The Republic of Fiji 斐济共和国

【国 名】 斐济共和国(The Republic of Fiji)。

【面 积】 陆地面积18333平方公里,海洋专属经济区面积129万平方公里。

【人 口】 88.5万(2017年)。官方语言为英语、斐济语和印地语,通用英语。

【首 都】 苏瓦(Suva)。

【国家元首】 乔治﹒孔罗特(Jioji Konrote),2015年11月就任,2018年9月连任。

【重要节日】 独立日:10月10日

【简 况】 位于西南太平洋中心,由332个岛屿组成,其中106个有人居住。多为珊瑚礁环绕的火山岛,主要有维提岛和瓦努阿岛等。属热带海洋性气候,常受飓风袭击。年平均气温22~30℃。

斐济人世居岛上。1643年荷兰航海者塔斯曼首先来到斐济。19世纪上半叶欧洲人开始移入。1874年沦为英国殖民地。1879~1916年,大批印度人作为英国“殖民制糖公司”的合同工到此种植甘蔗。1970年10月10日独立,并成为英联邦成员。1987年政变后改称共和国。1990年通过新宪法确立国名为“斐济主权民主共和国”。1997年7月,通过宪法修正案,改国名为“斐济群岛共和国”。 2009年改国名为“斐济共和国”。

【政 治】 2006年12月5日,军队司令乔萨亚·沃伦盖·姆拜尼马拉马(Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama)宣布接管国家行政权力,并解散政府和议会。2007年1月,斐成立临时政府,姆拜尼马拉马任临时政府总理。2014年9月17日,斐济举行大选,姆拜尼马拉马领导的斐济优先党获胜,姆当选总理。2018年11月14日,斐济举行新一届大选,姆拜尼马拉马领导斐济优先党再次获胜,姆连任总理。

【宪 法】 1990年7月25日实行新宪法。1997年7月,斐通过1990年宪法修正案,修改了有关歧视印族政治权利的条款,并于1998年7月正式实施。1999年5月,斐首次根据1997年宪法举行全国大选。2000年政变期间,1997年宪法被废除。2001年斐上诉法院判决该宪法仍有效,并得到大酋长委员会、伊洛伊洛总统等承认。2009年4月,伊洛伊洛总统宣布废除宪法。 2013年9月6日,斐新宪法经奈拉蒂考总统签署并颁布生效。

【议 会】 根据2013年宪法,斐议会为一院制,共设51个议席。本届议会于2018年11月选举产生。吉科·卢维尼(Jiko Luveni)议长2018年12月因病逝世。副议长维娜·库马尔·巴特纳格尔。

【政 府】 内阁制,由议会多数党组阁。本届政府于2018年11月宣誓就职。内阁现有21名成员:总理兼土著事务、糖业、外交部长姆拜尼马拉马;总检察长兼经济、公共企业、公共服务和通讯部长艾亚兹·赛义德-海尤姆(Aiyaz Sayed-Khaiyum);工业、贸易、旅游、地方政府、住房和社区发展部长普瑞米拉·库马尔(Premila Kumar);农业、乡村和海洋发展、水利和环境部长马亨德拉·雷迪(Mahendra Reddy);国防和国家安全部长伊尼亚·塞鲁伊拉图(Inia Seruiratu);教育、遗产和文化部长罗茜·索菲娅·阿克巴尔(Rosy Sofia Akbar);就业、生产力和产业关系、青年和体育部长帕尔文·库马尔(Parveen Kumar);渔业部长塞米·科罗伊拉维萨乌(Semi Koroilavesau);林业部长奥塞亚·纳因加穆(Osea Naiqamu);卫生和医疗服务部长伊费雷伊米·瓦卡伊纳贝特(Ifereimi Waqainabete);基础设施和交通、灾害治理和气象服务部长乔恩·乌萨马特(Jone Usamate);土地和矿产资源部长阿什尼尔·苏达卡尔(Ashneel Sudhakar);妇女、儿童和减贫事务部长梅雷塞伊妮·武尼万加(Mereseini Vuniwaqa);糖业助理部长乔治·维格纳坦(George Vegnathan);地方政府、住房和社区发展助理部长维贾伊·纳特(Vijay Nath);农业、乡村和海洋发展、灾害治理和气象服务、水利和环境助理部长贾莱·西加拉拉(Jale Sigarara)、维亚姆·皮雷(Viam Pillay);教育、遗产和艺术助理部长约瑟夫·南德(Joseph Nand);就业、生产力和产业关系、青年和体育助理部长阿尔维克·马哈拉杰(Alvick Maharaj);卫生和医疗事务助理部长亚历山大·奥康纳(Alexander O’Conor);妇女、儿童和减贫事务助理部长维娜·库马尔·巴特纳格尔(Veena Kumar Bhatnagar)。

[Country name] The Republic of Fiji.

