The Republic of Suriname 苏里南共和国

【国 名】 苏里南共和国(The Republic of Suriname)。

【面 积】 16.4万平方公里

【人 口】 57.1万(2017年)。其中印度裔占33%,克里奥尔人占31%,印尼裔占15%,丛林黑人占10%,印第安人占4%,华人占3%,白人1%,其他人种占3%。荷兰语为官方语言,通用苏里南语。居民42%信奉基督教,20%信奉印度教,13%信奉伊斯兰教。

【首 都】 帕拉马里博(Paramaribo),人口25.9万。

【国家元首】 总统德西·鲍特瑟(Desire BOUTERSE),2010年8月就任,2015年7月再次当选,任期5年。

【重要节日】 11月25日,独立纪念日。

【简 况】 位于南美洲北部。东邻法属圭亚那,南界巴西,西连圭亚那,北濒大西洋。属热带雨林气候。年均气温23-27℃。原为美洲印第安人居住地。1593年被西班牙探险者宣布为其属地。1602年荷兰人开始到此定居。1630年英国移民迁入。1667年英、荷签订条约,苏成为荷兰殖民地。1815年维也纳条约正式确立荷对苏的宗主国地位。1954年实行内部自治。1975年11月25日宣告独立,成立共和国。

【政 治】 2015年5月25日,苏举行新一届议会选举。议会51席中,民族民主党获27席,反对党V7联盟获17席,大众解放发展党领导的A联盟获5席,进步工农联盟获1席,统一民主发展党获1席。7月14日,苏国民议会举行总统选举,民族民主党候选人、主席鲍特瑟再次当选并于8月12日宣誓就职。目前苏政局稳定。

【宪 法】 1987年国民议会通过新宪法草案并生效。宪法规定:立法权由国民议会和总统共同行使,国民议会经由全民选举产生。总统和副总统由国民议会三分之二以上多数选举产生,如果未达三分之二,将由国民议会和省、市议会共同组成的国民大会选举产生。总统是国家元首、政府首脑、国务委员会主席、武装部队总司令,行使行政权,任命内阁;政府由总统、副总统及各部部长组成,副总统兼任总理,领导内阁,对总统负责,政府部长不是国民议会的议员;国务委员会监督政府执行国民议会的决定,成员由总统和工会、企业、立法机构及军方等主要政治力量的代表组成,有权否决它认为违背宪法的法案,最终否决权在总统手中,总统在1个月内考虑同意或反对国务委员会的决定。法院司法独立,不受任何干涉。

【议 会】 国民议会为一院制,设51个席位,任期5年。本届议会2015年6月成立。议长珍妮弗·西蒙斯(Jennifer SIMONS),2015年6月就任。

【政 府】 本届政府于2015年8月12日组成。2017年2月,总统鲍特瑟宣布调整内阁。现内阁主要成员有:总统德西·鲍特瑟,副总统阿斯温·阿德欣(Ashwin ADHIN),外交部长伊尔迪兹·波拉克-拜赫勒(Yldiz Pollack-BEIGHLE),财政部长吉尔摩·霍夫德拉德(Gilmore HOEFDRAAD),公共工程、交通和通讯部长杰瑞·米兰达(Jerry MIRANDA),空间规划及土地和森林管理部长罗琳娜·姗姆苏丁(Roline SAMSOEDIEN),贸易和工业部长费尔迪南德·威尔赞(Ferdinand WELZIJN),社会事务和住房部长克里斯蒂娜·波拉克(Cristien POLAK),体育和青年事务部长琼·道格约(Joan DOGOJO),新闻局长克里夫顿·林堡(Clifton LIMBURG)等。

[Country name] The Republic of Suriname.

[area] 16.4 million square kilometers

[People] 571,000 (2017). Among them, Indians accounted for 33%, Creoles 31%, Indonesian 15%, jungle blacks 10%, Indians 4%, Chinese 3%, whites 1%, and other people 3%. Dutch is the official language, General Suriname. 42% of residents believe in Christianity, 20% believe in Hinduism, and 13% believe in Islam.

[Capital] Paramaribo, with a population of 259,000.

