The Republic of Ghana 加纳共和国

【国 名】 加纳共和国(The Republic of Ghana)。

【面 积】 238537平方公里。

【人 口】 2950万(2018年)。全国有4个主要民族:阿肯族(52.4%)、莫西—达戈姆巴族(15.8%)、埃维族(11.9%)和加—阿丹格贝族(7.8%)。官方语言为英语。另有埃维语、芳蒂语和豪萨语等民族语言。居民69%信奉基督教,15.6%信奉伊斯兰教,8.5%信奉传统宗教。

【首 都】 阿克拉(Accra),人口约234万。最高温度23-31℃(3、4月),最低温度22-27℃(8月)。

【国家元首】 总统纳纳·阿库福-阿多(Nana Akufo-Addo)。2016年12月大选获胜,2017年1月7日宣誓就职。

【重要节日】 3月6日:独立日;7月1日:共和国日。

【简 况】 位于非洲西部、几内亚湾北岸,西邻科特迪瓦,北接布基纳法索,东毗多哥,南濒大西洋,海岸线长约562公里。沿海平原和西南部阿散蒂高原属热带雨林气候,沃尔特河谷和北部高原地区属热带草原气候。4月至9月为雨季,11月至翌年4月为旱季。各地降雨量差别很大,西南部平均年降雨量2180毫米,北部地区为1000毫米。

古加纳王国建于公元3~4世纪,其版图在今天的马里和布基纳法索一带,10~11世纪时达到鼎盛时期。1471年起葡萄牙、荷兰、法国和英国殖民者相继入侵现加纳沿海地区,掠夺黄金、贩卖黑奴,这一带被称为“黄金海岸”。1897年黄金海岸全境沦为英国殖民地。1957年3月6日,黄金海岸独立,改名加纳,原英国托管的“西多哥”并入加纳。1960年7月1日成立加纳共和国,仍留在英联邦内,首任总统为恩克鲁玛。1966年恩克鲁玛政府被推翻后,加政局曾长期动荡不安,军事政变不断,政权更迭频繁。1981年12月罗林斯政变上台后,政局一直较为稳定。1992年开始实行多党制,同年底罗当选总统,顺利实现由军政府向民选政府的过渡。1996年12月罗蝉联总统。2001年1月至2009年1月,新爱国党领导人库福尔连任两届总统。2009年1月,全国民主大会党候选人米尔斯当选总统。2012年7月24日,米尔斯因病去世,时任副总统马哈马继任总统。同年12月,加举行新一届大选,马哈马获胜,并于2013年1月7日宣誓就职。

[Country name] The Republic of Ghana.

[area] 238,537 square kilometers.

[People] 29.5 million (2018). There are four major ethnic groups in the country: the Akan (52.4%), the Moxi-Dagomba (15.8%), the Ewe (11.9%) and the Jia-Adangebe (7.8%). Official Language is English. There are also ethnic languages ​​such as Ewe, Fanti and Hausa. 69% of the residents believe in Christianity, 15.6% believe in Islam, and 8.5% believe in traditional religion.

[Capital] Accra, with a population of about 2.34 million. The maximum temperature is 23-31 ° C (3, 4 months), and the lowest temperature is 22-27 ° C (August).

[Head of State] President Nana Akufo-Addo. The general election in December 2016 won and was sworn in on January 7, 2017.

[Important Festival] March 6th: Independence Day; July 1st: Republic Day.

[Brief] Located in the west of Africa, on the north bank of the Gulf of Guinea, west of Côte d’Ivoire, north of Burkina Faso, east of Togo, south of the Atlantic Ocean, with a coastline of about 562 km. The coastal plains and the Ashanti Plateau in the southwest are tropical rainforest climates, and the Volta Valley and the northern plateau have a savanna climate. The rainy season is from April to September, and the dry season is from November to April. The rainfall varies greatly from place to place, with an average annual rainfall of 2180 mm in the southwest and 1000 mm in the north.

The Kingdom of Gurga was built in the 3rd to 4th centuries, and its territory reached its heyday in the areas of Mali and Burkina Faso today, from the 10th to the 11th centuries. In 1471, Portuguese, Dutch, French and British colonists successively invaded the coastal areas of Ghana, plundering gold and selling black slaves. This area is known as the “Gold Coast.” In 1897, the entire Gold Coast became a British colony. On March 6, 1957, the Gold Coast became independent and renamed Ghana. The former British-hosted “Sido” was merged into Ghana. The Republic of Ghana was established on July 1, 1960 and remains in the Commonwealth. The first president was Nkrumah. After the overthrow of the Nkrumah government in 1966, the Canadian political bureau had long been turbulent, military coups continued, and regime changes frequently. After the Rollins coup took office in December 1981, the political situation has been relatively stable. In 1992, the multi-party system was implemented. At the end of the year, Luo was elected president and successfully realized the transition from the military government to the democratically elected government. In December 1996, President Luo Yulian. From January 2001 to January 2009, the leader of the New Patriotic Party, Kufuor, was re-elected for two terms. In January 2009, the National Democratic Party candidate Mills was elected president. On July 24, 2012, Mills died of illness, and then Vice President Mahama succeeded the president. In December of the same year, Canada held a new general election, Mahama won, and was sworn in on January 7, 2013.

【政 治】2016年12月,加纳举行总统和议会选举。新爱国党候选人阿库福-阿多战胜马哈马当选总统。新爱国党赢得议会选举。目前,加政局总体稳定。

【宪 法】 现行宪法于1992年4月26日全民公决通过,1993年1月7日起生效。宪法规定:加纳是一个民主国家,致力于实现自由和公正,尊重基本人权、自由和尊严;总统是国家元首、政府首脑和武装部队总司令,任期4年,可连任一届;内阁由总统任命,议会批准;议会需在通过法案并得到总统同意后方可行使制宪权;司法独立,有解释、执行和强制执行法律的权力。

【议 会】 实行一院制,是国家最高权力机构,有立法和修宪的权力。议员经全国选举产生,任期4年。本届议会于2016年12月选举产生,共275个议席。其中新爱国党169席,全国民主大会党106席。议长为迈克尔•阿伦•奥夸耶( Michael Aaron Oquaye),2017年1月7日就职。

【政 府】 本届政府于2017年1月组成,由总统、副总统和36名部长组成。成员包括:总统纳纳·阿库福-阿多(Nana Akufo-Addo),副总统马哈茂杜·巴武米亚(Mahamudu Bawumia),高级部长亚乌·奥萨福-马福(Yaw Osafo-Maafo),财政部长肯·奥福里-阿塔(Ken Ofori-Atta),环境、科技与创新部长夸贝纳·弗林蓬-博阿滕(Kwabena Frimpong-Boateng),贸工部长艾伦·约翰·基耶雷马滕(Alan John Kyerematen),食品与农业部长奥乌苏·阿夫里耶·阿科托(Owusu Afriyie Akoto),国家安全部长艾伯特·坎-达帕(Albert Kan-Dapaah),外交与地区一体化部长雪莉·阿约科·博奇韦(女,Shirly Ayorkor Botchway),青年与体育部长艾萨克·阿夏马(Isaac Asiamah),能源部长约翰·彼得-阿梅乌(John Peter Amewu),国防部长多米尼克·尼蒂武(Dominic Nitiwul),内政部长安布罗斯·德里(Ambrose Dery),司法部长兼总检察长格洛里亚·阿库福(女,Gloria Akuffo),地方政府与农村发展部长阿丽玛·马哈马(女,Alima Mahama),教育部长马修·奥波库·普伦佩(Matthew Opoku Prempeh),卫生部长夸库·阿吉耶曼-马努(Kwaku Agyemang-Manu),工程与住房部长塞缪尔·阿塔·阿基亚(Samuel Atta Akyea),水利与环卫部长塞西莉亚·达帕(女,Cecilia Abena Dapaah),通讯部长厄休拉·奥乌苏·埃库富尔(女,Ursula Owusu Ekuful),道路部长奎西·阿莫阿科·阿塔(Kwesi Amoako Atta),铁路发展部长乔·加蒂(Joe Ghartey),性别、儿童与社会保障部长辛西娅·莫里森(女,Cynthia Mamle Morrison),就业与劳工关系部长伊格内修斯·巴富尔·阿武瓦(Ignatius Bafuor Awuah),交通部长奎库·奥福里·阿夏马(Kweku Ofori Asiamah),国土资源部长夸库·阿索玛-齐雷梅(Hon Kwaku Asomah-Cheremeh),旅游、文化与创意艺术部长芭芭拉·奥滕·贾西(女,Barbara Oteng Gyasi),新闻部长科乔·奥蓬·恩克鲁玛(Kojo Oppong Nkrumah),酋长与宗教事务部长塞缪尔·科菲·扎梅西(Samuel Kofi Dzamesi),航空部长约瑟夫·科菲·阿达(Joseph Kofi Adda),渔业水产部长伊丽莎白·夸耶(女,Elizabeth Quaye),议会事务部长奥塞·凯-门萨-邦苏(Osei Kyei-Mensah-Bonsu),监察与评估部长(总统府)安东尼·阿科托·奥塞博士(Dr. Anthony Akoto Osei),省份重组与特别工程部长(总统府)丹·博特维(Dan Botwe),规划部长(总统府)吉安·巴富尔(Prof. Gyan Baffour),特别发展倡议部长(总统府)梅维丝·哈瓦·库姆森(女,Mavis Hawa Koomson),商业发展部长(总统府)易卜拉欣·阿瓦勒·穆罕默德(Ibrahim Awal Mohammed),内城与穆斯林社区发展部长(总统府)穆斯塔法·阿卜杜勒-哈米德(Mustapha Abdul-Hamid)。

【网 址】 官方网址:http://www.ghana.gov.gh

[Politics] In December 2016, Ghana held presidential and parliamentary elections. New Patriotic Party candidate Akufu-Ado defeated Mahama as president. The New Patriotic Party won parliamentary elections. At present, the Canadian government is generally stable.

