The Republic of Kiribati 基里巴斯共和国

【国名】基里巴斯共和国(The Republic of Kiribati)。

【面积】陆地面积811平方公里,海洋专属经济区面积350万平方公里。

【人口】10.8万(2017年7月)。其中90%以上属密克罗尼西亚人种,其余为波利尼西亚人和欧洲移民。官方语言为英语,通用基里巴斯语和英语。居民多信奉罗马天主教和基里巴斯新教。

【首都】塔拉瓦(Tarawa),人口约5万。

【国家元首】总统塔内希·马茂(Taneti Maamau),2016年3月当选。

【重要节日】独立日:7月12日。

【简况】位于太平洋中部,由33个大小岛屿组成(其中21个岛有常住居民),分属吉尔伯特、菲尼克斯和莱恩三大群岛;是世界上唯一纵跨赤道且横越国际日期变更线的国家。属热带海洋气候。年均气温32℃,年均降水量1600毫米。

3000年前已有马来—波西尼亚语系人定居。公元前14世纪左右,斐济人和汤加人入侵,与当地人通婚,形成基里巴斯民族。1892年吉尔伯特群岛与埃利斯群岛部分岛屿沦为英国“保护地”。1916年被划入“英属吉尔伯特和埃利斯群岛殖民地”(1975年埃利斯群岛分出,改称图瓦卢)。第二次世界大战期间曾被日本侵占。1977年1月1日实行内部自治。1979年7月12日独立,改称基里巴斯。

【宪法】现行宪法是以1977年《吉尔伯特法》为基础制定的,1979年独立后正式生效,故又名“独立宪法”。宪法规定,总统由议会提名,经公民投票选举产生,任期四年,连任不得超过三届。

【议会】一院制,议员任期四年,除总检察长和雷贝岛(Rabi Island)的一名议员由指定产生外,其余议员均由选举产生。议员数量根据人口的变化而变化。2007年,议会通过决议:有居民的岛屿的议员数按人口决定。人口在1500人以下的岛屿产生一名议员,人口在1500—5000人的岛屿产生两名议员,人口在5000人以上的岛屿产生三名议员。本届议会于2016年2月组成,共44个议席。现任议长塞布艾·乌埃伊。

【政府】总统既是国家元首,又是政府首脑。内阁称部长委员会,由总统在执政党议员中提名产生。

【行政区划】共有23个行政区,每个行政区设有委员会,委员会主席为行政机构最高领导人,拥有行政、财政、法院诉讼等权力。

【司法机构】设有高级法院和地方法院。高级法院由首席法官和陪席推事组成。每年有澳大利亚、新西兰法官组成南太平洋巡回高级法官团赴基受理上诉案件。

[Country name] The Republic of Kiribati.

[Area] The land area is 811 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of ​​3.5 million square kilometers.

[Population] 108,000 (July 2017). More than 90% of them are from the Micronesian race, and the rest are Polynesians and European immigrants. The official languages ​​are English, General Kiribati and English. Residents believe in Roman Catholicism and Protestantism in Kiribati.

[Capital] Tarawa, with a population of about 50,000.

[National Head of State] President Tanei Maamau, elected in March 2016.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: July 12.

[Profile] Located in the central part of the Pacific Ocean, it consists of 33 large and small islands (21 of which have permanent residents), belonging to the three major islands of Gilbert, Phoenix and Lane; it is the only one in the world that spans the equator and crosses the international date line. country. It has a tropical marine climate. The annual average temperature is 32 °C, and the average annual precipitation is 1600 mm.

Malay-Bosnian people settled 3000 years ago. Around the 14th century BC, Fijians and Tongans invaded and married locals to form the Kiribati nation. In 1892, the Gilbert Islands and some of the islands of the Ellis Islands became “protected places” in the United Kingdom. In 1916, it was classified as “the British Gilbert and Ellis Islands colony” (the Ellis Islands was divided in 1975 and renamed Tuvalu). It was occupied by Japan during the Second World War. Internal autonomy was implemented on January 1, 1977. Independence on July 12, 1979, renamed Kiribati.

