The Republic of Kazakhstan 哈萨克斯坦共和国

【国名】 哈萨克斯坦共和国( The Republic of Kazakhstan, Қазақстан Республикасы) 简称哈萨克斯坦 (Kazakhstan, Қазақстан)

【面积】 272.49万平方公里

【人口】 1831.17万(截至2019年1月)。约有140个民族,其中哈萨克族占65.5%,俄罗斯族占21.4%。

【首都】努尔苏丹 (Nur-sultan,Нұр-Сұлтан;原称阿斯塔纳,2019年3月更名)1月平均气温-19℃至-4℃,7月平均气温19℃至26℃。

【总统】卡瑟姆若马尔特·托卡耶夫(Kassym-Jomart Tokayev,Қасым-Жомарт Тоқаев)。2019年3月20日就任总统。

【重要节日】 新年(1月1日),纳乌鲁斯节(波斯语和突厥语国家的春节,3月21日),祖国保卫者日(5月7日),宪法日(8月30日),独立日(12月16日)。此外还有肉孜节、古尔邦节等宗教节日。

【官方语言】 哈萨克语为国语,官方语言为哈萨克语和俄语。

【货币】 坚戈

【简况】位于亚洲中部。北邻俄罗斯,南与乌兹别克斯坦、土库曼斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦接壤,西濒里海,东接中国。多数居民信奉伊斯兰教(逊尼派)。此外,还有东正教、天主教和佛教等。1991年12月16日哈萨克斯坦共和国宣布独立。

[Country name] The Republic of Kazakhstan, Қазақстан Республикасы, referred to as Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan, Қазақстан)

[Area] 2,724,900 square kilometers

[Population] 1831.17 million (as of January 2019). There are about 140 ethnic groups, of which the Kazakhs account for 65.5% and the Russians account for 21.4%.

[Capital] Nur Sultan (Nur-sultan, Нұр-Сұлтан; formerly known as Astana, renamed in March 2019) January average temperature -19 ° C to -4 ° C, July average temperature 19 ° C to 26 ° C.

[President] Kassym-Jomart Tokayev (Қасым-Жомарт Тоқаев). On March 20, 2019, he became president.

[Important Festival] New Year (January 1st), Naurus Festival (Spring Festival in Persian and Turkic countries, March 21), Defender of the Fatherland (May 7th), Constitution Day (August 30) Day), Independence Day (December 16). There are also religious festivals such as the Meat Festival and the Gulben Festival.

[Official language] Kazakh is the national language, and the official languages ​​are Kazakh and Russian.

[currency] tenge

[Profile] is located in central Asia. It borders Russia in the north, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan in the south, the Caspian Sea in the west, and China in the east. Most residents believe in Islam (Sunni). In addition, there are Orthodox, Catholic and Buddhism. On December 16, 1991, the Republic of Kazakhstan declared independence.

【宪法】哈萨克斯坦共和国宪法具有最高法律效力,是哈萨克斯坦国家法律体系及立法进一步发展的核心和基础。哈萨克斯坦宪法在1995年8月30日经全民投票批准成立,宣布哈萨克斯坦为总统制单一制共和国并确认了总统的最高权力。哈萨克斯坦首任总统纳扎尔巴耶夫2017年3月10日签署修改国家宪法的法令。根据修改后的宪法,总统将部分权力移交政府和议会,政府和议会权力得到加强。

【政治】政局稳定。

2019年3月19日,纳扎尔巴耶夫首任总统发表电视讲话,宣布辞职。3月20日,哈萨克斯坦议会举行两院联席会议,原议会上院议长托卡耶夫宣誓就任新总统。同日,议会上院外交国防和安全事务委员会主席达丽嘉·纳扎尔巴耶娃(Dariga Nazarbayeva,Дариға Назарбаева)出任议会上院议长。

主要有3个政党:“祖国之光”党、哈萨克斯坦共产人民党,“光明道路”民主党。

【议会】国家最高立法机构。由上下两院组成,其中上院又称“参议院”,下院又称“马日利斯”,上院47个席位,下院107个席位。上院任期6年,每3年改选一半议员,下院任期5年。上院议长: 达丽嘉·纳扎尔巴耶娃, 2019年3月就任。下院议长:努尔兰·尼格马图林 (Nurlan Nigmatulin,Нұрлан Нығматулин),2016年6月就任。