[Constitution] The current Constitution was passed by a referendum on April 26, 1992, and became effective on January 7, 1993. The Constitution stipulates that Ghana is a democratic country committed to the realization of freedom and justice and respect for fundamental human rights, freedoms and dignity; the President is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, for a term of four years, which can be re-elected for one term; the cabinet is appointed by the President. The parliament approves; the parliament needs to exercise constitutional rights after passing the bill and obtaining the president’s consent; the judiciary is independent and has the power to interpret, enforce and enforce the law.

[Parliament] The implementation of the one-chamber system is the highest authority of the state and has the power to legislate and amend the constitution. Members are elected by the national government for a term of four years. The current parliament was elected in December 2016 with a total of 275 seats. Among them, 169 seats of the New Patriotic Party and 106 seats of the National Democratic Congress. The speaker is Michael Aaron Oquaye, who took office on January 7, 2017.

[Government] The current government was formed in January 2017 and consists of the President, Vice President and 36 Ministers. Members include: President Nana Akufo-Addo, Vice President Mahamudu Bawumia, Senior Minister Yaw Osafo -Maafo), Finance Minister Ken Ofori-Atta, Minister of Environment, Technology and Innovation, Kwabena Frimpong-Boateng, Minister of Trade and Industry, Allen Alan John Kyerematen, Food and Agriculture Minister Owusu Afriyie Akoto, National Security Minister Albert Kan-Dalpa (Albert Kan- Dapaah), Minister of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration, Shirly Ayorkor Botchway, Youth and Sports Minister Isaac Asiamah, Energy Minister John Peter-A John Peter Amewu, Defense Minister Dominic Nitiwul, Interior Minister Ambrose Dery, Attorney General and Attorney General Gloria Akufo (female, Gloria Akuffo), Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development Alima Mahama, Education Minister Matthew Opoku Prempeh, Health Minister Kwaku Agyemang-Manu , Minister of Engineering and Housing Samuel Atta Akyea, Minister of Water and Sanitation, Cecilia Abena Dapaah, Minister of Communications Ursula Ousu Kursi Amoako Atta, Road Minister, Joe Ghartey, Minister of Railway Development, Cynthia, Minister of Gender, Children and Social Security · Ms. Cynthia Mamle Morrison, Minister of Employment and Labor Relations Ignatius Bafuor Awuah, Minister of Transport Kweku Ofori Asiamah ), Minister of Land and Resources Hon Kwaku Asomah-Cheremeh, Minister of Tourism, Culture and Creative Arts Barbara Oteng Gyasi, Minister of Information Joe Oppen Nkrumah (Kojo Oppong Nkrumah), Minister of Justice and Religious Affairs Samuel Kofi Dzamesi, Aviation Minister Joseph Kofi Adda, Minister of Fisheries and Fisheries Elizabeth Quayer (female , Elizabeth Quaye), Minister of Parliamentary Affairs Osei Kyei-Mensah-Bonsu, Minister of Supervision and Evaluation (Presidential Office) Dr. Anthony Akoto Osei ), Provincial Restructuring and Special Engineering Minister (Presidential Office) Dan Botwe, Planning Minister (Presidential Office) Prof. Gyan Baffour, Special Development Initiative Minister (Presidential Office) Mevi Mavis Hawa Koomson, Minister of Business Development (Presidential Office) Ibrahim Awal Mohammed, Minister of Interior and Muslim Community Development (Presidential Office) Mustapha Abdul-Hamid.

[Website] Official website: http://www.ghana.gov.gh

【行政区划】 全国共设16个省,即大阿克拉省(Greater Accra Region)、阿散蒂省(Ashanti Region)、布朗-阿哈福省(Brong-Ahafo Region)、中部省(Central Region)、东部省(Eastern Region)、沃尔特省(Volta Region)、西部省(Western Region)、上东部省(Upper East Region)、上西部省(Upper West Region)、北部省(Northern Region)、萨瓦纳省(Savannah Region)、东北省(North East Region)、阿哈福省(Ahafo Region)、博诺东省(Bono East Region)、奥蒂省(Oti Region)、西北省(Western North Region)。260个县。

【司法机构】 分为司法系统和公共法庭系统。司法系统包括最高法院、上诉法院、高等法院、商业法庭、地区法院、县级法院、巡回法院、速审法院、少年法庭、检察长办公室等。最高法院为终审法院,由首席法官和6名以上法官组成,首席法官任院长。各级公共法庭是为了确保“人民参加司法程序”,以最终实现司法民主化而于1982年建立的。全国公共法庭为终审法庭。

【政 党】 1992年5月加开放党禁后,形成罗林斯派、丹夸-布西亚派和恩克鲁玛派三大政党派系。

(1)新爱国党( New Patriotic Party ):执政党,丹夸-布西亚派,现有党员约400万。1992年6月2日成立。以知识界精英为骨干。2001-2008年执政,重视人权、民主和法制,主张实行政治多元化和市场经济,推动私有化,对外奉行务实外交,以吸引外资,解决经济问题。党主席弗雷迪·布莱(Freddie Blay),总书记约翰·博阿杜(John Boadu)。目前该党拥有议会169个席位。

(2)全国民主大会党( National Democratic Congress ):最大在野党,现有党员约300万。1992年6月10日成立。成员多为罗林斯的支持者,也有不少恩克鲁玛派和丹夸—布西亚派的成员。1993-2000年、2009-2016年执政。主张政治民主化和经济私有化,开展多方位外交。主席萨缪尔·奥福苏-安波福(Samuel Ofosu-Ampofo),总书记约翰逊·阿塞杜·恩凯提亚(Johnson Aseidu Nketia)。目前该党拥有议会106个席位。

(3)大会人民党(Convention People’s Party):在野党。恩克鲁玛派。1998年6月15日由人民大会党(People’s Convention Party)和全国大会党(National Convention Party)合并而成。成员主要为社会知名人士。主张根据恩克鲁玛思想建立关心社会正义和人民福利的政府,实行混合经济,维护非洲团结与世界和平。主席萨米娅•雅巴•恩克鲁玛(Samia Yaba Nkrumah),总书记伊瓦尔•科比纳•格林斯特里特(Ivor Kobbina Greenstreet)。

(4)人民全国大会党(People’s National Convention):在野党。恩克鲁玛派。1992年5月29日成立。主张捍卫恩克鲁玛思想,造福人民,积极致力于非洲的政治、经济彻底解放。主席阿尔哈吉•阿赫迈德•拉马丹(Alhaji Ahmed Ramadan),总书记贝尔纳德·莫纳赫(Bernard A. Mornarh)。

此外,还有加纳全民党(Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere)、加纳民主共和党(Ghana Democratic Republican Party)、民主人民党(Democratic People’s Party)、大联合人民党(Great Consolidated Popular Party)、加纳统一运动党(United Ghana Movement)、全国改革党(National Reform Party)、民主自由党(Democratic Freedom Party)等政党。

[Administrative Division] There are 16 provinces in the country, namely the Greater Accra Region, the Ashanti Region, the Brong-Ahafo Region, and the Central Region. , Eastern Region, Volta Region, Western Region, Upper East Region, Upper West Region, Northern Region, Savannah Province (Savannah Region), North East Region, Ahafo Region, Bono East Region, Oti Region, Western North Region. 260 counties.

[Judiciary] Divided into a judicial system and a public court system. The judicial system includes the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the High Court, the Commercial Court, the District Court, the County Court, the Circuit Court, the Court of Appeal, the Juvenile Court, and the Office of the Attorney General. The Supreme Court is the Court of Final Appeal, composed of the Chief Justice and more than six judges, and the Chief Justice is the President. Public courts at all levels were established in 1982 to ensure that “people participate in the judicial process” and ultimately achieve judicial democratization. The National Public Court is the Court of Final Appeal.

[Political Party] In May 1992, after the opening of the party ban, the formation of the three major political parties of the Rawlins, Danquay-Busia and Nkrumah factions.

(1) New Patriotic Party: The ruling party, Dan Kwa-Busia, has about 4 million members. Established on June 2, 1992. Take the intellectual elite as the backbone. In 2001-2008, he took power, attached importance to human rights, democracy, and the legal system. He advocated political pluralism and market economy, promoted privatization, and pursued pragmatic diplomacy to attract foreign investment and solve economic problems. Party chairman Freddie Blay, general secretary John Boadu. The party currently has 169 seats in the parliament.

