The Republic of Guinea-Bissau 几内亚比绍共和国
【国 名】 几内亚比绍共和国（The Republic of Guinea-Bissau, República da Guiné-Bissau ）
【面 积】 36125平方公里。
【人 口】 186万（2017年）。有27个民族，其中巴兰特族占总人口的27%、富拉族占23%、曼丁哥族占12%。官方语言为葡萄牙语。通用克里奥尔语。45%的居民信奉伊斯兰教，其余信奉天主教、基督教新教和原始宗教。
【首 都】 比绍（Bissau），人口43万（2017年）。
【国家元首】 总统若泽·马里奥·瓦斯（José Mário Vaz），2014年5月当选，6月就职。
【简 况】 位于非洲西部，包括比热戈斯群岛等岛屿。大陆部分北接塞内加尔，东、南邻几内亚，西濒大西洋。海岸线长约300公里。属热带海洋性季风气候，全年高温，年平均气温约25℃。
[Country name] The Republic of Guinea-Bissau, República da Guiné-Bissau
[area] 36,125 square kilometers.
[People] 1.86 million (2017). There are 27 ethnic groups, of which the Balant people account for 27% of the total population, the Fula people account for 23%, and the Mandingo people account for 12%. The official language is Portuguese. General Creole. 45% of the residents believe in Islam and the rest believe in Catholicism, Protestantism and primitive religion.
[Capital] Bissau, with a population of 430,000 (2017).
[Head of State] President José Mário Vaz, elected in May 2014, took office in June.
[Important Festival] Independence Day: September 24.
[profile] Located in western Africa, including islands such as the Bijegos Islands. The mainland part is connected to Senegal in the north, Guinea in the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The coastline is about 300 kilometers long. It is a tropical maritime monsoon climate with high temperatures throughout the year and an average annual temperature of about 25 °C.
It was once part of the ancient sanghai empire of Africa. In 1879 it became a Portuguese colony. Independence on September 24, 1973. The first head of state and chairman of the Council of State was Luis Cabral. After independence, the African Independent Party of Guinea and Cape Verde (referred to as the Independent Independence Party) has long been governed by one party. In 1980, Vieira, the chairman of the Council of Ministers, overthrew the government of Cabral, established the Revolutionary Committee and assumed the chairmanship. In 1991, the multi-party system was changed. However, since then, the political situation has been unstable, and several military coups have taken place, the most recent being April 2012.
【政 治】 在国际社会的大力支持下，几比于2014年4月13日举行总统和立法选举，并于5月18日举行总统选举第二轮投票。前执政党几佛独立党候选人瓦斯赢得总统选举，并于6月23日就职。几佛独立党在立法选举中赢得议会绝对多数，该党新任主席佩雷拉出任总理。国际社会普遍认可选举过程和结果。2015年8月，瓦斯总统宣布解散由佩雷拉总理领导的政府。此后，瓦斯总统先后任命了多位总理，均未获议会认可。2018年4月，在西共体斡旋及制裁压力下，几比各方就任命阿里斯蒂德斯·戈梅斯为总理达成共识。4月16日，戈梅斯总理就职。2019年3月10日，几比顺利举行议会选举。根据几比国家选举委员会公布的最终结果，几佛独立党成为议会第一大党，并联合人民团结大会—几比民主党等多个小党形成议会多数。
【宪 法】 1999年7月通过并颁布的宪法修正案规定，几比实行半总统制。总统是国家元首，总理为政府首脑。总理、政府成员经议会多数党提名后由总统任命。总统每届任期5年，可连任1次。
【议 会】 全国人民议会行使立法权，每年召开4次例会，就国内外重大问题制定法律，并负责监督国家法律的执行。常设机关为常务委员会，在议会闭会和被解散期间，行使议会职权。议员任期为4年。本届议会于2019年3月选举产生，共有议员102名。其中，几佛独立党47名，民主更替运动—15人小组27名，社会革新党21名，人民团结大会—几比民主党5名，新民主党和变革联盟各1名。2019年4月18日，本届议会举行第一次全会，选举几佛党人士西普利亚诺·卡萨马（Cipriano Cassamá）担任议长。
【政 府】 戈梅斯政府于2018年4月26日组成，包括18位部长和8位国务秘书。主要成员有：总理阿里斯蒂德斯·戈梅斯（Aristides Gomes），农林畜牧业部长尼古劳·多斯桑托斯（Nicolau dos Santos），国防部长爱德华多·桑哈（Eduardo Coasta Sanha），教育部长桑吉·法蒂（Sandji Fati），能源和工业部长弗洛伦蒂诺·佩雷拉（Florentino Mendes Pereira），财政和经济部长若昂·法迪亚（João Alage Mamadu Fadia），渔业和海洋经济部长奥兰多·维埃格斯（Orlando Viegas），外交和国际合作部长若昂·科（João Có），卫生部长卡利托斯·巴拉伊（Carlitos Barai），内政部长博切·坎德（Botche Candé），司法部长路易·桑哈（Rui Sanha），自然资源部长巴洛斯·班加伊（Barros Bacar Banjai），部长会议主席马拉·萨内（Malal Sané），工程和城市发展部长马西亚诺·班加伊（Marciano Silve Barbeiro Banjai）,通信部长维克托·佩雷拉（Victor Gomes Pereira），旅游部长费尔南多·瓦斯（Fernando Vaz），妇女、家庭和社会团结部长卡洛斯·德巴罗斯（Carlos Alberto Kenedy de Barros），青年就业部长多米尼克·桑卡（Doménico Oliveira Sanca），国务部长兼祖国解放战士与老战士再就业部长阿里斯蒂德斯·达席尔瓦（Aristides Ocante da Silva）。
[Politics] With the strong support of the international community, Guinea Bissau held presidential and legislative elections on April 13, 2014, and held a second round of presidential elections on May 18. The former ruling party, several independent Buddhist candidates, won the presidential election and took office on June 23. The Independent Independence Party won the absolute majority of the parliament in the legislative elections. The new chairman of the party, Pereira, became the prime minister. The international community generally recognizes the electoral process and results. In August 2015, President Gas announced the dissolution of the government led by Prime Minister Pereira. Since then, President Gas has appointed a number of prime ministers, none of which has been approved by the parliament. In April 2018, under the pressure of the Western Community mediation and sanctions, the Guinean parties appointed Aristides Gomes to reach a consensus. On April 16, Prime Minister Gomes took office. On March 10, 2019, Guinea Bissau successfully held parliamentary elections. According to the final results announced by the National Election Commission, the Independent Independence Party has become the largest party in the parliament, and has formed a parliamentary majority in conjunction with the People’s Solidarity Congress, the Democratic Party and the Democratic Party.