[Head of State] President Desire BOUTERSE, who took office in August 2010, was re-elected in July 2015 for a five-year term.

[Important Festival] November 25, Independence Day.

[profile] Located in the north of South America. It is adjacent to French Guiana in the east, Brazil in the south, Guyana in the west, and the Atlantic Ocean in the north. Tropical rain forest climate. The average annual temperature is 23-27 °C. Originally the residence of American Indians. In 1593, it was declared a possession by Spanish explorers. In 1602 the Dutch began to settle here. British immigrants moved in 1630. In 1667, Britain and the Netherlands signed a treaty, and Su became a Dutch colony. The 1815 Vienna Treaty officially established the status of the sovereign state of the Soviet Union. Internal self-government was introduced in 1954. On November 25, 1975, it declared independence and established a republic.

[Politics] On May 25, 2015, the Soviet Union held a new parliamentary election. Among the 51 seats in the parliament, the National Democratic Party won 27 seats, the opposition V7 alliance won 17 seats, the A-League of the Volkswagen Liberation and Development Party won 5 seats, the Progressive Workers and Peasants Union won 1 seat, and the Unified Democratic Development Party won 1 seat. On July 14, the National Assembly of the Soviet Union held a presidential election. Batmen, the candidate of the National Democratic Party and Chairman, was re-elected and sworn in on August 12. The current political situation in the Soviet Union is stable.

[Constitution] In 1987, the National Assembly passed a new draft constitution and entered into force. The Constitution stipulates that the legislative power is exercised jointly by the National Assembly and the President, and the National Assembly is elected by the National Assembly. The president and vice president are elected by more than two-thirds of the majority of the National Assembly. If less than two-thirds, the National Assembly, which is composed of the National Assembly and the provincial and municipal councils, will be elected. The President is the head of state, the head of government, the chairman of the State Council, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, exercising executive power, appointing the cabinet; the government is composed of the president, vice president and ministers, the vice president is also the prime minister, leading the cabinet, responsible for the president, the government minister is not Member of the National Assembly; the State Council oversees the government’s decision to implement the National Assembly. The members are composed of representatives of the president and the major political forces such as trade unions, enterprises, legislatures, and the military. They have the power to veto bills that they believe are against the Constitution. The final veto power is In the hands of the President, the President considers agreeing or opposing the decision of the Council of State within one month. The court is independent of the judiciary and is not subject to any interference.

[Parliament] The National Assembly is a one-chamber system with 51 seats for a term of five years. The current parliament was established in June 2015. Speaker Jennifer SIMONS, who took office in June 2015.

[Government] The current government was formed on August 12, 2015. In February 2017, President Boutse announced the adjustment of the cabinet. The main members of the cabinet are: President Desi Boutse, Vice President Ashwin ADHIN, Foreign Minister Yldiz Pollack-BEIGHLE, Minister of Finance Gilmore HOEFDRAAD, Minister of Public Works, Transport and Communications Jerry MIRANDA, Director of Space Planning and Land and Forest Management, Roline SAMSOEDIEN, Trade And industry minister Ferdinand WELZIJN, social affairs and housing minister Cristien POLAK, sports and youth affairs minister Joan DOGOJO, press director Clifton Limburg (Clifton LIMBURG) and so on.

【行政区划】 全国划为一市即帕拉马里博市和九大区:瓦尼卡、尼克里、萨拉马卡、科摩维纳、马罗维纳、巴拉、勃洛克彭都、西帕里维尼、科罗尼。

【司法机构】 设最高法院、检察院和3个地方法院。最高法院法官任职终身制,院长埃瓦尔德·翁布勒(Ewald OMBRE),2010年6月就任。总检察长索巴肖德尔·彭瓦西(Soebhaschaudre PUNWASI)。

【政 党】 主要政党:

(1)民族民主党(Nationale Democratische Partij,简称NDP):执政党。成立于1987年6月,主张建立以民族、民主为基础的社会经济秩序。党主席德西·鲍特瑟。

