The Republic of Kenya 肯尼亚共和国
【国 名】 肯尼亚共和国（The Republic of Kenya）。
【面 积】 582,646平方公里。
【人 口】 5100万（2018年）。全国共有44个民族，主要有基库尤族（17%）、卢希亚族（14%）、卡伦金族（11%）、卢奥族（10%）和康巴族（10%）等。此外，还有少数印巴人、阿拉伯人和欧洲人。斯瓦希里语为国语，和英语同为官方语言。全国人口的45%信奉基督教新教，33%信奉天主教，10%信奉伊斯兰教，其余信奉原始宗教和印度教。
【首 都】 内罗毕（Nairobi），人口约350万。年平均气温17.7℃。
【国家元首】 总统乌胡鲁·肯雅塔（Uhuru Kenyatta），2013年3月首次当选，2017年10月再次当选，11月28日宣誓就职。
【简 况】 位于非洲东部，赤道横贯中部，东非大裂谷纵贯南北。东邻索马里，南接坦桑尼亚，西连乌干达，北与埃塞俄比亚、南苏丹交界，东南濒临印度洋，海岸线长536公里。境内多高原，平均海拔1500米。全境位于热带季风区，沿海地区湿热，高原气候温和，全年最高气温为摄氏22℃-26℃，最低为10℃-14℃。
[Country name] The Republic of Kenya.
[area] 582,646 square kilometers.
[People] 51 million (2018). There are 44 ethnic groups in the country, mainly Kikuyu (17%), Lu Xia (14%), Karenjin (11%), Luau (10%) and Kham (10%). Wait. In addition, there are a few Indians, Arabs and Europeans. Swahili is a national language and is the official language of English. 45% of the country’s population believes in Protestantism, 33% believe in Catholicism, 10% believe in Islam, and the rest believe in primitive religion and Hinduism.
[Capital] Nairobi, with a population of about 3.5 million. The annual average temperature is 17.7 °C.
[Head of State] President Uhuru Kenyatta was elected for the first time in March 2013, re-elected in October 2017, and sworn in on November 28.
[Important Festival] Independence Day: December 12.
[Profile] Located in eastern Africa, the equator runs through the central part of the country, and the Great Rift Valley runs through the north and south. It borders Somalia in the east, Tanzania in the south, Uganda in the west, Ethiopia and South Sudan in the north, and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. The coastline is 536 kilometers long. There are many plateaus in the territory, with an average elevation of 1,500 meters. The whole area is located in the tropical monsoon region. The coastal areas are hot and humid, and the plateau has a mild climate. The highest temperature in the year is 22°C-26°C and the lowest is 10°C-14°C.
Kenya is one of the birthplaces of mankind. Human cranial fossils were unearthed about 2.5 million years ago. In the 7th century AD, some commercial cities were formed in the southeastern coastal zone, and Arabs began to do business and settle here. In the 16th century, Portuguese colonists occupied the coastal zone. In 1890, Britain and Germany divided East Africa, and Ken was placed in the United Kingdom. In 1895, the British government announced that it would be a “protected land in East Africa”. In 1920, it was changed to a colony. In March 1960, the Kenyan African National Union (“Ken”) and the Kenya Democratic Alliance for Africa were established. In February 1962, the London Constitutional Convention decided to form a coalition government by the above two parties. In May 1963, Ken was elected, and Ken League won. The autonomous government was established on June 1 of the same year and declared independent on December 12. The Republic of Kenya was established on December 12, 1964, but remains in the Commonwealth. Jomo Kenyatta was the first president after Ken’s independence. After his death in 1978, Vice President Moi succeeded and served as president for 24 years.