(2) National Democratic Congress: The largest opposition party, with about 3 million members. It was established on June 10, 1992. Most of the members are supporters of Rawlins, and there are also many members of the Enkruma and Danquaa-Busias. Ruling in 1993-2000 and 2009-2016. Advocate political democratization and economic privatization, and carry out multi-faceted diplomacy. Chairman Samuel Ofosu-Ampofo, general secretary Johnson Aseidu Nketia. The party currently has 106 seats in the parliament.

(3) Convention People’s Party: The opposition party. Enkruma faction. On June 15, 1998, it was formed by the merger of the People’s Convention Party and the National Convention Party. The members are mainly social figures. It advocates the establishment of a government that cares about social justice and the welfare of the people according to Nkrumah’s ideas, implements a mixed economy, and safeguards African unity and world peace. President Samia Yaba Nkrumah, general secretary Ivor Kobbina Greenstreet.

(4) People’s National Convention: The opposition party. Enkruma faction. It was established on May 29, 1992. He advocated defending Nkrumah’s thoughts, benefiting the people, and actively committing to the complete liberation of politics and economy in Africa. President Alhaji Ahmed Ramadan, general secretary Bernard A. Mornarh.

In addition, there are the Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere, the Ghana Democratic Republican Party, the Democratic People’s Party, the Great Consolidated Popular Party, and the United Ghana Unified Movement Party (United Ghana Movement), the National Reform Party, and the Democratic Freedom Party.

【重要人物】纳纳·阿库福-阿多(Nana Akufo-Addo),总统。1944年3月29日出生于加纳首都阿克拉。获加纳大学经济学学位、英国和加纳律师职业资格。1992年与库福尔共同成立新爱国党,并在库福尔执政期间先后任司法部长兼总检察长、外长。2016年12月当选。2017年1月宣誓就职。

马哈茂杜·巴武米亚(Mahamudu Bawumia),副总统。1963年10月7日出生于加纳北部省,获英国白金汉大学学士学位、牛津大学发展经济学硕士学位和加拿大西蒙·佛雷泽大学经济学博士学位。曾任加纳央行副行长。2016年12月大选作为阿库福-阿多竞选搭档获胜。2017年1月宣誓就职。

【经 济】 矿产品、可可和木材为三大支柱产业。1983年开始推行以建立市场经济为核心的经济结构调整,并取得明显成效。1994年被联合国取消最不发达国家称谓。上世纪90年代末期,由于国际市场黄金、可可价格下跌等外部因素的冲击,加经济陷入困境,财政赤字剧增,货币塞地大幅贬值。2002年加入“重债穷国倡议”。2004年经国际货币基金组织确认达到重债穷国经济完成点,开始获西方国家大幅减债。2007年,加发现石油资源,探明储量约15亿桶,2010年底实现商业开采。按世界银行标准,加自2010年起从低收入国家进入中等偏低收入国家行列。

加宏观经济基本保持稳定。2008年以来,受国际金融危机等不利因素影响,经济发展陷入困境,米尔斯政府上台后采取一系列稳定经济政策,加之加创汇支柱产品黄金和可可产销两旺,油气资源实现商业开采等利好因素,国际金融机构和投资这对加信心回暖,直接投资呈较快增长趋势。2011年,加GDP增长率达15%,成为非洲乃至世界经济增长最快的国家之一。

2013年以来,加经济增速放缓,2016年经济增速降至3.6%。加财政赤字占国内生产总值比值已超过国际警戒线,货币加速贬值,通胀一路攀升,国际货币基金组织警告称加经济面临崩溃的风险。为应对经济困局,加政府采取一系列开源节流措施,加强外汇交易管制,增加税收,抑制通胀,改善财政状况,努力遏制经济下滑势头。

阿库福-阿多2017年1月就任总统后,将促进经济复苏作为第一执政要务,大力推进经济转型和工业化进程,出台大规模减税和刺激就业政策,发行国债,整顿金融业,改善营商环境,海上新油气田有效拉动经济增长,2017年经济增长率达8.5%。2018年出台国家七年发展规划,加快推进“一县一厂”、“一村一坝”、“为了粮食和就业而种植”等经济发展旗舰项目。启动多个新石油区块招标,油气产量大幅上升。以建设“摆脱援助的加纳”为引领,努力改变传统受援模式,吸引外国投资,力图将加纳打造成西非经济和金融枢纽。

2018年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:651亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:约2200美元。

国内生产总值增长率:6.5%。

货币名称:塞地(cedi,GHS)。

汇率:1美元约4.58新塞地。

(资料来源:2019年4月《伦敦经济季评》)

demodemodemodemodemodemodemodemodemodemodemodemodemodemodemodemo

[Important person] Nana Akufo-Addo, president. Born on March 29, 1944 in Accra, Ghana. A degree in Economics from the University of Ghana, a professional qualification in the UK and Ghana. In 1992, he established the New Patriotic Party with Kufuor, and served as Minister of Justice and Attorney General and Foreign Minister during Kufuer’s administration. Elected in December 2016. In January 2017, he was sworn in.

Mahamudu Bawumia, Vice President. Born in the northern province of Ghana on October 7, 1963, he received a bachelor’s degree from the University of Buckingham, a master’s degree in development economics from Oxford University, and a doctorate in economics from Simon Fraser University in Canada. Former vice president of the Central Bank of Ghana. The December 2016 general election won as the Akufo-Ado campaign partner. In January 2017, he was sworn in.

[Economy] Minerals, cocoa and wood are the three pillar industries. In 1983, it began to implement economic restructuring with the establishment of a market economy as the core, and achieved remarkable results. In 1994, the United Nations abolished the title of least developed countries. In the late 1990s, due to the impact of external factors such as gold in the international market and falling prices of cocoa, the Canadian economy was in trouble, the fiscal deficit increased sharply, and the currency devaluation depreciated sharply. In 2002, he joined the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. In 2004, the International Monetary Fund confirmed that it had reached the completion point of the HIPC economy and began to reduce debts by Western countries. In 2007, Canada discovered oil resources, proven reserves of about 1.5 billion barrels, and commercial mining by the end of 2010. According to World Bank standards, since 2010, low-income countries have entered the ranks of middle-lower-income countries.

The macro economy has remained basically stable. Since 2008, affected by unfavorable factors such as the international financial crisis, economic development has been in trouble. After the Mills government took office, it adopted a series of stable economic policies. In addition, the gold and cocoa production and sales of the pillar products of Jiachuanghui and the cocoa production and sales were booming. The confidence of international financial institutions and investment has rebounded, and direct investment has shown a rapid growth trend. In 2011, the GDP growth rate reached 15%, making it one of the fastest growing economies in Africa and the world.

Since 2013, the economic growth rate has slowed down, and the economic growth rate in 2016 has dropped to 3.6%. The Canadian fiscal deficit has exceeded the international warning line, the currency has accelerated its depreciation, and inflation has risen. The International Monetary Fund has warned that the Canadian economy is at risk of collapse. In response to the economic dilemma, the Canadian government adopted a series of measures to increase revenue and reduce expenditures, strengthen foreign exchange control, increase taxes, curb inflation, improve fiscal conditions, and strive to curb the economic downturn.

After taking office as president in January 2017, Akufu-Ado will promote economic recovery as the first ruling task, vigorously promote economic transformation and industrialization, introduce large-scale tax cuts and stimulate employment policies, issue government bonds, rectify financial industry, and improve In the business environment, new offshore oil and gas fields have effectively boosted economic growth, and the economic growth rate in 2017 reached 8.5%. In 2018, the national seven-year development plan was issued, and the economic development flagship projects such as “one county, one factory”, “one village and one dam” and “planting for food and employment” were accelerated. The tendering of several new oil blocks was initiated, and oil and gas production increased significantly. Guided by the construction of “Ghana to get rid of aid”, we will strive to change the traditional mode of aid and attract foreign investment in an effort to make Ghana a political and financial hub for West Africa.

The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $65.1 billion.

Per capita GDP: about $2,200.

GDP growth rate: 6.5%.

Currency name: Cedi (GHS).

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar is about 4.58 New Cedi.

