The Republic of India 印度共和国

【国名】印度共和国(The Republic of India)。

【自然地理】南亚次大陆最大国家。东北部同中国、尼泊尔、不丹接壤,孟加拉国夹在东北国土之间,东部与缅甸为邻,东南部与斯里兰卡隔海相望,西北部与巴基斯坦交界。东临孟加拉湾,西濒阿拉伯海,海岸线长5560公里。

【面积】约298万平方公里(不包括中印边境印占区和克什米尔印度实际控制区等)。面积居世界第7位。

【人口】13.24亿,居世界第2位。

【民族】印度有100多个民族,其中印度斯坦族约占总人口的46.3%,其他较大的民族包括马拉提族、孟加拉族、比哈尔族、泰卢固族、泰米尔族等。

【宗教】世界各大宗教在印度都有信徒,其中印度教教徒和穆斯林分别占总人口的80.5%和13.4%。

【官方语言】印地语和英语

【重要节日】共和国日(Republic Day):1月26日。独立日(Independence Day):8月15日。洒红节(Holi):每年公历3月、4月间,印度教四大节日之一。该节日正处于印度春季收获季节的作物即将开镰收割,冬去春来之际,因此也被称为春节。灯节(Divali):在公历10月、11月间,是印度教徒最大的节日,全国庆祝3天。

【首都】新德里(New Delhi),人口2500万。(数据来源:联合国2014年全球城市化发展报告)。

【货币】卢比

[Country name] The Republic of India.

[Natural Geography] The largest country in the South Asian subcontinent. The northeast borders China, Nepal, and Bhutan. Bangladesh is sandwiched between the northeastern territories, the east is bordered by Myanmar, the southeast is across the sea from Sri Lanka, and the northwest is bordered by Pakistan. It faces the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west, with a coastline of 5,560 kilometers.

[Area] is about 2.98 million square kilometers (excluding the Indian-Indian border and the actual control area of ​​India, Kashmir, etc.). The area ranks seventh in the world.

[Population] 1.324 billion, ranking second in the world.

[National] There are more than 100 ethnic groups in India, of which the Hindustan accounts for 46.3% of the total population. Other large ethnic groups include the Marathi, Bangladeshi, Bihar, Telugu, Tamil, etc. .

[Religion] The world’s major religions have believers in India, of which Hindus and Muslims account for 80.5% and 13.4% of the total population, respectively.

[Official language] Hindi and English

[Important Festival] Republic Day: January 26. Independence Day: August 15th. Holi: One of the four major Hindu festivals in March and April of the Gregorian calendar. The festival is in the spring harvest season in India, and the crop is about to be harvested. It is also called the Spring Festival when winter is coming. Divali: In October and November of the Gregorian calendar, it is the biggest festival of Hindus and celebrates three days in the country.

[Capital] New Delhi, with a population of 25 million. (Source: United Nations 2014 Global Urbanization Development Report).

[currency] rupee

【简 况】印度是世界四大文明古国之一。公元前2500年至1500年之间创造了印度河文明。公元前1500年左右,原居住在中亚的雅利安人中的一支进入南亚次大陆,征服当地土著,创立了婆罗门教。公元前4世纪崛起的孔雀王朝统一印度,公元前3世纪阿育王统治时期达到鼎盛,把佛教定为国教。公元4世纪笈多王朝建立,形成中央集权大国,统治200多年。中世纪小国林立,印度教兴起。1398年,突厥化的蒙古族人由中亚侵入印度。1526年建立莫卧儿帝国,成为当时世界强国之一。1600年英国开始入侵印度。1757年印度沦为英殖民地,1849年全境被英占领。1947年6月,英国通过“蒙巴顿方案”,将印度分为印度和巴基斯坦两个自治领。同年8月15日,印度独立。1950年1月26日,印度宪法正式生效,印度成立共和国,同时仍为英联邦成员。

