The Republic of Iraq 伊拉克共和国

【国 名】 伊拉克共和国(The Republic of Iraq)。

【面 积】 43.83万平方公里。

【人 口】 3800万(2018年)。其中阿拉伯民族约占78%(什叶派约占60%,逊尼派约占18%),库尔德族约占15%,其余为土库曼族、亚美尼亚族等。官方语言为阿拉伯语和库尔德语。居民中95%以上信奉伊斯兰教,少数人信奉基督教等其他宗教。

【首 都】 巴格达(Baghdad),人口约664万。

【国家元首】总统巴尔哈姆·萨利赫(Barham Salih),2018年10月2日当选。

【简 况】 位于亚洲西南部,阿拉伯半岛东北部。北接土耳其,东临伊朗,西毗叙利亚、约旦,南接沙特、科威特,东南濒波斯湾。幼发拉底河和底格里斯河自西北向东南流贯全境。海岸线长60公里。除东北部山区外,属热带沙漠气候。7、8月气温最高,日平均气温24℃-43℃,1月气温最低,日平均气温4℃-16℃,6-9月降雨最少,月平均降雨量1毫米,3月降雨最多,月平均降雨量28毫米。

[Country name] The Republic of Iraq.

[area] 438,300 square kilometers.

[People] 38 million (2018). Among them, the Arab people account for about 78% (Shiites account for about 60%, Sunnis for 18%), Kurds account for about 15%, and the rest are Turkmen and Armenians. The official languages ​​are Arabic and Kurdish. More than 95% of the residents believe in Islam, and a few believe in Christianity and other religions.

[The capital] Baghdad has a population of about 6.64 million.

[Head of State] President Barham Salih was elected on October 2, 2018.

[Profile] Located in the southwest of Asia, northeast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Turkey in the north, Iran in the east, Syria and Jordan in the west, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in the south, and Persian Gulf in the southeast. The Euphrates and Tigris flows through the whole region from northwest to southeast. The coastline is 60 kilometers long. In addition to the mountains in the northeast, it has a tropical desert climate. The highest temperature in July and August, the daily average temperature is 24°C-43°C, the lowest temperature in January, the daily average temperature is 4°C-16°C, the least rainfall in June-September, the average monthly rainfall is 1mm, the most rainfall in March, month The average rainfall is 28 mm.

伊拉克所处的底格里斯河、幼发拉底河两河流域具有悠久的文明。公元前3000年中叶,两河流域最早的居民苏美尔人创造楔形文字、60进制计数法和圆周分割率。此后,伊拉克经历了古巴比伦王国、亚述帝国、后巴比伦王国、波斯、塞琉西(中国史称条支)、安息、波斯萨珊王朝统治。7世纪,阿拉伯帝国兴起,并迅速占领两河流域,先后建立倭马亚王朝(中国史称白衣大食)和阿拔斯王朝(中国史称黑衣大食),其中阿拔斯王朝定都巴格达。1258年,成吉思汗之孙旭烈兀攻占巴格达,受封以波斯和小亚细亚为中心建立伊儿汗国,辖区包括今伊拉克。1534年起,奥斯曼帝国开始统治两河流域,直到第一次世界大战期间。

1920年,伊拉克沦为英国的“委任统治地”。1921年,英国人从麦加哈希姆王室中选送费萨尔到巴格达建立费萨尔王朝。第二次世界大战后,伊拉克与土耳其于1955年2月23日签订“伊土条约”,随后英国、巴基斯坦和伊朗加入,组成巴格达防御条约组织。1958年,以卡塞姆为首的自由军官集团发动军事政变,推翻费萨尔王朝,宣布成立伊拉克共和国。

1968年,复兴党政变上台。1979年,萨达姆全面掌权。1980年,历时8年的两伊战争爆发。1990年8月2日,伊拉克入侵并吞并科威特,由此引发海湾战争。此后,联合国对伊拉克实施了近13年制裁。

2003年3月20日,伊拉克战争爆发。4月9日,美军攻占巴格达,萨达姆政权被推翻。5月1日,美国总统布什宣布伊拉克主要战事结束。 2008年12月,美伊双方签署《美伊友好合作战略框架协议》和《驻伊美军地位协议》,并于2009年1月起生效。2009年6月,驻伊拉克美军撤离伊拉克主要城镇,8月31日撤出在伊拉克作战部队,并将驻伊拉克美军人数减至5万人。2011年12月,美国从伊拉克撤出全部作战部队。

2003年7月,美驻伊拉克当局任命25名伊各派人士组成伊拉克临时管理委员会(简称“临管会”)。2004年6月,伊拉克临时政府成立。6月 8日,联合国安理会一致通过第1546号决议,决定全面恢复伊主权,结束对伊拉克占领。2005年12月,伊拉克选举产生战后首届正式议会。2010年3 月,伊拉克举行战后第二届国民议会选举。2014年4月,伊拉克举行第三届国民议会选举。9月,伊拉克组建战后第三届政府。

2017年9月25日,库尔德地区举行独立公投。伊拉克中央政府强烈反对库区公投,联合伊朗、土耳其等邻国采取系列反制措施。

2017年12月9日,伊拉克总理阿巴迪宣布收复被恐怖极端组织占领的全部领土,取得反恐战争的重大胜利。

2018年5月,伊拉克举行第四届国民议会选举。

The Tigris and Euphrates rivers in which Iraq is located have a long history of civilization. In the mid-3000 BC, the earliest inhabitants of the two rivers, the Sumerians, created cuneiform writing, 60-digit counting and circular division. Since then, Iraq has experienced the rule of the Babylonian kingdom, the Assyrian Empire, the post-Babylon kingdom, the Persian, the Seychelles (the Chinese history called the branch), the rest, and the Persian Sashan dynasty. In the 7th century, the Arab Empire rose and quickly occupied the two rivers. It established the Umayyad Dynasty (Chinese history called white clothes) and the Abbasid dynasty (Chinese history called black clothes), in which the Abbasid Dingdu Baghdad. In 1258, Sun Xulie of Genghis Khan captured Baghdad and was established in Persia and Asia Minor as the center of the Iraqi Khanate. The jurisdiction includes Iraq. Since 1534, the Ottoman Empire began to rule the two rivers until the First World War.

In 1920, Iraq became the “appointment of the United Kingdom”. In 1921, the British selected Faisal from the royal family of Meghahim to establish the Faisal dynasty in Baghdad. After the Second World War, Iraq and Turkey signed the “Island Treaty” on February 23, 1955, and then the United Kingdom, Pakistan and Iran joined to form the Baghdad Defense Treaty Organization. In 1958, the Freedom Officers Group headed by Kasem launched a military coup, overthrew the Faisal dynasty and announced the establishment of the Republic of Iraq.

In 1968, the Baath Party coup came to power. In 1979, Saddam was in full power. In 1980, the two-Iraq war broke out over eight years. On August 2, 1990, Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait, which triggered the Gulf War. Since then, the United Nations has imposed sanctions on Iraq for nearly 13 years.

On March 20, 2003, the Iraq war broke out. On April 9, the US military captured Baghdad and the Saddam regime was overthrown. On May 1, US President Bush announced the end of the main war in Iraq. In December 2008, the United States and Iran signed the “Strategic Framework Agreement on US-Iraq Friendship and Cooperation” and the “Agreement on the Status of US Forces in Iraq”, which came into effect in January 2009. In June 2009, US troops stationed in Iraq withdrew from major Iraqi towns. On August 31, they withdrew their combat troops in Iraq and reduced the number of US troops stationed in Iraq to 50,000. In December 2011, the United States withdrew all combat troops from Iraq.

In July 2003, the US authorities in Iraq appointed 25 Iraqi factions to form the Iraqi Interim Governing Council (“the Interim Governing Council”). In June 2004, the Iraqi interim government was established. On June 8, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1546, deciding to fully restore Iraqi sovereignty and end the occupation of Iraq. In December 2005, Iraq elected the first formal parliament after the war. In March 2010, Iraq held the second post-war National Assembly election. In April 2014, Iraq held the third National Assembly election. In September, Iraq formed the third post-war government.

On September 25, 2017, the Kurdish region held an independent referendum. The Iraqi central government strongly opposes the referendum in the reservoir area and unites neighboring countries such as Iran and Turkey to adopt a series of countermeasures.

On December 9, 2017, Iraqi Prime Minister Abadi announced that he would recover all the territories occupied by terrorist extremists and achieve a major victory in the war on terrorism.

In May 2018, Iraq held the fourth National Assembly election.

【宪 法】 2005年8月底出台永久宪法草案,并在10月举行的全民公决中获得通过,规定伊拉克实行联邦制,石油资源归全体人民所有,前复兴党成员不得参政。但各派在国家生活中的地位、联邦制、资源分配等问题上尚存争议。

【议 会】 2018年5月举行第四届国民议会选举。10月2日,国民议会选举逊尼派人士穆罕默德·哈勒布希(Mohamed Al-Halbousi)任议长。本届议会共有329名议员,任期4年。

【政 府】 本届政府于2018年10月24日成立,总理阿迪勒·阿卜杜勒马赫迪(Adil Abdul-Mahdi)。

【行政区划】 全国共分18个省:巴格达、尼尼微、巴士拉、巴比伦、穆萨纳、纳杰夫、安巴尔、瓦西特、米桑、济加尔、卡迪西亚、卡尔巴拉、迪亚拉、萨拉赫丁、基尔库克、苏莱曼尼亚、埃尔比勒、杜胡克。

【政 党】 伊拉克党派众多,目前约有200余个政党和政治实体,组成多个政党联盟,主要包括:

(1)胜利联盟:由前总理阿巴迪领导,联合31个政治实体。

(2)法治国家联盟:由前副总统马利基领导。

(3)开拓联盟:由巴德尔组织领导人阿米里领导,以什叶派民兵为主,联合18个政治实体。

(4)民族主义联盟:以萨德尔运动领导人萨德尔和全国智慧运动领导人哈基姆为首。

(5)国家阵线:由前议长朱布里、前总理穆塔拉克联合什叶派前副总理阿拉维组建,包括16个政党。

(6)伊拉克决定联盟:由前副总统努杰菲领衔,包括11个党派。

(7)库尔德斯坦民主党:库尔德地区两大执政党之一。

(8)库尔德斯坦爱国联盟:库尔德地区两大执政党之一。

(9)国土联盟:由库区变革运动联合民主正义联盟、库尔德伊斯兰集团组成。

[Constitution] At the end of August 2005, a draft permanent constitution was issued and passed in a referendum held in October, stipulating that Iraq is subject to federalism, oil resources are owned by all people, and members of the former Baath Party are not allowed to participate in politics. However, there are still controversies in the status of the country, the federal system, and the distribution of resources.

[Parliament] The fourth National Assembly election was held in May 2018. On October 2nd, the National Assembly elected the Sunni Mohamed Al-Halbousi as the Speaker. There are 329 members of parliament in this session for a term of four years.

[Government] The current government was established on October 24, 2018, and Prime Minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi.

[Administrative Division] There are 18 provinces in the country: Baghdad, Nineveh, Basra, Babylon, Muthanna, Najaf, Anbar, Wasit, Missan, Dhi Qar, Kadiya, Karbala, Dia La, Salahuddin, Kirkuk, Sulaymaniyah, Erbil, Dohuk.

[Political Party] There are many Iraqi parties. At present, there are more than 200 political parties and political entities, which form a coalition of political parties, including:

(1) Victory Alliance: led by former Prime Minister Abadi and united with 31 political entities.

(2) Alliance of the Rule of Law: led by former Vice President Al-Maliki.

(3) Pioneering Alliance: led by Badr’s leader, Amiri, with Shiite militia as the mainstay, uniting 18 political entities.

(4) Nationalist Alliance: headed by Sadr’s leader Sadr and the national wisdom movement leader Hakim.

(5) National Front: It was formed by former Speaker Zhu Bili and former Prime Minister Mutalak and former Shiite former Deputy Prime Minister Allawi, including 16 political parties.

(6) Iraq’s decision alliance: led by former Vice President Nujfi, including 11 parties.

(7) Kurdistan Democratic Party: one of the two ruling parties in the Kurdish region.

(8) Kurdistan Patriotic Union: one of the two ruling parties in the Kurdish region.

(9) National Land Alliance: It is composed of the Kusat Change Movement Joint Democratic Justice Alliance and the Kurdish Islamic Group.

【重要人物】 巴尔哈姆·萨利赫,库尔德族,1960年生于伊拉克库尔德地区苏莱曼尼亚省。1976年加入库尔德爱国联盟(库爱盟),1983年获英国卡迪夫大学土木工程学士学位,1987年获英国利物浦大学统计及计算机应用专业博士学位。1992年任库爱盟、库区政府驻美国代表。2001年至2004年任库区政府总理,2004年任伊拉克临时政府副总理,2005年任伊拉克过渡政府规划部长,2005年至2009年任伊拉克政府副总理,2009年至2012年任库区政府总理,2010年至2017年任库爱盟第二副总书记。2018年10月2日当选总统。

阿迪勒·阿卜杜勒马赫迪,什叶派穆斯林,1942年出生,在法国获政治学硕士和经济学硕士学位。曾长期旅居海外,一度加入复兴党、伊拉克共产党,后参与创建伊拉克伊斯兰最高革命委员会。2003年后,任临时管理委员会成员,2004年任财政部长,2005年任副总统,2014年任石油部长。2018年10月2日被提名为总理人选。2018年10月24日当选总理。

穆罕默德·哈勒布希,逊尼派穆斯林,1981年生于安巴尔省,2002年和2006年分别获得伊拉克斯塔绥里亚大学土木工程学士和硕士学位。长期在私营部门任职,2014年当选国民议会议员,曾任议会人权委员会委员、财政委员会委员、主席。2017年任安巴尔省省长。2018年9月15日当选议长。

【经济】伊拉克战争后,经济重建任务繁重。联合国安理会于2003年5月通过第1483号决议,取消对伊拉克除武器禁运以外的所有经济制裁。伊拉克重建重点是恢复和发展能源、教育、卫生、就业、供电、供水、食品等领域。但由于安全局势不稳,基础设施严重损毁,经济重建进展缓慢。

2018年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值(GDP):2260亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:6408美元。

经济增长率:1.1%。

货币名称:伊拉克第纳尔(IQD)。

汇率:1美元=1184第纳尔。

外汇及黄金储备:539亿美元。

【资 源】 石油、天然气资源丰富。探明石油储量达1530亿桶,居世界第5位。天然气储量约3.6万亿立方米,居世界第12位。磷酸盐储量约100亿吨。

【工 业】 能源产业占主导地位,石油出口收入约占国内生产总值的45%,政府收入的90%。伊拉克战争结束后,石油生产逐渐恢复,迄今已举行4轮油气田开发招标。2018年原油日产量约450万桶,石油日均出口量约350万桶。

【农 业】 可耕地面积占国土总面积的27.6%,农业用地严重依赖地表水,主要集中在底格里斯河和幼发拉底河之间的美索不达米亚平原。农业人口占全国总人口的1/3。主要农作物有小麦、大麦和椰枣等,粮食不能自给。

【旅游业】 主要旅游点有乌尔城(公元前2060年)遗址、亚述帝国(公元前910年)遗迹和哈特尔城遗址(俗名“太阳城”),位于巴格达西南90公里处的巴比伦是世界著名的古城遗址,“空中花园”被列为古代世界七大奇迹之一。

[Important figures] Balham Saleh, Kurdish, was born in 1960 in the province of Sulaymaniyah in the Kurdish region of Iraq. He joined the Kurdish Patriotic Union (KUA) in 1976. He obtained a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from Cardiff University in the UK in 1983 and a Ph.D. in statistics and computer applications from the University of Liverpool in 1987. In 1992, he served as the representative of the Kuai League and the government of the reservoir area in the United States. From 2001 to 2004, he served as Prime Minister of the Kushang District. In 2004, he served as Deputy Prime Minister of the Iraqi Interim Government. In 2005, he served as Minister of Planning of the Iraqi Transitional Government. From 2005 to 2009, he served as Deputy Prime Minister of the Iraqi Government. From 2009 to 2012, he served as Prime Minister of the Kushang District Government. From 2010 to 2017, he served as the second deputy general secretary of the Kuai League. On October 2, 2018, he was elected president.

Adil Abd al-Mahdi, a Shiite Muslim born in 1942, holds a master’s degree in political science and a master’s degree in economics in France. He once lived overseas and once joined the Baath Party and the Iraqi Communist Party, and then participated in the creation of the Iraqi Islamic Supreme Revolutionary Committee. After 2003, he served as a member of the Interim Management Committee, in 2004 as Minister of Finance, in 2005 as Vice President, and in 2014 as Minister of Petroleum. On October 2, 2018, he was nominated as a candidate for the prime minister. On October 24, 2018, he was elected prime minister.

Muhammad al-Halebush, a Sunni Muslim, was born in Anbar province in 1981. He received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in civil engineering from the University of Styria in Iraq in 2002 and 2006 respectively. He has served in the private sector for a long time. He was elected to the National Assembly in 2014. He was a member of the Parliamentary Human Rights Committee, a member of the Finance Committee, and the chairman. In 2017, he was the governor of Anbar province. On September 15, 2018, he was elected as Speaker.