(Source: April 2019, London Economic Quarterly Review)

【资 源】 矿产资源丰富,主要矿物储量为:黄金约6万吨,居非洲第二位;钻石约1亿克拉,居世界第四位。铝矾土、锰矿探明储量分别为1.3亿吨、1.02亿吨。此外还有石灰石、铁矿、红柱石、石英砂和高岭土等。2011年底,加北部省发现储量巨大的铁矿。2007年6月,加政府宣布在西部省西海角三点地带发现丰富的轻质原油资源,初步探明储量为15亿桶,于2010年年底实现商业产油。目前日产原油约19万桶。

【工矿业】 工业基础薄弱,原料依赖进口。主要产业为采矿、木材、食品加工、水泥、冶金等。2017年工业部门受油气业增收影响增速显著,增长17.5%,产值占国内生产总值比重由2016年的24.3%升至25.6%。黄金、石油开采等采矿业近年成为最有活力的部门,近年来产值年均增长59.8%。自2000年来,矿业收入是加外汇主要来源,占其外汇收入年均比例38%。2017年黄金产量约130吨,同比增长20%;锰矿产量约300万吨,同比增长50%;钻石产量约8.7万克拉,同比下降39%。。制造业主要有木材和可可加工、纺织、水泥、食品、服装、皮制品、酿酒和碾米等。有3家钢铁厂,主要以废钢铁为原料生产钢筋,年产量12万吨,可满足加市场需求。为保护本国纺织业,2005年7月政府采取征收惩罚性关税等措施限制纺织品进口。

【农 业】 农业是加经济的基础,2015年、2016、2017年增速分别为2.8%、3%、8.5%,2017年农业对GDP贡献率为22.9%。农业人口约1063万,占全国总人口的38%。可耕地731万公顷,已利用30%。可灌溉土地11万公顷,但灌溉面积仅占7.5%。粮食作物主要分布在北部,种植面积约250万公顷。主要粮食作物为玉米、薯类、高粱、大米、小米等,产量不稳,正常年景可基本满足国内需要。可可为主要经济作物,年产量60—80万吨,种植于北部省以南所有省份,是传统出口产品。上世纪20至70年代曾居世界之首,2009年产量达71.1万吨,仅次于科特迪瓦居世界第二位。2018年产量约88万吨。其他经济作物有油棕、橡胶、棉花、花生、甘蔗、烟草等。近年来,非传统农业出口商品有较大幅度增长,2013年达24.2亿美元。

【林 业】 木材出口有近百年历史,森林覆盖率曾占国土面积的34%。由于缺乏保护和管理,森林覆盖率逐年递减,根据2007年统计,森林面积为5.29万公顷。主要用材林在西南部,面积为8.2万平方公里。有树木360种,可出口的约40多种。为保护森林资源和提高出口附加值,政府规定每年只砍伐1/40的森林,从1996年起禁止原木出口,改为出口木材制成品和高附加值产品。2004年林业增长21.7%,木材出口创汇2.117亿美元,此后呈下降趋势。2014年林业出口35.6万立方米,创汇约1.38亿欧元。2017年,林业增长3%。

【渔 业】 渔业资源丰富,分为海上渔业、潟湖渔业和内河渔业。海上渔业居主导地位,但捕鱼设备简陋,渔船燃料短缺,阻碍了渔业发展。50万人从事渔业生产,年均捕鱼量约为40万吨,年需求量为90万吨,仍有50万吨需要进口解决。金枪鱼和虾类为主要出口产品。2012年,捕鱼总量为45.6万吨,渔业产值占国内生产总值的约5%,同比增长2.3%。

[Resources] Rich in mineral resources, the main mineral reserves are: about 60,000 tons of gold, ranking second in Africa; diamonds are about 100 million carats, ranking fourth in the world. The proven reserves of bauxite and manganese ore are 130 million tons and 102 million tons respectively. There are also limestone, iron ore, andalusite, quartz sand and kaolin. At the end of 2011, the northern province of Canada discovered iron ore with huge reserves. In June 2007, the Canadian government announced the discovery of abundant light crude oil resources in the three-point zone of the Western Cape of the Western Province. The initial proven reserves were 1.5 billion barrels and commercial production at the end of 2010. At present, the daily crude oil is about 190,000 barrels.

[Industrial and mining] The industrial base is weak and raw materials are imported. The main industries are mining, wood, food processing, cement, metallurgy and so on. In 2017, the growth rate of the industrial sector was significantly increased by the oil and gas industry, with a growth rate of 17.5%. The proportion of output value to GDP increased from 24.3% in 2016 to 25.6%. The mining industry, such as gold and oil exploration, has become the most dynamic sector in recent years. In recent years, the annual output value has increased by 59.8%. Since 2000, mining income has been the main source of foreign exchange plus foreign exchange, accounting for 38% of its foreign exchange earnings. In 2017, gold production was about 130 tons, up 20% year-on-year; manganese ore production was about 3 million tons, up 50% year-on-year; diamond production was about 87,000 carats, down 39% year-on-year. . The manufacturing industry mainly includes wood and cocoa processing, textiles, cement, food, clothing, leather products, wine making and rice milling. There are three steel plants, mainly producing steel from scrap steel, with an annual output of 120,000 tons, which can meet the market demand. In order to protect the domestic textile industry, in July 2005 the government adopted measures such as imposing punitive tariffs to restrict textile imports.

[Agriculture] Agriculture is the basis of economic growth. In 2015, 2016 and 2017, the growth rate was 2.8%, 3%, and 8.5% respectively. In 2017, the contribution rate of agriculture to GDP was 22.9%. The agricultural population is about 10.63 million, accounting for 38% of the country’s total population. The cultivated land is 7.31 million hectares and 30% has been utilized. It can irrigate 110,000 hectares of land, but the irrigated area only accounts for 7.5%. The food crops are mainly distributed in the north, with an area of ​​about 2.5 million hectares. The main food crops are corn, potato, sorghum, rice, millet, etc. The output is unstable, and the normal annual situation can basically meet domestic needs. Cocoa is the main cash crop, with an annual output of 600,000-800,000 tons. It is planted in all provinces south of the northern province and is a traditional export product. In the 20th and 70s of the last century, it ranked first in the world. In 2009, the output reached 711,000 tons, ranking second in the world after Côte d’Ivoire. The output in 2018 is about 880,000 tons. Other cash crops include oil palm, rubber, cotton, peanuts, sugar cane, and tobacco. In recent years, non-traditional agricultural exports have grown by a large margin, reaching $2.42 billion in 2013.

[Forest Industry] Timber exports have a history of nearly one hundred years, and forest coverage has accounted for 34% of the country’s land area. Due to lack of protection and management, forest coverage has been decreasing year by year. According to 2007 statistics, the forest area is 52,900 hectares. The main timber forest is in the southwest with an area of ​​82,000 square kilometers. There are 360 ​​kinds of trees, and about 40 kinds can be exported. In order to protect forest resources and increase the added value of exports, the government stipulates that only 1/40 of the forests are cut down each year. Since 1996, the export of logs has been banned, and the export of wood products and high value-added products has been changed. In 2004, forestry grew by 21.7%, and timber exports earned US$211.7 million. Since then, it has shown a downward trend. In 2014, the export of forestry was 356,000 cubic meters and the foreign exchange earned was about 138 million euros. In 2017, forestry grew by 3%.

[Fish Industry] Rich in fishery resources, it is divided into marine fisheries, lagoon fisheries and inland fisheries. Marine fisheries are dominant, but fishing equipment is poor and fishing fuel shortages have hindered the development of fisheries. 500,000 people are engaged in fishery production, with an average annual fishing capacity of about 400,000 tons and an annual demand of 900,000 tons. There are still 500,000 tons that need to be imported. Tuna and shrimp are the main export products. In 2012, the total amount of fishing was 456,000 tons, and the fishery output value accounted for about 5% of GDP, up 2.3% year-on-year.

【交通运输】 以公路为主。近年来政府重视道路基础设施建设,资金投入占发展总支出的近50%。

公路:占全国总货运量的98%。2000年以来,政府不断加大该领域投入,公路基础设施发展迅速,目前,公路总长达6.7万公里,其中干路1.35万公里。近年,加纳政府重点实施东部走廊、西部走廊等道路项目。

铁路:总长1300公里,但目前只有64公里铁路能够维持运营,其中54公里连接阿散蒂省和西部省,另外10公里连接阿克拉和特马港。主要担负大批量出口商品,如锰、铝矾土、木材和可可的运输。加政府拟在未来4年投入78亿美元建设1400公里铁路。2009年铁路货运量为15万吨。阿库福–阿多政府修缮大阿克拉省、东部省、西部省多段铁路,2018年拨款10亿美元用于修建新铁路。

水运:主要有特马港和塔克拉迪港。特马港是非洲最大人造海港,目前正在进行扩建,年吞吐能力有望由现在的120万标箱升至300万标箱。2018年吞吐量达1550万吨,主要用于进口物资。塔克拉迪港2018年吞吐量达762万吨,主要用于出口物资。加纳还在沃尔特湖建造河港,开辟内河航运网,但港口和航运设施不完备。

空运:已成立两家本土航空公司,共有8个民用机场,国际航线37条。首都阿克拉科托卡新国际机场于2004年启用,年接待旅客能力达750万人次,是西非地区重要航空枢纽,可以直飞欧洲、美国、南非和西非各国。2016、2017年接待国际旅客约175万、181万人次。塔克拉迪、库马西和塔马利等国内主要城市开设国内航班。

【财政金融】 2001年新爱国党政府上台后,通过宏观经济调控,减少政府开支,加强征税,财政赤字逐步减少,占国内生产总值比重由2000年的8.5%降至2004年3.2%。2008年,受国际金融危机等因素影响,政府财政赤字大幅攀升,占国内生产总值比例达14.9%,米尔斯政府实施稳健的财政和货币政策后,加财政状况得到改善,外汇储备从2008年底的12亿美元增至2010年底的47亿美元。2018年,外债总额约207亿美元,外汇储备约65亿美元(资料来源:2019年4月《伦敦经济季评》)。

央行加纳银行负责管理银行及其他金融部门。1989年,加纳证券交易所(GSE)成立。上市公司主要为制造、酿酒、银行、保险、矿业和石油行业。2017年,加政府发行22.5亿美元国债,以内债和长期债务置换外债和短期债务,减轻政府还债压力。

【对外贸易】 在国民经济中占重要地位,但外贸长期逆差。上世纪90年代以来,对外贸易逐年增长,外贸收入占国内生产总值的40%左右。实行贸易自由化政策。长期以来近90%的外汇收入来自黄金、可可和木材三大传统出口产品。主要贸易伙伴为中国、美国、法国、荷兰、尼日利亚。2018年外贸总额约为279.57亿美元,出口额约148.68亿美元,进口额约130.89亿美元(资料来源:2019年4月《伦敦经济季评》)。

[Transportation] Mainly by road. In recent years, the government has attached great importance to the construction of road infrastructure, and capital investment accounts for nearly 50% of total development expenditure.