[Constitution] The constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan has the highest legal force and is the core and foundation for the further development of Kazakhstan’s national legal system and legislation. The Kazakhstan Constitution was approved by a referendum on August 30, 1995, proclaiming Kazakhstan as a presidential unitary republic and confirming the supreme power of the president. Kazakhstan’s first president, Nazarbayev, signed a decree amending the national constitution on March 10, 2017. According to the revised constitution, the president transferred part of the power to the government and parliament, and the power of the government and parliament was strengthened.

[Politics] Political situation is stable.

On March 19, 2019, the first president of Nazarbayev delivered a televised speech and announced his resignation. On March 20th, the Kazakh parliament held a joint meeting of the two chambers. The former parliament speaker, Tokayev, was sworn in as the new president. On the same day, Dariga Nazarbayeva (Дариға Назарбаева), chairman of the Foreign Affairs and Security Committee of the upper house of parliament, became the speaker of the upper house of parliament.

There are mainly three political parties: the “Light of the Motherland” Party, the Kazakhstan Communist Party, and the “Bright Road” Democratic Party.

[Parliament] The highest legislative body in the country. It consists of upper and lower houses, of which the upper house is also called “the Senate”, the lower house is also called “Majlis”, the upper house is 47 seats, and the lower house is 107 seats. The upper house is appointed for a term of six years, and half of the members are elected every three years, and the lower house is elected for five years. Speaker of the House of Lords: Dalika Nazarbayeva, took office in March 2019. Speaker of the House of Commons: Nurlan Nigmatulin (Нұрлан Нығматулин), took office in June 2016.

【政府】国家最高行政机关,行使哈萨克斯坦共和国的行政权,其活动对总统负责。本届政府于2019年2月组成,阿斯卡尔·马明任总理。

【行政区划】全国设14个州、3个直辖市(首都努尔苏丹、原首都阿拉木图、奇姆肯特)

【经济】哈经济以石油、采矿、煤炭和农牧业为主。2017年哈国内生产总值约1390.03亿美元,同比增长4%。工业产值364.66亿美元、同比增长7%,农业产值124.28亿美元、同比增长2.9%。据哈方统计,2018年哈国内生产总值1447.02亿美元、同比增长4.1%,工业产值379.61亿美元、同比增长4.1%,农业产值128.51亿美元、同比增长3.4%。

【资源】石油资源和矿产资源丰富。已经探明石油储量48亿吨,已经探明的矿藏90多种。

【武装力量】哈萨克斯坦武装力量组建于1992年,设陆军、空中防御力量、海军3个军种和航空机动部队、火箭和炮兵部队2个兵种。总统为武装力量最高统帅。

[Government] The highest administrative organ of the state, exercising the executive power of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and its activities are responsible to the president. The current government was formed in February 2019, and Askar Ma Ming was appointed prime minister.

[Administrative Division] There are 14 states and 3 municipalities in the country (the capital of Nuer Sultan, the former capital of Almaty, Shymkent)

[Economy] Kazakhstan’s economy is dominated by oil, mining, coal and agriculture. In 2017, Kazakhstan’s GDP was about US$139.03 billion, a year-on-year increase of 4%. The industrial output value was 36.466 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 7%, and the agricultural output value was 12.428 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 2.9%. According to Kazakhstan statistics, in 2018, Kazakhstan’s GDP was 144.702 billion U.S. dollars, up 4.1% year-on-year. The industrial output value was 37.961 billion U.S. dollars, up 4.1% year-on-year. The agricultural output value was 12.851 billion U.S. dollars, up 3.4% year-on-year.

[Resources] Rich in petroleum resources and mineral resources. It has proven 4.8 billion tons of oil reserves and more than 90 proven mineral deposits.

[Armed Forces] The Kazakhstan Armed Forces was formed in 1992. It consists of two units: the Army, the Air Defense Force, the Navy’s three services and the Air Mobile Force, the Rocket and the Artillery Corps. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces.