The Republic of the Congo 刚果共和国，简称刚果（布）
【国 名】刚果共和国（The Republic of the Congo，La République du Congo），简称刚果（布）。
【国家元首】共和国总统德尼·萨苏-恩格索（Denis SASSOU-N’GUESSO），1979年8月就任总统，1984年7月、1989年7月连任。1992年竞选总统失利。 1997年10月再次就任总统，2002年3月当选，2009年7月、2016年3月胜选连任。
[The name of the Republic of the Congo, La République du Congo, referred to as Congo (Brazil).
[area] 342,000 square kilometers.
[People] 5.26 million (2017). There are 56 nationalities in the country, belonging to the Bantu language family. The largest ethnic group is the Congolese in the south, including the Lali, the Barcon, the Vili, which accounts for 45% of the total population; the Mbosi in the north accounts for 16%; the Central Taikai accounts for 20%; There are still a few Pygmies living in the forest. The official language is French. The national language is Congo, Monukutuba in the south and Lingala in the north. More than half of the nation’s residents believe in primitive religion, 26% believe in Catholicism, 10% believe in Christianity, and 3% believe in Islam.
[The capital] Brazzaville, with a population of 1.56 million (2014), the annual average temperature is about 26 °C.
[Head of State] Denis SASSOU-N’GUESSO, President of the Republic, became president in August 1979, re-elected in July 1984 and July 1989. In 1992, the presidential election lost. He became president again in October 1997, was elected in March 2002, and was re-elected in July 2009 and March 2016.
[Important Festival] August 15 (Independence Day).
13世纪末至14世纪初，班图人在刚果河下游建立了刚果王国。1880年10月3日，法国人正式占领这片土地，开始殖民统治。1884~1885年，柏林会议上刚果河以西地区被划为法国殖民地，即现刚果（布）。1910年，刚果成为法属赤道非洲四领地之一（另有加蓬、乍得、中非），称中央刚果，布拉柴维尔是法属赤道非洲的首府。1957年取得“半自治共和国”地位。1958年11月成为“自治共和国”。1960年8月15日宣布独立，但仍留在法兰西共同体内，定名刚果共和国。1961年3月27日，菲勒贝尔·尤卢（Fulbert YOULOU）出任总统。1963年爆发“八月革命”，尤卢政权被推翻，阿尔方斯·马桑巴-代巴（Alphose MASSAMBA-DEBAT）当选总统。1968年7月31日，马里安·恩古瓦比（Marien NGOUABI）等联合发动“七·三一运动”，推翻马桑巴-代巴。12月恩古瓦比出任总统，次年12月改国名为刚果人民共和国。1977年，恩古瓦比遇刺身亡，若阿基姆·雍比-奥庞戈（Joachim YOUMBY-OPANGO）出任总统。1979年2月，执政党刚果劳动党（简称刚劳党）中央全会罢免雍比，召开特别大会选举萨苏为刚劳党中央委员会主席。8月，萨苏就任总统。1990年刚实行多党制。1991年6月重新恢复刚果共和国国名。1992年举行首次多党总统大选，泛非社会民主联盟主席帕斯卡尔·利苏巴（Pascal LISSOUBA）胜选就任总统。1997年刚内战后萨苏再次执政。
[Brief] Located in the central and western part of Africa, the equator runs through the middle. The east and the south are adjacent to Congo (Gold) and Angola, north to Central Africa and Cameroon, west to Gabon, and southwest to the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline is 156 kilometers long. The southern part has a savanna climate, and the central and northern parts have a tropical rainforest climate with high temperatures and high humidity. The annual average temperature is between 24 and 28 °C.
From the end of the 13th century to the beginning of the 14th century, the Bantu people established the Congolese kingdom in the lower Congo River. On October 3, 1880, the French officially occupied the land and began colonial rule. From 1884 to 1885, at the Berlin Conference, the area west of the Congo River was classified as a French colony, now Congo (Brazzaville). In 1910, the Congo became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa (plus Gabon, Chad, Central Africa), called Central Congo, and Brazzaville is the capital of French Equatorial Africa. In 1957, he obtained the status of “semi-autonomous republic”. In November 1958, it became an “autonomous republic.” Independence was declared on August 15, 1960, but remained in the French Community and was named in the Republic of the Congo. On March 27, 1961, Fulbert YOULOU became president. The “August Revolution” broke out in 1963, the Yulu regime was overthrown, and Alphose MASSAMBA-DEBAT was elected president. On July 31, 1968, Marien NGOUABI and others jointly launched the “Seven March Movement” to overthrow Masamba-Diba. In December, Nguwabi became president and in December the following year he changed his name to the People’s Republic of the Congo. In 1977, Nguwabi was assassinated and Joachim YOUMBY-OPANGO became president. In February 1979, the Central Plenary Session of the ruling party Congo Labor Party (referred to as the Gangang Party) recalled Debbie and held a special meeting to elect Sassu as the chairman of the Central Committee of the Gangbang Party. In August, Sassou became president. In 1990, the multiparty system was just implemented. The name of the Republic of Congo was restored in June 1991. In 1992, the first multi-party presidential election was held. Pascal LISSOUBA, president of the Pan-African Social Democratic Alliance, won the presidency. After the civil war in 1997, Sassou was in power again.
[Politics] After Sassu regained power, he pursued a policy of peace, unity and national reconciliation. In January 1998, the “National Reconciliation, Solidarity, Democracy and Reconstruction Forum” was just held. It was decided to continue to implement pluralistic democracy, rebuild inter-ethnic trust and solidarity, and determine the presidential election after the three-year flexible transition period. Since then, the government has basically calmed armed riots across the country and reached a ceasefire and armistice agreement with major anti-government armed factions. Apart from the Poor region, the domestic situation has gradually returned to stability. In March and April 2001, the non-exclusive national dialogue was held in the capital Brazzaville, and the new draft constitution and peace and reconstruction convention submitted by the government were adopted. On January 20, 2002, the referendum passed a new constitution. On March 10, just after the presidential election, Sassu was elected with an overwhelming majority. Since then, legislative, local and Senate elections have just been successfully held in areas other than Poole. On August 14, Sassou became president and formed a new government. The transition period was just over. In March 2003, the government signed a peace agreement with the last anti-government armed forces in Poole. On January 7, 2005, the government was reorganized and a new prime minister and four ministers of state were added. In October, President Sassou approved the return of former Prime Minister Colleras, who had been in exile for many years. In August 2006, the Political Parties Act was promulgated. In 2007 and 2008, the legislative and local elections were just held, and the president received the majority of seats. On July 12, 2009, just after the second presidential election after the civil war, the Sassu high vote was re-elected and was sworn in on August 14. On September 15, the new government was established, the post of prime minister was abolished, and five ministers of state were set up. In October 2015, a new referendum was adopted for the referendum. In March 2016, the presidential election was held, and Sassu won by 60.39%. From July to August 2017, the National Assembly, the local council and the Senate elections were held. The Gangang Party won 90 of the 151 seats and 450 seats and 1 of the 1158 seats in the above elections. 44 seats in the residence of the members.