【政 治】 独立以来，肯盟长期一党执政，1991年改行多党制后，肯盟于1992年、1997年连续两次赢得多党大选，莫伊蝉联总统。2002年12月举行第三次多党大选，反对党联盟全国彩虹联盟击败肯盟，齐贝吉当选总统，全国彩虹联盟获议会多数席位。2007年12月大选后，因执政党民族团结党与反对党橙色民主运动对选举结果存在争议而引发全国性骚乱。在联合国前秘书长安南调解下，争议双方于2008年2月28日签署《关于联合政府伙伴关系原则的协议》，并于4月13日组建联合政府。执政党领袖齐贝吉任总统，反对党领导人奥廷加任新设的总理职位。在2013年3月大选中，朱比利联盟候选人乌胡鲁·肯雅塔击败改革与民主联盟候选人奥廷加，当选肯尼亚第四任总统。2017年8月，肯尼亚举行新一届大选，肯雅塔总统击败老对手奥廷加，赢得选举，但总统选举结果被肯尼亚最高法院判决无效。同年10月，总统大选重新举行，肯雅塔再次胜出，成功连任总统，11月28日，肯雅塔宣誓就职。
【宪 法】 1964年颁布共和国宪法，迄今已历经大小30次修改。1982年6月，肯通过修宪确立实行一党制。1991年12月修宪改行多党制，规定：肯为多党民主国家，总统为国家元首、政府首脑兼国防军总司令，任期5年，连任不得超过两届；总统拥有最高行政权和任免权，有权召集或解散议会；总统和内阁集体对议会负责；公民享有宗教信仰、言论、集会、结社和迁徙的自由。1997年，肯反对党以宪法不适应多党制要求为由，强烈要求全面修宪。同年9月，肯颁布《修宪委员会法案》草案，开始修宪。2010年4月，肯新宪法草案获议会批准，8月通过全民公投并正式颁布实施，其主要内容包括：维持总统制政体，不再设总理职位，但总统权力受削弱；议会改为两院制，增设参议院；行政区划由中央、省、地区、分区、乡、村六级改为中央和郡两级。
【议 会】 议会是肯最高立法机构，成立于1963年，当时分设有参议院和众议院。1966年修订宪法，将参议院并入众议院，形成一院制，设立国民议会。2010年8月颁布的新宪法规定议会恢复设立参议院。2017年8月选举产生由国民议会和参议院两院构成的第12届议会。议员任期5年。
[Politics] Since independence, Ken League has been governed by one party for a long time. After changing to a multi-party system in 1991, Ken League won two-party elections twice in 1992 and 1997, and Moi reelected the president. In December 2002, the third multi-party election was held. The opposition coalition national rainbow alliance defeated Ken League, Kibaki was elected president, and the National Rainbow Alliance won a majority in the parliament. After the general election in December 2007, national riots were triggered by disputes over the election results by the ruling National Unity Party and the opposition Orange Democracy Movement. Under the mediation of former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the parties to the dispute signed the Agreement on the Principles of Joint Government Partnership on February 28, 2008, and formed a coalition government on April 13. The leader of the ruling party, Qi Beiji, is the president, and the leader of the opposition party, Odinga, is appointed as the new prime minister. In the March 2013 general election, the Jubilee Union candidate Uhuru Kenyatta defeated the Reform and Democracy Alliance candidate Odinga and was elected the fourth president of Kenya. In August 2017, Kenya held a new general election. President Kenyatta defeated the old rival Odinga and won the election, but the presidential election was invalidated by the Kenyan Supreme Court. In October of the same year, the presidential election was reconvened. Kenyatta won again and was re-elected. On November 28, Kenyatta was sworn in.
[Constitution] The Constitution of the Republic was promulgated in 1964 and has been revised 30 times in size. In June 1982, Ken established a one-party system through constitutional amendment. In December 1991, the constitution was changed to a multi-party system, stipulating that Ken is a multi-party democracy, the president is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the National Defence Force. The term of office is five years, and the term of re-election must not exceed two; the president has the highest executive power and the right to appoint. Have the right to convene or dissolve the parliament; the president and the cabinet are collectively responsible to the parliament; citizens enjoy the freedom of religious belief, speech, assembly, association and migration. In 1997, the Kenyan opposition party strongly urged a comprehensive revision of the constitution on the grounds that the constitution did not meet the requirements of the multi-party system. In September of the same year, Ken enacted the draft of the Constitutional Amendment Bill and began to amend the Constitution. In April 2010, the draft new constitution was approved by the parliament. It was officially promulgated and implemented through a referendum in August. Its main contents include: maintaining the presidential system and no longer holding the post of prime minister, but the president’s power is weakened; the parliament is changed into a bicameral system. The Senate will be added; the administrative division will be changed from the central, provincial, regional, sub-district, township and village levels to the central and county levels.
[Parliament] The Parliament is Ken’s highest legislative body. It was established in 1963 and was divided into the Senate and the House of Representatives. In 1966, the Constitution was amended to incorporate the Senate into the House of Representatives, forming a one-chamber system and establishing the National Assembly. The new constitution promulgated in August 2010 requires the parliament to resume the establishment of the Senate. In August 2017, the 12th Parliament consisting of the National Assembly and the Senate was elected. Members are elected for a term of five years.
The National Assembly consists of the Speaker and 349 members, including 290 elected members (representing 290 constituencies nationwide), 12 political party designated members (according to the proportion of political parties in the National Assembly), and 47 elected women representatives (representatives) 47 counties nationwide). The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker are nominated by the parties from the non-members and members of the Party, and elected by all members of the National Assembly. The current Speaker of the National Assembly, Justin Muturi. The main functions of the National Assembly include: legislation, decision-making of state taxation, supervision of government and state fiscal expenditures, approval of wars, extension of state emergency, impeachment of president and vice president, approval of important personnel appointments, etc. There are 32 committees under it.
