The Republic of Kiribati 基里巴斯共和国
【国名】基里巴斯共和国（The Republic of Kiribati）。
[Country name] The Republic of Kiribati.
[Area] The land area is 811 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of 3.5 million square kilometers.
[Population] 108,000 (July 2017). More than 90% of them are from the Micronesian race, and the rest are Polynesians and European immigrants. The official languages are English, General Kiribati and English. Residents believe in Roman Catholicism and Protestantism in Kiribati.
[Capital] Tarawa, with a population of about 50,000.
[National Head of State] President Tanei Maamau, elected in March 2016.
[Important Festival] Independence Day: July 12.
[Profile] Located in the central part of the Pacific Ocean, it consists of 33 large and small islands (21 of which have permanent residents), belonging to the three major islands of Gilbert, Phoenix and Lane; it is the only one in the world that spans the equator and crosses the international date line. country. It has a tropical marine climate. The annual average temperature is 32 °C, and the average annual precipitation is 1600 mm.
Malay-Bosnian people settled 3000 years ago. Around the 14th century BC, Fijians and Tongans invaded and married locals to form the Kiribati nation. In 1892, the Gilbert Islands and some of the islands of the Ellis Islands became “protected places” in the United Kingdom. In 1916, it was classified as “the British Gilbert and Ellis Islands colony” (the Ellis Islands was divided in 1975 and renamed Tuvalu). It was occupied by Japan during the Second World War. Internal autonomy was implemented on January 1, 1977. Independence on July 12, 1979, renamed Kiribati.
[Constitution] The current constitution was based on the Gilbert Act of 1977. It was officially in force after independence in 1979, hence the name “independent constitution.” According to the Constitution, the president is nominated by the parliament and elected by a referendum. The term of office is four years and no more than three consecutive terms.
[Parliament] A one-chamber system. Members are elected for a term of four years. Except for the appointment of the Attorney General and a member of the Rabi Island, the remaining members are elected. The number of members varies according to the population. In 2007, the parliament passed a resolution: the number of members of the island with residents is determined by the population. A parliament is produced on an island with a population of less than 1,500, two parliamentarians on an island with a population of 1,500-5,000, and three parliamentarians on an island with a population of more than 5,000. The current parliament was formed in February 2016 with a total of 44 seats. The current Speaker, Sebuai Ueyi.
[Government] The President is both the head of state and the head of government. The Cabinet called the Council of Ministers, which was nominated by the President among members of the ruling party.
[Administrative Division] There are 23 administrative districts. Each administrative district has a committee. The chairman of the committee is the highest leader of the administrative body and has the powers of administration, finance, and court litigation.
[Judiciary] There are high courts and local courts. The High Court consists of the Chief Justice and the Companion. Each year, Australian and New Zealand judges form the South Pacific Circuit High Judges Group to accept appeals.
【政党】主要政党有：追求真理党（Boutokean Te Koaua Party，BTK，执政党）、你好基里巴斯党（Maurin Kiribati Party，MKP）、联合同盟党（Karikirakean Te I-Kiribati，KTK）。
[Party parties] The main political parties are: Boutokean Te Koaua Party (BTK, ruling party), Maurin Kiribati Party (MKP), and Karikirakean Te I-Kiribati (KTK).
[Economy] Kiribati is economically backward and relies heavily on foreign aid and is listed by the United Nations as one of the least developed countries. Most of the area is self-sufficient in the original economy. Fisheries resources are the main source of economic resources. In recent years, the basic government has continuously expanded the sources of foreign exchange income, strived to diversify the economy, and encouraged the development of small private enterprises, fisheries, small-scale processing and manufacturing, and coconut cultivation. The commodity economy has developed.
The main economic data for 2017 are as follows (Source: World Bank, Asian Development Bank):
Gross domestic product: about $196 million.
Per capita GDP: about $1,800.
Gross domestic product growth rate: 2.5%.
Currency: No national currency. GM Aussie, the Christmas Island area is also GM.
Inflation rate: 2.2%.
[Resources] There are abundant fishery resources. Phosphate was produced before 1979 and was mined by the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand and is now depleted. There are manganese, nickel and other mineral deposits in the offshore sea.