[Constitution] The constitutional amendment passed and promulgated in July 1999 stipulates that the Guinean system is semi-presidential. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. The Prime Minister and members of the government are appointed by the President after being nominated by the majority party of the Parliament. The president is elected for a term of five years and can be re-elected once.
[Parliament] The National People’s Assembly exercises legislative power, holds four regular meetings each year, formulates laws on major issues at home and abroad, and is responsible for supervising the implementation of national laws. The permanent establishment is the standing committee, which exercises the powers of the parliament during the period when the parliament is closed and disbanded. Members are appointed for a term of four years. The current parliament was elected in March 2019, with a total of 102 members. Among them, there are 47 independent parties of the Buddha, the democratic replacement movement – 27 groups of 15 people, 21 social innovation parties, the People’s Solidarity Conference – 5 Guinea Bissance Party, 1 New Democracy Party and 1 change alliance. On April 18, 2019, the current parliament held its first plenary session, electing several Buddhist figures, Cipriano Cassamá, as the speaker.
[Government] The Gomes government was formed on April 26, 2018, including 18 ministers and 8 state secretaries. The main members are: Prime Minister Aristides Gomes, Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock Nicolau dos Santos, Minister of Defence Eduardo Coasta Sanha, Education Minister Sandji Fati, Minister of Energy and Industry Florentino Mendes Pereira, Minister of Finance and Economy João Alage Mamadu Fadia, fisheries and oceans Economic Minister Orlando Viegas, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation João Có, Health Minister Carlitos Barai, Interior Minister Boche Khand ( Botche Candé), Minister of Justice Rui Sanha, Minister of Natural Resources Barros Bacar Banjai, President of the Council of Ministers Malal Sané, Minister of Engineering and Urban Development Masia Marciano Silve Barbeiro Banjai, Minister of Communications Victor Gomes Pereira, Minister of Tourism Fernando V (Fernando V Az), Minister of Women, Family and Social Solidarity Carlos Alberto Kenedy de Barros, Minister of Youth Employment Doménico Oliveira Sanca, Minister of State and Minister of Re-employment of the Liberation Army and Veterans of the Motherland Aristides Ocante da Silva.
【司法机构】 最高法院是最高司法机关，总检察院是最高检察机关。最高法院院长由最高司法委员会选举产生，总统任命。现任最高法院院长保罗·萨尼亚（Paulo Sanhá），2012年12月就职。总检察长由政府提名，总统任命。现任总检察长埃梅内吉尔多·佩雷拉（Hermenegildo Pereira），2014年10月就职。
【政 党】 现有32个政党，主要有：
（1）几内亚和佛得角非洲独立党（ Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde-PAIGC）：简称几佛独立党。1956年9月19日创立。党员约30万人。1973年几比独立后长期执政，1999年沦为在野党。2008年重新执政。党的宗旨是实现民族团结，捍卫和巩固独立，为创建在人民团结一致、社会公正和法治国家基础上的民主社会而战斗。2012年4月军事政变后，一度被排除在过渡政权之外。2014年2月，召开第八次全国代表大会，多明戈斯·西蒙斯·佩雷拉（Domingos Simões Pereira）接替卡洛斯·戈梅斯当选新一届党主席，阿贝尔·达席尔瓦（Abel da Silva）出任全国总书记。2014年4月该党赢得立法选举，再度执政，党主席佩雷拉出任总理，后于2015年8月被瓦斯总统解职。2015年6月，几佛党中央任命阿里·伊雅齐(Ali Hijazy)为新任全国总书记。2018年2月，该党召开第九次全国代表大会，佩雷拉、伊雅齐分别连任几佛党主席、全国总书记。
（2）社会革新党（Partido da Renovação Social-PRS）：简称社革党。1992年1月24日创立，2000年至2003年间执政。在工人、农民中影响较大。宗旨是一切为了人民。主张优先进行国家建设、建立民主法制、实施良政，倡导民族团结与和解。2012年12月，该党举行全国代表大会，阿尔贝托·南贝阿（Alberto Nambeia）当选党主席，新任总书记为弗洛伦蒂诺·佩雷拉（Florentino Pereira）。2014年4月，该党创始人、前主席、几比前总统昆巴·亚拉（Kumba Yala）因病逝世。2017年9月，该党举行全国代表大会，南贝阿、佩雷拉分别连任党主席、总书记。
（3）民主更替运动—15人小组（Movimento para a Alternância Democrática—Grupo dos 15，MADEM—G15）：2018年6月成立，由15名前几佛党议员发起。该15人曾在2015年议会审议几佛党政府施政计划时投弃权票。成员声称以恢复几佛党成立之初的原则为己任。主要领导人为布拉伊马·卡马拉（Braima Camara）。
