The Republic of Djibouti 吉布提共和国
【国 名】 吉布提共和国（The Republic of Djibouti, La République de Djibouti）。
【面 积】 2.32万平方公里。
【人 口】 94万。主要有伊萨族和阿法尔族。伊萨族占全国人口的50%，讲索马里语；阿法尔族约占40%，讲阿法尔语。另有少数阿拉伯人和欧洲人。官方语言为法语和阿拉伯语，主要民族语言为阿法尔语和索马里语。伊斯兰教为国教，94%的居民为穆斯林（逊尼派），其余为基督教徒。
【首 都】 吉布提市（Djibouti），人口约62万。热季（4-10月）平均气温31－41℃，凉季（11月至次年3月）平均气温23－29℃。
【国家元首】 总统伊斯梅尔·奥马尔·盖莱（Ismail Omar Guelleh），1999年4月就任，2005年4月、2011年4月和2016年4月三次蝉联总统。
【简 况】 地处非洲东北部亚丁湾西岸，扼红海进入印度洋的要冲曼德海峡，东南同索马里接壤，北与厄立特里亚为邻，西部、西南及南部与埃塞俄比亚毗连。陆地边界线长520公里，海岸线长372公里。沿海为平原和高原，主要属热带沙漠气候，终年炎热少雨。内地以高原和山地为主，属热带草原气候。全年分凉、热两季。4月至10月为热季,平均气温37℃，最高气温达45℃以上；11月至次年3月为凉季，平均气温27℃。
殖民者入侵之前，吉布提由豪萨、塔朱拉和奥博克三个苏丹王统治。法国1850年开始入侵，1888年占领吉全境，1896年法在吉成立“法属索马里”殖民政府。1946年，吉成为法国海外领地，1967 年改名为“法属阿法尔和伊萨领地”，法国政府给予其实际上的自治地位。1975年12月31日，法宣布同意吉布提独立。1977年6月27日吉宣告独立，定国名为吉布提共和国，哈桑·古莱德·阿普蒂敦（Hassan Gouled Aptidon）出任首任总统。
[Country name] The Republic of Djibouti, La République de Djibouti.
[area] 2.32 million square kilometers.
[People] 94 million. There are mainly Isa and Afar. The Isa people make up 50% of the country’s population and speak Somali; the Afar people make up about 40% and speak Afar. There are also a few Arabs and Europeans. The official languages are French and Arabic, and the main national languages are Afar and Somali. Islam is the state religion, 94% of the residents are Muslims (Sunni), and the rest are Christians.
[The capital] Djibouti, with a population of about 620,000. During the hot season (April-October), the average temperature is 31-41 °C, and the average temperature during the cool season (November to March) is 23-29 °C.
[Head of State] President Ismail Omar Guelleh, who took office in April 1999, reelected the President three times in April 2005, April 2011 and April 2016.
[Important Festival] Independence Day: June 27.
[Profile] Located on the west bank of the Gulf of Aden in northeastern Africa, the Red Sea enters the Indian Ocean and borders on the Mande Strait. It borders Somalia in the southeast, Eritrea in the north, and Ethiopia in the west, southwest and south. The land boundary line is 520 kilometers long and the coastline is 372 kilometers long. The coastal areas are plains and plateaus, mainly in the tropical desert climate, with hot and dry weather all year round. The mainland is dominated by plateaus and mountains, and it has a savanna climate. It is divided into cool and hot seasons throughout the year. The hot season is from April to October, with an average temperature of 37 °C and a maximum temperature of 45 °C or above; from November to March, it is a cool season with an average temperature of 27 °C.
Before the invasion of the colonists, Djibouti was ruled by the three Sultans of Hausa, Tajula and Obok. France began to invade in 1850, and occupied the entire territory of Kyrgyzstan in 1888. In 1896, the French government established the “French Somalia” colonial government. In 1946, Kyrgyzstan became the French overseas territory. In 1967, it was renamed as “French Afar and Isa Territory” and the French government gave it its actual autonomous status. On December 31, 1975, the law announced its agreement to Djibouti’s independence. On June 27, 1977, Kyrgyzstan declared independence, and the country was named Djibouti Republic, and Hassan Gouled Aptidon became the first president.
【政 治】 吉独立后，古莱德总统同一些政党组成联合政府。1979年古莱德取消多党制，成立争取进步人民联盟（简称人盟），于1981年确立一党制。此后人盟长期执政，政局保持稳定。1991年北方阿法尔族因不满伊萨族统治发动内战。1994年底政府与反对派武装签署和平协议，战乱基本平息。2001年实现全国和平。
【宪 法】 现行宪法于1992年9月4日经全民公决通过并颁布实施。2010年4月议会通过宪法修正案，取消了总统连任次数限制，规定总统由直选产生，参选年龄上限为75岁，每届任期五年；总统因故不能视事时，由总理代行职权；总统职位空缺时，暂时由最高法院院长代行国家元首职务，但不得对政府和任何国家机构进行调整，并在30－45天内选举产生新总统。宪法还规定废除死刑。政党必须非种族化、非民族化、非宗教化和非地区化。
【议 会】 国民议会是国家最高权力机构，享有立法权。议会每年举行两次年会，主要讨论立法问题和下一年度财政预算。议员共65名，由立法选举产生，任期五年。本届议会于2018年2月选举产生。“总统多数联盟”占据全部65个席位中的57席。议长为穆罕默德·阿里·胡迈德（Mohamed Ali Homed）,2015年3月当选，2018年3月连任。
[Politics] After Kyrgyz independence, President Gulaud formed a coalition government with some political parties. In 1979, Gulaid canceled the multi-party system, established the Alliance for Progressive People (referred to as the People’s League), and established a one-party system in 1981. Since then, the People’s League has been in power for a long time and the political situation has remained stable. In 1991, the northern Afar people launched a civil war for dissatisfaction with the Isaan rule. At the end of 1994, the government signed a peace agreement with the opposition armed forces, and the war basically subsided. National peace was achieved in 2001.
