43.3%的得票率击败执政22年的贾梅(39.6%)和冈比亚民主大会党候选人康蒂(17.1%)当选总统。贾梅在承认败选后反悔,但很快在西共体军事干预下流亡赤道几内亚。2017年2月18日,巴罗总统宣誓就职。目前,冈局势恢复正常。

【宪 法】 现行宪法于1996年8月8日经全民公决通过。宪法规定:总统为国家元首、政府首脑和武装部队总司令;总统由直接选举产生,每届任期5年,连任次数不限;总统、副总统、政府各部部长向国民议会负责;副总统、各部部长由总统任命;总统可视情宣布“国家紧急状态”。

【议 会】 为一院制,称国民议会,每届任期5年,设有议长、副议长各1名,均由议员选举产生。本届议会于2017年4月成立,共58席,其中民选议员53名,总统委任议员5名。现任议长玛利亚姆·杰克—登顿(Mariam Jack-Denton),2017年4月当选。

【政 府】 本届政府成立于2019年3月,现主要成员有:总统阿达马·巴罗(Adama Barrow),副总统伊莎图·图雷(Isatou Touray),总统府秘书长兼国家公务员局局长埃布里马·卡马拉(Ebrima O. Camara)、外交、国际合作和侨民事务部长马马杜·坦加拉,内政部长埃布里马·姆巴洛(Ebrima Mballow),财政和经济事务部长曼布里·恩吉(Mambury Njie),贸易、地区一体化、工业和就业部长拉明·乔布(Lamin Jobe),农业部长艾米·法布瑞(Amie Fabureh),土地和地方政府部长哈吉穆萨·德拉迈(Alhajie Musa Drammeh),林业、环境、气候变化和自然资源部长拉明·迪巴(Lamin B. Dibba),渔业、水资源和国会事务部长詹姆斯·戈梅斯(James Gomez),旅游和文化部长哈迈特·巴赫(Hamat N.K. Bah),青年和体育部长哈德拉迈·西迪贝(Hadrammeh Sidibeh)、交通工程和基础设施部长拉明·巴伊·乔布(Bai Lamin Jobe)、信息和通讯基础设施部长埃布里马·西拉(Ebrima Sillah)、基础和中级教育部长克劳迪娅·科莱(Claudia Cole)、卫生和社会福利部长阿马杜·拉明·萨马特(Ahmadou Lamin Samateh)、高等教育、研究和科技部长巴达拉·朱夫(Badara Joof)、能源和石油部长法法·萨尼扬(Fafa Sanyang)、司法部长兼总检察长阿布巴卡尔·坦贝杜(Aboubacarr Tambedou)、妇女儿童和社会福利部长法图·萨尼扬·康特(Fatou Sanyang Kinteh)等。

【行政区划】 全国分为首都班珠尔市(含班珠尔市区和卡尼芬市)和5个地方行政区(西部区、下河区、中河区、上河区和北岸区),区以下分43个县,村为基层单位。

[Politics] On December 1, 2016, the Gambia held a new presidential election. Adama Barrow, the largest opposition party and the Democratic Party, defeated Jia Mei, who had been in power for 22 years, with the support of seven opposition parties. 39.6%) and Condado Democratic Party candidate Conti (17.1%) was elected president. Jia Mei repented after acknowledging the defeat, but soon exiled Equatorial Guinea under the military intervention of the ECOWAS. On February 18, 2017, President Barlow was sworn in. At present, the situation in Oka is back to normal.

[Constitution] The current Constitution was adopted by a referendum on August 8, 1996. The Constitution stipulates that the President is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces; the president is directly elected, each term is five years, and the number of re-elections is unlimited; the president, vice president, ministers of the government are responsible to the National Assembly; vice presidents, ministries The minister is appointed by the president; the president can declare “national state of emergency” as appropriate.

[Meetings] For the one-chamber system, the National Assembly is elected for a term of five years. There is one speaker and one deputy speaker, each elected by a member of Parliament. The current parliament was established in April 2017 with a total of 58 seats, including 53 elected members and 5 appointed members of the president. The current Speaker, Mariam Jack-Denton, was elected in April 2017.