[Constitution] The new constitution adopted by the referendum in October 2015 is the ninth constitution in history. It stipulates that national sovereignty belongs to the people; the president of the Republic is the head of state and the supreme commander of the army, presiding over the ministerial meeting; the prime minister is the head of government and the president Appointment; the president is elected by direct universal suffrage. Congolese people over the age of 30 can stand for election for a term of five years and can be re-elected twice. The parliament is composed of the National Assembly and the Senate. The President and the parliament jointly have the legislative initiative; the President can dissolve the Parliament. The parliament can impeach the government. During the vacancy of the presidency, the President of the Senate will act as President.
[Parliament] The bicameral system, including the National Assembly and the Senate, has legislative power.
Members of the National Assembly are directly elected for a term of five years and are eligible for re-election. The current parliament was elected in two rounds on July 16 and 30, 2017, and a total of 151 members were elected. The National Assembly consists of seven committees including finance, justice and administration, diplomacy and cooperation, defense and security, education, culture and technology, health and society, planning and territorial rectification. Speaker Isidore MVOUBA, member of the ruling Congolese Labour Party.
72 members of the Senate are elected indirectly through the regional electoral college for a term of six years and are eligible for re-election. In August 2017, the election was successfully implemented. The Senate consists of six committees: law, administration and human rights, finance, production, equipment and environment, diplomacy and cooperation, defense and security, education, culture and technology, health, employment and society. Senator Pierre NGOLO, elected by the Senate in September 2017, General Secretary of the Congolese Labour Party.
【政 府】2017年8月刚成立新政府，共有成员36人。总理为克莱芒·穆安巴（Clément MOUAMBA）。新设副总理负责公职、国家改革、劳动和社会保障，由菲尔曼·阿耶萨（Firmin AYESSA）担任。其余35人为：农业、畜牧业和渔业国务部长亨利·琼博（Henri DJOMBO），经济、工业和国库国务部长吉尔贝·翁东戈（Gilbert ONDONGO），贸易、供应和消费国务部长阿方斯·克洛德·恩西卢（Alphonse Claude NSILOU），内政和地方分权部长雷蒙·泽菲兰·姆布卢（Raymond Zéphirin MBOULOU），矿业和地质部长皮埃尔·奥巴（Pierre OBA），领土整治、装备和大型工程部长让—雅克·布亚（Jean-Jacques BOUYA），石油天然气部长让—马克·蒂斯特雷·奇卡亚（Jean-Marc THYSTERE TCHICAYA），外交、合作和海外侨民部长让—克洛德·加科索（Jean-Claude GAKOSSO），国防部长夏尔·里夏尔·蒙乔（Charles Richard MONDJO），财政和预算部长卡利斯特·加农戈（Calixte NGANONGO），新闻和媒体部长，政府发言人蒂埃里·蒙加拉（Thierry MOUNGALA），高等教育部长布鲁诺·让—里夏尔·伊杜阿（Bruno Jean-Richard ITOUA），装备和道路养护部长埃米尔·乌奥索（Emile OUOSSO），初中等教育和扫盲部长阿纳托尔·科利内·马科索（Anatole Collinet MAKOSSO），司法、人权和土著民族促进部长安热·艾梅·比南加（Ange Aimé BININGA），中小企业、手工业和非正规部门部长伊沃妮·阿德拉伊德·穆佳妮（女，Yvonne Adelaïde MOUGANY），能源和水利部长塞尔日·布莱斯·佐尼亚巴（Blaise ZONIABA），土地事务和公产管理负责与议会关系部长皮埃尔·马比亚拉（Pierre MABIALA），经济特区部长吉尔贝·莫科基（Gilbert MOKOKI），技术职业教育、专业技能培训和就业部长尼塞福尔·安托万·托马·菲拉·圣—厄德（Antoine Thomas FYLLA SAINT-EUDES），建设、城市规划和住房部长若苏埃·罗德里格·恩古奥宁巴（Josué Rodrigue NGOUONIMBA），林业经济部长罗莎莉·马东多（女，Rosalie MATONDO），运输、民用航空和商船部长菲代勒·迪穆（Fidèle DIMOU），卫生和人口部长雅克利娜·莉迪娅·米科洛（女，Jacqueline Lydia MIKOLO），科研和技术创新部长马丁·帕尔费·艾梅·库苏—马翁古（Martin Parfait Aimé COUSSOUD-MAVOUNGOU），计划、统计和区域一体化部长安格里德·奥尔加·吉莱纳·埃布卡—巴巴卡斯（女，Ingrid Olga Ghislaine EBOUKA-BABACKAS），邮政、电信和数字经济部长莱昂·朱斯特·伊邦博（Léon Juste IBOMBO），旅游和环境部长阿莱特·苏当·诺诺（女，Arlette SOUDAN NONAULT），体育和体育教育部长于格·恩古埃隆德莱（Hugues NGOUELONDELE），社会事务和人道主义行动部长安托瓦妮特·丹加·迥多（女，Antoinette DINGA DZONDO），妇女促进和参与发展部长伊内斯·内费尔·贝尔蒂耶·安加妮（女，Inès Nefer Bertille INGANI），青年与公民教育部长德斯蒂内·埃尔默拉·杜卡加（女，Destinée Hermella DOUKAGA），文化与艺术部长迪厄多内·莫永戈（Dieudonné MOYONGO），内政和地方分权部负责地方分权的部长级代表夏尔·恩冈富穆（Charles NGANFOUOMO）。
[Government] A new government was established in August 2017 with a total of 36 members. The Prime Minister is Clément MOUAMBA. The new Deputy Prime Minister is responsible for public office, state reform, labor and social security, and is chaired by Firmin AYESSA. The remaining 35 people are: Henri DJOMBO, Minister of State for Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Gilbert ONDONGO, Minister of State for Economy, Industry and Treasury, and Minister of Trade, Supply and Consumption, Alfons Alphonse Claude NSILOU, Minister of Home Affairs and Decentralization, Raymond Zéphirin MBOULOU, Minister of Mining and Geology, Pierre OBA, Minister of Territorial Rehabilitation, Equipment and Large Engineering Jean-Jacques BOUYA, Minister of Oil and Gas Jean-Marc THYSTERE TCHICAYA, Diplomacy, Cooperation and Overseas Residents Minister Jean-Claude GAKOSSO, Secretary of Defense Charles Richard MONDJO, and Finance and Budget Minister Calixte NGANONGO, Minister of News and Media, Government spokesman Thierry MOUNGALA, Minister of Higher Education Bruno Jean-Richard ITOUA, Emile OUOSSO, Minister of Preparatory and Road Maintenance, Anatole Collinet