[Economy] After the Iraq war, the task of economic reconstruction was heavy. The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1483 in May 2003 to remove all economic sanctions against Iraq except the arms embargo. The focus of Iraq’s reconstruction is to restore and develop energy, education, health, employment, electricity, water, food and other fields. However, due to the unstable security situation, the infrastructure was seriously damaged and the economic reconstruction progressed slowly.

The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:

Gross domestic product (GDP): $226 billion.

Per capita GDP: $6,408.

Economic growth rate: 1.1%.

Currency name: Iraqi Dinar (IQD).

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 1184 dinars.

Foreign exchange and gold reserves: 53.9 billion US dollars.

[Resources] Oil and natural gas resources are abundant. Proved oil reserves reached 153 billion barrels, ranking fifth in the world. Natural gas reserves are about 3.6 trillion cubic meters, ranking 12th in the world. Phosphate reserves are about 10 billion tons.

[Industrial] The energy industry dominates, with oil export revenue accounting for about 45% of GDP and 90% of government revenue. After the end of the Iraq war, oil production has gradually recovered, and so far four rounds of oil and gas field development tenders have been held. In 2018, the daily output of crude oil is about 4.5 million barrels, and the average daily export volume of oil is about 3.5 million barrels.

[Agriculture] The area of ​​arable land accounts for 27.6% of the total land area. Agricultural land is heavily dependent on surface water, mainly concentrated in the Mesopotamian plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The agricultural population accounts for one third of the country’s total population. The main crops are wheat, barley and date palm, and the food cannot be self-sufficient.

[Tourism] The main tourist spots are the Ur City (2060 BC) site, the Assyrian Empire (910 BC) and the Hart City Site (common name “Sun City”), located 90 kilometers southwest of Baghdad. Babylon is a world famous ancient city ruins. The “sky garden” is listed as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

【交通运输】 公路:国内交通运输以公路为主。公路网遍布全国,总长5.96万公里,部分公路与叙利亚、约旦、科威特、土耳其等国相连。

铁路:总长约2272公里,主要有以巴格达为中心的3条干线:巴格达—基尔库克—埃尔比勒线,巴格达—摩苏尔—土耳其线,以及前苏联援建的巴格达—乌姆盖斯尔港线。2000年8月,伊叙之间的铁路恢复通车。2001年7月,伊土(耳其)20年来首次开放铁路运输业务。

水运:水道里程5279公里,主要有底格里斯河、幼发拉底河和夏台阿拉伯河及人工运河(萨达姆河)等部分水道。主要港口有乌姆盖斯尔港和贝克尔港,现有码头83座,年吞吐量约290万吨。

航空:主要有巴格达、巴士拉、埃尔比勒、苏莱曼尼亚、纳杰夫和摩苏尔等6个国际机场,基尔库克等地有较小的民用机场。伊民航业务因战争曾长期中断。战后,伊国内航班陆续恢复,伊拉克航空公司还陆续开通了巴格达至安曼、开罗、贝鲁特、大马士革、迪拜、科威特、伦敦等地的国际航线。航空客运量约200万人次/年。

【对外贸易】 伊拉克战争后,实行开放的外贸政策,对大部分进口商品免征关税。

【人民生活】 由于20世纪70年代石油收入增长,伊拉克在城乡建立了比较健全的医疗系统,人民生活也有较大幅度提高。海湾战争后,人民生活水平急剧下降。伊拉克战争后,由于经济重建进展较为缓慢、安全局势恶化,人民生活水平提升仍相当缓慢。目前有20%人口生活在贫困线(每天2美元)以下,供电能力只有需求的一半,还有20%的地方未通自来水。人口预期平均寿命74.9岁,其中男性平均寿命72.6岁,女性平均寿命77.2岁。

【军 事】 实行募兵制,包括军队和警察,分别隶属国防部和内政部,包括预备役部队在内目前共有约77.8万人。

【教 育】 实施6年制义务教育,适龄儿童小学入学率为98%,但中等和高等院校入学率仅为45%和15%。成人识字率为79.7%。全国共有20所大学和44所专科院校。