[Government] The current government was established in March 2019. The main members are: President Adama Barrow, Vice President Isatou Touray, Secretary-General of the Presidential Office and National Civil Service Bureau. Secretary Ebrima O. Camara, Minister of Foreign Affairs, International Cooperation and Expatriate Affairs Mamadou Tangara, Interior Minister Ebrima Mballow, Finance and Economy Minister of Affairs Mambury Njie, Minister of Trade, Regional Integration, Industry and Employment Lamin Jobe, Minister of Agriculture Amie Fabureh, Land and Local Government Minister Alhajie Musa Drammeh, Minister of Forestry, Environment, Climate Change and Natural Resources, Lamin B. Dibba, Minister of Fisheries, Water Resources and Congress, James Gomes (James Gomez), Minister of Tourism and Culture Hamat NK Bah, Minister of Youth and Sports Hadrammeh Sidibeh, Minister of Transport Engineering and Infrastructure Ramin Bay Bai Lamin Jobe, Minister of Information and Communications Infrastructure Ebrima Sillah, Minister of Basic and Intermediate Education Claudia Cole, Minister of Health and Social Welfare Ama Ahmadou Lamin Samateh, Minister of Higher Education, Research and Technology Badara Joof, Minister of Energy and Petroleum Fafa Sanyang, Minister of Justice Attorney General Aboubacarr Tambedou, Women and Children and Social Welfare Minister Fatou Sanyang Kinteh.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into the capital city of Banjul City (including Banjul City and Kanifing City) and five local administrative districts (Western District, Xiahe District, Zhonghe District, Shanghe District and North Shore District). The following are divided into 43 counties, and the village is a grassroots unit.

【司法机构】 分最高法院和地方法院。以英国司法制度为基础,辅以本国制定的法律、穆斯林法以及传统习惯法。1997年成立司法服务委员会,负责任命司法官员和法庭人员等,主席由大法官担任。司法部长兼总检察长布巴卡·坦贝杜,首席大法官哈桑·贾洛(Hassan Jollow),2017年2月就任。

【政 党】 1994年军政权上台后禁止党派活动,1996年解除党禁。2016年10月,冈7个反对党形成联盟,共同推举联合民主党出身的巴罗为总统候选人,并一举赢得12月大选。目前,冈主要政党为:

(1)联合民主党(The United Democratic Party,UDP):现主要执政党。1996年8月31日成立,成员多为曼丁哥族人。宗旨是民主、自由、安全、正义、和平、进步。在本届议会中占31席。

(2)民族和解党(The National Reconciliation Party,NRP):现执政联盟成员。1996年8月成立。主席哈马特· 巴(Hamat Bah)。在本届议会占5席。

(3)争取独立与社会主义人民民主组织(People’s Democratic Organization for Indenpendence and Socialism,PDOIS):现执政联盟成员。1986年7月成立,主张社会政治生活不受宗族、宗教和意识形态限制,要求民主、自由、人权。主席哈里发· 萨拉(Halifa Sallah)。在本届议会中占4席。

(4)人民进步党(People’s Progress Party,PPP):现执政联盟成员,曾在冈独立后长期执政,创始人为前总统贾瓦拉。主要支持者为曼丁哥族。主张维护冈比亚独立和主权,发展民族经济,实行民主制度,反对大国干涉非洲事务。现任主席奥马尔·伽罗(Omar Jallow)。在本届议会中占2席。

(5)冈比亚争取民主与发展党(Gambia Party for Democracy and Progress,GPDP):现执政联盟成员,成立于2006年。主席为亨利·哥麦兹(Henry Gomez)。

(6)国民大会党(National Convention Party):现执政联盟成员,也是前总统贾瓦拉时期主要反对党。主张发展民族经济、民族工商业,鼓励私人投资,对外主张奉行不结盟政策。主席为谢里夫·迪巴(Sheriff Dibba)。

(7)冈比亚道德大会(Gambia Moral Congress):现执政联盟成员,成立于2009年,宗旨是争取人权和经济公平正义,主席为迈· 法蒂(Mai Fatty)。主席迈·法蒂(Mai Fatty)

(8)爱国调整与建设联盟(The Alliance for Patriotic Re-orientation and Construction, APRC):反对党。贾梅时期执政党。1996年8月26日成立,成员多为朱拉族人。宗旨是团结、自力更生、进步。主席为前总统叶海亚·贾梅。在本届议会占5席。

(9)冈比亚民主大会党(Gambia Democratic Congress)。反对党。成立于2016年,系从爱国调整与建设联盟中脱离成立的政党,主席为前爱国调整与建设联盟党员马马·康蒂(Mama Kandeh)。在本届议会中占5席。

[Judiciary] divided into the Supreme Court and the District Court. Based on the British judicial system, supplemented by national laws, Muslim law and traditional customary law. In 1997, the Judicial Service Commission was established to appoint judicial officials and court personnel. The chairman is the judge. Attorney General and Attorney General Bubaka Thambedu, Chief Justice Hassan Jollow, took office in February 2017.