【政治】印度独立后长期由国大党统治,反对党曾在1977年至1979年、1989年至1991年两次短暂执政。1996年后印度政局不稳,到1999年先后举行3次大选,产生了5届政府。1999年至2004年,印度人民党为首的全国民主联盟上台执政,瓦杰帕伊任总理。2004年至2014年,国大党领导的团结进步联盟执政,曼莫汉·辛格任总理。2014年4月7日至5月12日,印度举行第16届人民院选举,印度人民党赢得人民院过半数席位,成为第一大党,在中央单独执政,纳伦德拉·莫迪出任总理。

【宪法】宪法于1950年1月26日生效。规定印度为联邦制国家,是主权的、社会主义的、世俗的民主共和国,采取英国式的议会民主制。公民不分种族、性别、出身、宗教信仰和出生地点,在法律面前一律平等。

【议会】联邦议会由总统和两院组成。总统为国家元首和武装部队的统帅,由议会两院及各邦议会当选议员组成选举团选出,任期五年,依照以总理为首的部长会议的建议行使职权。现任总统拉姆·纳特·科温德(Ram Nath Kovind),2017年7月25日就任。两院包括联邦院(上院)和人民院(下院)。联邦院共250席,由总统指定12名具有专门学识或实际经验的议员,和不超过 238名各邦及中央直辖区的代表组成,任期六年,每两年改选1/3。联邦院每年召开4次会议。宪法规定副总统为法定的联邦院议长。现任联邦院议长穆帕瓦拉普·文卡亚·奈杜(Muppavarapu. Venkaiah Naidu),2017年8月5日当选,2017年8月11日就职。人民院为国家主要立法机构,其主要职能为:制定法律和修改宪法;控制和调整联邦政府的收入和支出;对联邦政府提出不信任案,并有权弹劾总统。人民院共545席,其中543席由选民直接选举产生,每5年举行一次大选。2014年选举产生的第16届人民院得票较多的政党有:印人党获得279席,国大党获44席,全印安纳德拉维达进步联盟获37席,草根国大党34席,胜利人民党20席。现任人民院议长苏米特拉·马哈詹(Sumitra Mahajan),2014年6月6日当选。

[Brief] India is one of the four ancient civilizations in the world. The Indus civilization was created between 2500 and 1500 BC. Around 1500 BC, one of the Aryans who originally lived in Central Asia entered the South Asian subcontinent, conquered the local indigenous people, and founded Brahmanism. The peacock dynasty that emerged in the 4th century BC unified India. In the 3rd century BC, during the reign of Ashoka, it reached its peak and made Buddhism a state religion. In the 4th century AD, many dynasties were established, forming a centralized power and ruled for more than 200 years. A small country in the Middle Ages, the rise of Hinduism. In 1398, the Turkic Mongolians invaded India from Central Asia. The Mughal Empire was established in 1526 and became one of the world’s powerful countries at that time. The British began to invade India in 1600. In 1757, India became a British colony, and in 1849 the entire territory was occupied by the British. In June 1947, the United Kingdom divided India into two self-governing bodies of India and Pakistan through the “Mount Barton Program.” On August 15, the same year, India became independent. On January 26, 1950, the Indian Constitution came into force, India established the Republic, and remained a member of the Commonwealth.

[Politics] After India’s independence, it was ruled by the Congress Party for a long time. The opposition party was twice in power from 1977 to 1979 and 1989 to 1991. After 1996, India’s political situation was unstable. In 1999, it held three general elections and produced five government sessions. From 1999 to 2004, the National League for Democracy headed by the Bharatiya Janata Party came to power, and Vajpayee became prime minister. From 2004 to 2014, the united and progressive coalition led by the Congress Party was in power, and Manmohan Singh was prime minister. From April 7 to May 12, 2014, India held the 16th People’s Court election. The Bharatiya Janata Party won more than half of the seats in the People’s Court and became the largest party. It is in the central government alone, and Narendra Modi is in charge. Prime Minister.

[Constitution] The Constitution entered into force on January 26, 1950. India is a federal state, a sovereign, socialist, and secular democratic republic, adopting a British-style parliamentary democracy. Citizens are equal before the law regardless of race, gender, origin, religion and place of birth.