(2)进步改革党(Vooruitstrevende Hervormings Partij,简称VHP):反对党。1949年成立,1974年改为现名。党员主要为印度裔。主要维护印度裔利益。党主席昌德利卡波萨德·单多吉(Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI)。

(3)民族党(Nationale Partij Suriname,简称NPS):反对党。1946年成立,主要由克里奥尔人组成。主张实行议会民主,发展独立的民族经济。党主席格里高利·鲁斯兰德(Gregory RUSLAND)。

【重要人物】 德西·鲍特瑟:总统。1945年10月13日生于苏里南多姆堡。职业军人,曾在荷兰皇家军校学习,后在荷兰和北约军队服役。1975年加入苏国防军。1980年参与发动军事政变,先后出任国防军总司令和全国军事委员会主席等职。1987年创立民族民主党,并任党主席。1987年和1991年两次参加大选,均失利。1996年至2000年,民族民主党赢得大选,鲍出任国家顾问。2010年8月就任总统,2015年7月再次当选并于8月宣誓就职。

【经 济】 自然资源丰富,铝矿业、加工制造业和农业为经济主要产业。2017年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:36.65亿美元

人均国内生产总值:6416美元

国内生产总值增长率:-1.2%

通货膨胀率:22.3%

货币名称:苏里南元

汇率:1美元=7.42苏元

(资料来源:国际货币基金组织)

[Administrative Division] The whole country is divided into one city, Paramaribo and the nine regions: Wanica, Nicky, Saramaca, Comovina, Malovina, Barra, and Pollock. West Parivini, Koroni.

[Judiciary] There are Supreme Court, Procuratorate and 3 District Courts. The Supreme Court judge is a tenured, Dean Ewald OMBRE, who took office in June 2010. Attorney General Soebhaschaudre PUNWASI.

[political party] major political parties:

(1) National Democratische Partij (NDP): The ruling party. Established in June 1987, it advocates the establishment of a social and economic order based on nationality and democracy. Party Chairman Desi Bautzer.

(2) Vooruitstrevende Hervormings Partij (VHP): Opposition party. It was established in 1949 and changed its current name in 1974. Party members are mainly Indian. Mainly to protect the interests of Indians. Party Chairman Chandrikasad SANTOKHI.

(3) National Party (Nationale Partij Suriname, NPS for short): opposition party. Founded in 1946, mainly composed of Creoles. It advocates the implementation of parliamentary democracy and the development of an independent national economy. Party Chairman Gregory RUSLAND.

[important person] Desi Bautzer: President. Born on October 13, 1945 in Fort Dom, Suriname. A professional soldier who studied at the Royal Netherlands Military Academy and served in the Netherlands and the NATO army. Joined the Soviet Defense Forces in 1975. In 1980, he participated in the military coup, and served as the commander-in-chief of the National Defense Force and the chairman of the National Military Commission. In 1987, the National Democratic Party was founded and served as the party chairman. In 1987 and 1991, he participated in the general election twice and lost. From 1996 to 2000, the National Democratic Party won the general election and Bao was appointed as a national consultant. He became president in August 2010 and was re-elected in July 2015 and took the oath of office in August.

[Economy] Natural resources are abundant, and aluminum mining, processing and manufacturing industries and agriculture are major industries. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $3.665 billion

Per capita GDP: $6,416

GDP growth rate: -1.2%

Inflation rate: 22.3%

Currency Name: Surinamese Dollar

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 7.42 Su Yuan

(Source: International Monetary Fund)

【资 源】 铝土矿资源丰富,探明蕴藏量约为5.8亿吨。其他矿产有石油、铁、锰、铜、镍、铂、黄金等。近年来在近海发现石油。森林和水力资源丰富,森林覆盖率达95%。1998年,苏宣布将160万公顷(相当于国土的10%)的原始雨林设为国家保护区。

【工 业】 以铝矾土开采、加工为主,为世界第九大铝矾土生产国。此外还有粮食加工、香烟、饮料、化工产品生产等。

【农林渔业】 耕地面积占国土面积的0.36%。农林渔业产值约占国内生产总值的4.3%。主要农作物为稻米、水果、蔬菜、甘蔗、棕榈、咖啡和可可。稻米播种面积约占可耕地面积的50%。43%的稻米用于出口,占出口总值的8%。原木年产量约16万立方米。渔业是重要创汇来源,年捕捞量约3万吨,其中约2万吨出口。