[Political Party] In 1994, when the military regime came to power, it prohibited party activities. In 1996, the party ban was lifted. In October 2016, the seven opposition parties formed an alliance, jointly recommending Barrow, who was born in the United Democrats, as the presidential candidate, and won the December general election. At present, the main political parties in Gang are:

(1) The United Democratic Party (UDP): Now the main ruling party. It was established on August 31, 1996. Most of its members are Mandingo people. The aim is democracy, freedom, security, justice, peace and progress. It has 31 seats in the current parliament.

(2) The National Reconciliation Party (NRP): a member of the current ruling coalition. Established in August 1996. Chairman Hamat Bah. It has 5 seats in the current parliament.

(3) People’s Democratic Organization for Indenpendence and Socialism (PDOIS): a member of the current ruling coalition. Established in July 1986, it advocates that social and political life is not restricted by clan, religion and ideology, and requires democracy, freedom, and human rights. Chairman Halifa Sallah. It has 4 seats in the current parliament.

(4) People’s Progress Party (PPP): A member of the current ruling coalition, who has been in power for a long time after independence, and the founder is former president Jawala. The main supporter is the Mandingo. It advocates safeguarding the independence and sovereignty of the Gambia, developing the national economy, implementing a democratic system, and opposing major countries’ interference in African affairs. The current chairman, Omar Jallow. Two seats in this session of the Parliament.

(5) Gambia Party for Democracy and Progress (GPDP): A member of the current ruling coalition, established in 2006. The chairman is Henry Gomez.

(6) National Convention Party: A member of the current ruling coalition and the main opposition party of the former President Jawala. It advocates the development of national economy, national industry and commerce, encourages private investment, and advocates a non-aligned policy. The chairman is Sheriff Dibba.

(7) Gambia Moral Congress: A member of the current ruling coalition, established in 2009 with the aim of striving for human rights and economic fairness and justice. The chairman is Mai Fatty. Chairman Mai Fatty

(8) The Alliance for Patriotic Re-orientation and Construction (APRC): Opposition. The ruling party during the Jiamei period. It was established on August 26, 1996, and its members are mostly Jura people. The aim is unity, self-reliance and progress. The chairman is former President Yahya Jame. It has 5 seats in the current parliament.

(9) Gambia Democratic Congress. Opposition party. Founded in 2016, it is a political party that has been separated from the patriotic adjustment and construction alliance. The chairman is Mama Kandeh, a former member of the Patriotic Adjustment and Construction Alliance. It has 5 seats in the current parliament.

【重要人物】 阿达马·巴罗:总统。1965年出生。早年曾经经商,后旅居英国。回国后创建房地产公司。1996年加入联合民主党,历任该党全国执委会副司库、上河区委员会协调员、全国总司库。2016年9月作为该党候选人宣布参加总统选举,后以独立候选人身份在7个反对党支持下参选,并一举赢得胜利。信奉伊斯兰教。

【经 济】 系最不发达国家和重债穷国,农业、转口贸易和旅游业为主要收入来源,经济体量小,工业基础薄弱,粮食不能自给。全国可耕地面积48万公顷,农作物种植面积35万公顷,半数种植花生,花生出口是传统创汇产业。实行自由贸易政策,转口贸易活跃。旅游业总产值占国内生产总值的20%,吸纳就业岗位占全国的19%,每年接待游客20万人次。2014年以来,受西非埃博拉疫情严重冲击和雨季推迟影响,旅游业、农业受到影响。2014、2015年冈经济增长率为0.9%、-2.5%。巴罗上台后,将农业、能源、基础设施和卫生确认为施政重点和优先领域,表示将加大投入,并积极推动制造业、采矿业等发展,促进青年就业,改善人民生活;积极寻求国际援助。2018年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:11.05亿美元

人均国内生产总值:526美元

国内生产总值增长率:4.3%

通货膨胀率:6.5%

货币名称:达拉西( Dalasi )

汇率:1美元=48.23达拉西

(资料来源:2019年3月经济季评)