[Dimensions] The land area is 18,333 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of ​​1.29 million square kilometers.

[People] 885,000 (2017). The official languages ​​are English, Fijian and Hindi, and General English.

[Capital] Suva.

[Head of State] George. Jioji Konrote, who took office in November 2015 and re-elected in September 2018.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: October 10

[Profile] Located in the center of the Southwest Pacific Ocean, it consists of 332 islands, of which 106 are inhabited. Mostly volcanic islands surrounded by coral reefs, mainly Viti and Vanuah. It is a tropical maritime climate and is often hit by hurricanes. The annual average temperature is 22 to 30 °C.

Fijians live on the island. In 1643 the Dutch voyage Tasman first came to Fiji. Europeans began to move in the first half of the 19th century. In 1874 it became a British colony. From 1879 to 1916, a large number of Indians, as contract workers of the British “colonial sugar company”, planted sugar cane. Independence on October 10, 1970, and became a member of the Commonwealth. After the coup in 1987, it was renamed the Republic. In 1990, the country was named “Fiji Sovereign Democratic Republic” through the new constitution. In July 1997, through the amendment of the Constitution, the name of the country was changed to “Republic of the Fiji Islands”. In 2009, the name of the country was changed to “Republic of Fiji”.

[Politics] On December 5, 2006, the army commander, Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama, announced the takeover of state administrative power and the dissolution of the government and parliament. In January 2007, Fiji established the interim government and Mbani Marama served as the interim prime minister. On September 17, 2014, Fiji held a general election. The Fiji Priority Party led by Mbani Marama won the election and Ms. Dang was elected Prime Minister. On November 14, 2018, Fiji held a new general election, and Mbani Marama led the Fiji Priority Party to win again and was re-elected as Prime Minister.

[Constitution] The new constitution was implemented on July 25, 1990. In July 1997, Fiji amended the provisions on discrimination against Indian political rights through the 1990 Constitutional Amendment, which was officially implemented in July 1998. In May 1999, Fiji held the national election for the first time in accordance with the 1997 Constitution. During the coup in 2000, the 1997 Constitution was abolished. In 2001, the Filipino Court of Appeal ruled that the constitution was still valid and was recognized by the Grand Chiefs Committee and President Iloilo. In April 2009, President Iloilo announced the abolition of the Constitution. On September 6, 2013, the new Filipino Constitution was signed and promulgated by President Narayic.

[Parliament] According to the 2013 Constitution, the Filipino Parliament is a one-chamber system with a total of 51 seats. The current parliament was elected in November 2018. Jiko Luveni, the Speaker of the House, died of illness in December 2018. Vice-President Vena Kumar Batnagar.

[Government] The cabinet system is formed by the majority party of the parliament. The current government was sworn in in November 2018. The Cabinet currently has 21 members: Prime Minister and Minister of Aboriginal Affairs, Sugar, and Foreign Affairs Mbani Marama; Attorney General and Minister of Economy, Public Enterprise, Public Service and Communications Ayaz Saeed-Hayum ( Aiyaz Sayed-Khaiyum); Premila Kumar, Minister of Industry, Trade, Tourism, Local Government, Housing and Community Development; Mahendra, Minister of Agriculture, Rural and Marine Development, Water and Environment Reddy); Minister of Defence and National Security, Inia Seruiratu; Minister of Education, Heritage and Culture, Rosy Sofia Akbar; Employment, Productivity and Industrial Relations, Youth And Sports Minister Parveen Kumar; Fisheries Minister Semi Koroilavesau; Forestry Minister Osea Naiqamu; Health and Medical Services Minister Ifereimi Waqainabete; Jone Usamate, Minister of Infrastructure and Transport, Disaster Management and Meteorological Services; And Minister of Mineral Resources, Ashneel Sudhakar; Minister of Women, Children and Poverty Reduction, Mereseini Vuniwaqa; Assistant Secretary of the Sugar Industry, George Wagner (George Vegnathan); Assistant Minister for Local Government, Housing and Community Development Vijay Nath; Assistant Minister of Agriculture, Rural and Marine Development, Disaster Management and Meteorological Services, Water and Environment, Jale West Galala (Jale Sigarara), Viam Pillay; Assistant Minister of Education, Heritage and Art Joseph Nand; Assistant Minister for Employment, Productivity and Industrial Relations, Youth and Sports, Alvik Maha Alvick Maharaj; Assistant Minister of Health and Medical Affairs Alexander O’Conor; Assistant Minister for Women, Children and Poverty Reduction, Veena Kumar Bhatnagar.