其他政党包括：人民团结大会—几比民主党（APU-PDGB）、团结社会民主党（Partido Unido Social Democrata-PUSD）、民主阵线（Frente Democrática）、几内亚比绍抵抗运动（Resistência da Guiné-Bissau）、民主汇合党（Partido da Convergência Democrático）、变革联盟党（Partido União para a Mudança）、独立和发展共和党（Partido Republicano para Independência e Desenvolvimento）、民主社会阵线（Frente Democrática Social)、国家独立斗争阵线（Frente de Luta pela Independência Nacional）、团结民主运动（Movimento para Unidade e Democracia）、几内亚比绍生态保护联盟（Liga Guineense de Protecção Ecológica）、几内亚比绍社会民主—公民论坛（Fórum Cívico Guineense Social Democracia）、社会民主党（Partido Social Democrata）、民主与进步全国联盟（União Nacional para a Democracia e Progresso）、革新与进步党（Partido de Renovação e Progresso）、几内亚比绍民主社会党（Partido Democrático Socialista Guineense）、社会联盟（Aliança Socialista）、几内亚比绍人民党（Partido Popular Guineense）、几内亚比绍社会党（Partido Socialista da Guiné-Bissau）、几内亚比绍民主社会解决党（Partido Democrata Socialista Solução Guineense）、民族团结党（Partido da Unidade Nacional）、团结劳工党（Partido de Solidariedade e do Trabalho）、人民宣言党（Manifesto do Povo）、几内亚比绍民主运动（Movimento Democrático Guineense）、几内亚比绍民主党（Partido Democrático Guineense）、进步党（Partido para o Progresso)、几内亚比绍爱国者联盟（União dos Patriotas Guineense）、全国和解党（Partido de Reconciliação Nacional）、新民主党（Partido da Nova Democracia）、人民民主党（Partido Popular Democrático）、民主、发展与公民党（Partido para a Democracia Desenvolvimento e Cidadania）。
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 8 provinces and 1 autonomous region (Bissau), with 36 counties under its jurisdiction.
[Judiciary] The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ, and the General Prosecutor’s Office is the highest prosecution. The President of the Supreme Court is elected by the Supreme Judicial Council and appointed by the President. The current President of the Supreme Court, Paulo Sanhá, took office in December 2012. The Attorney General is nominated by the government and appointed by the President. The current Attorney General, Hermenegildo Pereira, took office in October 2014.
[Political Party] There are 32 political parties, mainly including:
(1) Guinea and Cape Verde African Independence Party (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde-PAIGC): referred to as the Independent Party of several Buddhas. Founded on September 19, 1956. There are about 300,000 party members. In 1973, the Guinean government became a long-term ruling party after independence. In 1999, it became an opposition party. Re-governed in 2008. The party’s aim is to achieve national unity, defend and consolidate independence, and fight for the creation of a democratic society based on the people’s unity, social justice and the rule of law. After the military coup in April 2012, it was once excluded from the transitional regime. In February 2014, the eighth national congress was held. Domingos Simões Pereira succeeded Carlos Gomes as the new party chairman, Abel Da Silva. (Abel da Silva) became the general secretary of the country. In April 2014, the party won the legislative election and re-governed. Party chairman Pereira took the post of prime minister and was dismissed by President Gas in August 2015. In June 2015, the Central Committee of the Buddha Party appointed Ali Hijazy as the new General Secretary of the country. In February 2018, the party held the ninth national congress, and Pereira and Iyaqi were re-elected as the presidents of several Buddhist parties and the general secretary of the country.
(2) Partido da Renovação Social-PRS: referred to as the Social Revolution Party. Founded on January 24, 1992, and ruled from 2000 to 2003. It has a greater impact on workers and farmers. The aim is everything for the people. It advocates giving priority to nation building, establishing a democratic legal system, implementing good governance, and advocating national unity and reconciliation. In December 2012, the party held a national congress, Alberto Nambeia was elected party chairman, and the new general secretary was Florentino Pereira. In April 2014, the founder and former chairman of the party, Krabi’s former president Kumba Yala died of illness. In September 2017, the party held a national congress, and Nanbea and Pereira were re-elected as party presidents and general secretary respectively.