In 1992, Kyrgyzstan announced the implementation of a progressive multi-party system. In the first multi-party legislative elections that year, the League of Nations included all seats. In 1999, President Gulaud retired and Gaile was elected president. In September 2002, the multi-party system was fully implemented. In January 2003, the “Presidential Majority League” composed of four parties, including the League of Nations, won all seats in the legislative elections. In April 2005, Gaile won the presidential election and reelected the president. In February 2008, the “Presidential Majority Alliance” once again included all seats in the legislative elections. In April 2010, the People’s Alliance promoted the parliament to amend the constitution and lifted the restrictions that the president can only be re-elected once. In April 2011, Guelleh rejoined the president. In February 2013, Kyrgyzstan held a legislative election, and the “Presidential Majority Alliance” won 55 of the 65 seats. In April 2016, Guelleh reelected the President for the third time. In February 2018, Kyrgyzstan held a legislative election, and the “Presidential Majority League” won 57 of the 65 seats. At present, Kyrgyzstan is stable.
[Constitution] The current Constitution was adopted and promulgated by a referendum on September 4, 1992. In April 2010, the parliament passed a constitutional amendment, which removed the restrictions on the number of re-elections of the president. The president was elected by direct election. The upper limit of the election was 75 years old, and each term was five years. When the president could not see the matter for any reason, the prime minister would act on his behalf. When the presidential position is vacant, the head of the Supreme Court is temporarily acting as the head of state, but the government and any state agency may not be adjusted, and a new president is elected within 30-45 days. The Constitution also provides for the abolition of the death penalty. Political parties must be non-racial, denationalized, non-religious and non-localized.
[Parliament] The National Assembly is the highest authority of the state and enjoys legislative power. The Parliament meets twice a year and focuses on legislative issues and the next fiscal year. A total of 65 members are elected by legislation for a term of five years. The current parliament was elected in February 2018. The “Presidential Majority Alliance” occupies 57 of the total of 65 seats. The speaker is Mohamed Ali Homed, elected in March 2015 and re-elected in March 2018.
【政 府】 实行总统制，总统兼任政府首脑，并任命总理，总理负责协调各部工作。本届政府于2016年5月成立，主要成员有：总理阿卜杜勒-卡德尔·卡米勒·穆罕默德（Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed），司法、监狱和人权事务部长穆明·艾哈迈德·谢赫（Moumin Ahmed Cheikh），隶属总统府负责投资事务部长阿里·盖莱·阿卜杜贝克尔（Ali Guelleh Abdoubaker），外交与国际合作部长马哈茂德·阿里·优素福（Mahamoud Ali Youssouf），经济、财政与工业部长伊利亚斯·穆萨·达瓦莱（Ilyas Moussa Dawaleh），预算部长布德·艾哈迈德·罗布莱（Bodeh Ahmed Robleh），国防、负责与议会关系部长阿里·哈桑·巴赫敦（Ali Hassan Bahdon），内政和权力下放部长哈桑·奥马尔·穆罕默德·布莱罕（Hassan Omar Mohamed Bourhan），交通装备部长穆罕默德·阿卜杜勒卡德·穆萨·赫利姆（Mohamed Abdoulkader Moussa Helem），卫生部长贾马·埃勒米·奥基耶（Djama Elmi Okieh），国民教育与职业培训部长穆斯塔法·马哈迈德·马哈茂德（Moustapha Mahmed Mahamoud），高等教育与研究部长纳比勒·穆罕默德·艾哈迈德（Nabil Mohamed Ahmed），通讯、邮政与电信部长阿卜迪·优素福·苏盖（Abdi Youssouf Sougueh），农业、水务、渔业、畜牧与水产资源部长穆罕默德·艾哈迈德·阿瓦莱（Mohamed Ahmed Awaleh），穆斯林事务、文化与宗教公产部长穆明·哈桑·巴雷（Moumin Hassan Barreh），能源与自然资源部长尤尼斯·阿里·盖迪（Younis Ali Guedi），劳动与行政改革部长哈桑·伊德里斯·萨米雷（Hassan Idriss Samireh），住房、城市规划与环境部长穆萨·穆罕默德·艾哈迈德（Moussa Mouhamed Ahmed），妇女促进和计划生育部长穆米娜·胡迈德·哈桑（Moumina Houmed Hassan）女士，住房、城市规划与环境部部长级代表阿明娜·阿卜迪·亚丁（Amina Abdi Aden）女士，财政部负责贸易、中小企业、手工业、旅游业和规划的部长级代表哈桑·胡迈德·易卜拉欣（Hassan Houmed Ibrahim），内政和权力下放部部长级代表哈马杜·穆罕默德·阿拉米斯（Hamadou Mohamed Aramis），负责社会事务的国务秘书穆娜·奥斯曼·亚丁（Mouna Osman Aden）女士，负责青年事务与体育的国务秘书哈桑·穆罕默德·卡米勒（Hassan Mohamed Kamil）。
【行政区划】 全国共分1个市和5个地区：吉布提市 （Djibouti-ville）、塔朱拉地区（Région de Tadjourah）、奥博克地区（Région d’Obock）、阿里萨比赫地区（Région d’Ali-Sabieh）、迪基勒地区（Région de Dikhil）和阿尔塔地区（Région d’Arta）。
[Government] The presidential system is implemented. The president serves as the head of the government and appoints the prime minister. The prime minister is responsible for coordinating the work of the ministries. The current government was established in May 2016. The main members are: Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed, Minister of Justice, Prison and Human Rights Mu Ming Ahmed Thaksin Moumin Ahmed Cheikh, affiliated with the Minister of Investment Affairs of the Presidential Palace, Ali Guelleh Abdoubaker, and Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Mahamoud Ali Youssouf, Ilyas Moussa Dawaleh, Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry, Bodeh Ahmed Robleh, Budget Minister, Ali Ha, Minister of National Defense, Parliamentary Relations Ali Hassan Bahdon, Minister of Home Affairs and Decentralization, Hassan Omar Mohamed Bourhan, Minister of Transport and Equipment, Mohamed Abdulkad Musa Hurley Mohamed Abdoulkader Moussa Helem, Minister of Health Djama Elmi Okieh, Minister of National Education and Vocational Training Mustafa Moustapha Mahmed Mahamoud, Minister of Higher Education and Research Nabil Mohamed Ahmed, Minister of Communications, Post and Telecommunications Abdi Yusuf Sukai (Abdi Youssouf Sougueh), Minister of Agriculture, Water, Fisheries, Livestock and Aquatic Resources Mohamed Ahmed Awaleh, Minister of Muslim Affairs, Culture and Religious Commodities Muming Hassan Barre ( Moumin Hassan Barreh), Minister of Energy and Natural Resources, Younis Ali Guedi, Minister of Labor and Administrative Reform Hassan Idriss Samireh, Housing, Urban Planning and the Environment Minister Moussa Mouhamed Ahmed, Minister of Women’s Promotion and Family Planning, Ms. Moumina Houmed Hassan, Minister of Housing, Urban Planning and Environment Ms. Amina Abdi Aden, Minister of Finance, SMEs, Handicrafts, Tourism and Planning Level representative Hassan Houmed Ibrahim, Minister of Interior and Decentralization Minister Hamadou Mohamed Aramis, Secretary of State for Social Affairs Muna · Ms. Mouna Osman Aden, State Secretary for Youth Affairs and Sports Hassan Mohamed Kamil.
