The Republic of Nauru 瑙鲁共和国

【国 名】 瑙鲁共和国(The Republic of Nauru)。

【面 积】 陆地面积21.1平方公里,海洋专属经济区面积32万平方公里。

【人 口】 约1.3万人(2017年),58%为瑙鲁人,属密克罗尼西亚人种,其余为其他太平洋岛国人、华人、菲律宾人和欧洲人后裔。另有约2000瑙鲁人居住在澳大利亚。英语为官方语言,通用瑙鲁语。居民多数信奉基督教新教,少数信天主教。

【首 都】 不设首都。行政管理中心在亚伦区(Yaren District)。

【国家元首】 总统巴伦·瓦卡(Baron Waqa),2013年6月当选,2016年6月连任。

【重要节日】 独立日:1月31日;宪法日:5月17日

【简 况】 位于中太平洋、赤道以南约60公里处,由一独立的珊瑚礁岛构成,全岛长6公里,宽4公里,海岸线长约30公里,最高点海拔61米。全岛3/5曾为磷酸盐所覆盖。属热带雨林气候,年均气温24℃-38℃,年均降水量1500毫米。

瑙鲁人世居岛上。1798年英国船“猎手”号首抵瑙鲁。1888年被并入德国马绍尔群岛保护地。20世纪初英国人获准在此开采磷酸盐。1920年,国际联盟将瑙鲁划归英国、澳大利亚和新西兰共管,由澳代表三国行使职权。1942-1945年被日军占领。1947年成为联合国托管地,仍由澳、新、英共管。1968年1月31日独立。

【议 会】 一院制,由18名议员组成,任期三年。议长由议员推举产生。总统由议会选举产生。本届议会于2016年6月组成。议长路塞里尔·布拉曼。

【政 府】 实行总统制。政府由总统及其任命的部长组成,对议会负责。巴伦·瓦卡总统,1959年12月31日生。2003年5月成为议员。2003年5月至8月、2004年6月至2007年12月斯科蒂政府时期任教育部长。2013年6月11日起任现职,2016年6月连任。

【行政区划】 全国划分14个区。

[Country name] The Republic of Nauru.

[Dimensions] The land area is 21.1 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of ​​320,000 square kilometers.

[People] About 13,000 (2017), 58% are Nauru, belonging to the Micronesian race, and the rest are other Pacific Islanders, Chinese, Filipinos and European descendants. Another approximately 2,000 Naurus live in Australia. English is the official language, the general Nauru language. Most of the residents believe in Christian Protestantism, and a few believe in Catholicism.

[The capital] There is no capital. The administrative center is in the Yaren District.

[Head of State] President Baron Waqa was elected in June 2013 and re-elected in June 2016.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: January 31; Constitution Day: May 17

[Profile] Located in the Central Pacific Ocean and about 60 kilometers south of the equator, it consists of an independent coral reef island. The island is 6 kilometers long and 4 kilometers wide. The coastline is about 30 kilometers long and the highest point is 61 meters above sea level. The island is covered by 3/5 phosphate. It has a tropical rainforest climate with an average annual temperature of 24°C-38°C and an average annual precipitation of 1500 mm.

Nauru people live on the island. In 1798, the British ship “Hunter” first arrived in Nauru. In 1888 it was incorporated into the protected area of ​​the Marshall Islands, Germany. At the beginning of the 20th century, the British were allowed to mine phosphate here. In 1920, the League of Nations placed Nauru under the control of the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, and Australia represented the three countries in exercising their functions. It was occupied by the Japanese army in 1942-1945. In 1947, it became a United Nations trusteeship and was still managed by Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Independence on January 31, 1968.

[Parliament] The one-chamber system consists of 18 members for a term of three years. The speaker is elected by a member of Parliament. The president is elected by the parliament. The current parliament was formed in June 2016. Speaker Lucelil Braman.

[Government] Implement the presidential system. The government is composed of the president and its appointed ministers and is accountable to the parliament. President Baren Waka was born on December 31, 1959. In May 2003, he became a member of Parliament. The Minister of Education was appointed by the Scotty Government from May to August 2003 and from June 2004 to December 2007. He started his current position on June 11, 2013 and was re-elected in June 2016.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 14 districts.

【司法机构】 设最高法院,下设地区法院和家庭法院。在大多数情况下,以澳大利亚高等法院为终审法院。现任大法官斐济人乔尼·马德瑞维维(Joni Madraiwiwi),2014年9月任现职。

【经 济】 主要依靠磷酸盐出口、发放捕鱼证和外销热带水果,严重依赖外援和举债。2017年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:1.14亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:8343美元。

国内生产总值增长率:11.6%。

货币:无本国货币,通用澳元。

【资 源】 磷酸盐资源丰富,向澳大利亚、新西兰出口磷酸盐是主要收入来源。20世纪七八十年代,其年产量和出口量约为100万-150万吨。自90年代始,产量逐年下降。

1989年,瑙鲁向国际法院起诉澳大利亚,要求澳对在瑙独立前因开采磷酸盐造成的生态破坏予以赔偿。1993年,瑙澳达成庭外和解,澳同意赔偿瑙1.07亿澳元,以现金支付其中5700万澳元,用以建立信托基金,另5000万澳元分20年逐年拨付(每年平均250万澳元),用于双方商定的项目。

【农渔业】 农产品十分有限,主要是椰子、香蕉、菠萝等。几乎所有食品和饮用水都依赖进口。

渔业资源较丰富,多金枪鱼,但捕捞能力有限。每年政府通过发放捕鱼证方式获得的收入约600万-800万澳元。

[Judiciary] There is a Supreme Court with a district court and a family court. In most cases, the Australian High Court is the Court of Final Appeal. The current Justice Judge Fiji Joni Madraiwiwi, who held his current position in September 2014.