【行政区划】 全国共有2个直辖市、4大行政区和14个省。苏瓦和劳托卡为直辖市。

【司法机构】 设最高法院、上诉法院、高等法院和地方法院。最高法院由首席大法官和不超过7名法官组成。首席大法官为安东尼·盖茨(Anthony Gates)。

【政 党】 经登记注册的合法政党共8个,分别为:斐济优先党、社会民主自由党、斐济工党、民族联盟党、人民民主党、统一斐济党、自由联盟、希望党。主要政党的基本情况如下:

(1)斐济优先党(Fiji First Party):执政党。2014年6月成立。党领袖为现总理姆拜尼马拉马。该党主张族裔平等,重视发展经济、改善民生,提出“要为全体斐济人建设一个更好的斐济”,主要支持者包括广大印族民众、斐族基层民众以及商界名流、知识分子和青年人等。

(2)社会民主自由党(Social Democratic Liberal Party, SODELPA): 反对党。前身为前总理莱塞尼亚·恩加拉塞(Laisenia Qarase)于2001年5月成立的团结斐济党(United Fiji Party,斐济语缩写为SDL),2013年5月根据新政党法令重组并改用现名,党领袖为西蒂维尼·兰布卡(Sitiveni Rabuka)。该党主张在促进民族和解的同时更多地照顾斐济族和罗图马族的利益,主要支持者包括传统斐族酋长和部分斐族基层民众。

(3)民族联盟党(National Federation Party):反对党。1964年成立,最早称“联盟党”,与其他政党合并后改用现名,曾参与斐争取独立的努力,是目前斐成立时间最早的政党。2013年5月根据新政党法令重新登记。党领袖为比曼·普拉萨德(Biman Prasad)。该党是印族裔蔗农为争取权益而组建的首个印族人政党,主要依靠印族民众支持。

(4)斐济工党(Fiji Labour Party):1985年7月成立,2013年5月根据新政党法令重新登记。党领袖为马亨德拉·乔杜里(Mahendra Chaudhry)。该党是在各大工会支持下以印族为主体的政党,主要代表中下层印族人利益,在印族蔗农、工会成员和部分知识分子中有一定影响力。

(5)人民民主党(People’s Democratic Party):2013年5月成立。2013年1月在斐济工会大会的倡议下组建,主要代表工人和工会利益。

【重要人物】

乔治﹒孔罗特:总统。1947年12月生。罗图马族,1966年起在斐军队任职,曾赴澳大利亚、新西兰军校受训,历任斐军参谋长、少将。曾三次赴中东执行联合国维和任务,因表现出色,被任命为联合国驻黎巴嫩临时部队司令官和负责黎巴嫩事务的联合国秘书长助理。2000年,孔解甲从政,先后任斐内政部常秘、斐驻澳大利亚、新加坡高专。2006年以独立议员身份当选议员,并任移民与退伍军人事务部国务部长。2006年斐政变后,孔重返家乡罗图马岛任当地政府顾问。2014年,孔加入斐济总理姆拜尼马拉马创建的斐济优先党并成功当选议员,出任就业、生产力及产业关系部长。2015年10月,当选斐济第5任总统。2018年9月连任。

乔萨亚·沃伦盖·姆拜尼马拉马:总理,斐济优先党领袖。1954年4月27日生于斐济。曾在澳大利亚、智利、美国和新西兰等国接受军事培训。1975至1983年在海军任职,先后被授予少尉、中尉和中校军衔。1983至1984年,任多艘斐海军舰只指挥官,并指挥海军完成了标识汤加、图瓦卢和基里巴斯三国专属经济区工作。1986至1988年,任海军少校,并赴西奈执行多国军事观察员任务。1988至1997年先后任斐海军指挥官、海军司令和上校。1997至2006年先后任斐军参谋长和司令。2007年1月任临时政府总理。2014年9月,率领斐济优先党在大选中获胜并就任总理。2018年11月连任。

[Administrative Division] There are 2 municipalities, 4 administrative regions and 14 provinces in the country. Suva and Lautoka are municipalities.

