The Republic of Maldives 马尔代夫共和国

【国 名】 马尔代夫共和国(The Republic of Maldives)。

【面 积】 总面积9万平方公里(含领海面积),陆地面积298平方公里。

【人 口】 44万,均为马尔代夫族。民族语言和官方语言为迪维希语(Dhivehi),上层社会通用英语。伊斯兰教为国教,属逊尼派。

【首 都】 马累(Malé),人口24.8万,面积1.96平方公里。

【国家元首】 总统易卜拉欣·穆罕默德·萨利赫(Ibrahim Mohamed Solih),2018年9月当选。

【重要节日】 独立日:7月26日(1965年)。

【简 况】 印度洋上的群岛国家。距离印度南部约600公里,距离斯里兰卡西南部约750公里。南北长820公里,东西宽130公里。由26组自然环礁、1192个珊瑚岛组成,分布在9万平方公里的海域内,其中约200个岛屿有人居住。岛屿平均面积为1-2平方公里,地势低平,平均海拔1.2米。位于赤道附近,具有明显的热带气候特征,无四季之分。年降水量2143毫米,年平均气温28℃。日平均最高温度31°C,最低温度26°C。

1116年建立苏丹国。近400年来,先后遭受葡萄牙和荷兰殖民主义者的侵略和统治,1887年沦为英国保护国。1965年7月26日宣布独立。1968年11月11日建立共和国。

[Country name] The Republic of Maldives.

[Area] The total area is 90,000 square kilometers (including the territorial sea area), and the land area is 298 square kilometers.

[People] 440,000, all Maldives. The national language and the official language are Dhivehi, and the upper class is general English. Islam is a state religion and is a Sunni.

[Capital] Malé, with a population of 248,000 and an area of ​​1.96 square kilometers.

[Head of State] President Ibrahim Mohamed Solih was elected in September 2018.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: July 26 (1965).

[profile] Archipelago countries on the Indian Ocean. It is about 600 km south of India and about 750 km southwest of Sri Lanka. It is 820 kilometers long from north to south and 130 kilometers wide from east to west. It consists of 26 natural atolls and 1,192 coral islands, distributed in 90,000 square kilometers of sea area, of which about 200 are inhabited. The average area of ​​the island is 1-2 square kilometers, the terrain is low, and the average elevation is 1.2 meters. Located near the equator, it has a distinct tropical climate and no four seasons. The annual precipitation is 2143 mm and the annual average temperature is 28 °C. The daily average maximum temperature is 31 ° C and the lowest temperature is 26 ° C.

The Sultanate was established in 1116. For nearly 400 years, it has suffered from the aggression and rule of Portuguese and Dutch colonialists. In 1887, it became a British protectorate. On July 26, 1965, independence was declared. The Republic was established on November 11, 1968.

【政 治】

马为总统制国家。1978年,加尧姆当选总统,此后5次连任。随着时代变化,马民众要求民主和政治改革的呼声增强。2004年6月,时任总统加尧姆提出宪政改革方案。2005年6月,马人民议会通过实行多党民主制度的议案,宪政改革启动。2006年3月,马内阁批准加尧姆总统的民主改革路线图计划。2007年8月,全民公投决定继续实行总统制。2008年8月,新宪法正式生效,规定马为主权独立和领土完整的伊斯兰教总统内阁制国家,总统为国家元首、政府首脑和武装部队统帅,有权任命内阁成员,但须经议会批准。所有议员通过选举产生,总统不再有任命议员的权力。建立独立的最高法院,总统不再是司法系统的最高长官。立法、行政、司法权分别归属人民议会、总统和法院。总统由全体选民直接选举产生,任期不得超过两届。内阁由副总统、部长和总检察长组成。内阁成员由总统任命,经议会批准。

2008年10月,马举行首次政党制下的总统选举,民主党候选人穆罕默德·纳希德在第二轮投票中击败连续执政30年的时任总统加尧姆,当选马宪政改革后首位总统。2012年初,马政局动荡,纳希德因反对党和民众示威抗议被迫辞职,副总统瓦希德接任总统。2013年9月,马举行宪政改革以来第二次总统选举。11月,进步党候选人亚明当选总统。