[Administrative Division] There are 1 city and 5 regions in the country: Djibouti-ville, Région de Tadjourah, Région d’Obock, and Région. D’Ali-Sabieh), Région de Dikhil and Région d’Arta.
[Judiciary] The separation of powers, the independence of the judiciary and the tenure of the judges. The highest judges meeting chaired by the President is responsible for supervising the work of the judges. The Judiciary is divided into four levels: the County Court, the First Court, the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court. As an Islamic country, Kyrgyzstan also has a personal law court (formerly known as the Islamic Court).
【政 党】 目前主要有九个合法政党：
（1）争取进步人民联盟（Rassemblement Populaire pour le Progrès－RPP）：执政联盟成员党，1979年3月4日成立。主要由原非洲人民争取独立联盟组成。自1981年10月政府取消反对党至1992年吉改行多党制，该党一直是吉唯一合法政党。2012年9月召开中央委员会特别会议，选举阿卜杜勒-卡德尔·卡米勒·穆罕默德任副主席，伊利亚斯·穆萨·达瓦莱任总书记。2014年3月召开第十一届全国代表大会，选举盖莱总统连任党主席。2015年12月召开全国代表大会特别会议，推选盖莱连任党主席。
（2）恢复团结和民主阵线（Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie-FRUD）： 执政联盟成员党，其前身是1991年8月由北方阿法尔族反政府武装建立的政党。1996年被承认为合法政党。1997年举行第一次全国代表大会，决定与执政党“争取进步人民联盟”结盟，通过和平方式捍卫党的宗旨。主席为阿里·穆罕默德·达乌德（Ali Mohamed Daoud），总书记为乌古尔· 基弗雷·艾哈迈德（Ougoureh Kifleh Ahmed）。
（3）全国民主党（Parti National Démocratique－PND）：执政联盟成员党，1992年10月成立，宗旨是维护国家统一和民族独立。主张建立真正的民主社会，实行自由选举、司法独立和新闻自由等；实行市场经济；反对种族主义和民族主义。主席为阿卜杜拉曼·穆罕默德·阿拉雷（ABDOURAHMAN MOHAMED ALLALEH）。
（4）社会民主党（Parti Social Démocrate－PSD）：执政党，2002年10月成立。目标是维护社会秩序，恢复经济，协调领导政策，规范工资和降低生活物价。主席为穆明·巴东·法拉赫（Moumin Bahdon Farah）。
（5）改革者联盟（Union des Partisans de la Réforme－UPR ），执政联盟成员党，2005年3月1日成立。积极参加“总统多数联盟”活动，2007年12月正式签署文件加入该联盟。主张实行和谐政策，建设符合时代发展要求的国家。主席是易卜拉欣·谢希姆·达乌德（Ibrahim Chechem Daoud）。
（6）争取发展共和同盟（Alliance Républicaine pour la Démocratie-ARD），反对党。原恢复团结与民主阵线分裂后，2002年10月6日成立，主席为迪尼（Dini）。2004年迪尼去世，艾哈迈德·尤素福·胡迈德（Ahmed Youssouf Houmed）接任主席。
（7）争取民主和正义联盟（Union pour la Démocratie et la Justice-UDJ），反对党。2002年10月13日成立，主席为伊斯梅尔·盖迪·哈立德（Ismael Guedi Harred）。
（8）吉布提发展党（Parti Djiboutien pour le Développement－PDD），反对党。2002年9月2日成立，主席穆罕默德·达乌德·谢希姆（Mohamed Daoud Chechem）。
（9）民主人士联合党（Centre des Démocrates unifiés）：反对党。2012年9月成立，主席为奥马尔•埃勒米•凯勒（Omar Elmi Khaireh）。
[Political Party] There are currently nine legal parties:
(1) Rassemblement Populaire pour le Progrès-RPP: The ruling coalition member party was established on March 4, 1979. It is mainly composed of the former African people’s struggle for independence. Since the government canceled the opposition party in October 1981 to the multi-party system of the Kyrgyz Republic in 1992, the party has been the only legitimate party in Kyrgyzstan. A special meeting of the Central Committee was held in September 2012 to elect Abdul Kader Camille Muhammad as Vice-Chairman and Ulysses Musa Davale as General Secretary. The 11th National Congress was held in March 2014 to elect President Gaale to serve as the party chairman. In December 2015, a special meeting of the National Congress was held to elect Geller to serve as the party chairman.
(2) Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie-FRUD: The ruling coalition member party, its predecessor was a political party established in August 1991 by the northern Afar anti-government armed forces. In 1996 it was recognized as a legitimate political party. In 1997, the first national congress was held, and it was decided to form an alliance with the ruling party “for the Progressive People’s Alliance” to defend the party’s purpose through peaceful means. The chairman is Ali Mohamed Daoud and the general secretary is Ougoureh Kifleh Ahmed.
