The Republic of Palau 帕劳共和国

【国 名】 帕劳共和国(The Republic of Palau)。

【面 积】 陆地面积459平方公里,海洋专属经济区面积约62.9万平方公里。

【人 口】 2.18万(2017年)。多属密克罗尼西亚人种。官方语言为帕劳语,通用英语。全国73%居民信奉基督教,其中41.6%信奉罗马天主教,28.3%信奉基督教新教。

【首 都】 梅莱凯奥克(Melekeok)。2006年10月1日自科罗尔(Koror)迁至此。

【国家元首】 小汤米·雷门格绍(Tommy E. Remengesau Jr.),2012年11月当选,2013年1月就职,2016年11月获连任。

【重要节日】 独立日:10月1日。宪法日:7月9日。

【简 况】 位于西太平洋,关岛以南700多英里处,属加罗林群岛,是太平洋进入东南亚的门户之一。海岸线长1519公里。由300多个火山岛和珊瑚岛组成,分布在南北长640公里的海面上,其中只有九个岛有常住居民。最大岛屿为巴伯尔岛(Babeldaob),面积352平方公里,在本地区仅次于关岛。属热带气候,年均气温27℃。5月至11月为雨季,12月至次年4月为旱季。年均降水量3000毫米以上。

1710年被西班牙探险家发现。1885年被西班牙占领。1898年被西班牙卖给德国。一战中被日本占领。二战期间被美国攻占。1947年,联合国将其交美国托管,与马绍尔群岛、北马里亚纳群岛和密克罗尼西亚联邦构成太平洋岛屿托管地的四个政治实体。1969年,帕劳开始就未来政治地位同美国谈判。1982年8月,帕与美签订《自由联系条约》,该条约在帕1993年11月举行的公民投票中获得通过。根据该条约,帕劳于1994年10月1日结束其托管地位,成为独立的主权国家,但仍与美国保持特殊关系。同年12月,帕劳加入联合国。

【政 治】 实行总统制,总统既是国家元首,又是政府首脑。部长由总统任命。大酋长委员会参政议政,在帕政治中发挥较大影响。帕两位最高酋长分别称作Ibedul和Reklai,享有与总统相当的声望。全国分成16个州,各州自行立宪。2013年1月,小汤米·雷门格绍就任总统,后于2016年11月的大选中获胜连任,2017年1月就职。

【宪 法】 1980年7月9日通过,1981年1月1日生效。

【议 会】 由参众两院组成。参议院较众议院权力大,具有对总统候选人提出建议和表决的权力。参院有13名参议员,众院有16名众议员,任期均为四年。两院均设正副议长职位。本届议会于2016年11月大选产生。参议长霍肯斯·鲍勒斯(Hokkons Baules),众议长萨比诺·阿纳斯塔西奥(Sabino Anastacio)。

【政 府】 总统和副总统经普选产生,任期四年。本届内阁成员主要有:总统小汤米·雷门格绍,副总统兼司法部长雷纳德·奥伊洛克(Raynold Oilouch),国务部长弗斯蒂娜·莱胡尔-玛拉格(Faustina K. Rehuher-Marugg),财政部长艾尔布彻·萨当(Elbuchel Sadang),卫生部长伊麦斯·罗伯茨(Emais Roberts),公共基础设施、工业和商业部长查尔斯·奥比昌(Charles Obichang),自然资源、环境及旅游部长乌米驰·森格堡(Umiich Sengebau),教育部长辛顿·索阿拉布莱(Sinton Soalablai),社区和文化事务部长巴克莱·泰门吉尔(Baklai Temengil)。

[Country name] The Republic of Palau.

[Dimensions] The land area is 459 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of ​​629,000 square kilometers.

[People] 2.18 million (2017). Mostly belong to the Micronesian race. The official language is Palau, General English. 73% of the country’s residents believe in Christianity, of which 41.6% believe in Roman Catholicism and 28.3% believe in Protestantism.

[The capital] Melekeok. Moved from Koror on October 1, 2006.

[Head of State] Tommy E. Remengesau Jr., elected in November 2012, took office in January 2013, and was re-elected in November 2016.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: October 1. Constitution Day: July 9.