【资 源】 资源贫乏。已探明有钛、锆、金红石混生矿(储量约150万吨)和高岭土(50多万吨),正在进行石油勘探。

【工 业】 2017年工业产值约占国内生产总值的12.9%。基础薄弱,发展缓慢。主要为农产品加工和建筑业,还有少量轻工业。

【农 业】 2017年农业产值约占国内生产总值的17.8%。农业人口占全国总劳动力80%。可耕地面积48万公顷,半数种植花生。主要粮食作物有玉米、小米、谷子、高粱、大米等。粮食不能自给,大部分大米需进口,其主要进口地为亚洲。

近10年来,冈政府对渔业投资较多,渔业产值大幅增加。目前,冈有8个渔业加工厂,15艘注册渔轮,3000多名渔民。产量的90%出口欧洲。近年来,由于外国拖捞船的过度捕捞,深海渔业资源已近枯竭。

[important person] Adama Barrow: President. Born in 1965. I used to do business in my early years and lived in the UK. After returning home, create a real estate company. He joined the United Democrats in 1996 and served as the deputy treasurer of the party’s national executive committee, the coordinator of the Shanghe District Committee, and the national treasurer. In September 2016, he was elected as the party’s candidate to participate in the presidential election. He then won the election as an independent candidate with the support of seven opposition parties and won the victory in one fell swoop. Believe in Islam.

[Economy] It is a least developed country and a heavily indebted poor country. Agriculture, entrepot trade and tourism are the main sources of income. The economy is small, the industrial base is weak, and food cannot be self-sufficient. The country’s arable land area is 480,000 hectares, and the crop planting area is 350,000 hectares. Half of the peanuts are planted. The peanut export is a traditional foreign exchange earning industry. Implement a free trade policy and entrepot trade. The total value of tourism accounts for 20% of GDP, and employment accounts for 19% of the country’s total. It receives 200,000 visitors a year. Since 2014, tourism and agriculture have been affected by the severe impact of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa and the delayed rainy season. In 2014 and 2015, the economic growth rate of the economy was 0.9% and -2.5%. After taking the stage, Barro recognized agriculture, energy, infrastructure and health as the priorities and priority areas for governance. He said that he will increase investment and actively promote the development of manufacturing and mining, promote youth employment and improve people’s lives; actively seek international assistance. The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $1.105 billion

Per capita GDP: USD 526

GDP growth rate: 4.3%

Inflation rate: 6.5%

Currency name: Dalasi

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 48.23 Dalasi

(Source: March 2019 Economic Quarterly Review)

[Resources] Resources are scarce. Titanium, zirconium, rutile mixed ore (reservoir about 1.5 million tons) and kaolin (more than 500,000 tons) have been identified and oil exploration is underway.

[Industrial] In 2017, industrial output accounted for about 12.9% of GDP. The foundation is weak and the development is slow. Mainly for the processing and construction of agricultural products, there are also a small number of light industries.

[Agriculture] Agricultural output in 2017 accounted for 17.8% of GDP. The agricultural population accounts for 80% of the country’s total labor force. The arable land area is 480,000 hectares, and half of the peanuts are planted. The main food crops are corn, millet, millet, sorghum, rice and so on. Food cannot be self-sufficient, most of the rice needs to be imported, and its main importer is Asia.

In the past 10 years, the government of the Gang has invested more in fisheries and the output value of fishery has increased significantly. At present, there are 8 fishery processing plants, 15 registered fishing vessels and more than 3,000 fishermen. 90% of production is exported to Europe. In recent years, deep-sea fishery resources have been nearly exhausted due to overfishing of foreign trawlers.

【旅游业】 近年来,旅游业发展较快,已成为全国第二大就业行业,冈外汇主要来源之一。2017年旅游业产值约占国内生产总值的69.3%,旅游业就业岗位占全国总就业岗位的18.8%,游客消费相当于当年冈出口总额的46.5%(资料来源:世界旅游业理事会2017年国别报告)。目前,全国宾馆共约40余家,房间约3000个,床位约7000张。每年接待外国游客约20万人次。游客主要来自英国、瑞典、德国等欧洲国家。

【交通运输】 无铁路。

公路:总长2390公里,其中沥青路510公里,石子路800公里,土路1080公里。

水运:冈比亚河横贯东西全境,是冈内陆地区的主要运输线。班珠尔港是冈主要的国际海运港口,月处理集装箱800标准箱,年吞吐量为200万吨。

空运:首都云杜姆(Yundum)国际机场可起降各类大型客机,年接送旅客能力为100万人,每周有定期航班飞往比利时、加纳和塞内加尔等国。

【财政金融】财政困难,连年赤字。收入主要为税收,少量为援款。截至2017年底,外债总额6.4亿美元。截至2017年底,外汇储备(不含黄金)为1.1亿美元。(资料来源:IMF网站)