[Parliament] The federal parliament consists of the president and the two chambers. The President is the head of state and the commander of the armed forces. The electoral colleges of the two houses of parliament and the elected members of the state councils are elected for a five-year term. They exercise their functions in accordance with the recommendations of the ministerial meeting headed by the prime minister. The current president, Ram Nath Kovind, took office on July 25, 2017. Both houses include the Federal Institute (Upper House) and the People’s House (lower house). The Federal Academy has a total of 250 seats. The President has appointed 12 members with special knowledge or practical experience, and no more than 238 representatives from various states and central territories. The term of office is six years and one third is elected every two years. The Federal Institute holds 4 meetings a year. The Constitution stipulates that the Vice President is the statutory Speaker of the Federal Court. The current Federal House Speaker, Muppavarapu. Venkaiah Naidu, was elected on August 5, 2017 and took office on August 11, 2017. The People’s Court is the main legislative body of the country. Its main functions are: enacting laws and amending the constitution; controlling and adjusting the income and expenditure of the federal government; raising a case of no confidence in the federal government and having the power to impeach the president. The People’s Court has a total of 545 seats, of which 543 are directly elected by voters and a general election is held every five years. The 16th People’s Court elected in 2014 had more votes. The Indian Party won 279 seats, the Congress Party won 44 seats, and the All India Della Vida Progressive Alliance won 37 seats. The Grassroots Congress Party 34 Xi, the victory of the People’s Party 20 seats. The current Speaker of the People’s House, Sumitra Mahajan, was elected on June 6, 2014.

【政府】以总理为首的部长会议是最高行政机关。总理由总统任命人民院多数党的议会党团领袖担任,部长会议还包括内阁部长、国务部长。总理和内阁部长组成的内阁是决策机构,其中内阁部长共27人:总理纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)兼人事、督察和养老金部部长、原子能和空间署署长,内政部长拉吉纳特·辛格(Raj Nath Singh),外交部长苏诗玛·斯瓦拉吉(女)(Sushma Swaraj),财政部、公司事务部部长阿朗·杰特利(Arun Jaitley),道路交通和公路部、航运部及水资源、河流开发和恒河复兴部部长尼廷·杰拉姆·加德卡里(Nitin Jairam Gadkari),商工部长苏雷什·普拉布(Suresh Prabhu),国防部长尼尔玛拉·希塔拉曼(女)(Nirmala Sitharaman),统计和项目实施部部长D·V·萨达南达·高达(D.V. Sadananda Gowda),饮用水和卫生处理部长部长乌玛·巴拉蒂(女)(Uma Bharati),消费者事务、食品和公共分配部部长拉姆维拉斯·帕斯万 (Ramvilas Paswan),妇女和儿童发展部部长玛内卡·桑杰·甘地(女)(Maneka Sanjay Gandhi),化工和化肥部、议会事务部部长阿南特库马尔(Ananthkumar),司法部、通信和信息技术部部长拉维·香卡尔·普拉萨德(Ravi Shankar Prasad),卫生和家庭福利部部长贾盖特· 普拉喀什· 纳达(Jagat Prakash Nadda),民航部部长阿肖克·加杰帕蒂·拉朱·普萨帕蒂(Ashok Gajapathi Raju Pusapati),重工业和公共企业部部长阿南特·吉特(Anant Geete),食品加工工业部部长哈斯姆拉特·考尔·巴达尔(女)(Harsimrat Kaur Badal),乡村发展部、乡村自治组织部、矿业部部长纳伦德拉·辛格·托马尔(Narendra Singh Tomar),钢铁部部长乔杜里· 布兰德· 辛格(Chaudhary Birender Singh),部落事务部部长久尔·奥拉姆(Jual Oram),农业和农民福利部部长拉达·莫汉·辛格(Radha Mohan Singh),社会公平和权利部部长塔瓦尔·昌德·盖洛特(Thaawar Chand Gehlot),纺织部、信息和广播部部长斯姆里蒂·祖宾·伊拉尼(女)(Smriti Zubin Irani),科技部、地球科学部及环境、森林和气候变化部部长哈什·瓦尔丹(Harsh Vardhan),人力资源开发部部长普拉卡什·贾瓦德卡尔(Prakash Javadekar),石油和天然气部、技能发展和创业部部长达蒙德拉·普拉丹(Dharmendra Pradhan),铁道部、煤炭部部长皮尤什·高耶尔(Piyush Goyal),少数民族事务部部长莫克塔尔·阿巴斯·纳科维(Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi)。