(3) Parti National Démocratique (PND): A member of the ruling coalition party, established in October 1992, with the purpose of safeguarding national unity and national independence. It advocates the establishment of a truly democratic society, the implementation of free elections, judicial independence and freedom of the press; the implementation of a market economy; and the fight against racism and nationalism. The chairman is ABDOURAHMAN MOHAMED ALLALEH.
(4) Parti Social Démocrate-PSD: The ruling party, established in October 2002. The goal is to maintain social order, restore the economy, coordinate leadership policies, regulate wages and lower living prices. The chairman is Moumin Bahdon Farah.
(5) Union des Partisans de la Réforme-UPR, a member of the ruling coalition, was established on March 1, 2005. Actively participated in the “Presidential Majority Alliance” activities, and officially signed documents to join the alliance in December 2007. It advocates the implementation of a harmonious policy and the construction of a country that meets the requirements of the development of the times. The chairman is Ibrahim Chechem Daoud.
(6) The Alliance Républicaine pour la Démocratie-ARD, the opposition party. After the original restoration of unity and the democratic front split, it was established on October 6, 2002, and the chairman was Dini. In 2004 Dini died and Ahmed Youssouf Houmed took over as chairman.
(7) Union pour la Démocratie et la Justice-UDJ, opposition party. Founded on October 13, 2002, the chairman is Ismael Guedi Harred.
(8) Djibouti Development Party (Parti Djiboutien pour le Développement-PDD), opposition party. Founded on September 2, 2002, Chairman Mohamed Daoud Chechem.
(9) Centre des Démocrates unifiés: Opposition. Founded in September 2012, the chairman is Omar Elmi Khaireh.
[important person] Ismail Omar Guelleh: President. Born in Ethiopia on November 27, 1947, the Isa people believe in Islam. In 1977, Kyrgyzstan became the director of the Office of the President. In 1978, he served as the director of national security. In 1982, he served as a member of the Central Committee and a member of the Politburo. In March 1997, he was elected as the third vice chairman of the party. In early 1999, the ruling bipartisan coalition was officially nominated as a presidential candidate and was elected president in April. In March 2000, he was elected president of the League of People. In April 2005, April 2011 and April 2016, the president was elected three times.
Abdul Kader Camille Muhammad: Prime Minister. Born in 1951, he received a master’s degree in water science in France. Worked in the Djibouti Water Department. From 2005 to 2011, he served as Minister of Agriculture, Livestock, Marine and Water Resources. In 2011, he served as Secretary of Defense. He held his current position in March 2013 and was re-elected in May 2016.
【经 济】 吉是世界最不发达国家之一。自然资源贫乏，工农业基础薄弱，95%以上农产品和工业品依靠进口。交通运输、商业和服务业（主要是港口服务业）在经济中占主导地位，约占国内生产总值的80%。
上世纪90年代初，吉经济形势趋于恶化。1996 年，吉政府开始执行经济结构调整计划。1998年，埃塞俄比亚与厄立特里亚发生边界武装冲突后, 埃原经厄转运的货物均转道吉布提港，吉港口收入大幅增加，经济有所恢复。2001年，吉政府将吉港口和机场的经营管理权转让给迪拜环球港务公司。2018年2月22日，吉布提政府依据2017年9月颁布的《国家战略基础设施保护法》单方面强行终止迪拜环球港务公司对吉多哈雷集装箱港口的特许经营权。近年来，吉布提政府积极调整经济政策，争取外援外资，重点发展第三产业，并加紧实施基础设施建设，积极参与地区一体化进程，2013年，吉政府制定2035年远景规划，着力发展交通、物流、金融、电讯、旅游、渔业等行业。目前，经济保持低速增长。近年来财政赤字保持在3%以内。2018年吉主要经济数字如下：
【资 源】 资源贫乏，主要有盐、石灰岩、珍珠岩和地热资源。盐矿总储量约为20亿吨，主要分布在阿萨尔盐湖。石灰岩和石膏矿均属埋藏浅、储量大、易开发的优质矿；珍珠岩估算储量达4800万吨；内地四个区均发现含金构造。沿海地区已发现有含油构造。地热资源丰富，但因地下水含盐度太高，开发难度较大。
【工 业】 2015年第二产业总产值为3.34亿美元，约占国内生产总值的9.2%。主要工业为电力、水利、房屋及公共工程、盐矿开发等，另有一些建筑业以及矿泉水厂、可口可乐饮料厂、面粉厂、制瓶厂、奶品厂、制药厂、水泥厂、机械修配、船舶修理、炼油、制革、发电等小型工业。
[Economy] Kyrgyzstan is one of the least developed countries in the world. Natural resources are scarce, and the industrial and agricultural base is weak. More than 95% of agricultural products and industrial products depend on imports. Transportation, commerce and services (mainly port services) dominate the economy, accounting for about 80% of GDP.
In the early 1990s, the economic situation in Kyrgyzstan deteriorated. In 1996, the Kyrgyz government began to implement the economic restructuring plan. In 1998, after the border armed conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea, the goods transported by Eyre and Eyre were transferred to the port of Djibouti. The income of the port of Kyrgyzstan increased significantly and the economy recovered. In 2001, the Kyrgyz government transferred the management rights of Kyrgyzstan Port and Airport to Dubai Global Ports. On February 22, 2018, the Djibouti government unilaterally forcibly terminated the franchise of Dubai Global Ports Corporation for the Guido Halle container port in accordance with the National Strategic Infrastructure Protection Act promulgated in September 2017. In recent years, the Djibouti government has actively adjusted its economic policies, strived for foreign aid, focused on developing the tertiary industry, and stepped up the implementation of infrastructure construction and actively participated in the regional integration process. In 2013, the Kyrgyz government formulated the 2035 vision for the development of transportation and logistics. , finance, telecommunications, tourism, fisheries and other industries. At present, the economy maintains a low growth rate. The fiscal deficit has remained below 3% in recent years. The main economic figures for Kyrgyzstan in 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: US$ 1.935 billion;
Per capita GDP: US$2015;
Economic growth rate: 4.3%;
Currency name: Djibouti franc;
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 177.7 Djibouti francs;
Inflation rate: 0.2%;
Foreign exchange reserves: $499 million
(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, December 2018)
[Resources] Resources are scarce, mainly including salt, limestone, perlite and geothermal resources. The total reserves of salt mines are about 2 billion tons, mainly distributed in the salt lake of Assal. Both limestone and gypsum mines are high-quality mines with shallow burial, large reserves and easy development; the estimated reserves of perlite are 48 million tons; gold-bearing structures are found in all four regions of the interior. Oil-bearing structures have been found in coastal areas. Geothermal resources are abundant, but due to the high salinity of groundwater, it is difficult to develop.