2015年3月,马民主党领袖、前总统纳希德因非法扣押刑事法院大法官一案被判处入狱13年。9月,亚明总统所乘快艇在马累码头发生爆炸,时任副总统阿迪布因涉嫌与爆炸案有关被逮捕,并被议会弹劾。2016年10月,马执政党进步党公开分裂为支持现总统亚明和支持前总统加尧姆的两个派别。2017年3月,加尧姆宣布与民主党、共和党、正义党联合反对现政府。反对党联盟两次发起针对议长玛斯赫的不信任案,但未获议会通过。

2018年2月1日,马最高法院发布法令,撤销前总统纳希德等9名政治犯罪名,恢复12名反对党议员议席。亚明政府将此举定性为“司法政变”,宣布马进入国家紧急状态,采取多种措施稳定局势。9月,马举行新一轮总统选举,民主党候选人萨利赫击败亚明总统胜选,成为马第七位总统。

【议 会】 人民议会(People’s Majlis)为马立法机构。实行比例代表制,全国划分为87个选区,每个选区选举产生1名议名,总共87名议员,任期5年,各行政区议员人数由当地人口数决定。本届议会于2014年3月选举产生。议长加西姆·易卜拉欣(Gasim Ibrahim),共和党党员,2018年11月当选。马将于2019年4月举行议会选举。

【政 府】 本届内阁成立于2018年11月,目前主要内阁成员包括:副总统费萨尔·纳西姆(Faisal Naseem),外交部长阿卜杜拉·沙希德(Abdulla Shahid),国防部长玛丽亚·艾哈迈德·迪迪(Mariyam Ahmed Didi),内政部长谢赫·伊姆兰·阿卜杜拉(Sheikh Imran Abdulla),财政部长易卜拉欣·阿米尔(Ibrahim Ameer),国家规划和基础设施部长穆罕默德·阿斯拉姆(Mohamed Aslam),艺术、文化和遗产部长尤姆娜·穆蒙(Yumna Maumoon),旅游部长阿里·瓦希德(Ali Waheed),经济发展部长费亚兹·伊斯梅尔(Fayyaz Ismail)等。

【司法机构】 宪法规定司法权归属最高法院、高等法院和审判法庭。

[political]

The horse is the presidential state. In 1978, Gayoom was elected president and was re-elected five times thereafter. With the changes of the times, the voice of the Malaysian people demanding democracy and political reform has increased. In June 2004, the then President Gayoom proposed a constitutional reform plan. In June 2005, the Malaysian People’s Assembly passed a bill to implement a multi-party democracy system, and constitutional reforms were initiated. In March 2006, the Cabinet of Ministers approved President Gay’s roadmap for democratic reform. In August 2007, the referendum decided to continue the presidential system. In August 2008, the new constitution came into force, stipulating that the country is a sovereign, independent and territorially complete Islamic presidential cabinet state. The president is the head of state, the head of government and the armed forces, and has the power to appoint members of the cabinet, subject to parliamentary approval. All members are elected, and the president no longer has the power to appoint members. The establishment of an independent Supreme Court, the President is no longer the highest executive of the judicial system. Legislation, administration, and judicial power are respectively vested in the People’s Assembly, the President, and the courts. The president is directly elected by the electorate for a term of no more than two terms. The cabinet is composed of the vice president, the minister and the attorney general. The cabinet members are appointed by the president and approved by the parliament.

In October 2008, Ma held the first presidential election under the political party system. Democratic candidate Muhammad Nasheed defeated the then-elected President Gayoom in the second round of voting for 30 years and was elected the first president after Ma Constitutional reform. At the beginning of 2012, Ma’s political situation was turbulent. Nasheed was forced to resign due to opposition parties and people’s protests. Vice President Wahid took over as president. In September 2013, Ma held the second presidential election since constitutional reform. In November, Progressive Party candidate Ya Ming was elected president.