(3) The Movement of Democracy – Group of 15 (Movimento para a Alternância Democrática – Grupo dos 15, MADEM – G15): Established in June 2018, initiated by 15 former members of the Buddhist Party. The 15 people abstained from voting in the 2015 Parliamentary Review of the Governance Plan of the Several Buddhas. Members claim to take responsibility for restoring the principles of the beginning of the establishment of the Buddha Party. The main leader is Braima Camara.
Other political parties include: People’s Solidarity Congress – APU-PDGB, Partido Unido Social Democrata-PUSD, Frente Democrática, Guinea-Bissau Resistance (Resistência da Guiné-Bissau), Democracy Partido da Convergência Democrático, Partido União para a Mudança, Partido Republicano para Independência e Desenvolvimento, Frente Democrática Social, National Independent Struggle Front (Frente de Luta) Pela Independência Nacional), the Movimento para Unidade e Democracia, the Liga Guineense de Protecção Ecológica, the Fórum Cívico Guineense Social Democracia, the Social Democratic Party Social Democrata), União Nacional para a Democracia e Progresso, Partido de Renovação e Progresso Partido Democrático Socialista Guineense, Social Union (Aliança Socialista), Partido Popular Guineense, Partido Socialista da Guiné-Bissau, Guinea-Bissau democratic society Party (Partido Democrata Socialista Solução Guineense), Partido da Unidade Nacional, Partido de Solidariedade e do Trabalho, Manifesto do Povo, Movimento Democrático Guineense , Partido Democrático Guineense, Partido para o Progresso, União dos Patriotas Guineense, Partido de Reconciliação Nacional, New Democracy (Partido da Nova Democracia) ), Partido Popular Democrático, Partido para a Democracia Desenvolvimento e Cidadania.
【重要人物】 若泽·马里奥·瓦斯（José Mário Vaz），总统。1957年12月10日出生。曾留学葡萄牙，获经济学学士学位。1987年自办公司经商，1993年开始供职于政府部门。1994年任几佛独立党总统候选人维埃拉竞选办公室主任，后在党的地方系统任职。2004年出任几比首都比绍市市长，2009年至2012年任财政部长。2014年作为几佛独立党候选人参加总统选举，在5月18日举行的第二轮投票中获胜当选，6月23日就职。瓦1989年加入几佛独立党，2014年当选该党中央委员会委员。
【经 济】 农业国，是联合国公布的最不发达国家之一。工业基础薄弱，粮食不能自给。渔业资源丰富，发放捕鱼许可证和渔产品出口是其主要外汇收入来源。2005年以来，几比政府制定并实施减贫战略，积极发展农业，推行以水稻、腰果为主的多样化种植战略。2009年，几比政府改革财政税收政策，加强公共行政管理，努力促进经济发展。在2010年12月几比达到”重债穷国倡议”完成点, 国际货币基金组织等先后宣布免除其90%以上的债务。受国际金融危机影响，几比粮油价格大幅上涨。2011年，几比政府实施第二个减贫战略，腰果出口和财政收入有所增加，全年经济形势好于预期。2012年4月军事政变对国民经济造成冲击，当地供应短缺、物价上涨，腰果收成和贸易受到影响。2014年大选后经济略有起色。
【资 源】 矿产资源尚未得到有效开发。主要矿藏有铝矾土（储量约2亿吨），磷酸盐（储量约8000万吨）。沿海正在进行石油勘探(储量约11亿桶)。
【工 业】 2017年工业产值约占国内生产总值的13.6%，工业人口占劳动人口的1%。基础薄弱，以农产品和食品加工业为主。
[important person] José Mário Vaz, president. Born on December 10, 1957. He studied in Portugal and obtained a bachelor’s degree in economics. In 1987, he started his own business and started to work in government departments in 1993. In 1994, he served as the director of the Vieira competition office for the presidential candidate of the Independent Independence Party, and later served in the party’s local system. In 2004, he became the mayor of the capital Bissau, and served as the finance minister from 2009 to 2012. In 2014, he participated in the presidential election as a candidate for the Independent Party of several Buddhas. He won the second round of voting on May 18 and was elected on June 23. Wa joined the independence party of several Buddhas in 1989 and was elected member of the Central Committee of the Party in 2014.
[Economy] The agricultural country is one of the least developed countries announced by the United Nations. The industrial base is weak and food cannot be self-sufficient. Rich in fishery resources, the issuance of fishing licenses and exports of fishery products is its main source of foreign exchange earnings. Since 2005, the Guinean government has formulated and implemented a poverty reduction strategy, actively developed agriculture, and promoted a diversified planting strategy based on rice and cashew nuts. In 2009, the Guinean government reformed its fiscal and taxation policies, strengthened public administration, and worked hard to promote economic development. In December 2010, the Guinea-Bissau reached the completion point of the “heavily indebted poor countries” initiative, and the International Monetary Fund and others announced that they would waive more than 90% of their debts. Affected by the international financial crisis, the price of grain and oil has risen sharply. In 2011, the Guinean government implemented the second poverty reduction strategy, cashew export and fiscal revenue increased, and the economic situation for the whole year was better than expected. The military coup in April 2012 had an impact on the national economy. Local supply shortages, rising prices, cashew harvests and trade were affected. After the 2014 election, the economy improved slightly.
The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product (GDP): $1.511 billion.
Per capita GDP: $812.