MAKOSSO, Minister of Primary and Secondary Education and Literacy, Minister of Justice, Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples Promotion · Ange Aimé BININGA, Minister of SMEs, Handicrafts and Informal Sectors, Yvonne Adelaïde MOUGANY, Energy and Water Minister Serge · Blaise ZONIABA, Pierre MABIALA, Minister of Relations for Land Affairs and Public Works, and Gilbert MOKOKI, Minister of the Special Economic Zone , Technical Vocational Education, Professional Skills Training and Employment Minister Antoine Thomas FYLLA SAINT-EUDES, Minister of Construction, Urban Planning and Housing Joshua Josué Rodrigue NGOUONIMBA, Minister of Forestry Economy Rosalie MATONDO, Minister of Transport, Civil Aviation and Merchant Shipping Fidelity Dimu Fidèle DIMOU), Minister of Health and Population Jacqueline Lydia MIKOLO, Minister of Scientific and Technological Innovation Martin Parfait Aimé COUSSOUD-MAVOUNGOU), Minister of Planning, Statistics and Regional Integration, Ingrid Olga Ghislaine EBOUKA-BABACKAS, postal, telecommunications and digital Minister of Economy Léon Juste IBOMBO, Minister of Tourism and Environment Arlette SOUDAN NONAULT, Minister of Physical Education and Physical Education Yuge Nguy Lund Hugues NGOUELONDELE, Minister of Social Affairs and Humanitarian Action Antoinette DINGA DZONDO, Minister of Women’s Promotion and Participation in Development, Ines Nefer Bertie Anène Nefer Bertille INGANI, Minister of Youth and Citizenship Education Destinée Hermella DOUKAGA, Minister of Culture and Art Dieudonné MOYONGO, the ministerial representative of the decentralization of the Ministry of the Interior and Decentralization, Charles NGANFOUOMO.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 12 provinces (Département), 6 municipalities directly under the Central Government, and 97 counties.
【司法机构】宪法规定：司法权独立于立法权，不得侵犯行政或立法权权限；司法权由最高法院、审计和预算法院、上诉法院和其他国家司法机构行使；共和国总统主持最高司法会议，通过其确保司法独立；最高法院成员和其他各级法院的法官由总统根据最高司法会议的提名任命；设立宪法法院，负责监督各项法律及国际条约和协定的合宪性，监督总统选举和全民公决程序的合法性并公布其结果；设立特别法庭，负责审理总统犯有的叛国罪和议员及政府成员履行职权过程中的犯罪事实。最高法院院长普拉西德·朗加（Placide LENGA）；宪法法院院长奥古斯特·伊洛基（Auguste ILOKI）；总检察长乔治·阿基耶拉（Georges AKIERA）。
（1）刚果劳动党（Parti Congolais du Travail，PCT）：简称“刚劳党”。1969年12月31日成立，现有约70万党员，执政党。创始人为已故总统恩古瓦比。1969—1992年为刚唯一合法政党。1992年在首届多党选举中失利，成为反对党。1997年10月内战结束后，重新成为执政党。1990年12月，召开“特别四大”修改党纲党章，放弃马列主义和科学社会主义作为党的政治指导，改“先锋队”为群众党。2002年7月，放弃原“镰刀、斧头和棕榈叶”的党徽图案，改用“大象”标志。2004年11月、2005年12月召开了中央委员会第四、第五次特别会议，讨论修改党纲、党章、重组易名事，但党内各派对此存有较大分歧，未达成共识。2006年8月，保守派抛开改革派擅自召开“五大”，使党险些陷于分裂境地。12月召开“特别五大”，决定搁置易名改组的争议，党内团结得以维护。2011年3月，刚果劳动党代理总书记伊西多尔·姆武巴（Isidore MVOUBA）主持召开刚劳党第五届中央委员会第二次特别会议。会议决定2011年7月3—7日召开全党特别大会，主题为“在和平、稳定与团结的氛围中，以开放的态度重振刚果劳动党，为刚现代化建设贡献力量”。7月，第六次特别大会召开，选举萨苏总统为中央委员会主席，皮埃尔·恩戈洛（Pierre NGOLO）为总书记。2017年立法选举中获90席。
（2）泛非社会民主联盟（Union Panafricaine pour la Démocratie Sociale，UPADS）：简称“泛非联盟”。前政权执政党，现最大反对党。1991年1月成立，6月获合法地位。有约12万名党员，势力范围主要在南方尼阿里、雷库木和布昂扎三省。创始人、主席为前总统利苏巴。1997年10月，利苏巴在内战失败后流亡国外。12月召开会议，原执行局成员、前国务部长马丁·姆贝里当选为代理第一书记，并组成临时执行局。1998年1月，参加“全国和解、团结、民主和重建论坛”。2000年8月，举行全国委员会特别会议，选举姆贝里为总书记和代理主席。2001年12月，姆贝里因党内矛盾辞职另组新党。2004年9月，利苏巴指定翁加古·达楚（Ongakou DATCHOU）任主席，保罗·马基塔（Paul MAKITA）为党的总书记，宣布党员不得进入国家机构，将进入议会的议员开除出党。2006年12月，召开“一大”，帕斯卡尔·马比阿拉（Pascal MABIALA）当选总书记。2007年参加立法选举，获得11个席位，成为议会第二大党，但公开表示在党的领导人仍流亡国外的情况下无意入阁。马比阿拉代表的“白派”与前总书记穆库埃凯（Christophe MOUKOUEKE）代表的“黄派”之间存在很大分歧，党内分裂严重。2010年12月，泛非社会民主联盟召开会议，选举马比阿拉为总书记。2017年立法选举中获8席。
（3）民主与社会进步联盟（Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social）：简称民进盟（RDPS）。1990年10月19日成立，曾有党员10万人，势力范围主要集中于南方黑角市和奎卢省。创始人为前议长让·皮埃尔·蒂斯特雷·齐卡亚（Jean Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA）。自称左翼政党。党的目标是建立一个反对独断专横、专制主义和一党制的社会，反对国家成为少数人致富的机器。内战结束后，该党明确支持萨苏新政权，参与战后重建。现任主席马比奥·马翁古-曾加（Mabio MAVOUNGOU-ZINGA），总书记米歇尔·贡戈（Michel KONKO）。本届国民议会该党领衔的总统多数派政党占15席。
[Judiciary] Constitution stipulates that judicial power is independent of legislative power and may not infringe administrative or legislative powers; judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court, the Audit and Budget Court, the Court of Appeal and other national judicial institutions; the President of the Republic presides over the highest judicial meeting, It ensures the independence of the judiciary; the members of the Supreme Court and other judges at all levels of the court are appointed by the President on the nomination of the Supreme Judicial Conference; the Constitutional Court is established to oversee the constitutionality of laws and international treaties and agreements, and to supervise presidential elections and referendums. The legitimacy of the procedure and the publication of its results; the establishment of a special court to hear the crimes of treason committed by the President and the criminal facts of members and government members in the performance of their duties. Placide LENGA, President of the Supreme Court; Auguste ILOKI, President of the Constitutional Court; and Georges AKIERA, Attorney General.