In March 2015, Ma Democratic Party leader and former President Nasheed was sentenced to 13 years in prison for illegally detaining a criminal court justice. In September, President Yaming’s speedboat exploded at Male’s Pier. At the time, Vice President Adib was arrested for alleged involvement in the bombings and was impeached by the Parliament. In October 2016, the Ma’s political party’s Progressive Party split openly to support current President Yaming and the two factions supporting former President Gayoom. In March 2017, Gayoom announced a joint opposition to the current government with the Democratic Party, the Republican Party and the Justice Party. The opposition coalition twice launched a no-confidence case against Speaker Mash, but it was not passed by the parliament.

On February 1, 2018, the Supreme Court of the People’s Republic of China issued a decree to revoke nine political crime names, including former President Nasheed, and to reinstate 12 opposition party members. The Yaming government defined this as a “judicial coup” and declared that Ma entered a state of emergency and adopted various measures to stabilize the situation. In September, Ma held a new round of presidential elections. Democratic candidate Saleh defeated President Yamin to win the election and became the seventh president of Malaysia.

[Parliament] The People’s Assembly (People’s Majlis) is the Malaysian legislature. The proportional representation system is implemented. The country is divided into 87 constituencies. Each constituency elects one denomination. A total of 87 members are elected for a term of five years. The number of members in each administrative district is determined by the local population. The current parliament was elected in March 2014. Speaker of the House of Representatives, Gasim Ibrahim, a Republican member, was elected in November 2018. The horse will hold parliamentary elections in April 2019.

[Government] The current cabinet was established in November 2018. At present, the main cabinet members include: Vice President Faisal Naseem, Foreign Minister Abdulla Shahid, and Secretary of Defense Maria. Mariyam Ahmed Didi, Minister of the Interior Sheikh Imran Abdulla, Finance Minister Ibrahim Ameer, National Planning and Foundation Minister of Facilities Mohamed Aslam, Minister of Art, Culture and Heritage Yumna Maumoon, Minister of Tourism Ali Waheed, Minister of Economic Development Fyaz Iy Fayyaz Ismail and so on.

[Judiciary] The Constitution stipulates that judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court, the High Court and the Trial Court.

【行政区划】 全国分21个行政区,包括18个行政环礁及马累、阿杜和福阿穆拉三个市。

【政 党】 2005年6月马启动宪政改革后,人民议会通过实行多党民主制度的议案。马内政部陆续接受多个政党的注册,包括进步党(Progressive Party of Maldives)、民主党(Maldivian Democratic Party)、共和党(Jumhoree Party)、马尔代夫发展联盟(Maldives Development Alliance)、人民党(Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party)、正义党(Adhaalath Party)等。

【重要人物】 易卜拉欣·穆罕默德·萨利赫:总统。1962年生,1995年起长期任议员,曾参与起草马2008年宪法。2003年参与创建民主党,2011年起任该党议会党团领袖。2018年11月17日宣誓就职马总统。

加西姆·易卜拉欣:议长。1950年生。1990年起长期任议员,曾任财政部长、货币管理局局长和内政部长等职。2008年创立共和党,任党领袖。2018年11月通过议会补选任议长。

【主要政府机构网址】

总统办公室 www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv

外交部 www.foreign.gov.mv

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 21 administrative regions, including 18 administrative atolls and the three cities of Male, Adu and Fuamula.

[Political Party] After the constitutional reform was initiated in June 2005, the People’s Assembly passed the bill of implementing a multi-party democratic system. The Ministry of Internal Affairs has successively accepted the registration of several political parties, including the Progressive Party of Maldives, the Maldivian Democratic Party, the Jumhoree Party, the Maldives Development Alliance, and the Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party. , the Justice Party (Adhaalath Party) and so on.

[Important figures] Ibrahim Mohamed Saleh: President. Born in 1962, he has been a long-term member since 1995 and has participated in the drafting of the 2008 Constitution of Ma. In 2003, he participated in the creation of the Democratic Party. Since 2011, he has been the leader of the party’s parliamentary group. On November 17, 2018, he was sworn in as President Ma.