[Profile] Located in the western Pacific Ocean, more than 700 miles south of Guam, it belongs to the Caroline Islands and is one of the gateways for the Pacific Ocean to enter Southeast Asia. The coastline is 1519 kilometers long. It consists of more than 300 volcanic islands and coral islands, distributed over 640 km of the north and south, of which only nine have permanent residents. The largest island is Babeldaob, with an area of ​​352 square kilometers, second only to Guam in the region. It has a tropical climate with an average annual temperature of 27 °C. The rainy season is from May to November, and the dry season is from December to April. The average annual precipitation is over 3,000 mm.

Discovered by Spanish explorers in 1710. It was occupied by Spain in 1885. Sold by Spain to Germany in 1898. It was occupied by Japan during World War I. Captured by the United States during World War II. In 1947, the United Nations placed it in the United States, and the Marshall Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia constituted the four political entities of the Pacific Islands Trust. In 1969, Palau began negotiating with the United States on future political status. In August 1982, Pa and the United States signed the Treaty of Free Association, which was passed in a referendum held in November 1993. According to the treaty, Palau ended its custody status on October 1, 1994, becoming an independent sovereign state, but still maintains a special relationship with the United States. In December of the same year, Palau joined the United Nations.

[Politics] The presidential system is implemented. The president is both the head of state and the head of government. The minister is appointed by the president. The Great Chiefs Committee participated in the administration of state affairs and played a greater role in the politics of Pa. The two chiefs of Pai, Ibedul and Reklai, respectively, enjoy the same prestige as the president. The country is divided into 16 states, and each state has its own constitution. In January 2013, Tommy Remengesau became president and was re-elected in the November 2016 general election. He took office in January 2017.

[Constitution] Passed on July 9, 1980 and entered into force on January 1, 1981.

[Parliament] It consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has greater power than the House of Representatives and has the power to make recommendations and votes on presidential candidates. There are 13 senators in the Senate and 16 members of the House of Representatives for a term of four years. Both houses have the position of deputy speaker. The current parliament was elected in November 2016. Senate President Hokkons Baules, Speaker of the House of Representatives Sabino Anastacio.

[Government] The President and Vice President are elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years. The current cabinet members are: President Tommy Remengesau, Vice President and Attorney General Raynold Oilouch, Minister of State Faustina Raipur (Faustina) K. Rehuher-Marugg), Treasury Secretary Elbuchel Sadang, Minister of Health Emais Roberts, Minister of Public Infrastructure, Industry and Commerce Charles Obichang Umiich Sengebau, Minister of Natural Resources, Environment and Tourism, Sinton Soalablai, Minister of Education, and Baklai Temengil, Minister of Community and Cultural Affairs.

【行政区划】全国分16个州。

【司法机构】设最高法院、全国法院和下属法院等三级法院及土地法院。高法大法官为亚瑟·恩吉拉克尔松(Arthur Ngiraklsong),1992年就职,终身制。

【重要人物】小汤米·雷门格绍:总统。1956年2月生于帕劳,毕业于美国密歇根大峡谷州立大学,1984年当选帕劳参议员,1992—2000年任副总统,2000—2008年任总统。2012年11月再次当选总统,2013年1月宣誓就职。2016年11月再次胜选连任总统,2017年1月宣誓就职。为帕第七、九、十任总统。

【经 济】 近年来经济保持增长。目前帕劳是太平洋岛国中人民生活水平较高的国家之一。经济依靠外国援助。旅游业发展较快。服务业对国内生产总值(GDP)贡献率超过80%。服务业就业人数占全国就业总数的一半。2010年,政府修订外来投资法,在能源、旅游和民用航空等领域积极引进外资,为经济发展注入了活力。

2017年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:3.01亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:16700美元。

国内生产总值增长率:1%。

货币名称:美元。

【农渔业】 主要农产品有鸡蛋、水果、蔬菜、猪肉、槟榔果等。盛产金枪鱼,年捕鱼量为6万至7万吨。粮食不能自给。

【旅游业】 是帕支柱产业之一,占GDP总量约50%。2017年入境游客12.2万人次。“岩石岛”(Rock Islands)拥有太平洋地区最好的海洋生态系统。

【交通运输】 境内无铁路。有机场、港口和卫星通信系统。

公路:总长61公里。无公共交通设施。

水运:科罗尔为主要港口。

空运:共有三个机场。美国、日本、韩国、菲律宾、关岛、中国台湾地区有定期航班往返。

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 16 states.