Highway: accounting for 98% of the country’s total freight volume. Since 2000, the government has continuously increased investment in this field, and the highway infrastructure has developed rapidly. At present, the total length of highways is 67,000 kilometers, including 13,500 kilometers of trunk roads. In recent years, the Ghanaian government has focused on the implementation of road projects such as the Eastern Corridor and the Western Corridor.

Railways: The total length is 1,300 kilometers, but currently only 64 kilometers of railways can maintain operations, of which 54 kilometers connect the province of Ashanti and the western provinces, and another 10 kilometers connect the Accra and Tema ports. Mainly responsible for the bulk of export commodities such as manganese, bauxite, wood and cocoa. The Canadian government plans to invest 7.8 billion U.S. dollars to build a 1,400-kilometer railway in the next four years. In 2009, the railway freight volume was 150,000 tons. The Akufu-Ado government repaired the multi-segment railways in the province of Accra, the eastern provinces, and the western provinces. In 2018, it allocated $1 billion for the construction of new railways.

Water transport: mainly Port of Tema and Port of Tacchardy. Port Tema is the largest man-made harbour in Africa and is currently undergoing expansion. The annual throughput capacity is expected to rise from the current 1.2 million TEUs to 3 million TEUs. In 2018, the throughput reached 15.5 million tons, mainly used for imported materials. The port of Takradii has a throughput of 7.62 million tons in 2018, mainly for export supplies. Ghana also built a river port on Lake Walter and opened up a river network, but the port and shipping facilities were incomplete.

Air transport: Two local airlines have been established, with 8 civil airports and 37 international routes. The capital of Accra New International Airport in Accra was opened in 2004. With an annual capacity of 7.5 million passengers, it is an important aviation hub in West Africa and can fly directly to Europe, the United States, South Africa and West Africa. In 2016 and 2017, it received approximately 1.75 million and 1.81 million international visitors. Domestic flights are opened in major domestic cities such as Takradi, Kumasi and Tamali.

[Financial Finance] After the new Patriotic Party government came to power in 2001, through macroeconomic regulation and control, government spending was reduced, taxation was strengthened, and the fiscal deficit was gradually reduced. The proportion of GDP fell from 8.5% in 2000 to 3.2% in 2004. In 2008, affected by factors such as the international financial crisis, the government’s fiscal deficit rose sharply, accounting for 14.9% of GDP. After the Mills government implemented a sound fiscal and monetary policy, the financial situation improved, and foreign exchange reserves from the end of 2008. The $1.2 billion was increased to $4.7 billion at the end of 2010. In 2018, the total external debt was about 20.7 billion US dollars, and the foreign exchange reserves were about 6.5 billion US dollars (Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, April 2019).

The Central Bank of Ghana is responsible for managing banks and other financial sectors. In 1989, the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) was established. Listed companies are mainly in the manufacturing, brewing, banking, insurance, mining and petroleum industries. In 2017, the Canadian government issued $2.25 billion in government bonds, replacing foreign debt and short-term debt with domestic and long-term debts, reducing the pressure on government debt.

[Foreign Trade] An important position in the national economy, but the long-term deficit in foreign trade. Since the 1990s, foreign trade has increased year by year, and foreign trade income accounts for about 40% of GDP. Implement a trade liberalization policy. Nearly 90% of foreign exchange earnings have long come from the three traditional export products of gold, cocoa and timber. The main trading partners are China, the United States, France, the Netherlands and Nigeria. In 2018, the total foreign trade was about 27.957 billion US dollars, the export value was about 14.868 billion US dollars, and the import value was about 13.089 billion US dollars (Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, April 2019).

【教 育】 独立初期,恩克鲁玛重视发展教育事业,实行免费教育等政策。1988年政府提出“普及义务基础教育计划”,到2005年使每个学龄儿童都享受义务基础教育,经费主要来自政府拨款和外国援助。2018年实现从幼儿园到高中的免费教育。现行学制:小学6年,初中3年,高中3年(或中等技术学校3~4年),大学2~4年。重要的大学有6所,其中加纳大学、库马西恩克鲁玛科技大学和海岸角大学较为有名。另有38所师范学院、10所地方技术学院、50余所私立大学及学院。2012/2013学年度在校接受各类高等教育的学生26万人。全国现有公立小学约1.2万所,学生约410万;公立初中6418所,学生约145万人;公立高中近474所,学生约90万人(包括技工学校学生);私立初高中在校生约5万人。

【新闻出版】 加纳通讯社:官方通讯社,成立于1957年,是国内其他新闻单位主要新闻来源。设有10个省级分社。1989年起开始采用现代化通讯设备,通过卫星接收路透社、法新社和新华社新闻并上国际互联网。

加纳广播公司开设两家全国性的广播电台,一台以埃维、阿肯等6种民族语言广播,二台用英语播送新闻、商务、娱乐等节目,每天播放15.5小时(节假日17.5小时),另外还使用英语、法语对外广播。

1965年7月开始播放电视节目,1986年开始播放彩色电视节目,1996年出现私营电视台。全国现有10家电视台,主要有加纳电视台、电视三台、都市电视台、非洲电视台以及两家卫星电视台。

【对外关系】 奉行“积极中立”的外交政策,重视开展经济外交。优先发展与西方发达国家的关系,寻求政治、经济和军事支持。谋求与邻国和平共处和相互合作,努力维护次区域和平与稳定,推动西非区域一体化进程。积极参与地区和国际合作,树立西非重要国家形象,努力提升国际影响力。重视加强与发展中国家的关系,促进经贸合作。是非盟前身非统组织和不结盟运动的创始国之一。

【关于应对埃博拉疫情】 加纳作为西共体轮值主席国,在西非抗击埃博拉疫情工作中发挥重要作用。马哈马总统先后访问疫区三国,宣布加纳作为抗埃人员和物资中转站,同意联合国应对埃博拉特派团将总部设在阿克拉,并召开西共体特别首脑峰会,在联大会议等多边场合寻求支持。

【同英国的关系】 英为加原宗主国,在加政治、经济、军事、文化等方面存在传统利益和影响。英是加最大投资国和第二大贸易伙伴国。加是英在撒哈拉以南非洲的第三大市场和最大受援国。上世纪70年代及80年代初,两国关系一度较冷,后渐有好转。2005年,库福尔总统访英。2007年,库福尔总统两度访英。2009年,米尔斯总统访英。2013年,英国防参谋长和外交大臣分别访加,马哈马总统访英并会见英国首相卡梅伦。2014年10月,马哈马总统访英,会见英国女王。2015年5月,马哈马总统访英。2014年和2015年,马哈马总统两度访英。2016年4月,英国国际发展大臣访加,宣布向加选举部门提供400万欧元援助。5月,英国王子爱德华访加。2017年2月,英国外交大臣约翰逊访加。2018年11月,英国王子查尔斯访加。2019年2月,巴武米亚副总统赴英国出席第二届英国-加纳商业委员会会议。

[Education] In the early days of independence, Nkrumah attached importance to the development of education and implemented free education and other policies. In 1988, the government proposed the “Public Education Basic Education Program”. By 2005, every school-age child will enjoy compulsory basic education, mainly from government grants and foreign aid. Free education from kindergarten to high school in 2018. Current academic system: 6 years in primary school, 3 years in junior high school, 3 years in high school (or 3 to 4 years in secondary technical school), 2 to 4 years in university. There are six important universities, including the University of Ghana, Kumasi Krumma University of Technology and Cape Coast University. There are 38 teacher colleges, 10 local technical colleges, and more than 50 private universities and colleges. In the 2012/2013 academic year, 260,000 students were enrolled in various types of higher education. There are about 12,000 public primary schools in the country, about 4.1 million students; 6418 public junior high schools, about 1.45 million students; nearly 474 public high schools, about 900,000 students (including technical school students); private junior high school students 50,000 people.

[Press and Publication] Ghana News Agency: The official news agency, founded in 1957, is the main source of news for other news organizations in China. There are 10 provincial branches. Since 1989, modern communication equipment has been used to receive news from Reuters, AFP and Xinhua News Agency via satellite and to access the Internet.