Gassim Ibrahim: Speaker. Born in 1950. He has been a long-term member since 1990. He has served as finance minister, director of the Monetary Authority and Minister of the Interior. In 2008, he founded the Republican Party and served as the party leader. In November 2018, he passed the parliamentary by-election as the speaker.

[Main government agency website]

President’s Office www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv

Ministry of Foreign Affairs www.foreign.gov.mv

【经 济】

旅游业、船运业是主要经济支柱。马尔代夫经济结构单一、资源贫乏、严重依赖进口,经济基础较为薄弱。2011年以前,曾被列为世界最不发达国家。通过多年努力,马经济发展取得一定成就,成为南亚地区人均GDP最高的国家,基础设施和互联互通水平也有较大提升。

2017年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值(GDP):46.48亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:9671.3美元。

国内生产总值增长率:6.9%。

货币名称:卢菲亚(Rf,Rufiyaa)。

汇率:1美元≈15.4卢菲亚。

通货膨胀率:2.8%。

(资料来源:马尔代夫货币管理局)

【资 源】 拥有丰富的海洋资源,有各种热带鱼类及海龟、玳瑁和珊瑚、贝壳之类的海产品。

【旅游业】 旅游业是第一大经济支柱,旅游收入对GDP的贡献率多年保持在25%左右。现有135个旅游岛,3.85万张床位,入住率61.2%,人均在马停留时间6.2天。2017年旅游业产值66.81亿卢菲亚,同比增长3.3%。2017年外国赴马游客139万人次,同比增长8%。

【渔 业】 渔业资源丰富。盛产金枪鱼、鲣鱼、鲛鱼、龙虾、海参、石斑鱼、鲨鱼、海龟和玳瑁等。鱼类主要出口中国香港、日本、斯里兰卡、新加坡和中国台湾,2016年渔业产值为22.4亿卢菲亚,占GDP4.1%。

【交通运输】 主要交通工具为船舶。汽车、摩托车为主要陆上交通工具。海运业主要经营香港到波斯湾和红海地区及国内诸岛间的运输业务,中国、斯里兰卡、印度、新加坡、阿联酋、南非及一些欧洲国家有定期航班往返马累。2016年运输业产值约39.9亿卢菲亚,占GDP的7.2%。

【农 业】 土地贫瘠,农业较落后。椰子生产在农业中占重要地位,约有100万棵椰子树。其他农作物有小米、玉米、香蕉和木薯。随着旅游业的扩大,蔬菜和家禽养殖业开始发展。2016年农业产值为8.07亿卢菲亚,占GDP约1%。

【制造业】 仅有小型船舶修造,及海鱼和水果加工、编织、服装加工等手工业。

[Economy]

Tourism and shipping are the main economic pillars. The Maldives has a single economic structure, lack of resources, and heavy dependence on imports, and its economic base is weak. Before 2011, it was listed as the least developed country in the world. Through years of hard work, Ma has made certain achievements in economic development and has become the country with the highest per capita GDP in South Asia. The level of infrastructure and interconnection has also been greatly improved.

The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product (GDP): $4.648 billion.

Per capita GDP: US$9671.3.

GDP growth rate: 6.9%.

Currency name: Rf, Rufiyaa.

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 15.4 Ruffia.

Inflation rate: 2.8%.

(Source: Maldives Monetary Authority)

[Resources] With abundant marine resources, there are various tropical fish and sea products such as turtles, clams, corals and shells.

[Tourism] Tourism is the largest economic pillar, and the contribution rate of tourism revenue to GDP has remained at around 25% for many years. There are 135 tourist islands with 38,500 beds, occupancy rate of 61.2%, and per capita residence time of 6.2 days. In 2017, the tourism industry output value was 6.681 billion Lufiya, an increase of 3.3%. In 2017, foreign tourists to Malaysia were 1.39 million, an increase of 8% year-on-year.

[Fish Industry] Rich in fishery resources. It is rich in tuna, squid, squid, lobster, sea cucumber, grouper, shark, sea turtle and cockroach. Fish are mainly exported to Hong Kong, China, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Taiwan. The fishery output value in 2016 was 2.24 billion Lufiya, accounting for 4.1% of GDP.