[Economy] It relies mainly on phosphate exports, the issuance of fishing licenses and the export of tropical fruits, and relies heavily on foreign aid and debt. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $114 million.

Per capita GDP: $8343.

Gross domestic product growth rate: 11.6%.

Currency: No national currency, GM.

[Resources] Phosphate resources are abundant, and the export of phosphate to Australia and New Zealand is the main source of income. In the 1970s and 1980s, its annual output and export volume was about 1 million to 1.5 million tons. Since the 1990s, production has been declining year by year.

In 1989, Nauru sued Australia in the International Court of Justice, demanding that Australia compensate for the ecological damage caused by phosphate mining before independence. In 1993, Nao’s settlement reached an out-of-court settlement. Australia agreed to pay A$107 million, paying A$57 million in cash for the establishment of a trust fund, and another A$50 million per year for 20 years (an average of A$2.5 million per year). Projects agreed upon by both parties.

[Agriculture and Fisheries] Agricultural products are very limited, mainly coconut, banana, pineapple and so on. Almost all food and drinking water is imported.

The fishery resources are rich and there are many tuna, but the fishing capacity is limited. Every year, the government earns about 6 million to 8 million Australian dollars through the issuance of fishing licenses.

【交通运输】 有环岛沥青公路,全长24公里,其他公路6公里。有货船定期来往于澳大利亚和瑙鲁。瑙鲁航空公司靠从澳大利亚诺福克航空公司租借的一架旧波音737-300型客机维持经营,并更名为OUR航空公司。每周沿澳大利亚布里斯班—瑙鲁—基里巴斯塔拉瓦—斐济楠迪航线往返一次。

【对外贸易】 主要贸易伙伴有澳大利亚、新西兰、斐济、日本和美国等国家和地区。主要出口磷酸盐,进口食品、家电、日用品、五金和建材等。

【教 育】 实行免费义务教育。少数学生在斐济接受高等教育,政府提供奖学金。另接受澳大利亚、泰国、太平洋岛国论坛等提供的奖学金。

【新闻出版】 政府不定期出版《公报》,免费赠阅。瑙鲁广播电台、瑙鲁电视台为官方机构,播放议会会议情况、瑙鲁新闻等。瑙鲁广播电台转播澳大利亚广播公司(ABC)节目。瑙鲁电视台转播ABC、卫视体育台(STAR-SPORTS)等外国电视节目。

【卫 生】 实行免费医疗,有一所医院,医疗卫生水平有限,糖尿病、癌症等非传染性疾病高发。

【国 防】 无军队,防务由澳大利亚协助。有警察约100名。

【外 交】 奉行不结盟政策,主张同各国友好相处。是联合国、英联邦、国际展览局、亚洲开发银行、太平洋岛国论坛和太平洋共同体等组织成员。与英、美、法、日、澳、新、加、俄、泰国以及其他太平洋岛国等50多个国家建立外交关系。澳大利亚是瑙鲁最大援助国,并在瑙鲁设立难民甄别中心,近年来每年向瑙提供援助约2700万澳元左右。2018年9月,瑙鲁举办第49届太平洋岛国论坛领导人会议。

[Transportation] There is an island asphalt road with a total length of 24 kilometers and other roads of 6 kilometers. Cargo ships regularly travel to Australia and Nauru. Nauru Airways operated on an old Boeing 737-300 aircraft leased from Norfolk Airlines Australia and was renamed OUR Airlines. Weekly round trips along the Brisbane-Nauru-Kilibastawa-Fiji Nadi route.

[Foreign Trade] The main trading partners are Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Japan and the United States and other countries and regions. Mainly export phosphate, imported food, home appliances, daily necessities, hardware and building materials.

[education] Free compulsory education. A small number of students receive higher education in Fiji and the government provides scholarships. Scholarships offered by Australia, Thailand, Pacific Islands Forum, etc. are also accepted.

[Press and Publication] The government publishes the “Gazette” from time to time and gives it free of charge. Nauru Radio Station and Nauru TV Station are official institutions, which broadcast parliamentary meetings, Nauru news and so on. The Nauru radio station broadcasts the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) program. Nauru TV broadcasts foreign TV programs such as ABC and STAR-SPORTS.

[Health] Free medical treatment, a hospital, limited medical and health care, high incidence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

[National Defense] No army, defense is assisted by Australia. There are about 100 police officers.

[Foreign Exchange] Pursuing a non-aligned policy and advocating friendly relations with other countries. He is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the International Exhibitions Agency, the Asian Development Bank, the Pacific Islands Forum and the Pacific Community. Establish diplomatic relations with more than 50 countries including the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Russia, Thailand and other Pacific island countries. Australia is the largest aid country in Nauru and has established a refugee screening centre in Nauru. In recent years, it has provided assistance to Nauru for about 27 million Australian dollars per year. In September 2018, Nauru held the 49th Pacific Islands Forum Leaders Meeting.