[Political Party] After independence, the Congolese Labor Party has been in power for more than 20 years. In 1990, the multi-party system was implemented. At present, there are more than 180 political parties. The multi-party ruling coalition “the presidential majority coalition” led by the ruling Congolese Labor Party has dominated the political arena. On August 21, 2006, President Sassou signed the “Party Law” promulgated by the National Assembly and the Senate. The Political Parties Law stipulates that political parties and political groups must reflect ethnic diversity and have branches in each provincial capital to reflect regional representation; the establishment of political parties is monitored by the state; financially, political parties can enjoy state funding; political party activities It is protected by law, but it is not allowed to use religion for propaganda for political purposes. The main political parties are as follows:
(1) Parti Congolais du Travail (PCT): referred to as the “Rangdan Party”. Founded on December 31, 1969, there are about 700,000 party members and ruling parties. The founder is the late President Nguwabi. From 1969 to 1992, it was the only legal party. In 1992, he lost in the first multi-party election and became an opposition party. After the end of the civil war in October 1997, it became the ruling party again. In December 1990, the “Special Big Four” was convened to revise the party constitution, to abandon Marxism-Leninism and scientific socialism as the party’s political guidance, and to change the “vanguard” to the mass party. In July 2002, the abandonment of the original “sickle, axe and palm leaves” party emblem pattern, changed to the “elephant” logo. In November 2004 and December 2005, the fourth and fifth special meetings of the Central Committee were held to discuss the revision of the party program, the party constitution, and the reorganization of the name. However, there were major differences between the parties in the party and no consensus was reached. In August 2006, the conservatives put aside the reformists to arbitrarily convene the “five majors”, which made the party almost in a split position. In December, the “Special Five” was held, and it was decided to put aside the dispute over the reorganization of the name and the unity of the party. In March 2011, Isidore MVOUBA, the general secretary of the Congolese Labour Party, hosted the second special meeting of the Fifth Central Committee of the Gangsang Party. The meeting decided to hold a special meeting of the whole party on July 3-7, 2011, with the theme of “in the atmosphere of peace, stability and unity, revitalize the Congolese Labor Party with an open attitude and contribute to the modernization drive.” In July, the sixth special session was held to elect President Sasso as Chairman of the Central Committee and Pierre NGOLO as General Secretary. In the 2017 legislative elections, 90 seats were won.
(2) Union Panafricaine pour la Démocratie Sociale (UPADS): referred to as “pan-African alliance”. The former ruling party is now the largest opposition party. It was established in January 1991 and was legally held in June. There are about 120,000 party members, mainly in the three provinces of Nyali, Rekumu and Buonza. The founder and chairman are former President Lisuba. In October 1997, Lisuba died in exile after the defeat of the civil war. In December, the former Executive Board member and former Minister of State Martin Mberry was elected as the Acting First Secretary and formed the Interim Executive Board. In January 1998, he participated in the “National Reconciliation, Solidarity, Democracy and Reconstruction Forum”. In August 2000, a special meeting of the National Committee was held to elect Mbeuri as General Secretary and Acting Chairman. In December 2001, Mberi resigned as a new party because of the contradictions within the party. In September 2004, Lisuba appointed Ongakou DATCHOU as chairman, and Paul MAKITA was the party’s general secretary, announcing that party members should not enter state institutions and expel members who entered the parliament. party. In December 2006, “big” was held, and Pascal MABIALA was elected general secretary. In 2007, he participated in the legislative elections and won 11 seats. He became the second largest party in the parliament, but publicly stated that he did not intend to enter the cabinet when the party leader was still in exile. There is a big disagreement between the “white pie” represented by Mabiya and the “Huang pie” represented by former General Secretary Christophe MOUKOUEKE, and the party is divided. In December 2010, the Pan-African Social Democratic Alliance held a meeting to elect Mabiya as General Secretary. Eight seats were won in the 2017 legislative elections.
(3) Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social: referred to as the Democratic Progressive Alliance (RDPS). It was established on October 19, 1990. It had 100,000 members, and its influence was mainly concentrated in the southern corners of Cape Town and Kulu. The founder is the former speaker Jean Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA. Claiming to be a left-wing party. The party’s goal is to build a society that opposes arbitrariness, authoritarianism, and one-party system, and opposes the state as a machine for a few to get rich. After the end of the civil war, the party explicitly supported the new regime of Sassu and participated in post-war reconstruction. The current president is Mabio MAVOUNGOU-ZINGA, general secretary Michel KONKO. The majority of the political parties led by the party in this National Assembly accounted for 15 seats.