冈比亚中央银行建于1971年,负责制定和贯彻执行国家货币和信贷政策以及调控商业银行业务。截至2011年,冈共有13家商业银行,此外还有若干外钞兑换所和非银行金融机构。冈比亚标准银行为最大的商业银行。

【对外贸易】 实行自由贸易政策,进口关税较低,向邻国转口贸易活跃。主要进口食品、机械运输设备、工业制成品、矿产品和燃料润滑油等;主要出口花生、花生制品、渔产品等。2017年主要出口对象有几内亚比绍、越南、塞内加尔、马里、阿联酋等,进口主要来自科特迪瓦、巴西、西班牙、中国、俄罗斯等。

【外国援助】 2007年2月,国际货币基金组织批准冈2007-2010年“减贫和增长计划”,2010年2月,国际货币基金组织决定将“减贫和增长计划” 在冈延长一年。截止2010年底,冈在“减贫和增长计划”框架内累计收益3438万美元。据经济与合作组织统计,冈2017年共接受外援2.69亿美元。主要援助方有欧盟(2832万美元)、英国(1728万美元)、非洲开发银行(1459万美元)、欧佩克国际发展基金(1158万美元)、美国(1055万美元)、伊斯兰发展银行(860万美元)、IMF(809万美元)、国际农业发展基金会(701万美元)等。

[Tourism] In recent years, the tourism industry has developed rapidly and has become one of the country’s second largest employment industries. In 2017, tourism production accounted for about 69.3% of GDP, tourism jobs accounted for 18.8% of total employment in the country, and tourists’ consumption was equivalent to 46.5% of total exports in the year (Source: World Tourism Council 2017) Country report). At present, there are about 40 hotels in the country, about 3,000 rooms and about 7,000 beds. It receives about 200,000 foreign tourists every year. Tourists mainly come from European countries such as the UK, Sweden and Germany.

[Transportation] No railway.

Highway: The total length is 2390 kilometers, including 510 kilometers of asphalt road, 800 kilometers of gravel road and 1080 kilometers of dirt road.

Water transport: The Gambia River traverses the entire east and west, and is the main transportation line in the Inland area. Banjul Port is the main international shipping port of Gang, with a container handling capacity of 800 TEU per month and an annual throughput of 2 million tons.

Air transport: The capital city of Yundum International Airport can take off and land various large passenger planes. The annual passenger capacity is 1 million passengers. There are regular flights to Belgium, Ghana and Senegal every week.

[Financial Finance] Financial difficulties, deficits in successive years. The income is mainly tax, and a small amount is aid. As of the end of 2017, the total external debt was 640 million US dollars. As of the end of 2017, foreign exchange reserves (excluding gold) were $110 million. (Source: IMF website)

The Central Bank of the Gambia was established in 1971 to develop and implement national monetary and credit policies and regulate commercial banking. As of 2011, there are 13 commercial banks in Gang, in addition to a number of foreign exchange exchanges and non-bank financial institutions. Gambia Standard Bank is the largest commercial bank.

[Foreign Trade] Implement a free trade policy with low import tariffs and active re-exports to neighboring countries. Mainly imported food, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial manufactured goods, mineral products and fuel lubricants; mainly exported peanuts, peanut products, fishery products. In 2017, the main export targets are Guinea-Bissau, Vietnam, Senegal, Mali, UAE, etc. The imports are mainly from Côte d’Ivoire, Brazil, Spain, China, Russia and so on.

[Foreign Aid] In February 2007, the International Monetary Fund approved the “Poverty Reduction and Growth Plan” of Gang 2007-2010. In February 2010, the International Monetary Fund decided to extend the “Poverty Reduction and Growth Plan” in Gansu for one year. . By the end of 2010, Gang had accumulated revenues of $34.38 million within the framework of the Poverty Reduction and Growth Plan. According to the statistics of the Economic and Cooperative Organization, Oka received a total of 269 million US dollars in foreign aid in 2017. The main donors are the European Union ($28.32 million), the United Kingdom ($17.28 million), the African Development Bank ($14.59 million), the OPEC International Development Fund ($11.58 million), the United States ($105.50 million), and the Islamic Development Bank (8.6 million). US dollars), IMF ($8.99 million), International Fund for Agricultural Development ($0.71 million), etc.

