The Republic of Iraq 伊拉克共和国
【国 名】 伊拉克共和国（The Republic of Iraq）。
【面 积】 43.83万平方公里。
【人 口】 3800万（2018年）。其中阿拉伯民族约占78%（什叶派约占60%，逊尼派约占18%），库尔德族约占15%，其余为土库曼族、亚美尼亚族等。官方语言为阿拉伯语和库尔德语。居民中95%以上信奉伊斯兰教，少数人信奉基督教等其他宗教。
【首 都】 巴格达（Baghdad），人口约664万。
【简 况】 位于亚洲西南部，阿拉伯半岛东北部。北接土耳其，东临伊朗，西毗叙利亚、约旦，南接沙特、科威特，东南濒波斯湾。幼发拉底河和底格里斯河自西北向东南流贯全境。海岸线长60公里。除东北部山区外，属热带沙漠气候。7、8月气温最高，日平均气温24℃-43℃，1月气温最低，日平均气温4℃-16℃，6-9月降雨最少，月平均降雨量1毫米，3月降雨最多，月平均降雨量28毫米。
[Country name] The Republic of Iraq.
[area] 438,300 square kilometers.
[People] 38 million (2018). Among them, the Arab people account for about 78% (Shiites account for about 60%, Sunnis for 18%), Kurds account for about 15%, and the rest are Turkmen and Armenians. The official languages are Arabic and Kurdish. More than 95% of the residents believe in Islam, and a few believe in Christianity and other religions.
[The capital] Baghdad has a population of about 6.64 million.
[Head of State] President Barham Salih was elected on October 2, 2018.
[Profile] Located in the southwest of Asia, northeast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Turkey in the north, Iran in the east, Syria and Jordan in the west, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in the south, and Persian Gulf in the southeast. The Euphrates and Tigris flows through the whole region from northwest to southeast. The coastline is 60 kilometers long. In addition to the mountains in the northeast, it has a tropical desert climate. The highest temperature in July and August, the daily average temperature is 24°C-43°C, the lowest temperature in January, the daily average temperature is 4°C-16°C, the least rainfall in June-September, the average monthly rainfall is 1mm, the most rainfall in March, month The average rainfall is 28 mm.
2003年7月，美驻伊拉克当局任命25名伊各派人士组成伊拉克临时管理委员会（简称“临管会”）。2004年6月，伊拉克临时政府成立。6月 8日，联合国安理会一致通过第1546号决议，决定全面恢复伊主权，结束对伊拉克占领。2005年12月，伊拉克选举产生战后首届正式议会。2010年3 月，伊拉克举行战后第二届国民议会选举。2014年4月，伊拉克举行第三届国民议会选举。9月，伊拉克组建战后第三届政府。
The Tigris and Euphrates rivers in which Iraq is located have a long history of civilization. In the mid-3000 BC, the earliest inhabitants of the two rivers, the Sumerians, created cuneiform writing, 60-digit counting and circular division. Since then, Iraq has experienced the rule of the Babylonian kingdom, the Assyrian Empire, the post-Babylon kingdom, the Persian, the Seychelles (the Chinese history called the branch), the rest, and the Persian Sashan dynasty. In the 7th century, the Arab Empire rose and quickly occupied the two rivers. It established the Umayyad Dynasty (Chinese history called white clothes) and the Abbasid dynasty (Chinese history called black clothes), in which the Abbasid Dingdu Baghdad. In 1258, Sun Xulie of Genghis Khan captured Baghdad and was established in Persia and Asia Minor as the center of the Iraqi Khanate. The jurisdiction includes Iraq. Since 1534, the Ottoman Empire began to rule the two rivers until the First World War.
In 1920, Iraq became the “appointment of the United Kingdom”. In 1921, the British selected Faisal from the royal family of Meghahim to establish the Faisal dynasty in Baghdad. After the Second World War, Iraq and Turkey signed the “Island Treaty” on February 23, 1955, and then the United Kingdom, Pakistan and Iran joined to form the Baghdad Defense Treaty Organization. In 1958, the Freedom Officers Group headed by Kasem launched a military coup, overthrew the Faisal dynasty and announced the establishment of the Republic of Iraq.
In 1968, the Baath Party coup came to power. In 1979, Saddam was in full power. In 1980, the two-Iraq war broke out over eight years. On August 2, 1990, Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait, which triggered the Gulf War. Since then, the United Nations has imposed sanctions on Iraq for nearly 13 years.