Ghana Broadcasting Corporation has opened two national radio stations, one broadcasting in six national languages ​​such as Evey and Aken, and two broadcasting news, business, entertainment and other programs in English, playing 15.5 hours a day (17.5 hours on holidays). It is also broadcast in English and French.

TV shows began in July 1965, and color TV programs began in 1986. Private television stations appeared in 1996. There are 10 TV stations in the country, mainly Ghana TV, TV 3, Metro TV, African TV and two satellite TV stations.

[External Relations] Pursue a “positive neutral” foreign policy and attach importance to economic diplomacy. Give priority to developing relations with Western developed countries and seek political, economic and military support. Seek peaceful coexistence and mutual cooperation with neighboring countries, strive to maintain peace and stability in the subregion, and promote the process of regional integration in West Africa. Actively participate in regional and international cooperation, establish an important national image of West Africa, and strive to enhance international influence. Attach importance to strengthening relations with developing countries and promoting economic and trade cooperation. It is one of the founding members of the AU’s predecessor OAU and the Non-Aligned Movement.

[About the Ebola epidemic] Ghana, as the rotating presidency of the ECOWAS, played an important role in the fight against the Ebola epidemic in West Africa. President Mahama visited the three countries in the affected area and announced that Ghana, as an anti-Egyptian personnel and material transfer station, agreed that the UN should provide Ebola with its headquarters in Accra and convene a special summit of the ECOWAS, at the UN General Assembly meeting, etc. Seek support in multilateral contexts.

[Relationship with the United Kingdom] Britain is the original sovereign state and has traditional interests and influences in political, economic, military and cultural fields. Britain is the largest investor and the second largest trading partner. Canada is the third largest market and largest recipient of sub-Saharan Africa. In the 1970s and early 1980s, relations between the two countries were relatively cold, and they gradually improved. In 2005, President Kufuor visited the UK. In 2007, President Kufuor visited the UK twice. In 2009, President Mills visited the UK. In 2013, the British Chief of Staff and Foreign Minister visited Canada respectively. President Mahama visited the UK and met with British Prime Minister David Cameron. In October 2014, President Mahama visited the UK and met with the Queen of England. In May 2015, President Mahama visited the UK. In 2014 and 2015, President Mahama visited the UK twice. In April 2016, the British Minister for International Development visited Canada and announced that it would provide 4 million euros in aid to the Canadian electoral department. In May, Prince Edward of England visited Canada. In February 2017, British Foreign Secretary Johnson visited Canada. In November 2018, the British Prince Charles visited Canada. In February 2019, Vice President Pavumia went to the UK to attend the second British-Ghana Business Council meeting.

【外国援助】 双边援助主要来自日本、美、德、英、法等国;多边援助主要来自世界银行、欧盟及国际货币基金组织等。世界银行对加纳的首批贷款始于1962年,截至1996年共贷款约35亿美元。2014年8月,美国和加纳在《千年挑战计划》框架内签署总额为4.982亿美元的援助协议。2015年4月,国际货币基金组织与加政府签订紧急救助协议,批准向加发放3年期6.642亿特别提款权(相当于9.18亿美元)。2017年,双方决定将救助协议延长至2018年12月。2017年5月,世界银行国际开发协会承诺将在未来3年内提供12亿美元支持加纳政府财政预算和发展项目。2018年7月,加纳议会批准世界银行国际开发协会1.5亿美元贷款项目,主要用于修路。

【人民生活】 根据联合国开发计划署《2018年人类发展报告》公布的人文发展指数,加纳在189个国家中排名第140位。过去十余年人民生活水平总体得到改善。贫困人口从1991年的52%下降至2005年的约33%,但减贫人口分布不均。政府职员、工人及其他公务员享有医疗、住房、交通等多种补贴及退休金和退休保险。目前全国约1/3人口生活贫困,收入低于平均水平的2/3,低于全国平均水平1/3的赤贫者占总人口的7%。80%贫困人口生活在农村。2012年,加纳被国际电信联盟列为信息化建设进步最快的国家之一。2012年全国共有28.5万固定电话用户,2561万部手机用户。阿库福-阿多政府推出一系列措施加强数字经济化,如新身份证、新驾照、房地产数字地址、移动支付等。

目前,全国共有国立医院4所,以及省级医院、卫生中心和诊所等近3000家,平均每1万人拥有一名医生。2000年后,政府大力发展国家健康保险计划,目前该计划已覆盖全国48%的人口。阿库福-阿多政府拟推行全民医保计划。人口增长率约2.5%,人口平均寿命为58岁。2006年婴儿死亡率约为11.1‰。2017年艾滋病患病率1.67%。2018年加纳彻底清除沙眼病,荣获世界卫生大会表彰。

【军 事】 1957年3月独立时建立陆军,1959年建立海军、空军。总统为全国武装力量总司令。聘用英、加拿大等国顾问或教官参与军队训练和军官培训。装备主要来自英国等西方国家。

总兵力约1.55万人,其中陆军1.15万人,海军和空军各2000人。上世纪70年代起参与联合国和西非地区组织的维和行动,分别向波黑、黎巴嫩、塞浦路斯、伊科边境、西撒哈拉、利比里亚、塞拉利昂、科特迪瓦等国派驻过军队或观察员,是非洲派出联合国维和部队人数最多的国家之一,居世界第八位。此外,加还派兵赴苏丹达尔富尔等地区积极参与非盟在冲突地区的调解维和任务。

【文 化】 文化以本国传统文化为基础,又吸收了欧洲文化。主管官方机构是国家文化委员会,成立于1989年,主要成员由来自学院、音乐、舞蹈、绘画、宗教等领域的16名知名人士组成。同教育机构和非官方的文化机构密切合作,执行国家文化政策,保护并促进国家文化的发展。除文化委员会外,还有加纳语言事务局、版权署等机构共同致力于文化工作。

[Foreign Aid] Bilateral assistance mainly comes from Japan, the United States, Germany, Britain, France and other countries; multilateral assistance mainly comes from the World Bank, the European Union and the International Monetary Fund. The World Bank’s first loan to Ghana began in 1962, with a total loan of approximately $3.5 billion as of 1996. In August 2014, the United States and Ghana signed a total of $498.2 million in aid agreements within the framework of the Millennium Challenge. In April 2015, the International Monetary Fund signed an emergency rescue agreement with the Canadian government to approve the issuance of a three-year period of 66.42 billion special drawing rights (equivalent to 918 million US dollars). In 2017, the two sides decided to extend the bailout agreement to December 2018. In May 2017, the World Bank International Development Association pledged to provide $1.2 billion over the next three years to support the Ghana government budget and development projects. In July 2018, the Ghanaian Parliament approved the World Bank International Development Association’s $150 million loan project, which was mainly used for road construction.

[People’s Life] According to the Human Development Index published by the United Nations Development Programme’s 2018 Human Development Report, Ghana ranks 140th out of 189 countries. The overall living standards of the people have improved over the past decade or so. The number of poor people fell from 52% in 1991 to about 33% in 2005, but the poverty-stricken population was unevenly distributed. Government employees, workers and other civil servants enjoy various subsidies, pensions and retirement insurance for medical care, housing and transportation. At present, about one-third of the country’s population lives in poverty, with income below 2/3 of the average level, and 3% of the poorest people below the national average account for 7% of the total population. 80% of the poor live in rural areas. In 2012, Ghana was listed by the International Telecommunication Union as one of the countries with the fastest progress in information construction. In 2012, there were 285,000 fixed-line users and 25.61 million mobile phone users nationwide. The Akufu-Ado government has introduced a series of measures to strengthen digital economy, such as new ID cards, new driver’s licenses, real estate digital addresses, and mobile payments.

At present, there are 4 national hospitals in the country, as well as nearly 3,000 provincial hospitals, health centers and clinics, with an average of one doctor per 10,000 people. After 2000, the government vigorously developed the national health insurance plan, which currently covers 48% of the country’s population. The Akufo-Ado government plans to implement a universal health insurance plan. The population growth rate is about 2.5%, and the average life expectancy of the population is 58 years. The infant mortality rate in 2006 was approximately 11.1‰. The prevalence of AIDS in 2017 was 1.67%. In 2018, Ghana completely cleared trachoma and was commended by the World Health Assembly.

[Military] In March 1957, the army was established when it was independent. In 1959, the navy and air force were established. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the National Armed Forces. Employing consultants or instructors from the UK and Canada to participate in military training and officer training. The equipment is mainly from Western countries such as the United Kingdom.

The total strength is about 155,000, including 115,000 in the Army and 2,000 in the Navy and Air Force. Since the 1970s, peacekeeping operations involving the United Nations and West African organizations have sent troops or observers to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Lebanon, Cyprus, the Iraqi border, Western Sahara, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Côte d’Ivoire. One of the countries with the largest number of people ranks eighth in the world. In addition, Canada has also sent troops to Darfur and other regions in Sudan to actively participate in the AU’s mediation and peacekeeping missions in conflict areas.