[Important figures] Denis Sassou-Nguesso: President of the Republic, head of state, and supreme commander of the armed forces. Born in 1943 in Owando, the northern province of Congo, Mbohi. In the early years, he studied in military schools in Algeria and France. After joining the army in 1961, he served as the company commander of the paratroopers, the battalion commander, the commander of the Brazzaville Military Region, the commander of the army, and the director of the National Security. In August 1963, he participated in the “August Revolution” that overthrew the Yulu regime. In 1968, he participated in the “July 31st Movement” and later served as a member of the National Revolutionary Committee. One of the founders of the Gang party. He was elected as a member of the Central Committee at the inaugural meeting of the Gangs in 1969, and later served as a member of the Politburo and a standing secretary of the Standing Military Committee. At the end of 1975, he was a member of the “Special Staff” and a ministerial representative responsible for national defense and security work. In March 1977, he served as the first vice chairman of the Revolutionary Military Commission, responsible for party affairs and national defense. In March 1979, he was elected as the chairman of the Party Central Committee and served as the head of state and chairman of the ministerial meeting. In August of the same year, he became president. Re-elected in 1984 and 1989. In 1989 he was promoted to the rank of general. In August 1992, after the presidential defeat, he went down. In October 1997, he re-elected as president. On March 10, 2002, he won the first multi-party election after the war and was elected president. In July 2009 and March 2016, he was re-elected.
[Economy] Oil and timber exports are the two pillars of the economy. In the early 1980s, due to the large-scale exploitation of oil, the economy developed rapidly, and the per capita GDP reached US$1,200, entering the ranks of middle-income countries in Africa. After 1985, after the impact of falling oil prices in the international market, the wave of multi-party democratization and the depreciation of non-lang lang, the economy has been in a state of stagnation for years. The civil war in 1997 made the economy a few trapped. Since the second half of 1999, international oil prices have risen sharply, the income of oil just increased, and the economic situation has gradually improved. The government has focused on rectifying the economic order, expanding opening up, improving the investment environment, punishing corruption, significantly improving fiscal revenue, and continuing economic growth. In 2009, the development strategy of “the road to the future” was formulated, and the goal of realizing national modernization and industrialization was put forward. In recent years, it has actively promoted economic diversification, mainly developing agriculture, mining, and processing industries, and actively preparing for the establishment of special economic zones. Since the second half of 2014, due to the sharp drop in international oil prices, the fiscal revenue has decreased sharply and the external debt has expanded. In 2015, the economic growth rate fell to 1.7%. At the beginning of 2016, we formulated a “going to development strategy” and proposed measures such as supporting the establishment of agricultural enterprises, promoting the input of production factors, and deep processing of natural resources, so as to achieve economic diversification, reduce poverty, and create jobs. In 2017, it was exposed to a serious debt problem, and the International Monetary Fund said that its debt-to-GDP ratio was as high as 110%.
The main economic indicators for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: $10.3 billion.
Per capita GDP: $1,907.
Economic growth rate: 1%.
Currency name: China-Africa Financial Cooperation Franc (“African Franc”).
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 581 CFA francs.
Inflation rate: 1.6%.
(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, First Quarter, 2019)
[Transportation] Railway: The Oceanic Railway is the only railway in the country and one of the earliest railways in Africa. It was built by French colonists in 1934. The total length is 886 kilometers, of which the main line is 512 kilometers long. It is connected to the capital Brazzaville and the port city of Pointe Noire. It is the lifeline of the east-west traffic. The designed annual freight volume is 3 million tons. Due to years of disrepair, the current annual freight volume is only 700,000 tons, and passenger traffic is 800,000 passengers.
Highway: The total length is 20,000 kilometers, including 1,200 kilometers of asphalt road. There are two main lines: Highway 1 from Brazzaville to the west to Pointe-Noire, parallel to the Ocean Railway, 570 km long; Highway 2 from Brazzaville north to Owando to Wesso, 856 km long . In 2016, except for the northernmost province of Likuala, other capital cities are connected to the capital Brazzaville. Water transport: The total length of the inland river route is about 5,000 kilometers. Headquarters is one of the three largest seaports on the west coast of Africa. It has a deepest water level of 16 meters and can park a 230-meter-long, 34-foot draught. The annual throughput is about 19.5 million tons, with 2 container terminals and 2 large timber loading docks. Transportation accounts for 90% of the country’s total shipping volume. Air transport: There are 23 airports in the country, including Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire with international air stations. Congo Airlines has three Boeing 737-300s, three Boeing 737-200s, one E-120 passenger aircraft and three Chinese-made “New Boat 60” passenger aircraft and two transport 12 aircraft, mainly engaged in domestic shipping.
[Financial Finance] The national fiscal revenue budget for 2017 is 1,680.535 billion francs (about 2.923 billion US dollars), and the fiscal expenditure budget is 2,071.17 billion francs (about 3.665 billion US dollars).
Before the civil war in 1997, the main banks were: Central African National Bank Congo Branch, Central African Development Bank (BDEAC), Congolese National Development Bank (BNDC), Congolese Commercial Bank (BCC), Congolese Bank Alliance (UCB), Congo International Bank (BIDC), Congo Agricultural and Commercial Credit Bank (CAIC), etc. Commercial banks are all joint ventures with foreign capital, especially French capital, with state holdings of 50%. In 2000, it was just decided to privatize the banking industry and liquidate the Congolese National Development Bank and the Congolese Commercial Bank. In 2001, the Congolese Bank Coalition was acquired by the European and African Investment Financial Institutions (COFIPA), headquartered in Côte d’Ivoire. In 2002, Lyon Credit Group of France acquired Congo International Bank. In 2004, a private bank in Morocco controlled the Congo Agricultural and Industrial Credit Bank and renamed Congo Bank. In 2005, the Central African National Bank set the overall credit rating of the four banks as moderately vulnerable, with two of them being good, one being moderately vulnerable and one being extremely poor. At present, in addition to the Central Bank functions of the Central Bank of China in the Banking System, Congo Bank, Congo Commercial Credit Bank, Congolese Debt Bank, China-Africa Development Bank, etc. In July 2015, the China Agricultural Bank and the Gangfang African Bank, which was jointly established by the Agricultural Bank of China, opened its business and opened its first branch in Pointe-Noire in May 2017.
[Foreign Trade] The main export products are petroleum, wood, cocoa and coffee. Imported refined oil, transportation equipment, electromechanical, building materials, textile raw materials and food. In 2017, the main exporting countries were China, Spain, Angola and Cameroon. The main importing countries are Australia, Namibia, France, Angola and so on.
[Foreign Capital] Foreign capital plays an important role in the major economic sectors, accounting for 80% of the oil exploration industry, 90% of the construction industry, and 80% of the business. The funds are mainly from France, Italy, the United States and China. Among them, oil investment mainly comes from France, Italy and the United States.