On March 20, 2003, the Iraq war broke out. On April 9, the US military captured Baghdad and the Saddam regime was overthrown. On May 1, US President Bush announced the end of the main war in Iraq. In December 2008, the United States and Iran signed the “Strategic Framework Agreement on US-Iraq Friendship and Cooperation” and the “Agreement on the Status of US Forces in Iraq”, which came into effect in January 2009. In June 2009, US troops stationed in Iraq withdrew from major Iraqi towns. On August 31, they withdrew their combat troops in Iraq and reduced the number of US troops stationed in Iraq to 50,000. In December 2011, the United States withdrew all combat troops from Iraq.
In July 2003, the US authorities in Iraq appointed 25 Iraqi factions to form the Iraqi Interim Governing Council (“the Interim Governing Council”). In June 2004, the Iraqi interim government was established. On June 8, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1546, deciding to fully restore Iraqi sovereignty and end the occupation of Iraq. In December 2005, Iraq elected the first formal parliament after the war. In March 2010, Iraq held the second post-war National Assembly election. In April 2014, Iraq held the third National Assembly election. In September, Iraq formed the third post-war government.
On September 25, 2017, the Kurdish region held an independent referendum. The Iraqi central government strongly opposes the referendum in the reservoir area and unites neighboring countries such as Iran and Turkey to adopt a series of countermeasures.
On December 9, 2017, Iraqi Prime Minister Abadi announced that he would recover all the territories occupied by terrorist extremists and achieve a major victory in the war on terrorism.
In May 2018, Iraq held the fourth National Assembly election.
【宪 法】 2005年8月底出台永久宪法草案，并在10月举行的全民公决中获得通过，规定伊拉克实行联邦制，石油资源归全体人民所有，前复兴党成员不得参政。但各派在国家生活中的地位、联邦制、资源分配等问题上尚存争议。
【议 会】 2018年5月举行第四届国民议会选举。10月2日，国民议会选举逊尼派人士穆罕默德·哈勒布希（Mohamed Al-Halbousi）任议长。本届议会共有329名议员，任期4年。
【政 府】 本届政府于2018年10月24日成立，总理阿迪勒·阿卜杜勒马赫迪（Adil Abdul-Mahdi）。
【政 党】 伊拉克党派众多，目前约有200余个政党和政治实体，组成多个政党联盟，主要包括：
[Constitution] At the end of August 2005, a draft permanent constitution was issued and passed in a referendum held in October, stipulating that Iraq is subject to federalism, oil resources are owned by all people, and members of the former Baath Party are not allowed to participate in politics. However, there are still controversies in the status of the country, the federal system, and the distribution of resources.
[Parliament] The fourth National Assembly election was held in May 2018. On October 2nd, the National Assembly elected the Sunni Mohamed Al-Halbousi as the Speaker. There are 329 members of parliament in this session for a term of four years.
[Government] The current government was established on October 24, 2018, and Prime Minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi.
[Administrative Division] There are 18 provinces in the country: Baghdad, Nineveh, Basra, Babylon, Muthanna, Najaf, Anbar, Wasit, Missan, Dhi Qar, Kadiya, Karbala, Dia La, Salahuddin, Kirkuk, Sulaymaniyah, Erbil, Dohuk.
[Political Party] There are many Iraqi parties. At present, there are more than 200 political parties and political entities, which form a coalition of political parties, including:
(1) Victory Alliance: led by former Prime Minister Abadi and united with 31 political entities.
(2) Alliance of the Rule of Law: led by former Vice President Al-Maliki.
(3) Pioneering Alliance: led by Badr’s leader, Amiri, with Shiite militia as the mainstay, uniting 18 political entities.
(4) Nationalist Alliance: headed by Sadr’s leader Sadr and the national wisdom movement leader Hakim.
(5) National Front: It was formed by former Speaker Zhu Bili and former Prime Minister Mutalak and former Shiite former Deputy Prime Minister Allawi, including 16 political parties.
(6) Iraq’s decision alliance: led by former Vice President Nujfi, including 11 parties.
(7) Kurdistan Democratic Party: one of the two ruling parties in the Kurdish region.
(8) Kurdistan Patriotic Union: one of the two ruling parties in the Kurdish region.
(9) National Land Alliance: It is composed of the Kusat Change Movement Joint Democratic Justice Alliance and the Kurdish Islamic Group.