[Judiciary] Set up the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the High Court and the District Court. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice and no more than seven judges. The Chief Justice is Anthony Gates.

[Political Party] There are 8 legal parties registered, namely: Fiji Priority Party, Social Democratic Liberal Party, Fiji Labor Party, National Alliance Party, People’s Democratic Party, Unified Fiji Party, Free Alliance, Hope Party. The basic situation of the main political parties is as follows:

(1) Fiji First Party: The ruling party. Established in June 2014. The party leader is the current Prime Minister Mbani Marama. The party advocates ethnic equality, attaches importance to economic development, improves people’s livelihood, and proposes “to build a better Fiji for all Fijians.” The main supporters include the majority of the Indian people, the Filipino grassroots, and business celebrities, intellectuals, and youth. People wait.

(2) Social Democratic Liberal Party (SODELPA): Opposition party. Formerly known as the former Fiji Party (Fiji abbreviation SDL), which was established in May 2001 by former Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase, reorganized and changed in May 2013 under the New Political Party Act. The current name is the party leader Sitiveni Rabuka. The party advocates more interest in the interests of the Fijians and Rotumas while promoting national reconciliation. The main supporters include the traditional Fijian chiefs and some Filipino grassroots.

(3) National Federation Party: Opposition party. Founded in 1964, it was first called the “Alliance Party”. It was merged with other political parties and changed to the current name. It was involved in Fiji’s efforts to fight for independence. It is the party with the earliest time of Fiji’s establishment. In May 2013, it was re-registered under the New Political Party Act. The party leader is Biman Prasad. The party is the first Indian political party formed by the Indian sugarcane farmers to fight for their rights and interests, mainly relying on the support of the Indian people.

(4) Fiji Labour Party: Established in July 1985 and re-registered in May 2013 under the New Political Party Act. The party leader is Mahendra Chaudhry. The party is a political party with the support of the Indians under the support of major trade unions. It mainly represents the interests of the lower-middle Indians and has a certain influence among the Indian sugarcane farmers, trade union members and some intellectuals.

(5) People’s Democratic Party: Established in May 2013. Formed in January 2013 at the initiative of the Fiji Trade Union Congress, it mainly represents the interests of workers and trade unions.

【VIP】

George. Conroth: President. Born in December 1947. The Rotuma has served in the Fijian Army since 1966. He has been trained at the Australian and New Zealand Military Academy and has served as the Chief of Staff and Major General of the Philippines. After three days of going to the Middle East to carry out UN peacekeeping missions, he was appointed as the commander of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon and the assistant to the UN Secretary-General for Lebanon. In 2000, Kong Jiejia was in politics, and he served as the permanent secretary of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Philippines, Fiji in Australia and Singapore. In 2006, he was elected as an independent member of parliament and served as the Minister of State for Immigration and Veterans Affairs. After the Fiji coup in 2006, Kong returned to his hometown of Rotuma as a local government consultant. In 2014, Kong joined the Fiji Priority Party created by Fiji Prime Minister Mbani Marama and was elected as a member of the Minister of Employment, Productivity and Industrial Relations. In October 2015, he was elected the fifth president of Fiji. Re-elected in September 2018.

Joshua Warrenge Mbani Marama: Prime Minister, Fiji Prime Minister Leader. Born in Fiji on April 27, 1954. He has received military training in countries such as Australia, Chile, the United States and New Zealand. He served in the Navy from 1975 to 1983 and was awarded the ranks of Lieutenant, Lieutenant and Lieutenant Colonel. From 1983 to 1984, he served as commander of several Fijian naval ships and commanded the Navy to complete the work of identifying the exclusive economic zones of Tonga, Tuvalu and Kiribati. From 1986 to 1988, he served as a major in the Navy and went to Sinai to perform the task of a multinational military observer. From 1988 to 1997, he served as Commander of the Navy, Commander of the Navy, and Colonel. From 1997 to 2006, he served as chief of staff and commander of the Philippine Army. In January 2007, he served as Prime Minister of the Interim Government. In September 2014, the Fiji Priority Party was elected to win the election and became Prime Minister. Re-elected in November 2018.