[Industrial] The total output value of the secondary industry in 2015 was US$334 million, accounting for 9.2% of GDP. The main industries are electricity, water conservancy, housing and public works, salt mine development, etc., and some construction industries as well as mineral water plants, Coca-Cola beverage plants, flour mills, bottle plants, dairy plants, pharmaceutical plants, cement plants, machinery repairs. Small-scale industries such as ship repair, oil refining, tanning, and power generation.
空运：吉布提国际机场可起降大型客、货机。在吉经营的航空公司有法国航空公司（Air France）、埃塞俄比亚航空公司（Ethiopian Airlines）、肯尼亚地区航空公司（Regional Air）、也门航空公司（AIR Yemenia）、英国航空公司（British Airways）、厄立特里亚航空公司（Eritrea Airlines）、吉布提航空公司（Djibouti Airlines）和索马里达洛航空公司（Dallo Airlines）等。吉航主要经营至埃塞俄比亚、也门和索马里兰航线。目前，英航和法航每周仅有一班航班从其首都飞往吉布提市。年旅客运输量在26-29万人次之间。
【外 债】 2008年巴黎俱乐部对吉债务进行重组，外债增速降为7.5%。截至2015年，吉布提外债总额为12.22亿美元。多边债权方主要有世界银行、阿拉伯基金、非洲开发银行等。2017年吉外汇储备5.29亿美元。
[Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] Agriculture is dominated by animal husbandry. The arable land area is 10,000 hectares. In 2013, the cultivated area was 1830 hectares. In 2015, the total output value of the primary industry was 2 million US dollars, accounting for 2.9% of GDP. There are 230,000 hectares of pastures in the country and about 100,000 herders. In 2013, there were more than 1,600 rural households and 3,600 farmers. Food cannot be self-sufficient, and it receives about 13,000 tons of food aid from the EU, France, Japan and other countries every year. The fishery resources are abundant, and it is estimated that the annual catch can reach 50,000 tons. However, the fishing industry is still relatively backward and employs manual fishing.
[Service Industry] It is the pillar industry of the Kyrgyz national economy. In 2015, the total output value of the Kyrgyzstan tertiary industry was 1.176 billion US dollars. 80% of Kyrgyz’s gross domestic product comes from the contribution of the tertiary industry, which is mainly transportation services. Since Ethiopia and Eritrea cut off economic and trade exchanges in 1998, the income of the Kyrgyz port service industry has increased significantly.
[Tourism] There are 9 hotels with a total of 850 rooms and about 2,000 employees. In 2013, Kyrgyzstan received about 50,000 visitors. The main tourist attractions are Lake Assal, Lake Abe, Gubat Al Karaka, Aldaba volcano, Dayi virgin forest, Ronda Xingben Guvalai Waterfall, Tajura Sea Paradise and so on.
[Transportation] Port and rail transportation play an important role in the national economy. Water transport: Djibouti Port is one of the important ports in East Africa. There are four port areas, namely Djibouti Port, Doha Mine Container Terminal, Doha Oil Terminal, and Doha Ray Multi-purpose New Port. In 2014, the old port bulk cargo throughput was 4.273 million tons, and the container throughput was 71,000 TEU. The Doha Ray Container Terminal was put into operation at the end of 2008 with an annual handling capacity of 1.6 million TEUs. The Doha Oilfield Terminal is divided into two parts, the terminal and the tank farm. It was completed in 2005 and the fuel throughput in 2013 was 3.6 million tons. Doha Ray Multi-function Newport held its opening ceremony in May 2017 to design a total of 7.08 million tons of bulk cargo and 200,000 TEUs. After the completion of the new port, the old port business will be moved to Xingang.
Railway: Djibouti is connected to the original narrow-gauge railway of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, with a total length of 850 km and a length of 194 km in Kyrgyzstan. In 2006, Djibouti and the Ethiopian government decided to privatize this section of the railway and hand it over to COMAZAR in South Africa for 25 years. Due to the aging of equipment, the railway freight volume has been declining year by year, and it was shut down in 2012. The Djibouti section of the Aji Railway, which was financed by China, was opened in January 2017 and commercial operation in January 2018.
Highway: There are 3,067 kilometers of highways in the country, including 415 kilometers of asphalt roads. The Djibouti National Highway 1, which connects the Djibouti and Ethiopia borders, is the most important transport corridor. The total length of the road is 910 kilometers and the territory of Djibouti is about 240 kilometers. 90% of the freight volume of the two countries depends on this road.
Air transport: Djibouti International Airport can take off and land large passengers and freighters. The airlines operating in Kyrgyzstan include Air France, Ethiopian Airlines, Regional Air, AIR Yemenia, British Airways and Eritrean Airlines. Companies (Eritrea Airlines), Djibouti Airlines and Dallo Airlines. Jihang Airlines mainly operates routes to Ethiopia, Yemen and Somaliland. Currently, British Airways and Air France fly only one flight a week from their capital to Djibouti. The annual passenger traffic is between 260,000 and 20,000.
[External Debt] In 2008, the Paris Club reorganized Kyrgyzstan’s debt, and the growth rate of foreign debt fell to 7.5%. As of 2015, Djibouti’s total external debt was $1.222 billion. The multilateral creditors mainly include the World Bank, the Arab Fund, and the African Development Bank. In 2017, Kyrgyzstan’s foreign exchange reserves were 529 million US dollars.