独立主持部务的国务部长11人:计划部国务部长、化工和化肥部国务部长英德吉特·辛格·拉奥(Inderjit Singh Rao),劳动和就业部国务部长桑托什·库马尔·冈瓦尔(Santosh Kumar Gangwar),传统医学部国务部长谢利帕德·耶索·纳伊克(Shripad Yesso Naik),东北地区发展部、总理办公室、原子能署、空间署及人事、督察和养老金部国务部长吉坦德拉·辛格(Jitendra Singh),文化部国务部长及环境、森林和气候变化部国务部长马赫什·沙玛(Mahesh Sharma),中小企业事务部国务部长基里拉吉·辛格(Giriraj Singh),通信部国务部长、铁道部国务部长马诺吉·辛哈(Manoj Sinha),青年和体育部国务部长及信息和广播部国务部长拉吉亚瓦尔丹·辛格·拉托雷(Rajyawardhan Singh Rathore),电力部国务部长及新能源和可再生能源部国务部长拉吉·库马尔·辛格(Raj Kumar Singh),住房和城市事务部国务部长哈尔迪普·辛格·普里(Hardeep Singh Puri),旅游部国务部长、电子和信息技术部国务部长阿方斯·卡南塔纳姆(Alphons Kannanthanam)。(有关内阁信息截至2017年9月)

[Government] The ministerial meeting headed by the Prime Minister is the highest administrative organ. The general reason is that the president appoints the leader of the parliamentary group of the majority party of the People’s Court, and the ministerial meeting also includes the cabinet minister and the minister of state. The cabinet of the Prime Minister and cabinet ministers is the decision-making body, with a total of 27 cabinet ministers: Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Minister of Personnel, Inspector and Pension, Director of Atomic Energy and Space, and Minister of Interior Raj Nath Singh, Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj, Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs Arun Jaitley, road traffic Nitin Jairam Gadkari, Minister of the Ministry of Highways, Shipping and Water Resources, River Development and Ganges Rehabilitation, and Suresh Prabhu, Minister of Commerce and Industry, National Defense Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, Minister of Statistics and Project Implementation DV Sadananda Gowda, Minister of Drinking Water and Sanitation Processing Uma Uma Bharati, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Ramvilas Paswan, Minister of Women and Child Development, Maneca Sanjay Gandhi ( Female) (Mane Ka Sanjay Gandhi), Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Minister of Parliamentary Affairs Ananthukumar, Minister of Justice, Communications and Information Technology Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad, Health and Family Welfare Minister Jagat Prakash Nadda, Minister of Civil Aviation Ashok Gajapathi Raju Pusapati, Minister of Heavy Industry and Public Enterprise Anant Geete, Minister of Food Processing Industry, Harsimrat Kaur Badal, Ministry of Rural Development, Rural Autonomous Organization, Minister of Mining, Narend Narendra Singh Tomar, Steel Minister Chaudhary Birender Singh, Minister of Tribal Affairs, Jual Oram, Agriculture and Farmers Minister of Welfare Radha Mohan Singh, Minister of Social Justice and Rights, Thaawar Chand Gehlot, Ministry of Textiles, Information and Minister of Broadcasting, Smriti Zubin Irani, Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science, Earth Sciences and Environment, Forests and Climate Change, Human Resources Development Minister Prakash Javadekar, Minister of Oil and Gas, Skills Development and Entrepreneurship Dharmendra Pradhan, Ministry of Railways and Coal Minister Pius · Piyush Goyal, Minister of Minority Affairs, Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi.