【经 济】 斐济是太平洋岛国中经济实力较强、经济发展较好的国家。渔业、森林资源丰富,有金、银、铜、铝土等矿藏。制糖业、旅游业是国民经济支柱。斐重视发展民族经济,强调发展私营企业,建立宽松的政策环境,促进投资和出口,逐步把斐经济发展成“高增长、低税收、富有活力”的外向型经济。近年来,由于国际市场价格下跌和国内产业结构调整等原因,制糖业面临困境。旅游业近年来稳步发展,2017年赴斐游客人数达84.3万人,创历史新高。同时,斐政府正大力推进公路、港口、电力等基础设施建设。斐已连续8年保持经济增长。

主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值(2017年):约50亿美元。

人均国内生产总值(2017年):5761美元。

国内生产总值增长率(2017年):4.2%

货币名称:斐济元(Fiji Dollar)。

汇率:1美元≈2.09斐元(2018年12月)。

【资 源】 森林覆盖面积93.5万公顷,约占全国土地面积的一半,有开采价值的约25万公顷,出产优质硬木和松木。有2个金矿,还有铜、银、铝土、石油等资源。渔业资源丰富,盛产金枪鱼。

【工 业】 以榨糖为主,其次是黄金开采、渔产品加工、木材和椰子加工。

【农 业】 可耕地面积约28.8万公顷,主要产甘蔗、椰子、香蕉等。小麦全靠进口,大米能自给20%。近年来斐政府努力发展多种经营,推广水稻种植。

【旅游业】 旅游业较发达,旅游收入是斐最大的外汇收入来源。2017年旅游业收入18亿斐元。全国约有4万人在旅游部门工作,占就业人数的15%。游客主要来自澳大利亚、新西兰、美国、中国、英国、欧洲大陆、日本等国。

【交通运输】 斐济为太平洋岛国地区交通枢纽,水、陆、空交通较发达。首都苏瓦港系重要国际海港,可泊万吨轮。苏瓦的瑙索里机场可停靠波音737飞机,楠迪机场可起降波音747等大型客机。

空运:斐济航空公司(原太平洋航空公司)系国际航空公司,经营澳、新、美、瓦努阿图、萨摩亚、汤加、所罗门群岛和香港等航线。澳、新、瑙鲁等国航空公司有定期班机停降楠迪国际机场。瑙索里机场主要是国内民航机场。斐济航空公司、向日葵航空公司主要经营国内岛屿间航线。

【对外贸易】 长期贸易逆差。主要出口目的地为美国、澳大利亚和新西兰,主要进口来源国为澳大利亚、新加坡、新西兰、中国等,主要进口燃料、运输设备、化工产品、食品等,出口蔗糖、鱼类、黄金、木材和矿泉水等。

【外国资本】 外资在斐济国民经济中占有重要地位。斐国内市场商业网点主要控制在两家澳跨国公司手中。银行、保险、海运、电信、汽油供应等亦为外资所控制。

【外国援助】 外援主要来自澳、日、新、英、法、欧盟、中国及联合国开发计划署。

[Economy] Fiji is a country with strong economic strength and good economic development among Pacific island countries. Fisheries and forest resources are abundant, and there are gold, silver, copper and bauxite deposits. The sugar industry and tourism are the pillars of the national economy. Fiji attaches great importance to the development of the national economy, emphasizes the development of private enterprises, establishes a relaxed policy environment, promotes investment and exports, and gradually develops the Fijian economy into an export-oriented economy of “high growth, low taxes, and vitality”. In recent years, due to the decline in international market prices and the adjustment of domestic industrial structure, the sugar industry is facing difficulties. Tourism has developed steadily in recent years. In 2017, the number of visitors to Fiji reached 843,000, a record high. At the same time, the Fiji government is vigorously promoting the construction of infrastructure such as roads, ports and electricity. Fiji has maintained economic growth for eight consecutive years.

The main economic data are as follows:

Gross domestic product (2017): about $5 billion.

Per capita GDP (2017): $5,761.

GDP growth rate (2017): 4.2%

Currency name: Fiji Dollar.

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 2.09 Fibonese dollars (December 2018).

[Resources] The forest covers an area of ​​935,000 hectares, accounting for about half of the country’s land area. It has a mining value of about 250,000 hectares and produces high quality hardwood and pine. There are 2 gold mines, as well as copper, silver, bauxite, oil and other resources. Rich in fishery resources, rich in tuna.

[Industrial] Sugar is the mainstay, followed by gold mining, fishery processing, wood and coconut processing.

[Agriculture] The area of ​​arable land is about 288,000 hectares, mainly producing sugar cane, coconut and banana. Wheat is imported, and rice can be self-sufficient 20%. In recent years, the Fijian government has worked hard to develop diversified operations and promote rice cultivation.