[Judiciary] There are three levels of courts and land courts such as the Supreme Court, the National Court and the Subordinate Court. High Court Justice is Arthur Ngiraklsong, who took office in 1992 and is a tenured.

[Important] Xiao Tommy Remen Gesau: President. Born in Palau in February 1956, he graduated from Grand Canyon State University in Michigan, was elected to Senator Palau in 1984, served as Vice President from 1992 to 2000, and served as President from 2000 to 2008. He was re-elected as president in November 2012 and was sworn in in January 2013. In November 2016, he won the re-election for the pre-election and was sworn in in January 2017. For the seventh, ninth, and tenth presidents of Pa.

[Economy] The economy has maintained growth in recent years. Palau is currently one of the countries with a high standard of living in the Pacific island countries. The economy depends on foreign aid. Tourism has developed rapidly. The service industry contributes more than 80% to gross domestic product (GDP). Service industry employment accounts for half of the total employment in the country. In 2010, the government revised the foreign investment law and actively introduced foreign capital in the fields of energy, tourism and civil aviation, which injected vitality into economic development.

The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $301 million.

Per capita GDP: $16,700.

GDP growth rate: 1%.

Currency name: US dollar.

[Agriculture and Fisheries] The main agricultural products are eggs, fruits, vegetables, pork, betel nuts and so on. It is rich in tuna and has an annual fishing capacity of 60,000 to 70,000 tons. Food cannot be self-sufficient.

[Tourism] It is one of the pillar industries, accounting for about 50% of the total GDP. In 2017, there were 122,000 inbound tourists. The Rock Islands have the best marine ecosystem in the Pacific.

[Transportation] There is no railway in the territory. There are airports, ports and satellite communication systems.

Highway: The total length is 61 kilometers. No public transportation facilities.

Water transport: Koror is the main port.

Air transport: There are three airports. There are regular flights between the United States, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Guam, and Taiwan.

【对外贸易】 主要进口机械、汽车、燃油、工业制成品、食品等,出口贝类、金枪鱼和椰干。

【外国援助】 根据帕美《自由联系条约》,美国向帕劳提供大量援助。美以租金形式在条约生效的前15年内(1994-2009年)向帕提供超过8亿美元的援助,其中7000万美元存入帕信托基金。该基金已超过1.44亿美元,供帕美条约结束后补贴帕财政之用。美还将在2010-2024年向帕提供2.29亿美元的援助。美援款约占帕GDP的20%。日本为帕劳第二大援助国。

【人民生活】 有1所医院和13所诊疗所。约有医生20名。人口平均寿命约为70岁。

【军 事】 根据帕美《自由联系条约》,1994-2044年,帕劳国防由美国负责。美海岸警卫队负责巡逻帕海域。帕为无核区。

【教 育】 有小学25所,中学6所,大专1所,即帕劳社区学院(Palau Community College)。文盲率为8%。

【新闻出版】 主要报纸有一周双刊报纸《帕劳报》(Tia Belau)和《岛屿时报》(Island Times)。有两家广播电台。有卫星地面接收站和有线电视台,可接收美国有线新闻网(CNN)等节目。

【对外关系】 帕劳致力于同各国发展友好关系,重视加强同亚太地区国家合作,积极参与地区事务。为联合国、国际货币基金组织、世界银行、太平洋岛国论坛、太平洋共同体、各国议会联盟和世界卫生组织成员。与60个国家建交。在联合国派大使级常驻代表,在荷兰派名誉领事。

【同美国的关系】 帕美《自由联系条约》于1994年10月1日生效,有效期50年。根据该条约,帕劳有内政、外交自主权,美国负责其国防及战略安全事务,提供天气预报、医疗和自然灾害救助等,并对帕航道具有独家使用权。帕美互设使馆。2010年,美向帕派出首任常驻大使(此前一直为代办)。帕还设有驻关岛总领馆、驻夏威夷领馆、驻塞班领馆。2009年3月,帕总统托里比翁访美。2016年2月,美国助理国务卿拉塞尔访帕。