The Senate is composed of the Senate President and 67 senators, including 47 elected senators (representing 47 counties across the country), 16 women’s representatives designated by political parties (as divided by the political parties in the Senate), and 2 youth representatives (the Senate) The largest two parties each have one person) and two representatives of the disabled (one in each of the two largest parties in the Senate). The Senate and the Deputy Senate are nominated by the parties from the non-members and members of the Party and elected by all the senators. The current Senate is Kenneth Lusaka. The main functions of the Senate include: participation in legislation related to the counties, tax distribution, fiscal expenditures, decentralization, and participation in the impeachment of the president and vice president. There are 20 committees under it.
【政 府】 实行总统制。本届内阁成立于2018年2月，由总统、副总统、各部部长共24名成员组成。目前内阁成员名单如下：总统乌胡鲁·肯雅塔（Uhuru Kenyatta），副总统威廉·鲁托（William Ruto），内务和中央政府协调部长弗雷德·马蒂安吉（Fred Matiang’i），放权及干旱和半干旱地区部长尤金·瓦马卢瓦（Eugene Wamalwa），财政和规划部长亨利·罗蒂奇（Henry Rotich），国防部长蕾切尔·奥马莫（Raychelle Omamo，女），外交部长莫妮卡·朱马（Monica Juma，女），教育部长乔治·马戈哈（George Magoha），卫生部长西西莉·卡里乌基（Sieily Kariuki，女），交通、基础设施、住房和城市发展部长詹姆斯·马查里亚（James Macharia），信息通讯和技术部长乔·穆切鲁（Joo Mucheru），环境和林业部长凯里亚科·托比科（Keriako Tobiko），土地部长法丽达·卡罗尼（Farida Karoney，女），体育和遗产部长阿明娜·穆罕默德（Amina Mohamed，女），东共体和北部走廊发展部长阿丹·穆罕默德（Adan Mohammed），劳工和社会保障部长乌库尔·亚塔尼（Ukur Yatani），农业和灌溉部长姆万吉·基温朱里（Mwangi Kiunjuri），工业、贸易和合作部长彼得·穆尼亚（Peter Munya），公共服务、青年和性别事务部长玛格丽特·科比亚（Margaret Kobia，女），旅游和野生生物部长纳吉布·巴拉拉（Najib Balala），能源部长查尔斯·凯特（Charles Keter），石油和矿业部长约翰·蒙耶斯（John Munyes），水和公共卫生部长西蒙·切卢吉（Simon Chelugui），不管部长拉斐尔·图朱（Raphael Tuju）。
【司法机构】 法院分为四级，即地区法院、驻节法院、高等法院和上诉法院。在穆斯林人口占多数的地区设伊斯兰法院。首席大法官威利·穆通加（Willy Mutunga），2011年6月任职。
【政 党】 目前，肯有注册政党约50个，主要政党和政党联盟有：
[Government] Implement the presidential system. The current cabinet was established in February 2018 and consists of 24 members including the president, vice president and ministers. The current list of cabinet members is as follows: President Uhuru Kenyatta, Vice President William Ruto, Minister of Internal Affairs and Central Government Coordination Fred Matiang’i, Minister of Decentralization and Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Eugene Wamalwa, Minister of Finance and Planning Henry Rotich, Secretary of Defense Raychelle Omamo (female), Diplomacy Minister Monica Juma (female), Minister of Education George Magoha, Minister of Health Sieily Kariuki (female), transportation, infrastructure, housing and cities Development Minister James Macharia, Minister of Information, Communications and Technology Joo Mucheru, Minister of Environment and Forestry Keriako Tobiko, Land Minister Farida Carida (Farida Karoney, female), Minister of Sports and Heritage Amina Mohamed (female), Adam Mohamed (Ada) and Minister of the Northern Corridor Development (Ada) n Mohammed), Minister of Labor and Social Security Ukur Yatani, Minister of Agriculture and Irrigation Mwangi Kiunjuri, Minister of Industry, Trade and Cooperation Peter Munya ), Margaret Kobia (female), Minister of Public Service, Youth and Gender Affairs, Najib Balala, Minister of Tourism and Wildlife, and Charles Keter, Energy Secretary , Minister of Petroleum and Mining John Munyes, Minister of Water and Public Health Simon Chelugui, regardless of Minister Raphael Tuju.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 47 counties (County).