[Tourism] Tourism is more developed, and tourism income is the largest source of foreign exchange income. In 2017, the tourism industry earned 1.8 billion Fiji. About 40,000 people work in the tourism sector, accounting for 15% of employment. Tourists mainly come from Australia, New Zealand, the United States, China, the United Kingdom, continental Europe, Japan and other countries.

[Transportation] Fiji is a transportation hub in the Pacific island countries, with relatively developed water, land and air transportation. The capital city of Suva is an important international seaport with a capacity of 10,000 tons. Suva’s Nasori Airport can dock Boeing 737 aircraft, and Nadi Airport can take off and take large passenger aircraft such as Boeing 747.

Air Freight: Fiji Airlines (formerly Pacific Airways) is an international airline that operates routes in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Vanuatu, Samoa, Tonga, Solomon Islands and Hong Kong. Airlines such as Australia, New Zealand and Nauru have regular flights to stop at Nadi International Airport. Nausori Airport is mainly a domestic civil aviation airport. Fiji Airlines and Sunflower Airlines operate mainly domestic inter-island routes.

[foreign trade] Long-term trade deficit. The main export destinations are the United States, Australia and New Zealand. The main import countries are Australia, Singapore, New Zealand, China, etc., mainly importing fuel, transportation equipment, chemical products, food, etc., exporting sugar, fish, gold, wood and mineral water. Wait.

[Foreign Capital] Foreign capital plays an important role in Fiji’s national economy. Fiji’s domestic market business outlets are mainly controlled by two Australian multinational companies. Banks, insurance, shipping, telecommunications, and gasoline supply are also controlled by foreign capital.

[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid mainly comes from Australia, Japan, New Zealand, Britain, France, the European Union, China and the United Nations Development Program.

【军 事】 斐济军队全称为“斐济共和国武装部队”(Republic of Fiji Military Forces, RFMF),定名于斐1990年宪法。总统兼任军队总司令,并根据内政部长的建议任命军队司令,军队司令要向总统和内政部长负责。现任军队司令维利阿米·瑙波托(Viliame Naupoto),2015年8月就任。

斐军设陆军和海军,由正规军和预备役组成,目前正规军3100人,预备役4000人。海军330人,装备有5艘各类舰艇和巡逻船。斐曾先后派遣士兵和警察参与中东、科索沃、东帝汶、巴新、伊拉克、苏丹等维和任务。

【教 育】 实行初中和小学阶段免费教育。学龄儿童入学率达98%以上。每年教育经费约占政府总预算支出的15%。南太平洋大学由南太地区各国合办,主校区位于首都苏瓦市。

【新闻出版】 主要报纸有:英文版《斐济时报》(Fiji Times),隶属于1869年成立的斐济时报公司;《每日邮报》(Daily Post),创刊于1974年;《斐济太阳报》(Fiji Sun),创刊于2000年。华文报有《斐济日报》和《斐济华声报》。2009年6月,斐新闻部正式发行官方报纸《新黎明报》(New Dawn),两周一期,旨在帮助斐民众了解政府政策以及经济、社会建设计划和项目。

主要杂志有《岛国商务》和《太平洋岛屿》月刊,在太平洋岛国地区发行。

斐济广播有限公司(Fiji Broadcasting Corporation Limited),成立于1985年,是斐全国性的广播网,由6个电台组成,通过斐济语、印地语和英语播出的电台各有两个。

斐济电视台(Fiji TV),由新西兰电视公司、斐济开发银行和私人股东于1993年底成立。2005年设立面向太平洋岛国地区的太平洋天空卫星电视节目服务部。

【对外关系】 斐济是太平洋岛国中外交较为活跃的国家,重视与澳大利亚、新西兰等西方发达国家的关系,同时保持与太平洋岛国的传统关系。近年来,斐积极发展同亚洲各国以及非洲和美洲国家的关系。已与130多个国家建交。是联合国、英联邦、世界贸易组织、太平洋岛国论坛太平洋共同体、美拉尼西亚先锋集团、非加太集团、77国集团成员,斐积极参与国际和地区事务,现为太平洋岛国论坛(PIF)秘书处所在地。2013年,斐济倡议成立太平洋岛国发展论坛(PIDF)。2016年6月,斐济常驻联合国代表汤姆森当选第71届联大主席。2016年11月,斐济当选《联合国气候变化框架公约》第23次缔约方大会主席国。