【军事】1977年6月6日建军，实行志愿兵役制。总统为武装部队最高统帅，实际由三军总参谋长负责，国防参谋长为其副手。军队主要职责是国家防务、和平时期参与社会发展和救灾活动。总兵力约5500人，其中空军和海军各约200人，文职人员100人。陆军有一个炮兵营、一个装甲团和3个步兵团。空军有数架米格-8、米格-17直升机。海军拥有几艘巡逻艇和快艇。现任总参谋长为扎卡利亚·谢赫·易卜拉欣（Zakaria Cheikh Ibrahim）少将。
【教 育】 独立初期沿袭法国的教育制度和教科书，2000年教改后教育体系分为基础教育、中等教育和高等教育。学制为小学5年、初中4年，高中3年，对6岁～15岁的青少年实行免费义务教育。除国立学校外，国家允许设立民办中、小学，二者数量之比约为4:1。2012 年小学入学率为70%。2012年全国共有小学156所，共有63612名学生，1822名教师；2012年全国有30所公立初中，819名教师，32549名学生；全国共有9所公立高中，550名教师，14715名学生。此外，吉还设有私立初、高中共41所。共有两所大学：吉布提大学和吉布提医学院。2006年1月，吉布提大学在原吉布提高教中心的基础上成立，下设理学院，文学院，经济、法律和管理学院及工程学院，拥有按照国际标准授予学士、硕士和博士学位的资格。吉布提医学院2007年11月成立，是第一所国家医科大学，具有授予医学博士学位的资格，主要合作伙伴为突尼斯、摩洛哥和法国。吉高中毕业生参加法国统一考试，优良者可赴国外接受高等教育。2014年，人口文盲率30%。
[Foreign Trade] Implement a free trade policy. Port re-exports account for a large proportion. Mainly imported food and beverage, machinery and equipment, electrical products, transportation equipment, petroleum products, metal products, textiles and footwear. Export commodities include salt, livestock, and skin. The main trading partners are Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia, India, China, France, Yemen, and the United Kingdom.
[Foreign Aid] Kyrgyzstan’s main donor countries are France, Japan, the United States, Saudi Arabia, China, Italy, etc. The aid organizations include the European Union, the UNHCR, the World Food Organization and the African Development Fund. According to the statistics of the Central Bank of Kyrgyzstan, the total foreign aid received by Kyrgyzstan in 2015 was about 107 million U.S. dollars, and in 2016 it was about 82.746 million U.S. dollars, a year-on-year decrease of 22.6%.
[People’s Life] According to the 2016 World Human Development Report, the Kyrgyz Human Development Index ranks 172th among 188 countries and regions around the world. The average life expectancy is 62.3 years old. At present, there are 128,000 mobile phone users, 16,800 fixed telephone users and 9,000 network users.
[Military] On June 6, 1977, the army was established and the voluntary military service system was implemented. The President is the supreme commander of the armed forces. He is actually responsible for the Chief of Staff of the Three Armies and the Defence Chief of Staff is his deputy. The main duties of the military are national defense, participation in social development and disaster relief activities in peacetime. The total strength is about 5,500, of which about 200 are in the Air Force and Navy, and 100 are civilians. The Army has an artillery battalion, an armored regiment, and three infantry regiments. The Air Force has several MiG-8 and MiG-17 helicopters. The Navy has several patrol boats and speedboats. The current Chief of Staff is Major General Zakaria Cheikh Ibrahim.
After the merger of the National Security Force and the Police Force in 1995, it was called the National Police Force. After the Civil War, it was demobilized and reduced. At present, there are about 2,000 people, mainly responsible for public security, border inspection, justice, and fire protection. The Interpol Djibouti Division was established on February 5, 1979.
The National Gendarmerie was separated from the army in 1998, with about 1,200 people. The main task is to implement Kyrgyz domestic laws and regulations, maintain public safety, and ensure social stability.
[Education] In the early days of independence, the education system and textbooks in France were followed. In 2000, the post-teaching education system was divided into basic education, secondary education and higher education. The school system is 5 years for elementary school, 4 years for junior high school, and 3 years for high school. Free compulsory education is provided for young people aged 6 to 15 years. In addition to national schools, the state allows the establishment of private primary and secondary schools, the ratio of which is about 4:1. The primary school enrollment rate in 2012 is 70%. In 2012, there were 156 primary schools in the country, with a total of 63,612 students and 1,822 teachers. In 2012, there were 30 public junior high schools, 819 teachers and 32,549 students nationwide. There were 9 public high schools, 550 teachers and 14,715 students in the country. In addition, Kyrgyzstan has 41 private junior high schools and high schools. There are two universities: Djibouti University and Djibouti Medical School. In January 2006, Djibouti University was established on the basis of the original Gibbon Center for Education. It consists of the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Liberal Arts, the School of Economics, Law and Management, and the Faculty of Engineering. It has the qualifications to grant bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees in accordance with international standards. Founded in November 2007, Djibouti Medical School is the first national medical university with a doctorate in medicine. Its main partners are Tunisia, Morocco and France. Kyrgyz high school graduates take the French unified examination, and those who are good can go abroad for higher education. In 2014, the population illiteracy rate was 30%.
【同法国的关系】 法是吉原宗主国，也是吉最大援助国和贸易伙伴。吉重视保持同法国的传统关系。法在吉除外交部以外的各政府部门派有顾问。两国签有防务协定，建有年度例行联合军演机制。2003年，法同意在随后9年内每年向吉政府支付3400万美元作为在吉驻军的费用，并扩大法驻吉军队的纳税范围、帮助吉争取国际货币基金组织援助、降低吉留法学生学费。2004年，法国防部长访吉，盖莱总统应邀赴法出席普罗旺斯登陆60周年纪念活动。2005年，吉法因博雷尔法官死亡案发生分歧，吉驱逐6名法在吉技术人员。2006年吉法关系得到明显改善。3月法国总理德维尔潘访吉；吉外长访法，与法签订2006－2010年合作框架文件，法承诺向吉提供5300－7600万欧元的援助。2007年12月，盖莱总统对法国进行正式访问，与萨科齐总统举行会谈。2008年，法国防部长、军队总参谋长先后访吉。10月，盖莱总统在加拿大出席法语国家组织峰会时与萨科奇总统举行工作会谈。2009年，法国国防部长、海军将领，欧盟“阿塔兰塔” 军事行动指挥官等相继访吉，就在吉设立后勤基地、建立地区反海盗中心、在吉关押审判海盗等问题与吉磋商。2011年12月，盖莱总统访问法国，与萨科齐总统签署双边防务条约。5月，盖莱总统致函法国总统奥朗德，就其当选表示祝贺。2013年6月，吉外长优素福访问法国，与法国外长法比尤斯讨论构建两国民间合作伙伴关系框架事宜。12月，盖莱总统赴巴黎出席法国—非洲和平安全峰会。2015年7月，法国国防部长勒德里昂访问吉布提。2017年2月，盖莱总统访问法国，会见奥朗德总统。
[Press and Publication] The official newspaper “National Daily” is published in French every Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Sunday, with 1,300 copies in each issue. The “Clarion” is published in Arabic every Monday and Thursday, with 500 copies per issue; The press includes the “Progress Report”, a party magazine for the “People’s Alliance for Progress”, which is published every half month.