【资 源】 石油、天然气资源丰富。探明石油储量达1530亿桶，居世界第5位。天然气储量约3.6万亿立方米，居世界第12位。磷酸盐储量约100亿吨。
【工 业】 能源产业占主导地位，石油出口收入约占国内生产总值的45％，政府收入的90%。伊拉克战争结束后，石油生产逐渐恢复，迄今已举行4轮油气田开发招标。2018年原油日产量约450万桶，石油日均出口量约350万桶。
【农 业】 可耕地面积占国土总面积的27.6%，农业用地严重依赖地表水，主要集中在底格里斯河和幼发拉底河之间的美索不达米亚平原。农业人口占全国总人口的1/3。主要农作物有小麦、大麦和椰枣等，粮食不能自给。
[Important figures] Balham Saleh, Kurdish, was born in 1960 in the province of Sulaymaniyah in the Kurdish region of Iraq. He joined the Kurdish Patriotic Union (KUA) in 1976. He obtained a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from Cardiff University in the UK in 1983 and a Ph.D. in statistics and computer applications from the University of Liverpool in 1987. In 1992, he served as the representative of the Kuai League and the government of the reservoir area in the United States. From 2001 to 2004, he served as Prime Minister of the Kushang District. In 2004, he served as Deputy Prime Minister of the Iraqi Interim Government. In 2005, he served as Minister of Planning of the Iraqi Transitional Government. From 2005 to 2009, he served as Deputy Prime Minister of the Iraqi Government. From 2009 to 2012, he served as Prime Minister of the Kushang District Government. From 2010 to 2017, he served as the second deputy general secretary of the Kuai League. On October 2, 2018, he was elected president.
Adil Abd al-Mahdi, a Shiite Muslim born in 1942, holds a master’s degree in political science and a master’s degree in economics in France. He once lived overseas and once joined the Baath Party and the Iraqi Communist Party, and then participated in the creation of the Iraqi Islamic Supreme Revolutionary Committee. After 2003, he served as a member of the Interim Management Committee, in 2004 as Minister of Finance, in 2005 as Vice President, and in 2014 as Minister of Petroleum. On October 2, 2018, he was nominated as a candidate for the prime minister. On October 24, 2018, he was elected prime minister.
Muhammad al-Halebush, a Sunni Muslim, was born in Anbar province in 1981. He received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in civil engineering from the University of Styria in Iraq in 2002 and 2006 respectively. He has served in the private sector for a long time. He was elected to the National Assembly in 2014. He was a member of the Parliamentary Human Rights Committee, a member of the Finance Committee, and the chairman. In 2017, he was the governor of Anbar province. On September 15, 2018, he was elected as Speaker.
[Economy] After the Iraq war, the task of economic reconstruction was heavy. The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1483 in May 2003 to remove all economic sanctions against Iraq except the arms embargo. The focus of Iraq’s reconstruction is to restore and develop energy, education, health, employment, electricity, water, food and other fields. However, due to the unstable security situation, the infrastructure was seriously damaged and the economic reconstruction progressed slowly.
The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product (GDP): $226 billion.
Per capita GDP: $6,408.
Economic growth rate: 1.1%.
Currency name: Iraqi Dinar (IQD).
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 1184 dinars.
Foreign exchange and gold reserves: 53.9 billion US dollars.
[Resources] Oil and natural gas resources are abundant. Proved oil reserves reached 153 billion barrels, ranking fifth in the world. Natural gas reserves are about 3.6 trillion cubic meters, ranking 12th in the world. Phosphate reserves are about 10 billion tons.
[Industrial] The energy industry dominates, with oil export revenue accounting for about 45% of GDP and 90% of government revenue. After the end of the Iraq war, oil production has gradually recovered, and so far four rounds of oil and gas field development tenders have been held. In 2018, the daily output of crude oil is about 4.5 million barrels, and the average daily export volume of oil is about 3.5 million barrels.
[Agriculture] The area of arable land accounts for 27.6% of the total land area. Agricultural land is heavily dependent on surface water, mainly concentrated in the Mesopotamian plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The agricultural population accounts for one third of the country’s total population. The main crops are wheat, barley and date palm, and the food cannot be self-sufficient.