[Judiciary] The court is divided into four levels, namely the District Court, the Residing Court, the High Court and the Court of Appeal. Islamic courts are located in areas where the Muslim population is predominant. Chief Justice Willy Mutunga, who served in June 2011.
[Political Party] At present, there are about 50 registered political parties. The main political parties and political party alliances have:
(1) Jubilee Party: In September 2016, the 12 parties within the former ruling Union of Jubilee announced the dissolution of their respective political parties and the joint formation of the Jubilee Party. In October 2017, the current President Kenyatta and Vice President Ruto won the general election as the president of the Jubilee Party and the vice presidential candidate respectively, and were re-elected.
(2) National Super League: In response to the strong formation of the Jubilee Party, the opposition “Big Three” Odinga, Musyoka, and Waitangula joined forces with the Armani National Congress Party leader Muda Wadi, which was formed in early 2017. Super League. Former Prime Minister Odinga and former Vice President Musiyoka participated in the 2017 general election as the president of the National Super League and the vice presidential candidate respectively, and eventually lost the election.
【经 济】 肯是撒哈拉以南非洲经济基础较好的国家之一。农业、服务业和工业是国民经济三大支柱，茶叶等农产品、旅游、侨汇是三大创汇来源。工业在东非地区相对发达，门类较齐全，日用品基本自给。
[Important figures] Uhuru Kenyatta: President, Commander-in-Chief of the National Defence Force. Born in October 1961, the Kikuyu, the son of the founding President Jomo Kenyatta. He studied in the United States and obtained a bachelor’s degree in political science and economics. Since 1999, he has served as Director of Tourism Development and Minister of Local Government. In 2002, he was elected as the vice chairman of the Ken League, and was elected as the presidential candidate of the Ken League as the successor to President Moi. In the 2002 general election, he lost to Kibaki and became the leader of the parliamentary opposition party. In 2005, he was elected president of Ken. In 2007, after leading the split, Ken League joined the Qibeji camp. In April 2008, he served as deputy prime minister and trade minister. In early 2009, he was appointed as deputy prime minister and finance minister. Resigned as Minister of Finance in January 2012. In April 2012, he withdrew from Kenn and joined the newly formed National Alliance Party in May. In January 2013, the National Alliance Party and the United Republican Party formed the Jubilee Union. Kenyatta, as the presidential candidate of the alliance, won the election and became the fourth president of Kenya. In October 2017, he was elected as a presidential candidate for the Jubilee Party and was re-elected. He was sworn in on November 28.
[Economy] Ken is one of the countries with a good economic base in sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture, service industry and industry are the three pillars of the national economy. Agricultural products such as tea, tourism and remittances are the three major sources of foreign exchange. The industry is relatively developed in the East African region, the categories are relatively complete, and the daily necessities are basically self-sufficient.
In 2008, the Kenyan government launched the “Vision 2030 Vision” and proposed to prioritize the development of key industries such as tourism, agriculture, manufacturing, wholesale and retail, business process outsourcing (BPO), and financial services, and strive for an average annual economic growth rate of 10%. By 2030, Ken will develop into a newly industrialized middle-income country with global competitiveness, high quality of life, beautiful environment and social stability. Affected by the election crisis in the beginning of 2008, the drought and the international financial crisis, the economic development rate slowed down. Since 2010, the Kenyan government has adopted a series of policies to promote economic growth, and the economy has shown a good momentum of development. But the poverty rate and unemployment rate are still high, both around 40%. In 2015, Ken will issue the National Industrialization Development Plan and the Special Economic Zone Law, vigorously strengthen infrastructure construction, attach importance to oil and gas resources, and develop new energy such as geothermal and solar energy, and actively promote industrialization and economic transformation. In 2017, the Ken government proposed “four major development goals” such as food security, housing security, manufacturing development, and medical security. The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: $89.3 billion.
Per capita GDP: $1,753.
Economic growth rate: 5.8%.
Currency name: Kenyan shilling.
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 101.9 Kenyan shilling.
Inflation rate: 4.7%.
Total external debt: $31.36 billion.
Foreign exchange reserves: $8.54 billion.