Djibouti Radio and Television, broadcast in French, Somali, Afar and Arabic. The TV station broadcasts a comprehensive program every night. A terrestrial satellite communication station built in 1980 can broadcast television programs in France and neighboring countries. In 1983, Germany helped Kyrgyzstan to establish a radio launch center with existing medium wave, short wave and FM radio. In 1990, Japan assisted in the construction of a television production center. With the assistance of Italy, the digitization of the production and broadcast of radio programs began to be gradually realized. In 2002, the United States established the “Voice of America” relay station in Kyrgyzstan. In 2012, the French channel of CCTV and International Radio Station landed in Kyrgyzstan.
[External Relations] A foreign policy of neutrality, non-alignment and good-neighborliness. Focus on maintaining traditional relations with France, actively cooperate with the United States in counter-terrorism in the Horn of Africa, and relations with Japan are gradually warming up. France, the United States, Japan, Italy and other countries have military bases in Jijian. Attach importance to developing relations with Arab countries and neighboring countries, actively participate in regional cooperation, commit to mediating internal conflicts in Somalia, and support the international community in combating Somali pirates. There is a border dispute with Eritrea and it is advocated through diplomatic channels. It is a member of regional organizations such as the African Union, the Arab League, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the (East African) Intergovernmental Development Organization (IGAD), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and the Sahel-Saharan Community. It is the headquarters of IGAD.
[Relationship with France] The law is the main country of Jiyuan, and is also the largest aid country and trading partner of Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan values the traditional relationship with France. The law has consultants in various government departments other than the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The two countries signed a defense agreement and established an annual joint military exercise mechanism. In 2003, the law agreed to pay the Kyrgyz government a total of 34 million U.S. dollars per year as the garrison in Kyrgyzstan in the following nine years, and expand the taxation scope of the French troops stationed in Kyrgyzstan, help Kyrgyzstan to seek assistance from the International Monetary Fund, and reduce the tuition fees of Gyula students. In 2004, the French Defense Minister visited Kyrgyzstan, and President Geller was invited to France to attend the 60th anniversary of the Provence landing. In 2005, Gifa’s death in Judge Borrell’s case was divided, and Kyrgyzstan expelled six French technicians. In 2006, the relationship between the two countries was significantly improved. In March, French Prime Minister De Villepin visited Kyrgyzstan; Foreign Minister Kyrgyzstan visited France and signed a cooperation framework document with the law for 2006-2010. The law promised to provide Kyrgyzstan with assistance of 53 million to 76 million euros. In December 2007, President Guelleh paid an official visit to France and held talks with President Sarkozy. In 2008, the French Minister of Defense and the Chief of Staff of the Army visited Ji. In October, President Guelleh held a working meeting with President Sarkozy at the summit of the French-speaking countries in Canada. In 2009, the French Defense Minister, the Navy General, the EU “Atalanta” military operations commander and other officials visited Kyrgyzstan, and set up a logistics base in Kyrgyzstan, the establishment of a regional anti-piracy center, and the trial of pirates in Kyrgyzstan. In December 2011, President Guelleh visited France and signed a bilateral defense treaty with President Sarkozy. In May, President Guelleh sent a letter to French President Hollande, congratulating him on his election. In June 2013, Kyrgyz Foreign Minister Yusuf visited France and discussed with French Foreign Minister Fabius the construction of a framework for private partnership between the two countries. In December, President Guelleh went to Paris to attend the France-Africa Peace and Security Summit. In July 2015, French Defense Minister Ledrien visited Djibouti. In February 2017, President Guelleh visited France and met with President Hollande.