【交通运输】 以公路和水运为主。

铁路:总长225公里,用来运输木材和铝矾土。无公用客运铁路。

公路、桥梁:总长约1万公里。1999年7月竣工的哥本南大桥将首都帕拉马里博和西部尼克里地区连结起来。2000年5月竣工的苏里南河大桥将首都和东部地区连结起来。

水运:可航行的河流总长约1500公里。首都帕拉马里博为主要港口。轮渡可通往圭亚那和法属圭亚那。

空运:有一个国际机场,有四条国际航线。其他机场及简易机场只能供小型短距离起落飞机使用。

【财政金融】 2016/2017财年,苏财政收入43.27亿苏元,财政支出60.68亿苏元。(资料来源:国际货币基金组织)

【对外贸易】 主要出口氧化铝,其次为大米、虾、水果、木材等,进口燃料、工业原材料和半制成品、机械、交通和生活用品。主要贸易伙伴为美国、加拿大、挪威等。2017年,苏进出口总额35.46亿美元,其中出口19.76亿美元,进口15.7亿美元。(资料来源:国际货币基金组织)

【经济团体】 主要经济团体有:

(1)工商会(Chamber of Commerce and Industry),

1910年成立。地址:P.O.BOX 139,Mr. J.C. De Miranda Straat 10,Paramaribo, Suriname,电话:(597)473527,传真:(597)470802。

(2)苏里南工贸协会(Suriname Trade and Industry Association):1950年成立。地址:P.O.Box 111,Prins Hendrikstraat 18,Paramaribo, Suriname。

[Resources] Bauxite resources are abundant, and the proven reserves are about 580 million tons. Other minerals include petroleum, iron, manganese, copper, nickel, platinum, and gold. Oil has been discovered offshore in recent years. Forests and water resources are abundant, with a forest coverage rate of 95%. In 1998, Su announced the establishment of a 1.6 million hectare (equivalent to 10% of the country’s) original rainforest as a national protected area.

[Industrial] It is the ninth largest producer of bauxite in the world, mainly engaged in the mining and processing of bauxite. In addition, there are food processing, cigarettes, beverages, and chemical products.

[Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries] The cultivated land area accounts for 0.36% of the country’s land area. The output value of agriculture, forestry and fishery accounts for about 4.3% of GDP. The main crops are rice, fruits, vegetables, sugar cane, palm, coffee and cocoa. Rice planting area accounts for about 50% of the arable land area. 43% of rice is exported, accounting for 8% of total exports. The annual output of logs is about 160,000 cubic meters. Fisheries are an important source of foreign exchange earning. The annual catch is about 30,000 tons, of which about 20,000 tons are exported.

[Transportation] Mainly by road and water.

Railway: 225 km in total, used to transport timber and bauxite. There is no public passenger rail.

Roads and bridges: The total length is about 10,000 kilometers. The Coppen South Bridge, completed in July 1999, links the capital, Paramaribo, and the West Nikery area. The Suriname River Bridge, completed in May 2000, links the capital to the eastern region.

Water transport: The total length of the river that can sail is about 1,500 kilometers. The capital, Paramaribo, is the main port. Ferries lead to Guyana and French Guiana.

Air transport: There is an international airport with four international routes. Other airports and airstrips can only be used for small short-distance landing and landing aircraft.

[Financial Finance] In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, the fiscal revenue of Jiangsu was 4.327 billion yuan and the fiscal expenditure was 6.068 billion yuan. (Source: International Monetary Fund)

[Foreign Trade] The main export of alumina, followed by rice, shrimp, fruit, wood, etc., imported fuel, industrial raw materials and semi-finished products, machinery, transportation and daily necessities. The main trading partners are the United States, Canada, Norway and so on. In 2017, the total import and export volume of the Soviet Union was 3.546 billion US dollars, of which 1.976 billion US dollars were exported and 1.57 billion US dollars were imported. (Source: International Monetary Fund)

[economic group] The main economic groups are:

(1) Chamber of Commerce and Industry,

Established in 1910. Address: P.O.BOX 139, Mr. J.C. De Miranda Straat 10, Paramaribo, Suriname, tel: (597) 473527, fax: (597) 470802.