(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, May 2019)
【资 源】 矿藏主要有纯碱、盐、萤石、石灰石、重晶石、金、银、铜、铝、锌、铌和钍等，除纯碱和萤石外，多数矿藏尚未开发。森林面积8.7万平方公里，占国土面积的15%。林木储量9.5亿吨。2012年初发现石油蕴藏，已经探明石油储量29亿桶。地热、风能、水力等清洁能源丰富。
【工 业】 独立以后发展较快，门类比较齐全，是东非地区工业最发达的国家。以制造业为主，食品加工业发达。工业主要集中在内罗毕、蒙巴萨和基苏木这3大城市。制造业约占国内生产总值的10%。较大的企业有炼油、轮胎、水泥、轧钢、发电、汽车装配等厂。85%的日用消费品产自国内，其中服装、纸张、食品、饮料、香烟等基本自给，有些还供出口。
[Resources] The mineral deposits are mainly soda ash, salt, fluorite, limestone, barite, gold, silver, copper, aluminum, zinc, antimony and bismuth. Most of the mineral deposits have not been developed except for soda ash and fluorite. The forest area is 87,000 square kilometers, accounting for 15% of the country’s land area. The forest stock is 950 million tons. Oil reserves were discovered in early 2012 and the proven oil reserves were 2.9 billion barrels. Geothermal, wind, water and other clean energy sources are abundant.
[Industrial] After independence, it has developed rapidly and has a relatively complete category. It is the most developed country in East Africa. The manufacturing industry is the mainstay and the food processing industry is developed. The industry is concentrated in three major cities, namely Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu. Manufacturing accounts for about 10% of GDP. Larger companies include refining, tires, cement, steel rolling, power generation, and automotive assembly. 85% of daily consumer goods are produced in China, among which clothing, paper, food, beverages, cigarettes, etc. are basically self-sufficient, and some are also for export.
[Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] Agriculture is the backbone of the national economy. Its output value accounts for nearly one-third of the gross domestic product, and its exports account for more than half of Kenya’s total exports. About 80% of the country’s population is engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. The arable land area is 92,000 square kilometers (about 16% of the country’s land area), of which 73% has been cultivated land, mainly concentrated in the southwest. In normal years, food is basically self-sufficient, and wheat and rice are heavily dependent on imports. The export volume of sisal ranks second in the world. Africa’s largest flower exporter, accounting for about one-third of the EU’s market share. In 2016, tea, horticultural products and coffee were exported to about 1.2 billion, 990 million and 200 million US dollars respectively. Among gardening products, flowers, vegetables and fruits were exported about 690 million, 230 million and 0.7 billion respectively. The fishery resources are abundant. In 2016, the output was 146,000 tons, mostly from domestic freshwater lakes. Among them, Victoria Lake accounted for more than 80% of the total fishery production.
[Tourism] The pillar industry, Ken’s second largest source of foreign exchange income, directly created 250,000 jobs and indirectly created 550,000 jobs. In 2017, the number of international tourists was 1.47 million, and the tourism revenue was about 1.2 billion. The top five countries of origin are the United States, the United Kingdom, Uganda, China, and India. The main tourist spots are Nairobi, Tsavo, Amboseli, Nakuru, Masai Mara and other national parks, lakes and scenic areas, the Great Rift Valley, Mount Kenya and the Mombasa waterfront.
[Transportation] Mainly by road transportation. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year budget, infrastructure and information and communication budgets accounted for 8.93% of the total government expenditure budget, second only to the government’s budget for education, security, and public services.
Highway: The total length of the Ken Road network is more than 160,000 kilometers.
Railway: The total length is 2,765 kilometers, of which about 480 kilometers are standard rail railways, and the rest are narrow-gauge railways.
Shipping: Mombasa Port is the largest port in East Africa. It has 22 deep water berths and 2 large oil terminals. It can park 20,000-ton freighters and start operating 24 hours in August 2008. The cargo throughput of the Port of Mombasa from 2013 to 2016 was 2230, 2487, 2671, and 27.36 million tons, respectively.
Air transport: There are 4 international airports and more than 100 domestic airports in the country. Kenya Airways has more than 40 international routes and 98 offices worldwide.
Pipeline transport: The Mombasa-Nairobi pipeline was built in 1978 and has been expanded to Nakuru, Eldoret and Kisumu. In October 2017, three Western companies such as Tuluo in the United Kingdom signed an early construction contract with Kenya for the Turkana-Lamu oil pipeline, which is expected to be completed in 2021.
【军 事】 1963年独立后建军。总统兼任国防军总司令，拥有最高指挥权。国防军司令部是最高作战指挥机构，总统通过国防军司令统率全军。国防委员会系向总统负责的最高军事决策机构，由国防部长、国防部常务副部长、国防军司令、陆海空三军司令等组成。现任国防部长蕾切尔·奥马莫（女），国防军司令桑姆森·姆瓦提上将。
[Financial Finance] Financial revenue mainly depends on taxation. As of June 2017, the total public debt of the Kenyan government was about 38.4 billion US dollars, of which the internal debt was about 16.2 billion US dollars and the external debt was about 22.2 billion US dollars. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, Ken’s fiscal (budget) income was 1,569.8 billion shillings, fiscal (budget) expenses were 2,259.4 billion shillings, fiscal (budget) deficits were 689.6 billion shillings, and fiscal (budget) deficits were domestic. The total production value is 9.3%. In 2016, Ken Financial and Insurance grew by 6.9% and 5.3% respectively.
