The Republic of Tajikistan 塔吉克斯坦共和国

【国名】 塔吉克斯坦共和国(The Republic of Tajikistan,Республика Таджикистан) ,简称塔吉克斯坦(Tajikistan,Таджикистан)。

【地理位置】 位于中亚东南部,北邻吉尔吉斯斯坦,西邻乌兹别克斯坦,南与阿富汗接壤,东接中国。东西长700公里,南北宽350公里。境内多山,约占国土面积的93%,有“高山国”之称。

【面积】 14.31万平方公里。

【人口】 910万人(截至2019年1月)。

【民族】 共有86个民族,其中塔吉克族占80%,乌兹别克族占15.3%,俄罗斯族占1%。此外,还有鞑靼、吉尔吉斯、乌克兰、土库曼、哈萨克、白俄罗斯、亚美尼亚等民族。

【宗教】 多数居民信奉伊斯兰教,多数为逊尼派(帕米尔一带属什叶派)。

【官方语言】 塔吉克语为国语,俄语为通用语。

【重大节日】 新年:1月1日;纳乌鲁斯节(波斯语和突厥语国家的春节):3月21日;战胜德国法西斯纪念日:5月9日;民族统一和解日:6月27日;独立日:9月9日;宪法日:11月6日。

【首都】 杜尚别(Dushanbe,Душанбе),人口82万(2017年12月),夏季最高气温可达40℃,冬季最低气温零下10℃左右。

【货币】 索莫尼(1 美元约合9.42索莫尼)。

【行政区划】 全国分为三州一区一直辖市:索格特州(原列宁纳巴德州)、哈特隆州、戈尔诺-巴达赫尚自治州、中央直属区和杜尚别市。

[Country name] The Republic of Tajikistan (Республика Таджикистан), referred to as Tajikistan (Таджикистан).

[Location] Located in the southeast of Central Asia, bordering Kyrgyzstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the west, Afghanistan in the south, and China in the east. It is 700 kilometers long from east to west and 350 kilometers wide from north to south. It is mountainous in the territory, accounting for 93% of the country’s land area. It is known as the “mountain country”.

[Area] 14.31 million square kilometers.

[Population] 9.1 million people (as of January 2019).

[National] There are 86 nationalities, of which Tajik account for 80%, Uzbek for 15.3%, and Russian for 1%. In addition, there are also ethnic groups such as 鞑靼, Kyrgyz, Ukrainian, Turkmen, Kazakh, Belarus, Armenia.

[Religion] Most residents believe in Islam, and most of them are Sunnis (the Shiites in the Pamir area).

[Official language] Tajik is the national language and Russian is the lingua franca.

[Major Festival] New Year: January 1st; Naurus Festival (Spring Festival in Persian and Turkic Countries): March 21; Victory Day in Germany: May 9th; National Reconciliation Day: June 27th; Independence Day: September 9th; Constitution Day: November 6th.

[Capital] Dushanbe (Душанбе), with a population of 820,000 (December 2017), the highest temperature in summer can reach 40 °C, and the lowest temperature in winter is about 10 °C.

[currency] Somoni ($1 is about 9.42 Somoni).

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into three states and one district: the city of Sogte (formerly Leninabad), the state of Hartlon, the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Prefecture, the central direct district and the city of Dushanbe.

【国家元首】埃莫马利·拉赫蒙(Emomali Rahmon,Эмомали Рахмон)。1994年11月就任总统,1999年、2006年和2013年三次连任,本届任期至2020年。

【议会】称“马吉利西·奥利”(Маджлиси Оли),意为最高会议,为两院制议会,是国家最高代表机关和立法机关。上院称“马吉利西·米利”(Маджлиси Милли),意为民族院,下院称“马吉利西·纳莫扬达贡”(Маджлиси Намояндагон)意为代表会议。上院33个席位,下院63个席位。上院和下院任期均为5年。上院议长:马·乌拜杜洛耶夫(М.Убайдуллаев),2015年3月连任。下院议长:舒·祖胡罗夫(Ш.Зухуров),2015年3月连任。

【政府】国家最高行政机关,行使塔吉克斯坦共和国的行政权。科希尔·拉苏尔佐达任总理(К. Расулзода)。

【经济】 2017年塔国内生产总值(GDP)为610.9亿索莫尼(约合69亿美元),人均国内生产总值约775美元,国内生产总值增长率:7.1%。对外贸易额39.73亿美元,同比增长1.1%。2018年塔国内生产总值(GDP)为73亿美元,人均国内生产总值约802美元,同比增长7.3%。主要贸易伙伴有俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、中国、土耳其等。

【文化教育】 2017年,塔吉克斯坦实际教育经费为35.811亿索莫尼,约占国内生产总值的5.9%。全国中小学校共3870所,在校学生共190.63万人。塔全国现有各类高等学校39所(包括分校),主要有:塔吉克斯坦国立大学、塔吉克斯坦技术大学、塔吉克斯坦师范大学、斯拉夫大学、胡占德大学、塔吉克斯坦商业大学、塔吉克斯坦农业大学、塔吉克斯坦医科大学、库尔干秋别国立大学等。塔现有各类学科研究机构所56所,中等职业技术学校(包括分校)67所。

[Head of State] Emomali Rahmon (Эмомали Рахмон). He became president in November 1994 and was re-elected three times in 1999, 2006 and 2013. The current term is until 2020.

[Parliament] called “Majilizi Oliv” (Маджлиси Оли), meaning the highest meeting, the bicameral parliament, the highest representative body of the state and the legislature. The upper house called “Majilizi Milli” (Маджлиси Милли), meaning the National People’s Court, and the lower house called “Majilizi Namoyan Dagong” (Маджлиси Намояндагон) to represent the meeting. There are 33 seats in the upper house and 63 seats in the lower house. Both the upper house and the lower house are appointed for five years. Speaker of the House of Lords: Ma Ubai Drouyev (М.Убайдуллаев), re-elected in March 2015. Speaker of the House of Commons: Shu Zuhurov (Ш.Зухуров), re-elected in March 2015.

[Government] The highest administrative organ of the state, exercising the executive power of the Republic of Tajikistan. Koshir Rasulzoda is the Prime Minister (К. Расулзода).

[Economy] In 2017, the gross domestic product (GDP) of the tower was 61.09 billion somoni (about 6.9 billion US dollars), the per capita GDP was about 775 US dollars, and the GDP growth rate was 7.1%. Foreign trade volume was 3.973 billion US dollars, an increase of 1.1%. In 2018, the gross domestic product (GDP) of the tower was 7.3 billion US dollars, and the per capita GDP was about 802 US dollars, an increase of 7.3%. The main trading partners are Russia, Kazakhstan, China, Turkey and so on.

[Cultural Education] In 2017, Tajikistan’s actual education funding was 3.581 billion somoni, accounting for 5.9% of GDP. There are 3,870 primary and secondary schools nationwide, with a total of 1,906,300 students. There are 39 colleges and universities (including branch schools) in the country, including: National University of Tajikistan, Technical University of Tajikistan, Tajikistan Normal University, Slav University, Hu Zhande University, Tajikistan University of Commerce, Tajikistan Agricultural University, Tajikistan Stan Medical University, Kurgan Autumn National University, etc. There are 56 research institutes of various disciplines and 67 secondary vocational and technical schools (including branch schools).