11 Ministers of State for Independent Ministerial Affairs: Inderjit Singh Rao, Minister of State for the Ministry of Planning, Minister of State for Chemical and Chemical Fertilizers, and Santos Kumar, Minister of State for Labor and Employment Santosh Kumar Gangwar, Minister of State for Traditional Medicine, Shripad Yesso Naik, Northeast Regional Development Department, Prime Minister’s Office, Atomic Energy Agency, Space Agency and Ministry of Personnel, Inspector and Pension Minister of State Jitendra Singh, Minister of State for Culture and State Minister of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change Mahesh Sharma, Minister of State for Small and Medium Enterprises Kirilage Singh (Giriraj Singh), Minister of State for Communications, Minister of State for Ministry of Railways Manoj Sinha, Minister of State for Youth and Sports and Minister of State for Information and Broadcasting Raja Valdan Singh Latore (Rajyawardhan Singh Rathore), Minister of State for the Ministry of Power and Minister of State for New Energy and Renewable Energy Raj Kumar Singh, Housing and Hardeep Singh Puri, Minister of State for Urban Affairs, Alphons Kannanthanam, Minister of State for Tourism and Minister of State for Electronics and Information Technology. (Information about the cabinet as of September 2017)

【司法机构】 最高法院是最高司法权力机关,有权解释宪法、审理中央政府与各邦之间的争议问题等。各邦设有高等法院,县设有县法院。最高法院法官由总统委任。现任最高法院首席法官兰詹·戈戈伊(Ranjan Gogoi),2018年10月3日就任。总检察长由政府任命,其主要职责是就执法事项向政府提供咨询和建议,完成宪法和法律规定的检察权,对宪法和法律的执行情况进行监督等。现任总检察长维奴戈帕尔(K. K. Venugopal),2017年6月任命,任期3年。

【政党】 (1)印度人民党 (Bharatiya Janata Party):1980年4月成立,其前身是1951年成立的印度人民同盟。有1.1亿党员。代表北部印度教教徒势力和城镇中小商人利益,具有强烈民族主义和教派主义色彩。1996年首次成为议会第一大党并短暂执政。1998年至2004年两度执政。2014年再次赢得人民院过半议席,成为第一大党,在中央单独执政。现任主席阿米特·沙阿(Amit Shah)。

(2)印度国民大会党(英迪拉·甘地派)(The Indian National Congress〔Indira Gandhi〕):简称国大党(英),通常称国大党。据称有初级党员3000万,积极党员150万。国大党成立于1885年12月,领导了反对英国殖民统治和争取印度独立的斗争。印独立后长期执政,1969年和1978年两次分裂。1978年英·甘地组建新党,改用现名。2004年和2009年人民院选举中两次成为议会中第一大党,在2014年人民院选举中遭受重挫,仅获得44个议席。现任主席拉胡尔·甘地 (Rahul Gandhi)。

(3)印度共产党(马克思主义) (Communist Party of India〔Marxist〕):简称印共(马)。1964年以孙达拉雅和南布迪里巴德为代表的一派从印度共产党分出后成立。党员81.4万(2002年),是印度最大的左翼政党。曾在西孟加拉邦长期执政,2011年5月结束在该邦连续34年的执政地位。现任总书记西塔拉姆·亚秋里(Sitaram Yechury)。

(4)印度共产党 (Communist Party of India):于1920年成立。1964年分裂,以党主席什·阿·丹吉为首的一派仍沿用印共名称。1981年 4月,丹吉因支持英·甘地与党内发生分歧而被开除出党,该党再次分裂。现任总书记苏拉瓦拉姆·雷迪(Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy)。

[Judiciary] The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority, with the power to interpret the Constitution and to hear disputes between the Central Government and the states. There are high courts in each state and county courts in the county. The Supreme Court judge is appointed by the President. The current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Ranjan Gogoi, took office on October 3, 2018. The Attorney General is appointed by the government. Its main duties are to provide advice and advice to the government on law enforcement matters, complete the procuratorial powers stipulated by the Constitution and laws, and supervise the implementation of the Constitution and laws. The current Attorney General, K. K. Venugopal, was appointed in June 2017 for a three-year term.