[Transportation] The main means of transportation is a ship. Cars and motorcycles are the main land vehicles. The shipping industry mainly operates transportation between Hong Kong and the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea region and domestic islands. China, Sri Lanka, India, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, South Africa and some European countries have scheduled flights to and from Male. In 2016, the transportation industry output value was about 3.9 billion Lufiya, accounting for 7.2% of GDP.

[Agriculture] The land is poor and agriculture is backward. Coconut production plays an important role in agriculture, with about 1 million coconut trees. Other crops include millet, corn, bananas and cassava. With the expansion of tourism, the vegetable and poultry farming industry has begun to develop. In 2016, the agricultural output value was 807 million Lufiya, accounting for about 1% of GDP.

[Manufacturing] Only small-scale ships are built, and handicrafts such as marine fish and fruit processing, weaving, and garment processing.

【财政金融】 2017年财政收入208.1亿卢菲亚(包括国际援助),财政支出222.3亿卢菲亚,财政赤字14.1亿卢菲亚,外汇储备5.86亿美元。

【对外贸易】 主要出口商品为海产品,主要进口商品为食品、家具、石油产品、电子产品、交通工具、机械设备、建材、纺织品和生活用品等。主要贸易伙伴有阿联酋、新加坡、中国、印度、斯里兰卡、泰国和马来西亚等。2017年,出口额为3.18亿美元,进口额为22.23亿美元,贸易逆差为19.05亿美元。

【人民生活】 大部分居民以鱼、椰子和木薯为主食,近年来粮食食品有所增加。医疗卫生较落后,全国有23家医院,最大的医院在马累。1998年世界卫生组织宣布马为无疟疾国家。婴儿年出生率为19‰,人均寿命男士为73岁,女士为74.7岁。

【军 事】 2006年4月前仅有一支千余人的综合武装力量,统称为国家安全卫队,由国民卫队、警察卫队和海上巡逻队组成。2004年,警察同国家安全卫队分享,接受内政部领导。2006年4月,国家安全卫队正式更名为马尔代夫国防部队,隶属于国防和国家安全部,总兵力约3000人,职责是捍卫国家主权和独立,保护根据宪法选举产生的政府不受威胁和侵犯,快速应对紧急事件及捍卫宪法和法律权威。

【教 育】 实行从学前到高中毕业的免费教育。成人识字率为98.94%。2017年,马尔代夫共有376所学校,在校学生87788人,教师8957人。马尔代夫国立大学是马唯一大学。各环礁设有一个教育中心,主要向成年人提供非正规文化教育。

【新闻出版】 传统纸质媒体逐渐退出市场,主要媒体纷纷转向网络化,影响较大的有Sun Online,Avas,Vnews,Mihaaru,Raajje News,Maldives Independent等,大部分系迪维希语。“马尔代夫之声”电台建于1962年,用英文和迪维希语对全国广播。马尔代夫电视台于1978年3月建成启用,同年修建了卫星通讯站,可通过卫星转播世界各地节目。

[Financial Finance] In 2017, the fiscal revenue was 20.81 billion Lufiya (including international aid), the fiscal expenditure was 22.23 billion Lufiya, the fiscal deficit was 1.41 billion Lufiya, and the foreign exchange reserve was 586 million.

[Foreign Trade] The main export commodities are seafood. The main imported commodities are food, furniture, petroleum products, electronic products, transportation, machinery and equipment, building materials, textiles and daily necessities. The main trading partners are UAE, Singapore, China, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Malaysia. In 2017, exports were US$ 318 million, imports were US$ 2.223 billion, and the trade deficit was US$ 1.905 billion.

[People’s Life] Most of the residents are mainly fish, coconut and cassava. In recent years, food and food have increased. Health care is lagging behind, there are 23 hospitals across the country, and the largest hospital is in Male. In 1998, the World Health Organization declared the country a malaria-free country. The annual rate of birth of infants is 19‰, the life expectancy of men is 73 years, and the number of women is 74.7 years.