GDP growth rate: 3.9%.
Currency name: African Financial Community Franc, referred to as the African Franc (FCFA).
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 556 CFA francs.
Inflation rate: 1.5%.
(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, March 2019)
[Resources] Mineral resources have not been effectively developed. The main mineral deposits are bauxite (reserves about 200 million tons) and phosphate (reserves about 80 million tons). Oil exploration is underway along the coast (reserves about 1.1 billion barrels).
[Industrial] In 2017, industrial output accounted for about 13.6% of GDP, and industrial population accounted for 1% of the labor force. The foundation is weak, with agricultural products and food processing industries as the mainstay.
【农 业】 2017年农业产值约占国内生产总值的52.9%，农业人口约占全国劳动力的85%。可耕地约90万公顷，已耕地45.4万公顷。主要粮食作物有水稻、木薯、豆类、马铃薯、甘薯等。主要经济作物为腰果。根据联合国粮农组织统计，几比2016年腰果产量15.4万吨，为世界第八、非洲第五大腰果生产国。
[Agriculture] In 2017, agricultural output accounted for 52.9% of GDP, and agricultural population accounted for about 85% of the national labor force. About 900,000 hectares of arable land and 454,000 hectares of cultivated land. The main food crops are rice, cassava, beans, potatoes, sweet potatoes and so on. The main cash crop is cashew nuts. According to the statistics of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, the ratio of cashew nuts in 2016 is 154,000 tons, ranking eighth in the world and the fifth largest cashew producer in Africa.
It has 3 million hectares of natural pastures and 20% of the agricultural population is engaged in animal husbandry. The forestry resources are abundant, the forest area is 2.35 million hectares, and the forest coverage rate is 56%. The wood stock is 48.3 million cubic meters and can produce 100,000 tons of wood per year.
The fishery resources are abundant, and the annual catch can reach 300,000 to 350,000 tons. The actual annual catch is about 30,000 tons. There are about 4,000 to 5,000 people fishing in the coastal areas, and the annual fishing license income is about 9.2 million US dollars.
[Transportation] No railway, mainly by road and water transport, inland river and offshore shipping occupy an important position.
Highway: The total length is more than 4,400 kilometers, of which the secondary and tertiary roads (asphalt road) are about 550 kilometers.
Water transport: Inland rivers and offshore shipping have a range of more than 1,800 kilometers; the main port of Bissau is the country’s largest port of transfer, fishing port and foreign trade center. The port anchor can park 7-8 freighters with an annual cargo throughput of about 500,000. Ton.
Air transport: Osvaldo Vieira International Airport is near the capital for small and medium-sized aircraft to take off and land; regular flights a week to and from Portugal, Senegal, Cape Verde and Morocco.
[Financial Finance] Financial difficulties, deficits in successive years. By the end of 2017, foreign exchange reserves (excluding gold) were $457 million. In 2011, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the European Union, the African Union, etc., removed 90% of the debt, and the foreign debt balance was once reduced to 190 million US dollars. As of the end of 2017, the balance of external debt was approximately $179 million.
(Source: International Monetary Fund website)
[Foreign Trade] The main export products are cashew nuts, frozen shrimps, frozen fish, etc., of which cashew nuts exports account for more than 80% of total exports. The main imported commodities are food, fuel, lubricating oil, transportation equipment and building materials. The main trading partners are India, Nigeria, Portugal, Senegal and other countries.
In 2017, the main export destinations were India, Vietnam, Nigeria, Togo, etc. The main imports were from Portugal, Senegal, China, and Pakistan.
【军 事】 军队称人民革命武装部队，创建于1964年11月16日。总统为武装部队最高统帅。政府设国防部，下辖总参谋部，总参谋长由总统根据政府建议任免。实行义务兵役制，士兵服役期为2～3年，军官为10年以上。现任总参谋长比亚盖·纳·恩坦（Biaguê Na Ntan），2014年9月就职。目前登记在册军人总数约4500人，警察等安全部门人员总数约3000人。
【教 育】 重视发展教育事业。教育经费约占国家财政预算的12%，相当于GDP的3.2%。2013年成人识字率为56.7%。全国主要有小学、中学和技术职业培训学校。卡布拉尔大学为几比第一所公立大学，2004年1月成立。科利纳斯德博埃大学为几比第一所私立大学，2003年成立。几比每年向国外派出一定数量的留学生。2012年军事政变以来，因政府拖欠各级公立学校教职员工工资，教师罢工、学生罢课此起彼伏，国家教育事业发展严重受挫。
[Foreign Aid] According to the statistics of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Guinea has received foreign aid of US$113 million in 2017. The main donors are Italy ($51.63 million), the European Union ($2.34 million), and the World Bank International Development Association ($13.14 million). ), Portugal ($11.8 million), the United States ($9.99 million), the International Monetary Fund ($7.75 million), the African Development Bank ($4.04 million), the United Nations Children’s Fund ($3.42 million), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) $3.09 million) and so on.
[Foreign Capital] According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 2018 World Investment Report, Guinea has attracted foreign direct investment of US$128 million in 2017, mainly in the field of resource development.