[Foreign Trade] occupies an important position in the national economy, but has a long-term deficit. The main export commodities are tea, flowers, coffee, cement, sisal, pyrethrin, soda ash, leather, meat and petroleum processing products. The main imported commodities are machinery, steel, vehicles, fertilizers, and pharmaceuticals. In 2018, Kenya’s import and export trade totaled approximately US$22.83 billion, of which exports were approximately US$6.31 billion and imports were US$16.52 billion. Africa and Europe are the first and second largest destinations for Kenya. Asia is the largest source of imports, and China is the largest source of imports.
[Foreign Capital] Since independence in 1963, Ken has always attached importance to absorbing and utilizing foreign capital to serve the economic construction of the country. In 1964, the government promulgated and implemented the Foreign Investment Protection Act. At present, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, France and other countries have hundreds of companies in Kenya, the investment field covers the agricultural, industrial, commercial, tourism, financial, transportation and other sectors. The main areas of foreign investment in Kenya are manufacturing, agriculture, energy, construction, communications and mining. In 2017, Ken absorbed foreign direct investment of 672 million US dollars, a year-on-year increase of 71%, a three-year high.
[Foreign Aid] Major donor countries and international organizations include Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, France and the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the International Development Association, the United Nations Development Programme, the African Development Bank, the European Development Fund and the Global Fund. Foreign aid is mainly used in agriculture, military, transportation, education, health, telecommunications and social development projects.
[People’s Life] The national poverty rate is over 40%, and the average life expectancy is 60 years. The development imbalance in Kenga is serious, the rural population poverty rate is 50%, and the urban population poverty rate is 30%. In 2016, the average annual income of residents was 645,000 shillings (more than 50,000 shillings per month). According to the 2016 Human Development Report released by the United Nations, the Ken Human Development Index ranks 146th among 188 countries and regions around the world.
[Military] In 1963, the army was established after independence. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the National Defence Force and has the highest command. The Defense Forces Command is the highest operational command organization, and the President has commanded the entire army through the Defence Force Commander. The National Defense Commission is the highest military decision-making body responsible to the President. It is composed of the Minister of Defense, the Deputy Minister of Defense, the Commander of the National Defense Forces, and the Commander of the Army, Navy and Air Force. The current Minister of Defence Rachel Omamo (female), Commander of the National Defence Force, General Samson Mwati.
It has pursued a defense policy of active defense and has actively participated in the fight against terrorism and UN and AU peacekeeping operations in recent years. Implement a voluntary military service system. There are 33,200 active servicemen, including 25,000 Army, 3,200 Navy, and 5,000 Air Force.
【教 育】 政府重视发展教育事业，教育经费一直占政府财政支出的20%左右。成人识字率近90%，在非洲国家中名列前茅。教育体制分为正规和非正规教育两类，正规教育实行小学、中学、大学“8–4–4”学制。非正规教育包括成人教育和扫盲活动。2003年起实行8年免费初等教育，计划于2018年实现中小学义务教育完全免费。目前全国有近1000万儿童入读小学，中学、大学数量分别为7000多所与60所，另有30多所职业培训学校、技校等。著名高等学府包括内罗毕大学、莫伊大学、肯雅塔大学、埃格顿大学、肯雅塔农业技术大学和马塞诺大学等。
[Education] The government attaches great importance to the development of education, and education funds have always accounted for about 20% of the government’s fiscal expenditure. The adult literacy rate is nearly 90%, ranking among the best in African countries. The education system is divided into two categories: formal and non-formal education. Formal education implements the “8–4–4” academic system of primary, secondary and university. Non-formal education includes adult education and literacy activities. Eight years of free primary education has been implemented since 2003, and it is planned to realize compulsory education in primary and secondary schools in 2018. At present, nearly 10 million children are enrolled in primary schools nationwide. The number of secondary schools and universities is more than 7,000 and 60, and there are more than 30 vocational training schools and technical schools. The prestigious institutions of higher learning include the University of Nairobi, Moi University, Kenyatta University, Egton University, Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology and the University of Macerino.