[Party] (1) Bharatiya Janata Party: Established in April 1980, its predecessor was the Indian People’s League established in 1951. There are 110 million members. Representing the interests of the northern Hindus and the interests of small and medium-sized businessmen in the town, they have strong nationalism and sectarianism. In 1996, he became the largest party in parliament for the first time and was in power for a short time. From 1998 to 2004, he was in power twice. In 2014, he won more than half of the seats in the People’s Court and became the largest party. He is in power alone in the central government. The current chairman, Amit Shah.

(2) The Indian National Congress (Indira Gandhi): referred to as the Congress Party (British), usually called the Congress Party. It is said that there are 30 million junior party members and 1.5 million active party members. The Congress Party was founded in December 1885 and led the struggle against British colonial rule and the struggle for Indian independence. After independence, India ruled for a long time, and split twice in 1969 and 1978. In 1978, Ying Gandhi formed a new party and changed his current name. In the 2004 and 2009 People’s Court elections, it became the largest party in the parliament twice, and suffered heavy losses in the 2014 People’s Court elections, winning only 44 seats. The current chairman, Rahul Gandhi.

(3) Communist Party of India (Marxist): referred to as the Indian Communist Party (Malaysia). In 1964, a group represented by Sundaraya and South Budiribad was established after being separated from the Communist Party of India. Party members of 814,000 (2002) are the largest left-wing parties in India. He has been in power for a long time in West Bengal and ended his 34-year ruling status in the state in May 2011. The current general secretary, Sitaram Yechury.

(4) Communist Party of India: Established in 1920. In 1964, the party headed by Party Chairman Shi A. Dangji still used the name of the Indian Communist Party. In April 1981, Danji was expelled from the party for supporting the disagreement between Ying Gandhi and the party. The party split again. The current general secretary, Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy.

【重要人物】拉姆·纳特·科温德(Ram Nath Kovind)。1945年10月生于印度北方邦,印度人民党成员。曾当选印度联邦院议员,2015年8月出任比哈尔邦邦长。2017年7月当选为印第14任总统。

纳伦德拉·莫迪:总理。1950年出生于印度古吉拉特邦,印度教徒,政治学硕士。1987年加入印度人民党,曾任该党古吉拉特邦分部总书记、全国书记和全国总书记。2001年起连续13年担任古吉拉特邦首席部长。在2014年印第16届人民院选举中率人民党赢得过半数席位。2014年5月26日就任总理。

【经济】独立后经济有较大发展。农业由严重缺粮到基本自给,工业形成较为完整的体系,自给能力较强。20世纪90年代以来,服务业发展迅速,占GDP比重逐年上升。印已成为全球软件、金融等服务业重要出口国。1991年7月开始实行全面经济改革,放松对工业、外贸和金融部门的管制。1992~1996年实现经济年均增长6.2%。“九五”计划(1997~2002年)期间经济年均增长5.5%。“十五” 计划(2002~2007年)期间,继续深化经济改革,加速国有企业私有化,实行包括农产品在内的部分生活必需品销售自由化,改善投资环境,精简政府机构,削减财政赤字。实现年均经济增长7.8%,是世界上发展最快的国家之一。2006年,推出“十一五”计划(2007~2012年),提出保持国民经济 10%的高速增长,创造7000万个就业机会,将贫困人口减少10%,大力发展教育、卫生等公共事业,继续加快基础设施建设,加大环保力度。2011年8月,印计划委员会通过“十二五”(2012~2017年)计划指导文件,提出国民经济增速9%的目标。

根据印度财政部和世界银行公布的经济调查数据,2017/2018财年主要经济数据如下(以现价计算):

国内生产总值:166.28万亿卢比(约合2.58万亿美元)。

国内生产总值增长率:6.6%。(世界银行数据)

国民总收入:164.38万亿卢比(约合2.55万亿美元)。

人均国民收入:111782卢比(约合1733美元)。

货币名称:印度卢比(Rupee)。

汇率:1美元≈70卢比(2019年1月数据)。

通货膨胀率:3.4%。(2017/2018年平均值)。

外汇储备:3934亿美元(2019年1月数据)。

[Important] Ram Nath Kovind. Born in October 1945 in Uttar Pradesh, India, member of the Indian People’s Party. He was elected as a member of the Indian Federal Council and in August 2015 he became the head of the Bihar state. In July 2017, he was elected as the 14th President of India.