[Foreign Aid] After the civil war in 1997, foreign aid to Gangang was once limited to humanitarian. In November 2000, the International Monetary Fund first provided $14 million in aid for post-war reconstruction. At present, the largest aid country is France, followed by the United States, Germany, Italy, etc. The United Nations, the World Bank, the European Union and other international organizations have also provided a lot of assistance. International assistance is mainly concentrated in areas such as infrastructure construction, education, health care, poverty alleviation, environmental and forest protection, and human resource training. At the end of 2003, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund approved the resumption of the “heavily indebted poor countries debt reduction plan”. In 2004, the International Monetary Fund provided $84.4 million in aid to support the “Three-Year Plan for Poverty Reduction and Growth”. In 2006, he completed the first phase of the completion of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Debt Relief Program and received a 67% debt relief or extension from the Paris Club. In 2007, he just got an 80% debt relief from the “London Club”. At the end of 2008, the Paris Club exempted just $643 million in debt and extended the $119 million debt. In January 2010, he just reached the completion point of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Debt Relief Program and was exempted from debt of $1.9 billion. In March 2010, members of the Paris Club and Brazil decided to waive the $2.4 billion bilateral debt, and the Paris Club has now waived all of its debt. In October, Algeria waived the debt of just 26 billion francs. In December, Germany exempted just 47 billion non-franc debts.
[Energy Resources] Oil and natural gas resources are abundant. Large-scale mining began at sea in the early 1970s, and inland oil fields are still in the exploration stage. In recent years, the annual output is between 90 million and 100 million barrels, and it is one of the major oil producers in sub-Saharan Africa. The output value of oil accounts for about 50% of the gross domestic product, and oil exports account for about 80% of total export revenue. Potassium salt reserves are about 6 billion tons, phosphate mines are 6 million tons, and iron ore is about 25 billion tons. In addition, there are metal mines such as aluminum, zinc and copper.
[Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] Agriculture and animal husbandry are backward. In 2017, agricultural output value accounted for 7.2% of GDP. Food, meat, vegetables, etc. are not self-sufficient, and more than 90% rely on imports. The arable land area is 10 million hectares, and the cultivated area is about 200,000 hectares, mainly concentrated in the south. The rural population is about 1.6 million. Agricultural production is dominated by individual production. Individual farmers cultivate 68% of the cultivated area, state-owned and foreign-funded joint farms account for 28%, and private farms account for 2.45%. The main food crops are cassava, corn, rice, potatoes, peanuts, bananas, etc. The economic crops include sugar cane, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, tobacco, etc. The livestock products include cattle, sheep, pigs and chickens.
Fisheries include marine, freshwater fishing and aquaculture.
[Forestry] The forest resources are abundant, covering an area of 22 million hectares, accounting for about 65% of the national area. There are more than 300 kinds of wood that can be mined, and the main export varieties are more than 40 kinds of iron wood and thorn fruit. Forestry is the second largest source of fiscal revenue for the government after oil, and its contribution to GDP is about 5%. In 2014, timber trade accounted for approximately 3.6% of total exports. In 2015, it exported 933,700 cubic meters of wood, mainly wood and un-dried sawn timber.
[Industrial] After independence, more than 200 industrial enterprises were established. Due to poor business management and war damage, the original production projects have basically disappeared. Production-oriented enterprises are basically wholly foreign-owned or controlled. In 2017, industrial output accounted for 54.3% of GDP. The total installed capacity of power generation in the country is 361MW, mainly for hydropower and natural gas power generation.
[Service Industry] In 2017, the service industry’s output value accounted for 38.5% of GDP. Most of the business is controlled by the French-based Congo-Kilu Niari Trading Company, the Gang-Faisi Trading Company and the Sanga Ubangi Trading Company. The retail business is mainly operated by Mali and Lebanese, small Business services are controlled by West African businessmen (mainly Senegal and Malian). In recent years, Chinese businessmen have increased, and most of them operate small commodities such as daily necessities.
【电 信】共有4家移动通信运营商，分别是ZAIN，MTN，WARID和BINTE。近年来，许多用户放弃使用固定电话，仅剩近2000用户，移动电话用户发展迅速，至2008年底超过130万。2010年11月，刚移动电话运营商Zain被印度通信公司 Airtel收购。
【军 事】独立后组建军队，称“刚果武装部队”。1966年6月22日，改为“刚果国家人民军”，6月22日定为建军节。1992年3月15日通过的宪法恢复“刚果武装力量”名称。2002年底，萨苏总统对刚军结构做出重大调整，设立总参谋长、三军和国家宪兵总督察，取消陆、海、空军司令，分设陆、海、空军参谋长。同时任命夏尔·理查德·蒙乔少将（Charles Richard MONDJO）为总参谋长。2012年11月，居伊·布兰夏尔·奥科伊（Guy Blanchard OKOI）少将接替蒙乔担任总参谋长。
[People’s Life] The natural population growth rate is 2.6%, and the 2015 life expectancy is 62.3 years. On average, each mother has 5 children and the neonatal mortality rate is 4.1‰. It is a country with a high degree of urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa, with 65% of the population living in cities. After the war in 1997, the unemployment rate was as high as 50%. In 2015, the number of poor people fell to 32.8% of the total population. In the civil war, the basic medical facilities in various places were seriously damaged. There are 4 general hospitals, 2 maternal and child health hospitals, 43 district and county hospitals, 146 medical centers, 464 medical centers, 215 various prevention and treatment centers, and 11,000 beds. There are 7,500 medical personnel of various types, including 567 doctors (including about 100 foreign doctors). Common diseases include malaria, AIDS, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, filariasis, meningitis, leprosy, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis and sickle cell anemia.
[Telecom] There are 4 mobile communication operators, namely ZAIN, MTN, WARID and BINTE. In recent years, many users have abandoned the use of landlines, leaving only nearly 2,000 users, and mobile phone users have developed rapidly, reaching more than 1.3 million by the end of 2008. In November 2010, mobile phone operator Zain was acquired by Indian communications company Airtel.
[Military] After the independence, an army was formed, called the “Congolese Armed Forces.” On June 22, 1966, it was changed to “Congolese National People’s Army”, and on June 22, it was designated as the Army Day. The Constitution adopted on March 15, 1992 restored the name of the “FARDC”. At the end of 2002, President Sassou made major adjustments to the structure of the armed forces, set up the Chief of Staff, the Three Armies and the National Gendarmerie Chief Inspector, canceled the commanders of the land, sea and air forces, and set up the chief of staff of the land, sea and air force. At the same time, Major Richard Richard MONDJO was appointed as Chief of Staff. In November 2012, Major General Guy Blanchard OKOI succeeded Moncho as Chief of Staff.