【同日本的关系】 日本是帕劳第二大援助国,是帕金枪鱼和鲭鱼主要出口市场。1999年,帕日互设使馆。帕早已向日派驻大使,日于2010年3月向帕派常驻大使。2018年5月,帕总统雷门格绍赴日参加第8届日本与太平洋岛国领导人会议(PALM8)。

【同菲律宾的关系】 帕菲互设使馆并派大使,但因财政预算问题,菲计划于2012年7月关闭驻帕使馆。目前,菲律宾人已占帕总人口的20%,帕60%的外国劳动力来自菲。2008年4月,帕总统雷门格绍访菲。

【同澳大利亚的关系】 1994年10月1日,帕与澳大利亚建交。澳驻密克罗尼西亚联邦大使兼驻帕大使。2018年6月,澳外长毕晓普访帕。

[Foreign Trade] Mainly imported machinery, automobiles, fuel oil, industrial manufactured goods, food, etc., export shellfish, tuna and copra.

[Foreign Aid] According to the Pame Freedom Treaty, the United States provides a large amount of assistance to Palau. In the first 15 years of the treaty’s entry into force (1994-2009), the United States provided more than $800 million in aid to the United States in the form of rent, of which $70 million was deposited in the Papa Trust Fund. The fund has exceeded $144 million for the purpose of subsidizing the fiscal year after the end of the Pame Treaty. The United States will also provide $229 million in aid to Pa in 2010-2024. US aid accounts for about 20% of PA’s GDP. Japan is the second largest donor to Palau.

[People’s Life] There are 1 hospital and 13 clinics. There are about 20 doctors. The average life expectancy of the population is about 70 years old.

[Military] According to the Pame Freedom Treaty, in 1994-2044, Palau’s defense was the responsibility of the United States. The US Coast Guard is responsible for patrolling the Pahai area. Pa is a nuclear-free zone.

[education] There are 25 primary schools, 6 middle schools, and 1 junior college, namely Palau Community College. The illiteracy rate is 8%.

[Press and Publication] The main newspapers have a weekly newspaper, Tia Belau and the Island Times. There are two radio stations. There are satellite ground receiving stations and cable TV stations that can receive programs such as CNN.

[External Relations] Palau is committed to developing friendly relations with other countries, attaches importance to strengthening cooperation with countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and actively participates in regional affairs. Member of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community, the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the World Health Organization. Establish diplomatic relations with 60 countries. A permanent representative at the ambassadorial level at the United Nations and an honorary consul in the Netherlands.

[Relationship with the United States] The Pamei Free Contact Treaty entered into force on October 1, 1994 and is valid for 50 years. According to the treaty, Palau has internal and diplomatic autonomy. The United States is responsible for its defense and strategic security affairs, providing weather forecasts, medical and natural disaster relief, and has exclusive rights to use the Pai Channel. Pamei has an embassy. In 2010, the United States sent the first permanent ambassador to the Pa (previously has been the agent). Pai also has a consulate in Guam, a consulate in Hawaii, and a consulate in Saipan. In March 2009, President Tori Biwen visited the United States. In February 2016, US Assistant Secretary of State Russell visited Par.

[Relationship with Japan] Japan is the second largest donor to Palau and the main export market for parmesan and squid. In 1999, Paji set up an embassy. Pa has already sent an ambassador to Japan, and in March 2010 he sent a permanent ambassador to Papa. In May 2018, President Ramen Gesau went to Japan to attend the 8th Japan and Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting (PALM8).

[Relationship with the Philippines] Pafi has set up embassies and sent ambassadors. However, due to budgetary problems, the Philippines plans to close the embassy in July 2012. At present, Filipinos have accounted for 20% of the total population of Pa, and 60% of Pai’s foreign labor force comes from the Philippines. In April 2008, President Ramen Gesau visited the Philippines.

[Relationship with Australia] On October 1, 1994, Paa established diplomatic relations with Australia. Ambassador of Australia to the Federated States of Micronesia and Ambassador to Pa. In June 2018, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Pa.