[Military] Before April 2006, there was only one integrated armed force of more than a thousand people, collectively known as the National Security Guard, composed of the National Guard, the Police Guard and the Maritime Patrol. In 2004, the police shared with the National Security Guard and accepted the leadership of the Ministry of the Interior. In April 2006, the National Security Guard officially changed its name to the Maldives Defence Force, which is affiliated to the Ministry of National Defense and National Security. The total strength is about 3,000. Its duty is to defend national sovereignty and independence and protect the government elected according to the Constitution from threats and violations. Respond quickly to emergencies and defend constitutional and legal authority.

[Education] Free education from pre-school to high school. The adult literacy rate is 98.94%. In 2017, there were 376 schools in the Maldives with 87,788 students and 8,957 teachers. The National University of Maldives is the only university in Malaysia. There is an education center in each atoll that provides informal culture education to adults.

[Press and Publication] Traditional paper media gradually withdrew from the market, and major media have turned to network. The most influential are Sun Online, Avas, Vnews, Mihaaru, Raajje News, Maldives Independent, etc. Most of them are Divehi. The “Voice of the Maldives” radio was built in 1962 and broadcasts nationally in English and Dhivehi. The Maldives TV station was commissioned in March 1978. In the same year, a satellite communication station was built to broadcast programs from around the world via satellite.

【对外关系】

马尔代夫是英联邦国家。2016年10月,马政府宣布因受到英联邦不公正待遇,决定退出英联邦,2018年马新政府上台后,又决定重返英联邦。同164个国家建立了外交关系。奉行和平、独立和不结盟的外交政策,同所有尊重马独立和主权的国家友好,重视发展与中国、印度、沙特阿拉伯、马来西亚、新加坡、斯里兰卡等国家的关系。大力争取国际组织和其他国家援助。积极参与不结盟运动和南亚区域合作联盟活动,2011年成功举办第17届南盟峰会。

马尔代夫是“小岛屿国家联盟”(AOSIS)主要代表国,2015年起担任联盟轮值主席国。强调气候变化事关小岛屿国家的生存权,高度关注全球气候变暖使海平面上升对马造成的威胁。签署《联合国气候变化框架公约》、《气候变化和生物多样性公约》、《京都环保议定书》、《保护海洋生物议定书》、《巴黎协定》等多边协议。

近年对外交往活跃。2016年3月,亚明总统访问马来西亚,4月访问印度,10月访问沙特。2017年5月,亚明总统赴沙特出席“阿拉伯伊斯兰美国峰会”,10月访问阿联酋。2018年12月,萨利赫总统对印度进行国事访问。2019年1月,萨利赫总统非正式访问斯里兰卡,随后访问阿联酋。

[External Relations]

The Maldives is a Commonwealth country. In October 2016, the Malaysian government announced that it had withdrawn from the Commonwealth due to unfair treatment by the Commonwealth. After the new government came to power in 2018, it decided to return to the Commonwealth. Established diplomatic relations with 164 countries. Pursuing a foreign policy of peace, independence and non-alignment, and friendship with all countries that respect Malaysia’s independence and sovereignty, and attach importance to developing relations with China, India, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka and other countries. Vigorously seek assistance from international organizations and other countries. Actively participated in the activities of the Non-Aligned Movement and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. In 2011, the 17th SAARC Summit was successfully held.

The Maldives is the main representative of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) and has served as the rotating presidency of the Alliance since 2015. It is emphasized that climate change is related to the survival rights of small island countries and is highly concerned about the threat posed by rising global sea levels caused by global warming. Signing multilateral agreements such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Climate Change and Convention on Biological Diversity, the Kyoto Environmental Protection Protocol, the Protocol for the Protection of Marine Life, and the Paris Agreement.

Foreign exchanges have been active in recent years. In March 2016, President Yamin visited Malaysia, visited India in April, and visited Saudi Arabia in October. In May 2017, President Yamin went to Saudi Arabia to attend the “Arab Islamic Summit in the United States” and visited the United Arab Emirates in October. In December 2018, President Saleh paid a state visit to India. In January 2019, President Saleh visited Sri Lanka informally and then visited the United Arab Emirates.