【外国资本】 据联合国贸易和发展会议(UNCTAD)2018年度《世界投资报告》,冈2017年吸引外国直接投资8700万美元,主要投向旅游领域。

【人民生活】 根据联合国开发计划署公布的《2018年人类发展报告》,2017年冈的人类发展指数在189个国家中排名第174位,较上一年下降了1位。2013年,医疗支出占国内生产总值的6%,人均预期寿命女性61.6岁,男性58.9岁,5岁以下儿童死亡率为64.4‰。60.4%的人口生活在贫困线以下。医疗设施差。全国城镇医疗卫生机构50个(其中医院3所),村庄医疗站291个,妇幼保健站136个。平均每1万人有1.1名医生。疟疾为最大死因,染病率为17.34%,其次是结核和寄生虫病。截至2009年,冈全国约有1.8万人感染艾滋病,另有约1000人死于艾滋病,2013年成人艾滋病感染率约为1.2%。

【军 事】 1985年议会通过武装部队法。1996年宪法规定实行义务兵役制。军事力量主要包括国民军、海军等。冈选后危机结束后,巴罗总统重新整饬武装力量,目前国内安全主要依靠西共体部队。

【教 育】 2005年至2014年每年教育支出占国内生产总值的平均比例为4.1%。成人识字率为52%,小学适龄儿童入学率为87%,小学辍学率为27%。全国设有270个扫盲中心。小学实行免费教育。冈比亚大学为冈最高学府,成立于1999年,设医学、农业与生物、科技、人文、社科、教育及经济学院,年招生约1000名。

【新闻出版】 《冈比亚日报》是唯一的官方报纸,每周一、三、五出版,遇有公共假日停刊,发行量约5000份;《观察家日报》,1992年创办的私人报纸,每周出版5期,发行量约5000份。另有《观点报》、《冈比亚新闻与报道》和《冈比亚人》等报刊。

冈比亚广播电台:官方电台,1962年5月建立,用英、曼丁哥、沃洛夫、富拉等语言播音。覆盖面为国土的2/3。1994年10月,该电台改由冈比亚电讯公司经营管理,新闻节目由政府监管。希德广播电台:瑞典人经营的非政治性私人电台, 1970年5月起在班珠尔市播音。另有一家私人经营的立体声广播电台。1990年12月试播,全天播放音乐和商业广告。

冈比亚国家电视台于1995年12月开播。

[Foreign Capital] According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 2018 World Investment Report, Oka attracted foreign direct investment of 87 million U.S. dollars in 2017, mainly to the tourism sector.

[People’s Life] According to the 2018 Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Program, the Human Development Index of Ganga ranked 174th out of 189 countries in 2017, a decrease of 1 from the previous year. In 2013, medical expenditures accounted for 6% of GDP, women’s life expectancy was 61.6 years for women, 58.9 years for men, and 64.4 years for children under 5 years of age. 60.4% of the population live below the poverty line. Poor medical facilities. There are 50 national urban medical and health institutions (including 3 hospitals), 291 village medical stations, and 136 maternal and child health stations. There are 1.1 doctors per 10,000 people. Malaria is the leading cause of death, with a prevalence rate of 17.34%, followed by tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. As of 2009, about 18,000 people in the country were infected with AIDS, and about 1,000 people died of AIDS. In 2013, the adult HIV infection rate was about 1.2%.

[Military] In 1985, the Parliament passed the Armed Forces Act. The 1996 Constitution provides for compulsory military service. Military forces mainly include the National Army and the Navy. After the post-election crisis, President Barrow reorganized the armed forces. At present, domestic security relies mainly on the ECOWAS forces.

[Education] From 2005 to 2014, the average annual proportion of education expenditure to GDP was 4.1%. The adult literacy rate is 52%, the primary school age children enrollment rate is 87%, and the primary school dropout rate is 27%. There are 270 literacy centers across the country. Free education is provided in primary schools. The University of Gambia is the highest institution in Oka, established in 1999. It has a college of medicine, agriculture and biology, science and technology, humanities, social sciences, education and economics. It enrolls about 1,000 students each year.

[Press and Publication] The Gambia Daily is the only official newspaper, published every Monday, Wednesday and Friday. It has been closed on public holidays and has a circulation of about 5,000 copies. Observer Daily, a private newspaper founded in 1992, published 5 times a week. The issue is about 5,000 copies. There are also newspapers such as “Viewpoint”, “Gambia News and Reports” and “Gambian People”.