[Constitution] The current constitution was based on the Gilbert Act of 1977. It was officially in force after independence in 1979, hence the name “independent constitution.” According to the Constitution, the president is nominated by the parliament and elected by a referendum. The term of office is four years and no more than three consecutive terms.

[Parliament] A one-chamber system. Members are elected for a term of four years. Except for the appointment of the Attorney General and a member of the Rabi Island, the remaining members are elected. The number of members varies according to the population. In 2007, the parliament passed a resolution: the number of members of the island with residents is determined by the population. A parliament is produced on an island with a population of less than 1,500, two parliamentarians on an island with a population of 1,500-5,000, and three parliamentarians on an island with a population of more than 5,000. The current parliament was formed in February 2016 with a total of 44 seats. The current Speaker, Sebuai Ueyi.

[Government] The President is both the head of state and the head of government. The Cabinet called the Council of Ministers, which was nominated by the President among members of the ruling party.

[Administrative Division] There are 23 administrative districts. Each administrative district has a committee. The chairman of the committee is the highest leader of the administrative body and has the powers of administration, finance, and court litigation.

[Judiciary] There are high courts and local courts. The High Court consists of the Chief Justice and the Companion. Each year, Australian and New Zealand judges form the South Pacific Circuit High Judges Group to accept appeals.

【政党】主要政党有:追求真理党(Boutokean Te Koaua Party,BTK,执政党)、你好基里巴斯党(Maurin Kiribati Party,MKP)、联合同盟党(Karikirakean Te I-Kiribati,KTK)。

【经济】基里巴斯经济落后,严重依赖外援,被联合国列为最不发达国家之一。大部分地区为自给自足的原始经济。渔业资源为基主要经济来源。近年来,基政府不断拓宽外汇收入来源,努力实现经济多样化,鼓励发展小型私人企业、渔业、小规模加工制造业和椰子种植,商品经济有所发展。

2017年主要经济数据如下(来源:世界银行、亚洲发展银行):

国内生产总值:约1.96亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:约1800美元。

国内生产总值增长率:2.5%。

货币:无本国货币。通用澳元,圣诞岛地区也通用美元。

通货膨胀率:2.2%。

【资源】有丰富的渔业资源。1979年以前产磷酸盐,由英国、澳大利亚、新西兰合股开采,现已枯竭。近海海底有锰、镍等矿藏。

【农业】大部分陆地被珊瑚沙层覆盖,仅能生长椰子、香蕉、面包果等少数作物。椰干年产量约1.1万吨,其中出口约1万吨,总产值约700万澳元。近年来由于国际市场不景气和天气干旱等原因,椰干生产和出口均有较大幅度下降。全国无粮食作物和蔬菜种植。

【渔业】渔业资源丰富,主要有金枪鱼、鲷鱼、鲣鱼、海虾等。基捕捞业落后,产量有限,当地居民只能进行小规模捕捞。目前,美国、日本、韩国、澳大利亚、新西兰及中国台湾省分别有数十艘渔船在基海域捕捞金枪鱼,这些渔船向基政府缴纳的捕鱼执照费成为基政府主要外汇来源之一。

【旅游业】基利用其跨越国际日期变更线的地理优势,发展旅游业,提高国际知名度。基最大岛屿圣诞岛是世界上最大的环状珊瑚岛,拥有世界著名的鸟类保护区和潜水场,每年有来自美国、西欧、澳大利亚和新西兰等地游客来此观光。

【交通运输】以海运为主,塔拉瓦为主要海、空港。基里巴斯航运公司共有客、货轮10艘,经营各岛间的客、货运业务。全国有两个国际机场,分设在首都塔拉瓦和圣诞岛,其他小岛还有17个小机场。斐济航空公司经营从斐济至塔拉瓦的国际航线。

[Party parties] The main political parties are: Boutokean Te Koaua Party (BTK, ruling party), Maurin Kiribati Party (MKP), and Karikirakean Te I-Kiribati (KTK).