[Tourism] The main tourist spots are the Ur City (2060 BC) site, the Assyrian Empire (910 BC) and the Hart City Site (common name “Sun City”), located 90 kilometers southwest of Baghdad. Babylon is a world famous ancient city ruins. The “sky garden” is listed as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
【军 事】 实行募兵制，包括军队和警察，分别隶属国防部和内政部，包括预备役部队在内目前共有约77.8万人。
【教 育】 实施6年制义务教育，适龄儿童小学入学率为98%，但中等和高等院校入学率仅为45%和15%。成人识字率为79.7%。全国共有20所大学和44所专科院校。
【外 交】 自海湾危机爆发至2003年伊拉克战争爆发前，联合国安理会先后通过63个有关伊拉克问题的决议，对伊拉克实行经济制裁和武器禁运，伊拉克对外处境孤立。伊拉克战争结束后，伊拉克政府着力恢复与各国，尤其是大国和周边国家的外交关系，并逐步获得外界的承认和支持。目前，伊拉克已与近90个国家恢复或建立了外交关系，并恢复了在阿拉伯国家联盟、伊斯兰会议组织、联合国机构、国际货币基金组织、石油输出国组织等地区和国际组织内的活动。2010年12月，联合国安理会通过决议，取消根据《联合国宪章》第七章对伊拉克在大规模杀伤性武器、导弹和民用核活动领域的制裁，结束“石油换食品” （Oil-for-Food）计划。2012年3月，阿盟首脑会议在伊举行。5月，举办伊朗核问题六国对话会。2013年6月，安理会解除根据《联合国宪章》第七章对伊采取的强制性措施。2019年4月，伊拉克举办周边六国议长会议，沙特、土耳其、约旦、科威特、叙利亚议长以及伊朗议长代表参会。
[Transportation] Highway: Domestic transportation is mainly highway. The road network covers the whole country with a total length of 59,600 kilometers. Some roads are connected with Syria, Jordan, Kuwait, Turkey and other countries.
Railway: The total length is about 2,272 kilometers, mainly including three main lines centered on Baghdad: the Baghdad-Kilkuk-Erbil line, the Baghdad-Mosul-Turkey line, and the former Soviet Union aided Baghdad-Um. The Port of Qasr. In August 2000, the railway between Yi and Syria resumed operation. In July 2001, Yitu (Earth) opened its railway transportation business for the first time in 20 years.
Water transport: The waterway mileage is 5,279 kilometers, mainly including some waterways such as the Tigris River, the Euphrates River and the Xiatai Arab River and the artificial canal (Saddam River). The main ports are Umm Qasr Port and Becker Port, with 83 existing terminals and an annual throughput of approximately 2.9 million tons.
Aviation: There are 6 international airports including Baghdad, Basra, Erbil, Sulaymaniyah, Najaf and Mosul. There are smaller civil airports in places like Kirkuk. The Iraqi civil aviation business was interrupted for a long time due to the war. After the war, domestic flights in Iraq resumed, and Iraqi airlines continued to open international routes from Baghdad to Amman, Cairo, Beirut, Damascus, Dubai, Kuwait and London. Air passenger traffic is about 2 million passengers/year.
[Foreign Trade] After the Iraq war, an open foreign trade policy was implemented, and most imported goods were exempted from customs duties.
[People’s Life] Due to the increase in oil revenue in the 1970s, Iraq has established a relatively sound medical system in urban and rural areas, and people’s lives have also increased considerably. After the Gulf War, the people’s living standards fell sharply. After the Iraq war, due to the slow progress of economic reconstruction and the deterioration of the security situation, the improvement of people’s living standards is still quite slow. At present, 20% of the population lives below the poverty line ($2 per day), the power supply capacity is only half of the demand, and 20% of the places are not connected to tap water. The average life expectancy of the population is 74.9 years, of which the average life expectancy of men is 72.6 years and the average life expectancy of women is 77.2 years.
[Military] The implementation of the military recruitment system, including the military and the police, is affiliated to the Ministry of National Defense and the Ministry of the Interior, including the reserve forces, and currently has a total of 778,000 people.
[Education] The implementation of six-year compulsory education, the primary school enrollment rate of school-age children is 98%, but the enrollment rate of secondary and tertiary institutions is only 45% and 15%. The adult literacy rate is 79.7%. There are 20 universities and 44 colleges and universities across the country.
[From diplomatic relations] Since the outbreak of the Gulf crisis until the outbreak of the Iraq war in 2003, the UN Security Council passed 63 resolutions on the Iraq issue and imposed economic sanctions and arms embargoes on Iraq. Iraq is in an external situation. After the end of the Iraq war, the Iraqi government focused on restoring diplomatic relations with countries, especially the big countries and neighboring countries, and gradually gained recognition and support from the outside world. At present, Iraq has resumed or established diplomatic relations with nearly 90 countries and resumed activities in regional and international organizations such as the League of Arab States, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, United Nations agencies, the International Monetary Fund and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In December 2010, the UN Security Council passed a resolution to lift sanctions against Iraq in the field of weapons of mass destruction, missiles and civilian nuclear activities in accordance with Chapter VII of the UN Charter, ending “Oil-for-Food” plan. In March 2012, the Arab League summit was held in Iraq. In May, the six-nation dialogue on the Iranian nuclear issue was held. In June 2013, the Security Council lifted the mandatory measures imposed on Iraq under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. In April 2019, Iraq hosted a meeting of six neighboring parliaments, and Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Iranian parliamentary representatives attended the meeting.