Gambia Radio: Official radio station, established in May 1962, broadcast in English, Mandingo, Wolof, Fula and other languages. The coverage is 2/3 of the country. In October 1994, the station was operated and managed by the Gambia Telecommunications Company, and the news program was supervised by the government. Sid Radio: A non-political private radio station run by the Swedes, which was broadcast in Banjul City in May 1970. There is also a privately operated stereo radio station. Tested in December 1990, playing music and commercials throughout the day.

The Gambia National Television was launched in December 1995.

【对外关系】 奉行全方位对外友好的外交政策。重视非洲团结、稳定和区域合作,支持非洲经济一体化。曾经参与利比里亚、塞拉利昂、科特迪瓦、几内亚比绍、塞内加尔卡萨芒斯等热点问题的调解工作,并派兵参与西非国家经济共同体在利比里亚、科特迪瓦和几内亚比绍的维和行动。巴罗政府上台后,改善同西方国家关系,积极发展与伊斯兰国家的关系,重视同新兴市场国家合作,积极寻求多方支持和帮助。现为联合国、世界贸易组织、伊斯兰合作组织、非洲联盟和西非国家经济共同体等组织成员。

【同英国的关系】 1965年加入英联邦,同英国关系密切。贾梅执政后期两国关系趋冷。2013年10月2日,冈宣布退出英联邦。巴罗当选总统后宣布将重返英联邦。2017年2月,英国外交大臣鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)访问冈比亚。3月,冈外长达博访英。9月,英联邦秘书处代表团访冈,就冈重返英联邦开展评估。9月,英国议会代表团访冈并会见冈副总统坦巴章。2018年1月,冈国民议会议长登顿访英。2月,冈获准重新加入英联邦。4月,巴罗总统赴英出席英联邦政府首脑会议。10月,英国王储查尔斯夫妇访问冈比亚。

【同美国的关系】 1979年冈美建交。2006年6月,美以人权问题为由中止“千年挑战帐户”向冈拨付援款。2014年12月,美取消冈的“非洲增长与机遇法案”受益国资格。2016年12月冈选后危机发生后,美方公开声明,要求贾梅和平向巴罗交权。2017年2月,美国负责非洲事务的助理国务卿格林菲尔德访冈。3月,美国国务院发表《冈比亚人权实践国别报告》,表示冈正沿着民主道路前进。5月,美国取消对冈官员赴美签证禁令。11月,达博外长出席美国—非洲外长会议。

【同伊斯兰国家的关系】系伊斯兰合作组织成员。2017年4月,达博外长访问卡塔尔,系冈新政府外长首访域外国家。2018年2月,巴罗总统对土耳其进行工作访问。3月,伊斯兰合作组织秘书长欧赛敏访冈。同月,土耳其国际合作与协调署主席卡姆访冈。

【同邻国的关系】 塞内加尔是冈唯一邻国。1982年2月,两国通过协议正式结成塞冈邦联。1989年9月,邦联解体。1991年5月,冈塞两国正式签署友好合作条约。2014年底冈发生未遂政变以来,冈方公开对塞收留冈反对派表达不满,两国关系紧张。2015年3月,冈同塞边境税收纠纷激烈,冈一度关闭边境。2016年12月巴罗胜选后,萨勒总统率先向巴罗总统表示祝贺。2017年1月,巴罗在冈驻塞内加尔使馆就职。2月,塞内加尔总统萨勒作为特邀嘉宾赴班珠尔出席巴罗总统就职仪式暨冈独立52周年庆典。3月,巴罗总统对塞内加尔进行国事访问,两国建立战略伙伴关系,并签署渔业、电力等领域合作协议。2018年3月,塞内加尔总统萨勒访问冈比亚。

冈同尼日利亚关系密切。冈塞邦联解体后,冈尼签署了防务协议。尼曾派大型军训团负责冈国民军的建设和训练,并曾派人出任冈军司令。同时尼与冈在司法、农业、医疗卫生、教育等领域进行广泛合作,尼向冈派有为数不少的技术人员。2003年6月,贾梅访尼。8月,冈国民议会批准了冈比亚-尼日利亚友好合作协定。2013年11月,尼总统乔纳森访冈。2016年1月,贾梅赴尼出席西共体成员国首脑峰会。2016年12月冈选后危机发生后,尼日利亚总统布哈里曾赴冈调解。2018年1月,巴罗总统访尼。

[External Relations] Pursue a foreign policy of all-round friendly relations. Attach importance to African solidarity, stability and regional cooperation and support African economic integration. He has participated in the mediation of hot issues such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau and Casamance in Senegal, and has sent troops to participate in peacekeeping operations in the Liberian, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea-Bissau. After the Bhara government came to power, it improved relations with Western countries, actively developed relations with Islamic countries, attached importance to cooperation with emerging market countries, and actively sought support and assistance from many parties. He is currently a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States.