[Economy] Kiribati is economically backward and relies heavily on foreign aid and is listed by the United Nations as one of the least developed countries. Most of the area is self-sufficient in the original economy. Fisheries resources are the main source of economic resources. In recent years, the basic government has continuously expanded the sources of foreign exchange income, strived to diversify the economy, and encouraged the development of small private enterprises, fisheries, small-scale processing and manufacturing, and coconut cultivation. The commodity economy has developed.

The main economic data for 2017 are as follows (Source: World Bank, Asian Development Bank):

Gross domestic product: about $196 million.

Per capita GDP: about $1,800.

Gross domestic product growth rate: 2.5%.

Currency: No national currency. GM Aussie, the Christmas Island area is also GM.

Inflation rate: 2.2%.

[Resources] There are abundant fishery resources. Phosphate was produced before 1979 and was mined by the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand and is now depleted. There are manganese, nickel and other mineral deposits in the offshore sea.

[Agriculture] Most of the land is covered by coral sand, and only a few crops such as coconut, banana, and breadfruit can be grown. The annual output of copra is about 11,000 tons, of which about 10,000 tons are exported, with a total output value of about 7 million Australian dollars. In recent years, due to the sluggish international market and the dry weather, the production and export of copra have declined significantly. There are no food crops and vegetables grown in the country.

[Fisheries] Rich in fishery resources, mainly tuna, squid, squid, and shrimp. The base fishing industry is backward and production is limited, and local residents can only carry out small-scale fishing. At present, dozens of fishing boats in the United States, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand and Taiwan Province of China have caught tuna in the base waters. The fishing license fees paid by these fishing boats to the base government have become one of the main sources of foreign exchange for the government.

[Tourism] Based on its geographical advantage across the international date line, the tourism industry will develop tourism and increase international visibility. The largest island, Christmas Island, is the world’s largest atolled coral island with world-famous bird sanctuaries and diving sites. Visitors from the United States, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand come here every year.

[Transportation] is mainly based on sea transportation, and Tarawa is the main sea and airport. Kiribati Shipping Co., Ltd. has a total of 10 passenger and freighter vessels, operating the passenger and cargo business between the islands. There are two international airports in the country, located in the capital Tarawa and Christmas Island, and there are 17 small airports on other islands. Fiji Airlines operates international routes from Fiji to Tarawa.

【财政金融】实行“量入为出、节俭财政”政策。国家财政预算收入主要依靠1956年建立的从磷矿开采所得的预算平衡储备基金(RERF)进行平衡,实际从未提取。

(1)基里巴斯银行:成立于1984年,与澳大利亚西太银行合资经营,2001年改为与澳新银行合资经营,基占49%股份,澳新银行占51%的股份。

(2)基里巴斯开发银行:成立于1987年,系基国家银行,主要向私营企业提供贷款。

【教育】小学和初中实行免费教育。儿童入学率为93%。有公办小学约90所,中学约20所(包括私立学校),技校六所,中等专业学校两所(基里巴斯师范学院和塔拉瓦技术学院)。另有一所与德国人合办的海员培训学校。基每年向国外派留学生和进修生约170人。

【国防】基里巴斯无军队,仅有警察约300名。国防由澳大利亚和新西兰负责。

【外交】强调维护国家主权和领土完整,反对别国干涉内政和掠夺资源;作为低海拔岛礁国家,尤其重视气候变化,呼吁国际社会采取有效措施帮助其应对气候变化带来的负面影响。重视发展对外关系,尤其与南太各国的友好关系。经济因素常为基政府外交决策的首要考虑。基同30多个国家建交,但只在斐济设有外交代表机构,在少数国家设有名誉领事。

基里巴斯是联合国、英联邦、太平洋共同体、太平洋岛国论坛及论坛渔业局、瑙鲁协定等地区组织成员,积极参与相关组织活动,与太平洋岛国论坛合作较密切。

【外国援助】澳大利亚、日本等发达国家每年向基提供大量赠款,帮助基进行基础设施建设及教育培训等技术合作项目。澳大利亚为基最大外援国,澳方援助主要集中在改善基础教育、提升劳动者技能、加强经济治理、改善基础设施方面。新西兰向基提供援助主要集中在基里巴斯国际机场建设、劳动者技能培训、城市可持续发展等方面。

【同澳大利亚、新西兰的关系】澳、新分别于1981年、1989年在基开设高专署。基十分重视同澳、新,尤其是同澳的关系。基每年从澳进口占基进口总额的一半左右。澳在基一些政府、经济部门派有顾问。澳每年向基提供项目援助,主要用于基础教育、人力资源开发和公共部门管理等领域,已为基援建了10所中学。2012年3月,澳总督昆廷·布赖斯访问基里巴斯。2013年2月澳外长鲍勃·卡尔访基。2012年12月,新西兰外长默里·麦卡利访基。

[Financial Finance] Implement the policy of “paying for income and saving money”. National budgetary revenues are mainly balanced by the Budget Balance Reserve Fund (RERF), which was established in 1956 from phosphate mining, and has never been extracted.

(1) Kiribati Bank: Established in 1984, it is a joint venture with Western Pacific Bank of Australia. In 2001, it became a joint venture with ANZ Bank, with a 49% stake and ANZ Bank accounting for 51% of the shares.

(2) Kiribati Development Bank: Established in 1987, it is a national bank that provides loans to private companies.

[Education] Free education is provided in elementary schools and junior high schools. The enrolment rate for children is 93%. There are about 90 public primary schools, about 20 secondary schools (including private schools), six technical schools, and two secondary specialized schools (Kiribati Teachers College and Tarawa Institute of Technology). There is also a seafarer training school co-organized with the Germans. The Foundation sends about 170 students and students to foreign countries each year.

[Defense] Kiribati has no army, only about 300 police officers. National defense is the responsibility of Australia and New Zealand.

[Diplomacy] emphasizes safeguarding national sovereignty and territorial integrity, opposing other countries’ interference in internal affairs and plundering resources. As a low-altitude island reef country, it attaches great importance to climate change and calls on the international community to take effective measures to help them cope with the negative impacts of climate change. Attach importance to the development of foreign relations, especially the friendly relations with the South Pacific countries. Economic factors are often the primary consideration for foreign government decision-making. Established diplomatic relations with more than 30 countries, but only has diplomatic representation in Fiji and honorary consul in a few countries.

Kiribati is a member of regional organizations such as the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the Pacific Community, the Pacific Islands Forum and the Forum Fisheries Agency, and the Nauru Agreement. It is actively involved in relevant organizations and has a close cooperation with the Pacific Islands Forum.

[Foreign Aid] Developed countries such as Australia and Japan provide a large number of grants to the Foundation each year to help them carry out technical cooperation projects such as infrastructure construction and education and training. Australia is the largest foreign aid country, and Australia’s assistance is mainly focused on improving basic education, improving workers’ skills, strengthening economic governance, and improving infrastructure. New Zealand’s assistance to the base is mainly concentrated in the construction of Kiribati International Airport, labor skills training, and sustainable urban development.

[Relationship with Australia and New Zealand] Australia and New Zealand opened a high-tech office in 1981 and 1989 respectively. The Foundation attaches great importance to relations with Australia and New Zealand, especially with Australia. The base imports from Australia each year accounts for about half of the total imports. Australia has consultants in some government and economic departments. Australia provides project assistance to the Foundation each year, mainly in the areas of basic education, human resource development and public sector management. Ten secondary schools have been established for basic assistance. In March 2012, Australian Governor Quentin Bryce visited Kiribati. In February 2013, Australian Foreign Minister Bob Carr visited the base. In December 2012, New Zealand Foreign Minister Murray McCully visited the base.