Narendra Modi: Prime Minister. Born in Gujarat, India in 1950, he is a Hindu and a master of political science. He joined the Bharatiya Janata Party in 1987 and served as General Secretary of the Gujarat Branch of the Party, National Secretary and General Secretary of the country. For the 13th consecutive year since 2001, he has served as the Chief Minister of Gujarat. In the 16th People’s Court election in India in 2014, the People’s Party won more than half of the seats. On May 26, 2014, he became Prime Minister.

[Economy] After independence, the economy has developed considerably. Agriculture is severely deprived of food to basic self-sufficiency, and the industry forms a relatively complete system with strong self-sufficiency. Since the 1990s, the service industry has developed rapidly, and its share of GDP has increased year by year. India has become an important exporter of software and financial services in the world. In July 1991, comprehensive economic reforms were implemented to ease the regulation of the industrial, foreign trade and financial sectors. From 1992 to 1996, the economy achieved an average annual growth rate of 6.2%. During the “Ninth Five-Year Plan” (1997-2002), the economy grew at an average annual rate of 5.5%. During the 10th Five-Year Plan (2002-2007), we will continue to deepen economic reforms, accelerate the privatization of state-owned enterprises, implement liberalization of sales of some necessities, including agricultural products, improve the investment environment, streamline government agencies, and reduce fiscal deficits. Achieving an annual economic growth of 7.8% is one of the fastest growing countries in the world. In 2006, the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” (2007-2012) was launched, which proposed to maintain a high-speed growth of 10% of the national economy, create 70 million jobs, reduce the number of poor people by 10%, and vigorously develop public utilities such as education and health. Continue to accelerate infrastructure construction and increase environmental protection. In August 2011, the Printing Planning Committee adopted the “12th Five-Year Plan” (2012-2017) plan guidance document and proposed the goal of a 9% national economic growth rate.

According to the economic survey data released by the Indian Ministry of Finance and the World Bank, the main economic data for the fiscal year 2017/2018 is as follows (at current prices):

Gross domestic product: 166.28 trillion rupees (about 2.58 trillion US dollars).

Gross domestic product growth rate: 6.6%. (World Bank data)

Gross national income: 164.38 trillion rupees (about 2.55 trillion US dollars).

Per capita national income: 111,782 rupees (about 1733 US dollars).

Currency name: Rupee.

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 70 rupees (January 2019 data).

Inflation rate: 3.4%. (Average value of 2017/2018).

Foreign exchange reserves: $393.4 billion (January 2019 data).

【资源】资源丰富,有矿藏近100种。云母产量世界第一,煤和重晶石产量居世界第三。主要资源可采储量估计为:煤2533.01亿吨,铁矿石134.6亿吨,铝土24.62亿吨,铬铁矿9700万吨,锰矿石1.67亿吨,锌970万吨,铜529.7万吨,铅238.1万吨,石灰石756.79亿吨,磷酸盐1.42亿吨,黄金68吨,石油7.56亿吨,天然气10750亿立方米。此外,还有石膏、钻石及钛、钍、铀等。森林67.83万平方公里,覆盖率为20.64%。

【工业】主要工业包括纺织、食品加工、化工、制 药、钢铁、水泥、采矿、石油和机械等。汽车、电子产品制造、航空和空间等新兴工业近年来发展迅速。2017/2018年印度工业生产指数同比增长3.7%,其中电力行业增长5.1%,采矿业和制造业分别同比增长2.8%和3.8%。

【农业】拥有世界1/10的可耕地,面积约1.6亿公顷,人均0.17公顷,是世界上最大的粮食生产国之一。农村人口占总人口72%。

【服务业】 近年来,印服务业实现较快发展。2016/2017财年增长7.7%,2017/2018财年增长8.3%。2017/2018财年,服务业对国民总增加值的贡献率为55.2%,成为印度创造就业、创汇和吸引外资的主要部门。