[People’s Life] According to the 2018 Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Program, Guinea-Bissau’s Human Development Index ranks 177th out of 189 countries, up one place from the previous year. In 2013, medical expenditure accounted for 5.5% of GDP, and life expectancy was 57 years for women and 53.4 years for men. The mortality rate for children under 5 is 123.9 ‰. There are 2 central hospitals in the country, 16 provincial and county-level hospitals, 130 health centers, 1187 beds, and 150 doctors (including international partners). 40% of people can enjoy medical services. Infectious diseases such as malaria, cholera, diarrhea and meningitis are more prevalent. The adult HIV infection rate is 3.9%. There are 450,000 laborers in the country, of which 25,000 are workers with fixed wages, accounting for 5.5%. Every 100 people have 32 fixed telephones and 29 mobile phones. Only 10% of the country’s residents enjoy water and electricity supply, and 87% of residents use charcoal for cooking. According to the statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, only 7% of households can guarantee basic food safety, 70% of households have long-term food shortages, and an average of 72% of households’ daily expenses are used to purchase food.
[Military] The army called the People’s Revolutionary Armed Forces, which was founded on November 16, 1964. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The government has a Ministry of National Defense, which is under the jurisdiction of the General Staff. The Chief of Staff is appointed and removed by the President on the advice of the government. The compulsory military service system is implemented. The service period of the soldiers is 2 to 3 years, and the officers are more than 10 years. The current Chief of Staff, Biaguê Na Ntan, took office in September 2014. At present, the total number of registered military personnel is about 4,500, and the total number of security personnel such as the police is about 3,000.
[education] Pay attention to the development of education. Education funds account for about 12% of the national budget, equivalent to 3.2% of GDP. The adult literacy rate in 2013 was 56.7%. There are mainly primary schools, middle schools and technical vocational training schools throughout the country. Cabral University is the first public university in Guinea and was established in January 2004. Collinas de Boe University is the first private university in Guinea, established in 2003. Guinea is sending a certain number of international students abroad each year. Since the military coup in 2012, due to the government’s arrears in the salaries of faculty and staff in public schools at all levels, teachers’ strikes and student strikes have been one after another, and the development of the national education industry has been seriously frustrated.
[News and Publications] Five kinds of newspapers are issued nationwide. There are mainly “Forward Newspaper” (government agency newspaper, circulation of 5,000 copies), “Democracy” (2012 publication, weekly magazine, circulation of 500 copies), “News” and so on.
National News Agency of Guinea-Bissau: The official news agency, founded in March 1972. No foreign affiliates or reporters.
National Radio Station of Guinea-Bissau: Established in September 1974. Broadcast in Portuguese, Creole and other local languages. Broadcast for 14 hours a day. There are also three private radio stations.
National television station in Guinea-Bissau: officially launched on November 14, 1989, and television programs are broadcast every day.
[External Relations] Pursuing a foreign policy of independence, peace, good neighborliness and friendship, emphasizing diplomacy as a service for development. Adhere to the principle of equality and mutual benefit, non-interference in internal affairs, and peaceful settlement of disputes, attach importance to traditional friendly relations with West African countries and Portuguese-speaking countries, and actively cooperate with emerging market countries. It is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Islamic Cooperation Organization, the Economic Community of West African States, the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries, the Organization of la Francophonie, and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States. . After the military coup in 2012, the United Nations, the European Union and other international organizations imposed sanctions on Guinea Bissau, and the AU suspended several members of the membership. After the election in Guinea in 2014, the international community has lifted sanctions against Guinean except for the United Nations’ lifting of the travel ban on military coup leaders. The AU officially resumed the membership of Guinea Bissau in July 2014.
[Relationship with Portugal] Maintain a traditional special relationship with Portugal. The two countries have signed a general agreement on friendship and a bilateral mixed committee. The two countries have frequent high-level exchanges and close cooperation in various fields. Portugal is one of the major trading partners and donor countries. In October 2006, Guinea-Bissau Aristides Gomes visited Portugal. In January 2007, Portuguese Foreign Minister Amado visited Guinea Bissau. In September, Guinea Bissau’s Prime Minister Kabi visited Portugal. In February 2009, Portuguese Speaker Gama visited Guinea Bissau. In March, after the assassination of President Vieira, the Secretary of State for Portuguese Diplomatic Cooperation led the delegation of the Portuguese Community to go to Guinea-Bissau for mediation. From February to March 2010, President Sarnia and Prime Minister Gomes visited Portugal. In May, Portuguese Foreign Minister Amadou visited Guinea Bissau. In June, President Pereira visited Portugal. After the coup in Guinea in April 2012, Portugal strongly condemned it and insisted on resuming the original legal government. After the composition of the more inclusive transitional government in June 2013, Portugal welcomed it and then actively sponsored the Guinea-Bissau election. In June 2014, President Gas visited China before his official inauguration and met with Portuguese President Silva. In the same month, Portuguese Foreign Minister Ma Sheite went to Guinea to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Gas. In November, Prime Minister Pereira visited Portugal and won the Portuguese aid commitment of 6.825 million euros. In July 2015, Portuguese Prime Minister Coelho visited Guinea Bissau, during which the two sides signed a five-year plan for bilateral cooperation. The Portuguese side will provide approximately 40 million euros of various types of assistance to Guinea Bissau during 2015-2020. In January 2017, President Gas went to Portugal to attend the funeral of former Portuguese President Suarez. In October, the Guinean government issued an announcement to express condolences to the families of victims of forest fires in Portugal. In January 2018, Portuguese President De Souza sent a letter to President Gas, expressing his condolences and condolences to the serious traffic accident on the outskirts of Bissau. In June, Prime Minister Gomes visited Portugal. In July, President Gas met with Portuguese Prime Minister Costa.