Compulsory military service, citizens aged 18 to 35 must be obliged to serve in military service for two years. The current strength is 22,000, including 15,000 Army, 2000 Navy, 1500 Air Force, and 3500 Gendarmerie. There are also 5,000 military and other paramilitary personnel. The country is divided into 9 military regions.
[Cultural Education] A country with a high level of cultural education in Africa. The adult literacy rate is 79.3%, and it has won international literacy awards several times. The successive governments have attached great importance to education. The new education law promulgated on September 1, 1995 stipulates that compulsory education systems are implemented in primary schools and junior high schools. By the age of 16 years, secondary education is divided into general secondary schools and vocational and technical schools. In 1997, education funds before the civil war accounted for about one-fifth of the national budget of the year. In 2007, education funds accounted for 10% of the national budget. There are 28,000 educators nationwide and more than 700,000 students. The primary school enrollment rate is 82%, the junior high school enrollment rate is 44%, and the high school and secondary vocational technical school enrollment rate is 27%. Marian Ngwabi University is the only institution of higher learning in the Congo. It has 12 colleges, 47 departments, 14 research (laboratory) rooms, and nearly 10,000 students.
[Press and Publication] The main newspapers are: “New Republic”, the official weekly report published in 1999; “Brazzaville News”, founded by the Central African Information Agency in 1998, is now the largest circulation newspaper and the only daily newspaper . In recent years, more than 20 regular and irregular party newspapers and private newspapers have been established.
Congo News Agency: Official news agency. Created in 1960. After the civil war, the operation was difficult, and the daily news was changed to three times a week.
Radio Congo: Official radio station, broadcast in French, English and Congo, Lingala and other national languages. Founded in the 1940s, it was renamed the Voice of the Congo Revolution after independence and was renamed in 1991.
Congo TV: Official TV station, established in 1973. Broadcasted in French, Monukutuba and Lingala, covering the capitals of Brazzaville and Pointe Noire.
[External Relations] Pursuing a foreign policy of peace, neutrality and non-alignment, it advocates the development of friendly and cooperative relations with the countries that pursue peace, freedom, justice and unity on the basis of equality, mutual benefit, non-aggression and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, and opposes hegemony. Doctrine and power politics. Based on Africa, we will focus on developing relations with neighboring countries, pursue a policy of good neighborliness and friendship, and actively promote the process of political and economic integration in Central Africa. In recent years, while giving priority to developing relations with France, we will actively develop relations with the United States, the European Union, and Asian countries, and strive to achieve diversification of diplomacy and cooperation.
[Relationship with France] Just a former French colony. France is the largest donor country, the largest investor, the second largest source of imports and the fourth largest export destination. At present, there are a total of 180 French-funded enterprises, employing 15,000 local employees, and there are more than 7,000 people in the legal staff and overseas Chinese. From 2005 to 2008, the French government waived the debt of just 513 billion francs (about 930 million US dollars) and 65.12 million euros. In April 2013 and January 2014, President Sassou paid a working visit to France and went to France to attend the French-Palestinian Peace and Security Summit in December 2013. In July 2015, President Sassou went to France for a state visit. In June 2016, Foreign Minister Gakoso visited France. In January 2017, President Sassou attended the 27th French-African Summit in Mali. In June 2018, French Foreign Minister Ledrien visited Gang. In November of the same year, President Sassou went to France to attend the 100th anniversary of the end of World War I.
[Relationship with the United States] Gangmei established diplomatic relations in 1960. In 2000, it was just listed as a benefit to the African Growth and Opportunity Act. The United States has invested heavily in oil development and is a major importer of oil. US Chevron acquired a 25% stake in Congolese Petroleum and acquired the right to exploit offshore oil fields on the Congolese border in Angola. In July 2004, the United States exempted 13.4 billion non-franc debts and made a moratorium on the 11.9 billion non-language debts. In June 2009, the United States exempted all of the total of 7 billion non-franc debts. In August 2014, President Sassou attended the first US-Africa summit in Washington. In December 2016, Sassou went to the United States to exchange views with the United States on the Libya issue. In February 2017, the US House of Representatives delegation visited Gang.
[Relationship with Russia] Congo and the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations in 1964. The two sides have signed cultural, scientific, trade, aviation, economic and technological cooperation agreements and friendly cooperation treaties. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the former Soviet embassy was changed to the Russian embassy and the consulate in Cape Point was closed. In December 2002, the Russian Foreign Ministry sent a delegation to visit Gang, and announced the reduction of nearly 300 million US dollars in debt, reducing debt by 70%. In April 2014, a meeting of the two countries’ economic and trade mixed committees was held in Moscow. In April 2016, the Deputy Minister of the Russian Ministry of Energy attended the inauguration ceremony of President Sasso as the special envoy of the President. In March 2017, Foreign Minister Gakoso paid a working visit to Russia.
Actively develop relations with other African countries. In February 2013, Rwandan President Kagame visited Gang. In May, South African President Zuma visited Gang. In July, Guinean President Conte and Benin President Yayi visited Gang, and President Sassou visited Burundi. In August, Equatorial Guinea, the President of Niger, and the heads of transitional countries of China and Africa attended the 53rd anniversary of the Independence. In May 2014, Nigerian President Jonathan made a working visit. In May 2014, President Sassou went to South Africa to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Zuma’s re-election. In January 2016, Benin’s President Yayi visited Gang. In April, President Sassou attended the inauguration ceremony of President Yusuf of Niger. In April, heads of state and leaders of Namibia, Niger, Gabon, Angola, Guinea, Senegal, Sao Tome and Principe and Chad attended the inauguration ceremony of President Sassou. In April and September, Togo’s President Foley visited the two times. In May, President Sassou attended the inauguration ceremony of President Ebion of Equatorial Guinea. In August, countries such as Equatorial Guinea, Benin, Central Africa, Guinea, and Côte d’Ivoire attended the celebration of independence. In March 2017, Sassou visited Algeria. In April, Gambian President Barro visited Gang. In May, Togo’s President Foley visited Gang. In July 2018, Mali’s President Keita visited Gang.
In January 2010, President Sassou attended the 10th Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) summit in Bangui, the capital of Central Africa, and served as the agency’s 2010 rotating chairman. In July 2012, the 11th CEMAC Summit was held in Brazzaville. In July 2016, President Sassou went to Equatorial Guinea to attend the CEMAC Special Summit. In November, Prime Minister Muamba met with the chairman of the CEMAC committee, Moussa. In October 2018, President Sassou went to Chad to attend the special summit of CEMAC leaders.