【财政金融】中央和地方财政分立,预算有联邦和邦两级。每年4月1日至次年3月31日为一个财政年度。2017/2018财年财政赤字占国内生产总值的3.5%。

【军事】印军前身为英国殖民主义者的雇佣军。1947年印巴分治后始建分立的三军。1978年创建独立的海岸警卫队。总统是名义上的武装力量统帅,内阁为最高军事决策机构。国防部负责部队的指挥、管理和协调。各军种司令部负责拟定、实施作战计划,指挥作战行动。现陆军参谋长比平·拉瓦特(Bipin Rawat),空军参谋长达诺阿(BS Dhanoa),海军参谋长苏尼尔·兰巴(Sunil Lanba)。实行募兵制。陆、海、空三军现役兵力为127万,其中陆军110万,海军5.3万,空军11.7万。另有50多万预备役军人和100多万准军事部队。2015/2016财年国防支出为2.48万亿卢比,2017/2018财年国防预算2.62万亿卢比。

[Resources] Rich in resources, there are nearly 100 kinds of mineral deposits. Mica production ranks first in the world, and coal and barite production ranks third in the world. The recoverable reserves of major resources are estimated to be: 253.301 billion tons of coal, 13.46 billion tons of iron ore, 2.462 billion tons of bauxite, 97 million tons of chromite ore, 167 million tons of manganese ore, 9.7 million tons of zinc and 5.297 million tons of copper. 2.281 million tons, limestone 75.679 billion tons, phosphate 142 million tons, gold 68 tons, oil 756 million tons, natural gas 175 billion cubic meters. In addition, there are gypsum, diamonds, and titanium, tantalum, and uranium. The forest is 679,300 square kilometers with a coverage rate of 20.64%.

[Industrial] Major industries include textiles, food processing, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, steel, cement, mining, petroleum and machinery. Emerging industries such as automotive, electronics manufacturing, aviation and space have developed rapidly in recent years. In 2017/2018, India’s industrial production index increased by 3.7% year-on-year, of which the power industry grew by 5.1%, while the mining industry and manufacturing industry grew by 2.8% and 3.8% respectively.

[Agriculture] With 1/10 of the world’s arable land, with an area of ​​about 160 million hectares and 0.17 hectares per capita, it is one of the world’s largest grain producers. The rural population accounts for 72% of the total population.

[Service Industry] In recent years, the printing service industry has achieved rapid development. The 2016/2017 fiscal year increased by 7.7%, and the 2017/2018 fiscal year increased by 8.3%. In the 2017/2018 fiscal year, the contribution rate of the service industry to the gross national value added was 55.2%, which became the main sector for India to create jobs, earn foreign exchange and attract foreign investment.

[Financial and Finance] The central and local governments are separated and the budget is at the federal and state levels. Every year from April 1 to March 31 is a fiscal year. The fiscal deficit for 2017/2018 accounts for 3.5% of GDP.

[Military] The Indian army was formerly a mercenary of the British colonialists. After the division of India and Pakistan in 1947, the three armed forces were established. In 1978 an independent Coast Guard was created. The president is the commander of the nominal armed forces, and the cabinet is the highest military decision-making body. The Ministry of Defence is responsible for the command, management and coordination of the troops. The military command headquarters is responsible for drafting and implementing operational plans and commanding operations. Current Army Chief of Staff Bipin Rawat, Air Force Chief of Staff BS Dhanoa, Naval Chief of Staff Sunil Lanba. Implement a military recruitment system. The active forces of the army of the land, sea and air are 1.27 million, of which 1.1 million are the army, 53,000 are the navy, and 117,000 are the air force. There are more than 500,000 reservists and more than 1 million paramilitary units. The defense expenditure for the fiscal year 2015/2016 is 2.48 trillion rupees, and the defense budget for the fiscal year 2017/2018 is 2.62 trillion rupees.