[Press and Publication] The main English newspapers and periodicals: “National Daily”, the circulation of about 200,000 copies; “East Africa Flag”, daily newspaper, circulation of about 70,000 copies; “Kenya Times”, daily newspaper, former ruling party Kenmeng official newspaper, The circulation is about 52,000 copies; Weekly Review, Ken’s largest private English weekly, with a circulation of about 18,500 copies; East Africa People’s Daily, weekly newspaper, first published in November 1994, published in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania . The Swahili newspaper is most influential in the “Taifa” (meaning “National People’s Daily”) founded by the “National Daily” media group, with a circulation of about 50,000 copies.
The Kenya News Agency, an official news agency, was established in 1963 to provide news and photos to newspapers, radio stations and television stations in Nairobi.
The Kenya Broadcasting Corporation, established by British colonists, was broadcast in 1927 and broadcast in English, Swahili, Hindi and 15 African languages. After Ken was independent in 1963, he was nationalized and renamed the Voice of Kenya.
Kenya Broadcasting and Television Corporation, established in 1987, is the largest radio and television company in the country that broadcasts television programs. “Kenya TV Network”, established in 1989, Ken is the first private TV station to broadcast in English. As of the end of 2004, the Ken government has issued operating licenses for 82 channels of 14 TV stations and 163 frequencies of 42 stations. Currently, 39 TV channels and 90 radio frequencies have been officially broadcast, but the coverage is mainly limited to Nairobi. Big cities such as Mombasa.
[External Relations] Pursuing a foreign policy of peace, good-neighborliness and non-alignment, actively participating in regional and international affairs, vigorously promoting regional political and economic integration, opposing foreign interference, attaching importance to developing relations with the West and neighboring countries, and paying attention to development with other countries. Economic and trade relations, carrying out all-round pragmatic diplomacy, emphasizing diplomacy serving the economy. In recent years, we have actively strengthened relations with Asian countries such as China.
Ken is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77, a signatory to the Lomé Agreement, and a subregion of the East African Intergovernmental Development Organization, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the East African Community and the Indian Ocean Regional Cooperation Alliance. Member of the organization. The United Nations has offices in Nairobi and the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Human Settlements Programme are based in Nairobi. Ken has established diplomatic relations with more than 100 countries.
[attitudes on current major international issues]
[About the new international political and economic order] It is considered that the existing international political and economic order is unfair and unreasonable to the developing countries. The West pursues hegemonism and power politics, and uses the existing international economic order to profit from developing countries, objectively causing poverty in developing countries, especially in Africa. Advocating political observance of the UN Charter, adhering to basic international relations norms such as sovereign equality and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs; economically increasing the participation of developing countries in formulating “rules of the game” and promoting the establishment of a fair and rational international political economy New order.
[About the situation in Africa] It is believed that conflict and turmoil are the most important factors hindering the development of Africa. They advocate maintaining and promoting African solidarity and cooperation and peacefully resolve disputes between African countries. Africa faces a threat of further marginalization in economic globalization. African countries should unite and strengthen themselves and enhance their ability to cope with the challenges of globalization through economic integration. It called on developed countries to substantially reduce African debt, increase non-development assistance, and open markets to African products.
[About climate change issues] Ken is a member of the African Heads of State and Government of Climate Change and supports the AU’s common position. Adhere to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, requiring developed countries to take the lead in reducing emissions and oppose setting mandatory emission reduction targets for developing countries. It is believed that developed countries should provide developing countries with funds and technology to help them improve their ability to adapt to climate change. It is advocated that the United Nations Environment Programme plays a key role in climate change negotiations.
[About human rights issues] The right to life and development are considered to be basic human rights. In a relatively poor and backward state, developing countries should first solve the problems of survival and development. Otherwise, democracy, freedom and other political, economic and social rights cannot be discussed. It advocates strengthening international human rights exchanges through dialogue, opposing confrontation in the field of human rights, and opposing the use of human rights by Western countries to exert pressure on other countries.
[About the international financial crisis] The international financial crisis is believed to have a negative impact on Kenya in the areas of exports, foreign debt, and foreign investment. The root cause of the crisis is the serious problems in the international financial system. Advocate the reform of the international financial system and reorganize the International Monetary Fund to make it truly the pillar of international credit. Developing countries such as Africa are required to have the right to speak in the process of reform.
[Relationship with the United Kingdom] The United Kingdom is the sovereign state of Ken, and the two countries maintain a traditional close relationship in politics, economy and military. Britain is one of the main bilateral aid donors and source countries of investment, with a total investment of more than 1 billion pounds. The UK offers 500 scholarships each year to Ken, and currently has more than 5,000 students studying in the UK. In 2006, the two countries renewed their military cooperation agreements. After the humanitarian election crisis in the Ken election dispute at the end of 2007, the United Kingdom announced that it would provide 1 million pounds of humanitarian assistance to the Ken Red Cross. In July 2008, Prime Minister Odinga visited the UK and held talks with British Prime Minister Gordon Brown. The UK announced that it will provide Ken with 9 million pounds of aid for reconstruction projects and NGO capacity building. In May 2013, President Kenyatta met with British Prime Minister David Cameron during the London International Conference on Somalia. In April 2018, President Kenyatta went to the UK to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting and visit the United Kingdom. In August of the same year, British Prime Minister Theresa May visited Kenya.