[Culture] Culture is based on the traditional culture of the country and absorbs European culture. The official body is the National Cultural Council, established in 1989. The main members are composed of 16 celebrities from the fields of college, music, dance, painting and religion. Work closely with educational institutions and unofficial cultural institutions to implement national cultural policies that protect and promote the development of national culture. In addition to the Cultural Commission, there are also organizations such as the Ghana Language Affairs Bureau and the Copyright Office working together on cultural issues.

【同美国的关系】 美对加经济技术援助始于1955年。加是世界上第一个接受美国和平队的国家。1976年后,两国关系一度冷淡。上世纪80年代后期以来,美支持加经济改革,恢复对加援助。2005年和2006年,库福尔总统先后三次访美,并同布什总统举行会谈。2006年,库福尔总统两次访美,分别会见布什总统和出席美千年挑战账户提供约5.47亿美元援助的仪式。2008年,美总统布什和奥巴马分别访加。2012年,米尔斯总统访美,美向加提供7.9亿美元贷款用于基础设施建设。2014年8月,马哈马总统赴美出席美非峰会。2016年6月,美国政府向加纳提供1000万美元,用于提高加纳农产品净度和检疫标准。10月,加纳和美国千年挑战帐户公司签署第二个协议。2017年9月,阿库福-阿多总统赴美出席联大期间会见美总统特朗普。2018年2月,阿库福-阿多总统在美国出席美国全国州长冬季会议。4月,巴武米亚副总统率团访问美国硅谷。10月,美国第一夫人梅拉尼娅访加。

【同德国的关系】 德自1961年开始援助加纳,曾为加最大的援助国和美、英之后第三大投资国。2004年,德总理施罗德访加,系加独立47年来德总理首次访加,就取消加全部债务(共计1640万美元)达成协议。2007年,德国总统科勒对加进行工作访问,并与库福尔总统共同主持第二届德国非洲会议。2012年,德国开发银行向加提供4000万美元贷款,用于帮助加应对气候变化等项目。2013年,德国外长韦斯特韦勒访加。2015年2月,马哈马总统访德。2016年11月,加纳与德国签署价值4082万欧元贷款协议,用于加发展电力行业和加强政府部门能力建设。2017年12月,德国总统施泰因迈尔访问加纳,双方签署1亿欧元的双边投资协议,德国拟在可再生能源和职业教育领域扩大对加投资。2018年2月,阿库福-阿多总统赴德出席第五届德非经济论坛,并会见德总理默克尔。8月,德国总理默克尔访加。2019年2月,第三届德国-非洲商业峰会在阿克拉举行。

【同法国的关系】 1999年,法与加签署两国促进投资与保护协定,承诺每年向加提供3400万美元援助,并将加列入优先团结区国家名单。此外,法重视同加在文化、教育等领域的合作。2004年,法宣布取消加1.16亿欧元债务。2005年,库福尔总统访法。2007年,库福尔总统作为非盟轮值主席出席在法国举行的第24届法非峰会。2010年,米尔斯总统赴法国出席法非峰会。2011年,法总理菲永访加,向加提供4000万欧元贷款和50万欧元赠款。2013年,马哈马总统访法。法开发署与加政府签署协议,将在3年内向加提供2100万欧元优惠贷款。2015年10月,马哈马总统访法。11月,马哈马总统赴法国出席气候变化巴黎大会。2016年6月,加纳财政部与法国国际开发署签署协议,获取3750万欧元用于库马西道路等项目。9月,马哈马总统再度访法。

【同日本的关系】 1983年以来,两国关系迅速发展。近年来,日本将加作为援非重要基地。1998年加接受日提供的官方发展援助1.477亿美元,成为日在非最大援助对象。日首相小泉纯一郎曾几度访加,库福尔、米尔斯总统均曾访日。2013年3月,日政府向加提供1600万美元援助用于电力、食品安全和卫生以及太阳能发电等项目,另提供570万美元赠款用于食品安全和卫生事业,向加纳大学捐赠680万美元用于太阳能发电研究项目。2013年和2016年,马哈马总统两度访日。2014年1月,马哈马总统赴科特迪瓦出席日本—西共体成员国首脑会议。2016年8月,马哈马总统出席在肯尼亚举行的第六届东京非洲发展国际会议。12月,加政府从日本国际协力机构贷款1亿美元,用于沃尔特省钢筋大桥建设。2017年4月,日政府向加提供5840万美元优惠贷款,用于建设特马高速公路环岛和N8公路部分路段。2018年4月,阿库福-阿多总统出席日本援建的塞康第渔港码头二期扩建工程落成仪式。12月,阿库福-阿多总统访日,日向加提供5700万美元援款。

[Relationship with the United States] US economic aid to Canada began in 1955. Canada is the first country in the world to accept the US Peace Corps. After 1976, relations between the two countries were once cold. Since the late 1980s, the United States has supported economic reforms and resumed aid to Canada. In 2005 and 2006, President Kufuor visited the United States three times and held talks with President Bush. In 2006, President Kufuor visited the United States twice and met with President Bush and the ceremony to provide about 547 million U.S. dollars in aid to the US Millennium Challenge Account. In 2008, US President Bush and Obama visited Canada respectively. In 2012, President Mills visited the United States, and the United States provided a loan of 790 million U.S. dollars for infrastructure construction. In August 2014, President Mahama went to the United States to attend the US-Africa summit. In June 2016, the US government provided Ghana with $10 million to improve the netness and quarantine standards for agricultural products in Ghana. In October, Ghana signed a second agreement with the US Millennium Challenge Account Company. In September 2017, President Akufu-Addo met with US President Trump during his attendance at the UN General Assembly. In February 2018, President Akufo-Addo attended the Winter Meeting of the National Governors of the United States in the United States. In April, Vice President Basvum led a delegation to visit Silicon Valley in the United States. In October, the first lady of the United States, Melaniya, visited Canada.

[Relationship with Germany] Germany began to assist Ghana in 1961. It was the largest aid donor and the third largest investor after the United States and Britain. In 2004, German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder visited Canada and added the first visit to Canada by German Prime Minister for 47 years. He reached an agreement to cancel all debts (a total of 16.4 million US dollars). In 2007, German President Kohler paid a working visit to Canada and co-chaired the second German Africa Conference with President Kufuor. In 2012, the German Development Bank provided a $40 million loan to Canada to help with climate change and other projects. In 2013, German Foreign Minister Westerwelle visited Canada. In February 2015, President Mahama visited Germany. In November 2016, Ghana and Germany signed a loan agreement worth 40.82 million euros to increase the development of the power industry and strengthen the capacity building of government departments. In December 2017, German President Steinmeier visited Ghana and the two sides signed a €100 million bilateral investment agreement. Germany plans to expand investment in Canada in the fields of renewable energy and vocational education. In February 2018, President Akufu-Addo attended the Fifth German-African Economic Forum in Germany and met with German Chancellor Merkel. In August, German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Canada. In February 2019, the third German-African Business Summit was held in Accra.

[Relationship with France] In 1999, France and Canada signed an agreement on investment and protection between the two countries, and promised to provide $34 million in aid to Canada each year, and added it to the list of countries in the priority solidarity zone. In addition, the law attaches importance to cooperation in the fields of culture and education. In 2004, the law announced the cancellation of the debt of 116 million euros. In 2005, President Kufuor visited France. In 2007, President Kufuor attended the 24th French-African Summit in France as the rotating chairman of the African Union. In 2010, President Mills went to France to attend the French-African Summit. In 2011, French Prime Minister Fillon visited Canada and provided a loan of 40 million euros and a grant of 500,000 euros. In 2013, President Mahama visited the law. The Law Development Agency signed an agreement with the Canadian government to provide a €21 million concessional loan to Canada within three years. In October 2015, President Mahama visited the law. In November, President Mahama went to France to attend the Paris Conference on Climate Change. In June 2016, the Ministry of Finance of Ghana signed an agreement with the French International Development Agency to acquire 37.5 million euros for projects such as the Kumasi road. In September, President Mahama revisited the law.

[Relationship with Japan] Since 1983, relations between the two countries have developed rapidly. In recent years, Japan will be added as an important base for aiding Africa. In 1998, the official development assistance provided by the Day of Acceptance was $147.7 million, making it the non-maximum aid recipient. Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi has visited Canada several times, and President Kufuor and Mills have visited Japan. In March 2013, the Japanese government provided $16 million in aid to Canada for electricity, food safety and sanitation, and solar power projects, and a $5.7 million grant for food safety and health, and donated $6.8 million to the University of Ghana. Used in solar power research projects. In 2013 and 2016, President Mahama visited China twice. In January 2014, the President of the Republic of Mahama went to Côte d’Ivoire to attend the summit of the member states of the Japan-Western Community. In August 2016, President Mahama attended the 6th Tokyo International Conference on African Development in Kenya. In December, the Canadian government loaned US$100 million from the Japan International Cooperation Agency for the construction of the steel bridge in the province of Walter. In April 2017, the Japanese government provided a $58.4 million concessional loan to Canada for the construction of the Tema Expressway and the N8 road section. In April 2018, President Akufu-Addo attended the inauguration ceremony of the second phase expansion project of the Se Kangdi Fishing Port Terminal, which was aided by Japan. In December, President Akuf-Ado visited Japan and provided $57 million in aid to Canada.