In May 2014, the special summit of the AU leaders was just held. In July 2016, President Sassou went to Kigali, Rwanda, to attend the 27th AU Summit. In January and July 2017, Sassou went to Addis Ababa in Ethiopia to attend the 28th and 29th summit meetings of the African Union. In May, he went to Equatorial Guinea to attend the AU Committee of the 10th Committee of the UN Security Council Reform.
[Relationship with other countries and international organizations] In July 2014, Italian Prime Minister Renzi made a working visit. In February 2015, President Sassou visited Italy. In May, President Sasso went to Milan to attend the World Expo. In March 2016, Foreign Minister Gakoso visited the EU headquarters. In December, Sassou went to Cuba to mourn Castro. In April 2017, Prime Minister Muamba visited Cuba. In May, Foreign Minister Gakoso visited Lebanon.
In March 2011, the International Monetary Fund delegation visited Gang, and assessed the economic and social development after the completion of the HIPC, saying that the situation was generally satisfactory. In March 2015, the World Health Organization gave just 86.5 million CFA franchise supplies. In July 2018, the Director-General of the World Health Organization, Tan Desai, visited Gang.
In November 2015, President Sassou went to France to attend the Paris Climate Change Conference. In February 2016, the 23rd Interpol African Regional Conference was held in Brazzaville, the capital of the country. President Sassu attended and delivered a speech. In April, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change was just signed. In November, President Sasso went to Morocco to attend the Marrakech Climate Change Conference. In November, the World Bank provided $290 million in funding to support the development of agriculture, community poverty reduction and education reform.
[Relationship with African countries] It has just attached importance to good-neighborly friendship and actively participated in regional affairs. It is a member of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community and the Economic Community of Central African Countries. It has maintained friendly relations and cooperation with neighboring countries such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Cameroon, Central Africa and Chad and other African countries.
Maintaining a friendly relationship with the Congo (Gold) as a whole. In February 2011, President Kabila’s official residence was attacked by armed elements. The Congo (Kinshasa) suspected that the anti-government in exile in the Congo (Brazzaville) was committed. The relationship between the two countries was once tense and the Congolese government recalled the Congo in the Congo. )ambassador. President Sassu and Foreign Minister Iquibe visited the Congo (Kinshasa) for explanation work. Since then, relations between the two countries have gradually returned to normal. In December, the Minister of State of the Congo (Brazza), Mvuba, attended the inauguration ceremony of President Kabila as the special envoy of the President. In March 2012, an arsenal explosion occurred in Brazzaville, the capital of Congo (Brazzaville). The Foreign Minister of the Congo (DRC) paid a letter of condolence from President Kabila to President Sassu and announced the provision of medical supplies. In September, President Kabila visited Congo (Brazzaville). In November, President Sassu went to the Democratic Republic of Congo to meet with President Kabila and exchanged views on the relations between the two countries and the situation in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. From January to July 2013, President Kabila visited the Congo (Brazzaville) three times. In June 2014, the fourth mixed committee meeting between the two countries was held in Kinshasa. In September 2015, the fifth defense and security committee meeting of the two countries was held in Kinshasa; Kabila went to the Congo (Brazzaville) to attend the opening ceremony of the 11th African Games. In February and June 2016, President Kabila visited Congo (Brazzaville) twice. In December 2017 and February 2018, President Sassou, President Kabila and Angolan President Lorenzo held two heads of state talks. In February 2019, the new President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kisekdi, visited the Congo (Brazzaville).
Actively mediate and promote the settlement of the crisis in Chad and Libya. In March 2011, President Sassou went to Mauritania to attend the five-nation summit of the AU Special Committee on Libya. In April, President Sassou again attended the meeting of the AU Special Committee on Libya in Mauritania, and then went to Libya to mediate with other members of the Committee. In November 2016, President Sassou was elected as the chairman of the AU High Commission for Libya, and in January 2017 he just hosted the second meeting of the committee. In November, the Libyan City and Tribal High-level Committee meeting was held in Brazzaville, Congo (Brazzaville), and President of the Republic of Sassu and the Libyan City and Tribal High-level Committee, Lazili, attended. In May 2018, President Sassou went to France to attend the International Conference on Libya.
Actively mediate the crisis in the Central African Republic. After the situation in Central Africa deteriorated in December 2012, President Sassu became the chairman of the China-Africa Crisis Action Committee, promoting a peace agreement between the Central African government and the rebels to ease the security situation in China and Africa. In May 2013, the head of the transitional state of China and Africa, Jotodia, visited Gang, introducing the implementation of the road map for the transition period between China and Africa. In February 2014, Pyongza, the head of the transitional state of China and Africa, visited Gang, and held a working meeting with President Sassou on the situation in Central Africa. In the same month, the Prime Minister of the China-Africa Transitional Government, Enzaparek, visited Gang. In March, the fourth Central African Republic International Contact Group meeting was held in Brazzaville. In May, President Ponzza visited Gang. In July, the China-Africa Settlement Dialogue Forum was held in Brazzaville. In March 2015, Foreign Minister Iquibe and AU and Security Commissioner Chergu hosted the seventh meeting of the International Contact Group on China-Africa in Brazzaville. In May, President Sassou went to China and Africa to attend the opening ceremony of the China-Africa National Peace and Reconciliation Forum. In March 2016, President Sassou went to China and Africa to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Tuvaldra. In April, China’s newly elected President Tuvaldra visited Gang, and exchanged views with President Sassou on the situation in Central Africa and the regional situation. President Sassou is currently the Chairman of the Follow-up Committee for China-Africa Peace Operations.
Signed a military agreement with Angola, and An Zeng had a garrison in the south. In August 2009, President Dos Santos attended the inauguration ceremony of President Sassou. In June 2010, President Sassou went to South Africa to attend the World Cup opening ceremony and met with the President of Angola. In March 2014, President Sassou paid a working visit to Angola. In March 2015, President Sassou paid a working visit to Angola. In November, President Sassou went to Ann to attend the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the independence of Angola. In December 2016, Angola’s Foreign Minister Hickey was interviewed.
Former Gabonese President Omar Bongo has actively coordinated the conflicts and conflicts between the Congolese parties, and has led to the signing of a peace agreement between the Gang and the anti-government factions. In November 2009, President Sassou visited Canada. In September 2015, President Ali Bongo attended the opening ceremony of the 11th African Games. In June 2016, President Ali Bongo visited Gang. In October, Canadian Prime Minister Ngongdai visited Gang. In February 2018, Gabonese President Bongo visited Gang.