[Relationship with the United States] In recent years, Kenya’s relations with the United States have developed rapidly in order to gain US aid and the United States in order to win the fight against terrorism in East Africa. Ken is one of the most sub-Saharan African countries receiving US aid, and in recent years it has been about $500 million. Since Ken became the first beneficiary of the US African Growth and Opportunity Law in 2000, the export of textiles to the United States has surged, and nearly 100 American companies are setting up representative offices. In January 2004, Kenmei held a joint military exercise codenamed “Tip 04” near the Lamu Islands in Kenya. In June 2005, the United States asked Ken to sign an agreement not to submit a US criminal to the International Criminal Court. He was refused, and the United States thus frozen the military training assistance to Ken. After the controversy over the election in late 2007, the United States actively mediates after the turmoil. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Assistant Secretary of State Fraser visited Ken. They met with the leaders of the disputed sides and Annan and conveyed President Bush’s message. In March 2008, the American people donated $25 million to the humanitarian crisis. In May of the same year, the US military visited Ken and held joint training with Ken. In June of the same year, Prime Minister O’Tinga visited the United States, and the United States announced that it would provide Ken with 90 million U.S. dollars in aid. In May 2009, Prime Minister Odinga visited the United States. In August of the same year and August 2012, US Secretary of State Clinton visited Ken twice. In August 2014, President Kenyata went to the United States to attend the first US-Africa summit. In July 2015, US President Barack Obama visited Ken and attended the “Global Entrepreneurship Summit.” In March 2018, US Secretary of State Tillerson visited Kenya. In August of the same year, President Kenyatta visited the United States.
[Relationship with neighboring countries] Attach importance to developing relations with neighboring countries and actively promote regional integration. Established the East African Community with Tanzania and Uganda to implement regional interconnection infrastructure projects.
Ken is actively promoting the peace process in Somalia. In October 2002, Ken under the authority of the East African Intergovernmental Development Organization hosted a new round of Somalia in El Dorett, the western city of Ken. In January 2004, the Somali factions signed an agreement on the amendment of the Charter and the establishment of a new National Assembly. Subsequently, the Somali peacekeepers successively produced the Transitional Federal Parliament, the government and the President. In June 2005, the transitional government was relocated from Nairobi to the territory. In September 2006, during the special summit meeting of the East African Intergovernmental Organization for Development in Nairobi, President Kibaki met with the President of the Transitional Federal Government Yusuf and the Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles to discuss the deployment of the East African Intergovernmental Development Organization and the Peace Branch. Mission and other issues. In August 2007, President Kibaki met with visiting President Yusuf. In June 2009, Prime Minister Odinga met with the Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government. In October 2011, Ken sent troops to Somalia to assist the Transitional Federal Government in clearing the Somali Youth Party (Shabab) and in June 2012 to integrate the troops into the African Union Mission in Somalia. Since August 2012, new leaders and new governments have been created and will be strongly supported. From September 21 to 24, 2013, a number of “Shabab” terrorists attacked the Ximen Shopping Center in Nairobi, hijacked the hostages and exchanged fire with the Ken military police, killing 67 people and injuring more than 240 people. In April 2015, the University of Garissa, which was adjacent to the east of Ken, was attacked by the “Shabab” terrorist attack, killing 148 people and injuring 79 others. In February 2017, Kenyan President Kenyatta went to Somalia to attend the inauguration of the new President Muhammad. In March of the same year, Kenyan President Kenyatta visited Somalia, and then President Muhammad visited Kenya and attended the special summit on Somali refugees in Nairobi. In May 2018, President Mohammed visited Kenya. In November, President Mohammed went to Kenya to attend the Sustainable Blue Economy Conference.
Before South Sudan was founded independently, Ken advocated peaceful settlement of internal conflicts in Sudan. He has presided over the Sudan peace talks more than ten times. After the independent establishment of South Sudan, Ken will actively mediate the conflict between North and South Sudan. After the turmoil in South Sudan at the end of 2013, Ken actively participated in the mediation and facilitated the settlement of the settlement between the two parties in South Sudan. Ken is actively involved in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan and has sent about 1,000 peacekeepers and police officers.