[Agriculture] Most of the land is covered by coral sand, and only a few crops such as coconut, banana, and breadfruit can be grown. The annual output of copra is about 11,000 tons, of which about 10,000 tons are exported, with a total output value of about 7 million Australian dollars. In recent years, due to the sluggish international market and the dry weather, the production and export of copra have declined significantly. There are no food crops and vegetables grown in the country.
[Fisheries] Rich in fishery resources, mainly tuna, squid, squid, and shrimp. The base fishing industry is backward and production is limited, and local residents can only carry out small-scale fishing. At present, dozens of fishing boats in the United States, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand and Taiwan Province of China have caught tuna in the base waters. The fishing license fees paid by these fishing boats to the base government have become one of the main sources of foreign exchange for the government.
[Tourism] Based on its geographical advantage across the international date line, the tourism industry will develop tourism and increase international visibility. The largest island, Christmas Island, is the world’s largest atolled coral island with world-famous bird sanctuaries and diving sites. Visitors from the United States, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand come here every year.
[Transportation] is mainly based on sea transportation, and Tarawa is the main sea and airport. Kiribati Shipping Co., Ltd. has a total of 10 passenger and freighter vessels, operating the passenger and cargo business between the islands. There are two international airports in the country, located in the capital Tarawa and Christmas Island, and there are 17 small airports on other islands. Fiji Airlines operates international routes from Fiji to Tarawa.
[Financial Finance] Implement the policy of “paying for income and saving money”. National budgetary revenues are mainly balanced by the Budget Balance Reserve Fund (RERF), which was established in 1956 from phosphate mining, and has never been extracted.
(1) Kiribati Bank: Established in 1984, it is a joint venture with Western Pacific Bank of Australia. In 2001, it became a joint venture with ANZ Bank, with a 49% stake and ANZ Bank accounting for 51% of the shares.
(2) Kiribati Development Bank: Established in 1987, it is a national bank that provides loans to private companies.
[Education] Free education is provided in elementary schools and junior high schools. The enrolment rate for children is 93%. There are about 90 public primary schools, about 20 secondary schools (including private schools), six technical schools, and two secondary specialized schools (Kiribati Teachers College and Tarawa Institute of Technology). There is also a seafarer training school co-organized with the Germans. The Foundation sends about 170 students and students to foreign countries each year.
[Defense] Kiribati has no army, only about 300 police officers. National defense is the responsibility of Australia and New Zealand.
[Diplomacy] emphasizes safeguarding national sovereignty and territorial integrity, opposing other countries’ interference in internal affairs and plundering resources. As a low-altitude island reef country, it attaches great importance to climate change and calls on the international community to take effective measures to help them cope with the negative impacts of climate change. Attach importance to the development of foreign relations, especially the friendly relations with the South Pacific countries. Economic factors are often the primary consideration for foreign government decision-making. Established diplomatic relations with more than 30 countries, but only has diplomatic representation in Fiji and honorary consul in a few countries.
Kiribati is a member of regional organizations such as the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the Pacific Community, the Pacific Islands Forum and the Forum Fisheries Agency, and the Nauru Agreement. It is actively involved in relevant organizations and has a close cooperation with the Pacific Islands Forum.
[Foreign Aid] Developed countries such as Australia and Japan provide a large number of grants to the Foundation each year to help them carry out technical cooperation projects such as infrastructure construction and education and training. Australia is the largest foreign aid country, and Australia’s assistance is mainly focused on improving basic education, improving workers’ skills, strengthening economic governance, and improving infrastructure. New Zealand’s assistance to the base is mainly concentrated in the construction of Kiribati International Airport, labor skills training, and sustainable urban development.
[Relationship with Australia and New Zealand] Australia and New Zealand opened a high-tech office in 1981 and 1989 respectively. The Foundation attaches great importance to relations with Australia and New Zealand, especially with Australia. The base imports from Australia each year accounts for about half of the total imports. Australia has consultants in some government and economic departments. Australia provides project assistance to the Foundation each year, mainly in the areas of basic education, human resource development and public sector management. Ten secondary schools have been established for basic assistance. In March 2012, Australian Governor Quentin Bryce visited Kiribati. In February 2013, Australian Foreign Minister Bob Carr visited the base. In December 2012, New Zealand Foreign Minister Murray McCully visited the base.