【同澳大利亚、新西兰的关系】 斐同澳、新有着传统的密切关系。澳、新是斐最重要的贸易伙伴和援助国。澳、新与斐互设高专署。根据《南太平洋区域贸易和经济合作协定》,除糖和服装等少数商品外,斐向澳、新出口单方面享受免税或无限制市场准入待遇。

2006年12月斐济政变后,澳、新宣布对斐实施制裁。2014年9月斐济大选后,澳大利亚、新西兰同斐济关系逐步改善。2014年10月和2016年2月,澳外长毕晓普访斐。2016年6月,新西兰总理约翰·基对斐济进行正式访问。2016年10月,斐济总理姆拜尼马拉马对新西兰进行正式访问,并访问澳大利亚。2017年,姆先后三次赴澳出席活动并两次会见澳总理特恩布尔。2018年9月,姆在出席第73届联合国大会活动期间会见新西兰总理阿德恩。

【同欧盟的关系】 欧盟和美国是斐原糖和农产品的主要出口市场和斐游客及投资的重要来源地。根据《洛美协定》和《科托努协定》,欧盟以3倍于国际市场的价格购买斐糖(2017年9月到期),每年斐糖的70%销往欧盟。斐在比利时和英国设有使馆,法国、英国、欧盟在斐设有使馆。

【同美国的关系】 1970年10月,美承认斐独立。斐美互设使馆。斐重视与美关系,认为美的援助对斐的市场准入和地区竞争具有重要意义,积极推动美、南太联合商务委员会开展活动。斐是美军在太平洋主要补给点之一。

【同日本的关系】 2000年8月,日在西方国家中率先承认斐政变后成立的临时政府。斐日互设使馆。 2015年5月和2018年5月,姆拜尼马拉马总理连续两次赴日出席第七届和第八届日本与太平洋岛国领导人会议。

【同印度的关系】 斐济很大一部分人口是印度裔,双方历史上联系紧密 ,印在斐独立后即与其建交。2014年11月,印度总理莫迪访斐。2015年8月,斐总理姆拜尼马拉马赴印度出席印度-太平洋岛国领导人会议。2018年3月,姆赴印度出席国际太阳能联盟会议并会见印度总理莫迪。

【同其他太平洋岛国的关系】 斐重视同太平洋其他岛国的传统关系,是太平洋岛国论坛创始会员国,斐与太平洋其他岛国领导人互访频繁。2006年斐政变后,太平洋岛国论坛中止斐参加论坛活动资格。2014年斐大选后,斐济恢复参加太平洋岛国论坛活动,但斐总理姆拜尼马拉马未出席论坛领导人会议。斐政府于2011年起转而在斐举办“接触太平洋”会议,并于2013年起改为举办太平洋岛国发展论坛峰会(PIDF),聚焦岛国经济建设和可持续发展问题。前三届太平洋岛国发展论坛在斐济举行。2016年7月,第四届太平洋岛国发展论坛在所罗门群岛举行。

[Military] The Fijian army is known as the “Republic of Fiji Military Forces” (RFMF) and is named after the 1990 Constitution. The President also serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and appoints the Commander of the Army on the advice of the Minister of the Interior. The Commander of the Army is responsible to the President and the Minister of the Interior. The current military commander, Viliame Naupoto, took office in August 2015.

The Fijian army consists of an army and a navy. It consists of a regular army and a reserve. Currently, there are 3,100 regular troops and 4,000 reservemen. The Navy is 330 people and is equipped with five types of ships and patrol boats. Fei has sent soldiers and police officers to participate in peacekeeping missions in the Middle East, Kosovo, East Timor, Papua New Guinea, Iraq, and Sudan.

[Education] Free education in junior high school and elementary school. The enrollment rate of school-age children is over 98%. Annual education funding accounts for about 15% of the government’s total budgetary expenditure. The University of the South Pacific is co-organized by the countries of the South Pacific region, and the main campus is located in the capital city of Suva.

[Press and Publication] The main newspapers are: the English version of the Fiji Times, belonging to the Fiji Times Company founded in 1869; the Daily Post, which was founded in 1974; The Fiji Sun (Fiji Sun), founded in 2000. The Chinese newspaper has the Fiji Daily and the Fiji Huasheng Newspaper. In June 2009, the Department of Public Information officially issued the official newspaper New Dawn, a two-week period designed to help the public understand government policies and economic and social development plans and projects.

The main magazines are “Island Business” and “Pacific Island” monthly magazine, which are distributed in the Pacific island countries.