【外 交】 自海湾危机爆发至2003年伊拉克战争爆发前,联合国安理会先后通过63个有关伊拉克问题的决议,对伊拉克实行经济制裁和武器禁运,伊拉克对外处境孤立。伊拉克战争结束后,伊拉克政府着力恢复与各国,尤其是大国和周边国家的外交关系,并逐步获得外界的承认和支持。目前,伊拉克已与近90个国家恢复或建立了外交关系,并恢复了在阿拉伯国家联盟、伊斯兰会议组织、联合国机构、国际货币基金组织、石油输出国组织等地区和国际组织内的活动。2010年12月,联合国安理会通过决议,取消根据《联合国宪章》第七章对伊拉克在大规模杀伤性武器、导弹和民用核活动领域的制裁,结束“石油换食品” (Oil-for-Food)计划。2012年3月,阿盟首脑会议在伊举行。5月,举办伊朗核问题六国对话会。2013年6月,安理会解除根据《联合国宪章》第七章对伊采取的强制性措施。2019年4月,伊拉克举办周边六国议长会议,沙特、土耳其、约旦、科威特、叙利亚议长以及伊朗议长代表参会。

[Transportation] Highway: Domestic transportation is mainly highway. The road network covers the whole country with a total length of 59,600 kilometers. Some roads are connected with Syria, Jordan, Kuwait, Turkey and other countries.

Railway: The total length is about 2,272 kilometers, mainly including three main lines centered on Baghdad: the Baghdad-Kilkuk-Erbil line, the Baghdad-Mosul-Turkey line, and the former Soviet Union aided Baghdad-Um. The Port of Qasr. In August 2000, the railway between Yi and Syria resumed operation. In July 2001, Yitu (Earth) opened its railway transportation business for the first time in 20 years.

Water transport: The waterway mileage is 5,279 kilometers, mainly including some waterways such as the Tigris River, the Euphrates River and the Xiatai Arab River and the artificial canal (Saddam River). The main ports are Umm Qasr Port and Becker Port, with 83 existing terminals and an annual throughput of approximately 2.9 million tons.

Aviation: There are 6 international airports including Baghdad, Basra, Erbil, Sulaymaniyah, Najaf and Mosul. There are smaller civil airports in places like Kirkuk. The Iraqi civil aviation business was interrupted for a long time due to the war. After the war, domestic flights in Iraq resumed, and Iraqi airlines continued to open international routes from Baghdad to Amman, Cairo, Beirut, Damascus, Dubai, Kuwait and London. Air passenger traffic is about 2 million passengers/year.

[Foreign Trade] After the Iraq war, an open foreign trade policy was implemented, and most imported goods were exempted from customs duties.

[People’s Life] Due to the increase in oil revenue in the 1970s, Iraq has established a relatively sound medical system in urban and rural areas, and people’s lives have also increased considerably. After the Gulf War, the people’s living standards fell sharply. After the Iraq war, due to the slow progress of economic reconstruction and the deterioration of the security situation, the improvement of people’s living standards is still quite slow. At present, 20% of the population lives below the poverty line ($2 per day), the power supply capacity is only half of the demand, and 20% of the places are not connected to tap water. The average life expectancy of the population is 74.9 years, of which the average life expectancy of men is 72.6 years and the average life expectancy of women is 77.2 years.

[Military] The implementation of the military recruitment system, including the military and the police, is affiliated to the Ministry of National Defense and the Ministry of the Interior, including the reserve forces, and currently has a total of 778,000 people.

[Education] The implementation of six-year compulsory education, the primary school enrollment rate of school-age children is 98%, but the enrollment rate of secondary and tertiary institutions is only 45% and 15%. The adult literacy rate is 79.7%. There are 20 universities and 44 colleges and universities across the country.

[From diplomatic relations] Since the outbreak of the Gulf crisis until the outbreak of the Iraq war in 2003, the UN Security Council passed 63 resolutions on the Iraq issue and imposed economic sanctions and arms embargoes on Iraq. Iraq is in an external situation. After the end of the Iraq war, the Iraqi government focused on restoring diplomatic relations with countries, especially the big countries and neighboring countries, and gradually gained recognition and support from the outside world. At present, Iraq has resumed or established diplomatic relations with nearly 90 countries and resumed activities in regional and international organizations such as the League of Arab States, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, United Nations agencies, the International Monetary Fund and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In December 2010, the UN Security Council passed a resolution to lift sanctions against Iraq in the field of weapons of mass destruction, missiles and civilian nuclear activities in accordance with Chapter VII of the UN Charter, ending “Oil-for-Food” plan. In March 2012, the Arab League summit was held in Iraq. In May, the six-nation dialogue on the Iranian nuclear issue was held. In June 2013, the Security Council lifted the mandatory measures imposed on Iraq under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. In April 2019, Iraq hosted a meeting of six neighboring parliaments, and Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Iranian parliamentary representatives attended the meeting.