[Relationship with the United Kingdom] Joined the Commonwealth in 1965 and has close ties with the United Kingdom. During the late period of Jia Mei’s administration, relations between the two countries became cold. On October 2, 2013, Gang announced his withdrawal from the Commonwealth. After Barro was elected president, he announced that he would return to the Commonwealth. In February 2017, British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson visited the Gambia. In March, Ou’s foreign minister Da Bo visited the UK. In September, the delegation of the Commonwealth Secretariat visited the country and returned to the Commonwealth for an assessment. In September, the British Parliament delegation visited Gang and met with Vice President Tampa. In January 2018, the Speaker of the National Assembly of the Gang National Assembly, Denton, visited Britain. In February, Gang was allowed to rejoin the Commonwealth. In April, President Barlow went to the UK to attend the meeting of the Commonwealth Heads of Government. In October, the British Crown Prince Charles visited the Gambia.

[Relationship with the United States] In 1979, the establishment of diplomatic relations between the United States and the United States. In June 2006, the United States suspended the “Millennium Challenge Account” on the grounds of human rights issues and allocated funds to the government. In December 2014, the United States canceled the “African Growth and Opportunity Act” beneficiary country qualification. After the post-election crisis in December 2016, the US publicly stated that it required Jaime Peace to hand over power to Barrow. In February 2017, Assistant Secretary of State for Green Affairs in the United States, Greenfield, visited the country. In March, the US State Department issued the “Gambia Human Rights Practice Country Report,” indicating that Gang is advancing along the path of democracy. In May, the United States lifted the ban on visas to officials in the United States. In November, Foreign Minister Dubbo attended the US-Africa Foreign Ministers Meeting.

[Relationship with Islamic countries] is a member of the Islamic Cooperation Organization. In April 2017, Foreign Minister Dubbo visited Qatar and was the first foreign minister of the government to visit the countries outside the country. In February 2018, President Barro paid a working visit to Turkey. In March, Osamamin, Secretary-General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, visited Gang. In the same month, the Chairman of the Turkish Agency for International Cooperation and Coordination, Kam, visited the country.

[Relationship with neighboring countries] Senegal is the only neighbor of Gang. In February 1982, the two countries formally formed the Seychelles Confederation through an agreement. In September 1989, the Confederacy was disintegrated. In May 1991, the two countries formally signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. Since the attempted coup in Ganga at the end of 2014, Okayama has publicly expressed dissatisfaction with the opposition to the opposition, and the relationship between the two countries is tense. In March 2015, the tax dispute on the border of Gangtong was fierce, and Gang once closed the border. After Barro won the election in December 2016, President Saale took the lead in congratulating President Barro. In January 2017, Barrow took office at the Embassy of the Senegalese in Senegal. In February, Senegalese President Salle went to Banjul as a special guest to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Barro and the 52nd anniversary of the independence of Gang. In March, President Barro paid a state visit to Senegal. The two countries established a strategic partnership and signed cooperation agreements in the fields of fisheries and electric power. In March 2018, Senegalese President Saale visited the Gambia.

Gang has close ties with Nigeria. After the dissolution of Gonzalez, Gunni signed a defense agreement. Nepal has sent a large military training group to be responsible for the construction and training of the Gang National Army, and has sent people to serve as commander of the Gang Army. At the same time, Nie and Gang have extensive cooperation in the fields of justice, agriculture, health care, education, etc. Nie Xianggang has a large number of technicians. In June 2003, Jia Mei visited Nepal. In August, the Gang National Assembly approved the Gambia-Nigeria friendly cooperation agreement. In November 2013, Nepalese President Jonathan visited Gang. In January 2016, Jiamei went to Nepal to attend the Summit of the ECOWAS member states. After the post-election crisis in December 2016, Nigerian President Bukhari had traveled to Gang to mediate. In January 2018, President Barlow visited Nepal.