Fiji Broadcasting Corporation Limited, established in 1985, is a national broadcast network of six radio stations, each with two radio stations broadcast in Fijian, Hindi and English.

Fiji TV was established by the New Zealand Television Corporation, the Fiji Development Bank and private shareholders at the end of 1993. In 2005, Pacific Sky Satellite TV Program Service was established for the Pacific Island countries.

[External Relations] Fiji is a country with more active diplomacy in the Pacific island countries, attaching importance to relations with Western developed countries such as Australia and New Zealand, while maintaining traditional relations with Pacific island countries. In recent years, Fiji has actively developed relations with Asian countries and African and American countries. Has established diplomatic relations with more than 130 countries. He is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the World Trade Organization, the Pacific Islands Forum Pacific Community, the Melanesian Pioneer Group, the ACP Group, and the Group of 77. Fiji is actively involved in international and regional affairs and is currently the Secretariat of the Pacific Islands Forum (PIF). location. In 2013, Fiji initiated the establishment of the Pacific Islands Development Forum (PIDF). In June 2016, the Permanent Representative of Fiji to the United Nations, Thomson, was elected as the chairman of the 71st UNGA. In November 2016, Fiji was elected as the President of the 23rd Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

[Relationship with Australia and New Zealand] Fiji has a close relationship with Australia and New Zealand. Australia and New Zealand are the most important trading partners and donor countries. Australia, New and Fiji have set up a high-tech office. According to the South Pacific Regional Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation, in addition to a few commodities such as sugar and clothing, Fiji enjoys unilateral tax-free or unrestricted market access to Australia and New Zealand.

After the Fiji coup in December 2006, Australia and New Zealand announced sanctions against Fiji. After the Fiji general election in September 2014, relations between Australia and New Zealand and Fiji gradually improved. In October 2014 and February 2016, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Fiji. In June 2016, New Zealand Prime Minister John Key paid an official visit to Fiji. In October 2016, Fijian Prime Minister Mbani Marama paid an official visit to New Zealand and visited Australia. In 2017, Mr. Mu went to Australia three times to attend the event and met with Australian Prime Minister Turnbull twice. In September 2018, Mum met with New Zealand Prime Minister Aden during the 73rd session of the UN General Assembly.

[Relationship with the EU] The EU and the United States are the main export markets for Fiji and agricultural products and an important source of tourists and investment for Fiji. According to the Lomé Agreement and the Cotonou Agreement, the EU buys fossils three times the price of the international market (expired in September 2017), and 70% of the annual Fiss is sold to the EU. Fiji has embassies in Belgium and the United Kingdom, and embassies in France, the United Kingdom and the European Union.

[Relationship with the United States] In October 1970, the United States recognized Fiji’s independence. The United States and the United States embassy. Fiji attaches importance to relations with the United States and believes that US aid is of great significance to Fiji’s market access and regional competition, and actively promotes the activities of the US and South Pacific Joint Business Committees. Fiji is one of the major supply points for the US military in the Pacific.

[Relationship with Japan] In August 2000, the Japanese government took the lead in recognizing the interim government established after the Fibonacci. Fiji has an embassy. In May 2015 and May 2018, Prime Minister Mbani Marama went to Japan twice to attend the 7th and 8th Japan and Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting.

[Relationship with India] A large part of Fiji’s population is of Indian descent. The two sides have a close relationship in history. They were established after the independence of Fiji. In November 2014, Indian Prime Minister Modi visited Fiji. In August 2015, Fiji Prime Minister Mbani Marama went to India to attend the India-Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting. In March 2018, he went to India to attend the International Solar Energy Alliance meeting and met with Indian Prime Minister Modi.

[Relationship with other Pacific island countries] Fiji attaches importance to traditional relations with other Pacific island countries and is a founding member of the Pacific Island Countries Forum. Fiji and other Pacific island leaders exchange frequent visits. After the Fiji coup in 2006, the Pacific Islands Forum suspended Fiji’s participation in the forum. After the 2014 FIFA election, Fiji resumed its participation in the Pacific Islands Forum, but Prime Minister Mbani Marama did not attend the Forum Leaders Meeting. The Fibonacci government has switched to the “Contact the Pacific” conference in Fiji since 2011, and since 2013 it has changed to the Pacific Islands Development Forum Summit (PIDF), focusing on the island’s economic construction and sustainable development issues. The first three Pacific Islands Development Forums were held in Fiji. In July 2016, the 4th Pacific Island Development Forum was held in Solomon Islands.