(2) Suriname Trade and Industry Association: Established in 1950. Address: P.O.Box 111, Prins Hendrikstraat 18, Paramaribo, Suriname.

【人民生活】 拥有现代化医疗设施,但医疗卫生系统人才流失极为严重。2017年,苏人均寿命72.5岁,人口增长率1.02%。

【军 事】 国防军由海陆空三军组成,总兵力约2500人。

【教 育】 对6至12岁儿童实行义务教育,大中小学免费。全国有1所大学(苏里南大学)。成人识字率为94.7%。

【新闻出版】 主要报纸有:《真理时报》,发行量约8000份;《西方晚报》,发行量约1.8万份。主要通讯社为苏里南通讯社,同西方、拉美、加勒比各大通讯社有业务联系,每天发布荷文、英文新闻稿。

主要广播电台有:苏里南广播基金会:创建于1965年,由政府经营,用荷兰语和当地语言播音;苏里南国际广播电台:创建于1984年,由政府经营,用荷兰语、英语和苏里南语播音,每周两次;K.B.C.电台:创建于1985年,用当地语言和英语广播;帕拉马里博电台:创建于1957年,用当地语言、英语和西班牙语广播;鼓声电台:创建于1958年,用荷兰语、当地语广播。

主要电视台有:苏里南电视台:建于1965年,由政府经营,用当地语言、荷兰语和英语广播。阿波尼电视台:1985年建立,由政府经营,用荷兰语、英语、葡萄牙语、西班牙语及当地语言广播。

【对外关系】 奉行不结盟的外交政策,坚持国家主权平等、民族自决和不干涉内政等原则。重视发展同美国、加勒比共同体成员、巴西等南美邻国关系,积极拓展同中国、印度等发展中大国关系。积极支持并参与地区一体化进程,是加勒比共同体、加勒比开发银行、南美国家联盟、77国集团、东亚-拉美合作论坛、伊斯兰会议组织、美洲开发银行成员。

[People’s life] With modern medical facilities, the brain drain of the medical and health system is extremely serious. In 2017, the average life expectancy of the Soviet Union was 72.5 years, and the population growth rate was 1.02%.

[Military] The National Defense Force consists of three armies of the sea, land and air, with a total strength of about 2,500.

[Education] Compulsory education for children between the ages of 6 and 12 is free. There is one university in the country (Suriname University). The adult literacy rate is 94.7%.

[Press and Publication] The main newspapers are: The Truth Times, with a circulation of about 8,000 copies; The Western Evening News, with a circulation of about 18,000 copies. The main news agency is Suriname News Agency, which has business contacts with major news agencies in the West, Latin America and the Caribbean. It publishes daily news articles in English and English.

The main radio stations are: Suriname Broadcasting Foundation: created in 1965, operated by the government, broadcast in Dutch and local languages; Suriname International Radio: created in 1984, operated by the government, broadcast in Dutch, English and Suriname , twice a week; KBC. Radio: Created in 1985, broadcast in local language and English; Paramaribo Radio: Created in 1957, broadcast in local language, English and Spanish; Drum Radio: Created in 1958, in Dutch, local broadcast.

The main TV stations are: Suriname TV: Built in 1965, it is operated by the government and broadcast in local languages, Dutch and English. Apollo TV: Established in 1985, operated by the government, broadcast in Dutch, English, Portuguese, Spanish and local languages.

[External Relations] Pursue a non-aligned foreign policy and adhere to the principles of national sovereign equality, national self-determination and non-interference in internal affairs. We will attach importance to developing relations with the United States, members of the Caribbean Community, Brazil and other South American neighbors, and actively expand relations with developing countries such as China and India. Actively support and participate in the regional integration process. It is a member of the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Development Bank, the South American Association, the Group of 77, the East Asia-Latin America Cooperation Forum, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, and the Inter-American Development Bank.