【同尼日利亚的关系】 同尼日利亚关系密切。两国积极推动西非地区经济一体化进程,并就以“快车道”方式加速地区一体化进程达成协议。两国在调解地区冲突和联合国安理会改革等问题上相互协调,加支持尼“入常”。2010年,加纳总统米尔斯出席在尼日利亚举行的第37届西共体第37届首脑峰会,会见尼代总统乔纳森。2010年,米尔斯总统赴尼日利亚吊唁尼已故前总统亚拉杜瓦。2010年,米尔斯总统访问尼日利亚,与乔纳森总统举行会谈。2011年,尼日利亚总统乔纳森访加。2012年以来,马哈马总统多次访尼。2013年,尼总统乔纳森出席马哈马总统的就职典礼。2015年9月,尼总统布哈里访加。2016年12月,马哈马总统赴尼日利亚与西非各国领导人共商冈比亚选举危机解决方案。2018年3月,尼总统布哈里访加并出席加纳独立61周年庆祝活动。

【同邻国的关系】 重视睦邻友好,与周边国家保持良好的合作关系。

加与多哥在“西多哥”归属问题上曾存在争议,长期不睦。1994年加总统罗林斯当选西非国家经济共同体主席后,两国关系趋缓。2001年,多总统埃亚德马参加库福尔总统就职仪式,库上台后即对多正式访问,两国关系得到较大改善。2004年,库福尔总统对多哥进行工作访问。2005年2月,多总统埃亚德马病故后,多国内出现政治危机,库福尔总统积极参与斡旋。同年5月,多新总统福雷访加。2007年多总统福雷访加。2012年,米尔斯总统访多。2014年11月,多总统福雷访加。2015年4月,马哈马总统访多。2017-2018年,阿库福-阿多总统多次访多,协调斡旋多宪政危机,督促多朝野展开对话。

加与科特迪瓦关系曾长期处于“冰冻状态”。1997年3月,科总统贝迪埃率团出席加40周年独立庆典,两国关系迅速升温。2001年,科总统巴博与库福尔总统实现互访。2009年1月,科总统巴博出席米尔斯总统就职仪式。科特迪瓦出现选举危机后,加纳明确反对西共体对科进行军事干预。2011年,科总统瓦塔拉访加,与加政府、联合国难民署共同签署了关于遣返在加1.8万名科籍难民的三方协议。2012年,马哈马总统访科。2014年1月,马哈马赴科特迪瓦出席日本-西共体成员国首脑会议。9月,阿瑟副总统在阿克拉会见瓦塔拉总统。2016年3月,马哈马总统访科。2017年5月,阿库福-阿多总统访科。加纳与科特迪瓦曾长期存在海洋划界争议。2009年,科特迪瓦向联合国大陆架界限委员会递交划界申请,将两国争议的海域划为己有,引起加方强烈不满,两国关系由此受到影响。后在联合国等机构调解下,双边关系有所缓和。2014年底,两国将上述争端提交国际海洋法法庭。2017年9月,该法庭作出裁决,划定了两国海洋边界,双方均表示接受裁决结果。

【同其他国家的关系】 2011年10月,古巴国务委员会副主席赫南德兹访加,分别会见米尔斯总统、马哈马副总统。7月,米尔斯总统访问伊朗。11月,米尔斯总统访问加拿大。2013年3月,黎巴嫩总统苏莱曼访加。4月,伊朗总统内贾德访加。2014年11月,阿瑟副总统访问印度。12月,马哈马总统分别访问卡塔尔和肯尼亚。2015年2月,赤道几内亚总统、刚果(布)总统访加。3月,马哈马总统访问博茨瓦纳。10月,马哈马总统赴印度出席第三届印非峰会。11月,马哈马总统出席布基纳法索总统卡博雷就职典礼。2016年2月,马哈马总统访问伊朗,意大利总理访加。3月,土耳其总统访加。4月,阿瑟副总统出席尼日尔、贝宁总统就职典礼,埃塞俄比亚总理访加。5月,特立尼达和多巴哥总理访加。6月,印度总统访加。2017年5月,阿库福-阿多总统访问布基纳法索、塞内加尔、几内亚、佛得角、塞拉利昂、利比里亚、马里。2018年3月,阿库福-阿多总统赴印度出席国际太阳能峰会。4月,利比里亚总统维阿访加。5月,几内亚比绍总理戈梅斯、几内亚总统孔戴先后访加。2019年1月,阿库福-阿多总统赴马达加斯加出席拉乔利那总统就职典礼。

[Relationship with Nigeria] Close relationship with Nigeria. The two countries actively promoted the process of economic integration in West Africa and reached an agreement on accelerating regional integration in a “fast track” manner. The two countries coordinate with each other on issues such as mediating regional conflicts and reform of the UN Security Council. In 2010, Ghanaian President Mills attended the 37th ECOWAS 37 Summit in Nigeria and met with Neddy President Jonathan. In 2010, President Mills went to Nigeria to mourn the late President Yar’Adua. In 2010, President Mills visited Nigeria and held talks with President Jonathan. In 2011, Nigerian President Jonathan visited Canada. Since 2012, President Mahama has visited Nepal many times. In 2013, President Jonathan attended the inauguration of President Mahama. In September 2015, Nepalese President Bukhari visited Canada. In December 2016, President Mahama went to Nigeria to discuss with the leaders of West African countries the Gambian election crisis solution. In March 2018, Nepali President Bukhari visited Canada and attended the celebration of the 61st anniversary of Ghana’s independence.

[Relationship with neighboring countries] We attach importance to good-neighborly friendship and maintain good cooperative relations with neighboring countries.

There has been controversy over Togo’s affiliation with “Sidogo” and it has been long-standing. After President Ralins was elected president of the Economic Community of West African States in 1994, relations between the two countries slowed down. In 2001, many President Eyadema attended the inauguration ceremony of President Kufuor. After the library came to power, he officially visited the country and the relationship between the two countries was greatly improved. In 2004, President Kufuor paid a working visit to Togo. In February 2005, after the death of President Eyadema, many domestic political crises occurred and President Kufuor actively participated in the mediation. In May of the same year, many new Presidents Foley visited Canada. In 2007, President Foley visited Canada. In 2012, President Mills visited more. In November 2014, President Foley visited Canada. In April 2015, President Mahama visited more. From 2017 to 2018, President Akufu-Addo has visited many times, coordinated the mediation crisis and urged many ruling parties to start a dialogue.

The relationship with Côte d’Ivoire has long been in a “freezing state”. In March 1997, President Bédière led a delegation to attend the 40th anniversary of the independence celebration. The relationship between the two countries quickly warmed up. In 2001, President Gbagbo and President Kufuor exchanged visits. In January 2009, President Gbagbo attended the inauguration ceremony of President Mills. After the election crisis in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana explicitly opposed the Western Community’s military intervention in the branch. In 2011, President Vatara visited Canada and signed a tripartite agreement with the Canadian government and UNHCR on the repatriation of 18,000 Canadian refugees. In 2012, President Mahama visited the branch. In January 2014, the Mahama went to Côte d’Ivoire to attend the summit of the Japan-ECOWAS member states. In September, Vice President Arthur met with President Ouattara in Accra. In March 2016, President Mahama visited the branch. In May 2017, President Akufo-Addo visited the branch. There has been a long-standing maritime delimitation dispute between Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. In 2009, Côte d’Ivoire submitted a demarcation application to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, and classified the disputed waters of the two countries as their own, causing strong dissatisfaction with the Canadian side and the relationship between the two countries was affected. Later, under the mediation of the United Nations and other agencies, bilateral relations have eased. At the end of 2014, the two countries submitted the above dispute to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. In September 2017, the court ruled that the maritime boundary between the two countries was demarcated and both parties accepted the verdict.

[Relationship with other countries] In October 2011, Vice Chairman of the State Council of Cuba, Hernandez, visited Canada and met with President Mills and Vice President Mahama respectively. In July, President Mills visited Iran. In November, President Mills visited Canada. In March 2013, Lebanese President Suleiman visited Canada. In April, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad visited Canada. In November 2014, Vice President Arthur visited India. In December, President Mahama visited Qatar and Kenya respectively. In February 2015, President Equatorial Guinea and President of the Congo (Brazza) visited Canada. In March, President Mahama visited Botswana. In October, President Mahama went to India to attend the third India-Africa summit. In November, President Mahama attended the inauguration of President Kabore of Burkina Faso. In February 2016, President Mahama visited Iran and the Italian Prime Minister visited Canada. In March, the Turkish President visited Canada. In April, Vice President Arthur attended the inauguration ceremony of the President of Niger and Benin, and the Ethiopian Prime Minister visited Canada. In May, the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago visited Canada. In June, the Indian President visited Canada. In May 2017, President Akufo-Addo visited Burkina Faso, Senegal, Guinea, Cape Verde, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Mali. In March 2018, President Akufu-Addo went to India to attend the International Solar Summit. In April, Liberia’s President Vija visited Canada. In May, Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau Gomes and Guinean President Conte visited Canada. In January 2019, President Akufo-Addo went to Madagascar to attend the inauguration of President La Jolina.