[Relationship with France] The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1975. After the mutiny in Guinea in 1998, France supported Senegal and Guinea to send troops to fight against each other. In May 1999, after President Vieira stepped down, the Guinean Burning Law was stationed at the Embassy of Guinea Bissau. The relationship between the two countries was once tense. After President Yala took office, the law resumed cooperation with Guinea Bissau. After the Guinea-Bissau military coup in 2003, the law provided assistance to the Guinean Transitional Government several times. In May 2006, President Vieira visited France. In June and October, Prime Minister Aristides Gomes visited the law twice. In February 2007, President Vieira went to France to attend the 24th French-African Summit. In May 2010, President Sarnia went to France to attend the 25th French-African Summit. In July 2011, the law funded €191,000 to improve health care, literacy, fisheries and handicrafts. The November law exempted a debt of 8.56 million euros. In May 2017, President Gas gave a congratulatory message to the new French President Mark Long. In June 2018, Prime Minister Gomes visited France. In September, President Kasama visited France.
[Relationship with the United States] The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1976. The United States Agency for International Development has a representative office in Bissau to provide assistance in agriculture, water conservancy, health care, education and coastal security, and the United States has a peace team. After the civil war in Guinea in 1998, the US Embassy was closed and the International Development Agency’s representative office in Bissau was evacuated. After the September 2003 military coup, the US government refused to recognize the Guinean transitional government. In October 2006, Prime Minister Aristides Gomes visited the United States. In January 2009, Speaker Pereira went to New York to attend the World Peace Conference. In 2011, Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Macquarie attended the 66th UN General Assembly in New York and met with the US Under Secretary of State for African Affairs. In December, Defense Minister Julia visited the United States. In April 2013, the US agent arrested the former Navy chief of staff, Bubo Na Chuto, on the grounds of suspected drug trafficking and escorted it to New York for trial. The Guinean transitional government expressed dissatisfaction. After the establishment of the new government, the United States welcomed it. In August 2014, President Gas attended the first US-Africa summit.
[Relationship with Angola] The two countries have maintained good bilateral relations because of their Portuguese-speaking African countries. In recent years, exchanges and cooperation between the two countries in various fields such as politics, economy and society have developed rapidly. In February 2007 and June 2008, President Vieira visited Angola twice. During his tenure as the presidency of the Portuguese Community, Ann gave strong support to Guinea-Bissau’s reforms in the field of national defense and security, and helped to implement reforms by sending military corps to Guinea Bissau and providing personnel training. In January 2009 and September 2010, Prime Minister Gomes visited Angola. In June 2011, the Chief of Staff of the Angolan Armed Forces visited Guinea Bissau, and in December Prime Minister Gomes visited Angola. In January 2012, the Minister of National Defense visited Guinea-Bissau. In April, the Guinean military was asked to withdraw from the military. After the coup, the An Military Corps officially withdrew in June. In June 2014, President Gas went to Angola to attend the African Portuguese-speaking Countries Summit and visited. In June 2015, the Guinean President Casama visited Angola. In August 2017, President Gas gave a congratulatory message to Angola’s newly elected President Joao Lorenzo. In September, President Gas went to Angola to attend the inauguration of Lorenzo.
[Relationship with Cape Verde] The people of Guinea and Cape Verde have jointly waged a struggle for national independence under the unified leadership of the Independent Party of several Buddhas. After the two countries became independent, they will continue to maintain the situation of one party in the two countries. In 1980, relations between the two countries deteriorated, and Cape Verde set up a new party, the African Independent Party of Cape Verde. The relationship between the two countries was normalized in 1982. After the military clash in Guinea in 2003, Foreign Minister of the DPRK participated in the ECOWAS delegation to go to Guinea-Bissau. In April 2004, President Pires visited the Guinean. In May, Prime Minister Neves attended the inauguration ceremony of the new government. In June, Foreign Minister Borges visited Guinea Bissau. In March 2005, President Pires visited the Guinean. In July, Prime Minister Gomes visited the Buddha. In March 2006, President Vieira attended the inauguration ceremony of President Pires, who was re-elected. In December 2008, President Pires visited the Guinean. In April 2009, the two governments jointly held a round table on the reform of the defense and security sector in the capital of Praia. In August, the Secretary of State for Overseas Chinese Affairs, Diaz, visited Cape Verde. In September 2011, President Sarnia went to the Buddha to attend the funeral of former President Pereira. In the same month, Prime Minister Gomes attended Cape Verde’s inauguration ceremony for the new President Fonseca. Guinea has established an embassy in Buddhism. In November of the same year, Prime Minister Neves of Cape Verde visited Guinea Bissau. After the coup in Guinea in 2012, Cape Verde’s position was in line with the Portuguese Community. In June 2014, Cape Verde President Fonseca went to Guinea to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Gas. In December, Foreign Minister Darosa visited the Buddha. In January 2015, Prime Minister Pereira visited the Buddha, and Prime Minister Neves returned to visit in July. In April 2017, President Hussein’s special envoy, Minister of State and Minister of Energy and Industry Pereira visited the Buddha. In July, President Gas gave a congratulatory message to Cape Verde.
[Relationship with other Portuguese-speaking countries] Attach importance to developing relations with Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe and Brazil. He is a member of the Summit of the Five Portuguese-speaking Countries of Africa and one of the founding members of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. In July 2006, Guinea Bissau held the 6th Portuguese Community Summit and served as the rotating presidency of the Portuguese Community until July 2008. In August 2010, the Portuguese Community delegation visited Guinea Bissau. In December, President Sarnia attended the inauguration of the new Brazilian President Rousseff. In July 2011, the Brazilian Foreign Minister visited Guinea Bissau and the two sides signed an agricultural science and technology agreement. After the coup in Guinea in 2012, the member states of the Portuguese Community maintained a unanimous stance and called on Guinea to hold a general election as soon as possible to end the transition period. In January 2013, the former President of East Timor, Horta, was appointed as the UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Guinea-Bissau and Director of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (Joint Construction and Office). Since 2014, Timor-Leste has actively provided assistance to the Guinea-Bissau election. In June, Timorese Prime Minister Xanana visited Guinea Bissau. In the same month, Portuguese-speaking countries sent representatives to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Gas. In July, former President of the Republic of Sao Tome and Principe, Trovatada, succeeded the UN Secretary-General’s Special Representative and Director of the Office. In the same month, Prime Minister Pereira went to East Timor to attend the Portuguese Community Summit. In January 2015, President Gas went to Brazil to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Rousseff. On November 1, 2016, Prime Minister Roja of Brazil traveled to Brasilia to attend the 11th summit meeting of heads of state and government of the Portuguese Community. In October 2018, East Timor provided $125,000 to Guinea to support voter registration.
[Relationship with Guinea] The two countries have close ties. After the Guinea-Jerdan mutiny in June 1998, Guinea sent troops to assist the Vieira government. In November 2003, Guinea-Bissau President Rosa visited Guinea. In January 2004, President Rosa went to several inauguration ceremonies of several President Lansana Conté. In August 2005, Guinea-Bissau Vieira made a private visit to Guinea. In February 2007, President Vieira visited Guinea. In March and October 2008, President Vieira visited Guinea twice. In December, Guinean Prime Minister Suvare visited Guinea Bissau. In the same month, President Vieira went to Guinea to attend the funeral of President Lansana Conté. In August 2009, Prime Minister Gomes visited Guinea. In September 2011, Prime Minister Gomes met with Guinean President Alpha Conte in New York during his 66th session of the UN General Assembly. After the coup in Guinea in 2012, President Conte became the mediator of the ECOWAS number and actively participated in the mediation. In June 2014, President Gas’s predecessor was officially inaugurated. In the same month, President Conte attended the inauguration ceremony of the gas in Guinea Bissau. In September 2016, the ECOWAS delegation sent Guinean President Conte and Sierra Leone President Koroma to Guinea to coordinate. On October 14, under the Conde initiative, the Guinean parties signed a Conakry Agreement on the formation of an inclusive government. In May 2017, President Gas visited Guinea. In February 2018, President Gas visited Guinea. In May and July, Prime Minister Gomes visited Guinea.
[Relationship with Senegal] The two countries have signed a friendship treaty. The two countries disputed the division of the sea area and had resorted to the Geneva International Arbitration Court and the International Court of Justice in The Hague. The border with the Casamance region, which requires independence from the southern part of the country, has led to a ceasefire agreement between the Serbian government and the Kazakh Democratic Forces movement in the Kazakh region. In recent years, the two sides have established a regular border contact mechanism. In August 2005, Guinea-Bissau Vieira paid a private visit to Cyprus. In April 2006, President Vieira went to Cyprus to attend the Senegal Independence Day celebrations and the inauguration of President Wade. In March 2008, President Vieira attended the 11th Summit of the Organization of the Islamic Conference in Dakar, Senegal. In April 2009, Prime Minister Gomes visited Senegal. In October 2009, there was another dispute between Guinea-Biss and the Serbian border region. After negotiations and negotiations, the two countries reached a consensus and issued a joint announcement. They decided to restart the cooperation committee that was interrupted by the two sides for 16 years to jointly crack down on illegal activities in the border areas. In May 2010, President Sarnia visited Serbia. After the coup in Guinea-Bissau in 2012, Serbia, as a member of the Economic Community of West African States, actively participated in the mediation of the crisis, facilitated the transitional arrangements, and participated in the dispatch of security forces to Guinea Bissau under the ECOWAS framework. In June 2014, President Gas was interviewed before the official inauguration. In the same month, President Saale went to Guinea to attend the inauguration ceremony of the gas. After the political turmoil in Guinea Bissau in 2015, President Saale also actively participated in the mediation crisis. On August 13, 2016, Prime Minister Roja of Brazil visited Senegal and met with the leaders of the Serbian state. On December 27, Prime Minister Embaro paid a visit to Senegal. In September 2017, Senegal’s special envoy and foreign minister Kabbah visited Guinea Bissau. In May 2018, Prime Minister Gomes visited Senegal.