【同美国的关系】 美自1991年起向吉提供各种经济和军事援助。“9•11”事件后，吉积极配合美国在非洲之角反恐，同美国关系发展迅速。美在吉设立了在非洲的唯一永久性军事基地。 吉允许美使用其港口和机场运送物资。2004年，美向吉提供了400万美元的巡逻艇、军用设备和1000万美元的教育用品，并宣布在2004－2005年向吉提供3100万美元援助。2005年5月，盖莱总统顺访美国，会见美国务卿赖斯。2006年9月，美与吉签订援助协议，承诺两年内向吉提供4000万美元，用于发展教育和卫生事业。2007年，美国防部长盖茨、中央司令部司令法隆、负责非洲事务的助理国务卿弗雷泽等分别访吉。2008年，法隆和弗雷泽分别再次访吉。2010年5月，盖莱总统访美，会见美副总统拜登、国防部长盖茨等。2011年9月，盖莱赴纽约出席联大会议，并会见部分美高官。2012年2月，吉国防部长和美驻吉大使签署新一期吉美军事合作协定，用于取代2002年签订的已到期的军事协定。新协定无限期有效，将有利于两国间军事服务和装备的购买和转让。同月，美非洲司令部司令礼节性拜会吉军队高层。11月，盖莱总统致函美国总统奥巴马，就其成功连任表示祝贺。2014年5月，盖莱总统访美，会见美国总统奥巴马，双方签署美军驻吉基地续租协议。8月，盖莱总统赴美出席第一届美非峰会，分别会见美国总统奥巴马、国务卿克里。2015年2月，吉-美部长级论坛在华盛顿召开，双方围绕地区安全、军事合作、贸易投资等议题进行了交流。4月。美军非洲司令部司令罗德里格斯访吉。5月，美国务卿克里访吉，分别会见吉总统盖莱、外长优素福。2016年9月，盖莱出席联合国大会期间会见美国总统奥巴马。2017年4月，美国国防部长马蒂斯访问吉布提。5月，吉外长优素福同美国副国务卿在华盛顿共同主持两国论坛部长级会议。2018年3月，美国国务卿蒂勒森访吉。12月，美国负责非洲事务的助理国务卿纳吉访吉。
[Relationship with the United States] The United States has provided various economic and military assistance to Kyrgyzstan since 1991. After the “9.11” incident, Kyrgyzstan actively cooperated with the United States in countering terrorism in the Horn of Africa and developed rapidly with the United States. The United States has established the only permanent military base in Africa. Kyrgyzstan allowed the United States to use its ports and airports to deliver supplies. In 2004, the United States provided $4 million in patrol boats, military equipment and $10 million in educational supplies, and announced that it would provide $31 million in aid to Kyrgyzstan in 2004-2005. In May 2005, President Guelleh visited the United States and met with US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. In September 2006, the United States and the United States signed an aid agreement, promised to provide 40 million US dollars to Kyrgyzstan in two years for the development of education and health. In 2007, US Defense Secretary Gates, Commander of the Central Command, Faron, and Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Fraser, visited Kyrgyzstan. In 2008, Fallon and Fraser visited Kyrgyz respectively. In May 2010, President Guelley visited the United States and met with US Vice President Biden and Defense Secretary Gates. In September 2011, Guelleh went to New York to attend the UN General Assembly and met with some senior officials. In February 2012, the Minister of Defense of Kyrgyzstan and the US Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan signed a new agreement on military cooperation between the United States and the United States to replace the expired military agreement signed in 2002. The new agreement will be effective indefinitely and will facilitate the purchase and transfer of military services and equipment between the two countries. In the same month, the commander of the US African Command paid a courtesy call to the top of the Kyrgyz army. In November, President Guelleh sent a letter to US President Barack Obama, congratulating him on his successful re-election. In May 2014, President Guelley visited the United States and met with US President Barack Obama. The two sides signed an agreement to renew the lease of the US military stationed in Kyrgyzstan. In August, President Guellet went to the United States to attend the first US-Africa summit and met with US President Barack Obama and Secretary of State Kerry. In February 2015, the Kyrgyz-U.S. Ministerial Forum was held in Washington. The two sides exchanged views on regional security, military cooperation, trade and investment. April. The commander of the US African Command, Rodriguez, visited Kyrgyzstan. In May, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Kyrgyzstan and met with Kyrgyz President Guelleh and Foreign Minister Yusuf. In September 2016, Gailez met with US President Barack Obama during the UN General Assembly. In April 2017, US Secretary of Defense Matisse visited Djibouti. In May, Foreign Minister Yusuf and the US Deputy Secretary of State co-chaired the ministerial meeting of the two countries forum in Washington. In March 2018, US Secretary of State Tillerson visited Kyrgyzstan. In December, US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Najib visited Kyrgyzstan.
[Relationship with Japan] In September 2003, President Guelleh attended the third Tokyo International Conference on African Development held in Japan and met with Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. Nissan implemented the “Food Aid Program” to support Kyrgyzstan in the cultivation of new rice. In 2004, the daily plan provided Kyrgyzstan with a total of 150 million yen in food aid and a donation of 27,800 mosquito nets. In 2005, the Japanese Deputy Foreign Minister visited Kyrgyzstan to help Kyrgyzstan update radio equipment and hoped to receive Kyrgyz support on the issue of Security Council reform. In April 2006, Foreign Minister Yusuf visited Japan. The Japanese side indicated that it will vigorously support the economic and social development of Kyrgyzstan. It plans to provide 20 grant assistance projects to Kyrgyzstan in the next 20 years. In May 2008, President Guelleh attended the 4th Tokyo International Conference on African Development and met with Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda. He promised to double his direct investment in Kyrgyzstan in the next five years. Since 2009, Japan sent a Maritime Self-Defense Force to escort the Somali waters. In March 2009, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kyrgyzstan attended the Tokyo International Conference on African Development. In April, Foreign Minister Yusuf visited Japan, and the two sides signed an exchange of letters to determine Jigang as the logistics supply base for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. In August, the company established a permanent liaison office in Kyrgyzstan. In fiscal 2009, Japan provided a total of 35 million U.S. dollars of assistance to Kyrgyzstan. Among them, 4 bilateral gratuitous aid agreements signed with Kyrgyzstan totaled 2.377 billion yen, an increase of 174.8% compared with 2008. In December 2010, President Guelley visited Japan, met with Emperor Akihito, and met with Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan. The two sides helped Japan to implement the national social development plan and the technical problems of handing over arrested pirates in anti-piracy operations. sign a contract. In March 2011, President Guelleh called the Japanese emperor to express his condolences to the earthquake and tsunami disaster. In July, Japan officially opened its military base in Kyrgyzstan. In June 2013, President Guellet went to Japan to attend the 5th Tokyo International Conference on African Development and met with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. In August, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Kyrgyzstan. In May 2014, the Japanese Defense Forces Onodera Five Visits Kyrgyzstan. In January 2015, Japanese Defense Minister Nakagami visited Kyrgyzstan. In May, Kyrgyz President Humed visited Japan to attend the International Parliamentary Assembly of Young Parliamentarians. In March 2016, the Senior Officials Meeting of the Tokyo International Conference on African Development was held in Kyrgyzstan. In May, the Japanese Prime Minister’s special envoy and former defense minister, Onodera, went to Kyrgyzstan to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Geller. In August, Guelleh attended the Tokyo International Conference on African Development in Nairobi and met with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
[Relationship with India] In May 2003, President Guelleh visited India and met with the Indian President and Prime Minister. The two sides signed three agreements on aviation services, investment protection and cultural exchanges. India also provided a loan of 10 million US dollars to Kyrgyzstan for the economic development of Kyrgyzstan. The two countries reached an agreement on issues such as international counter-terrorism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Iraq. In July 2015, the Indian Foreign Minister visited Kyrgyzstan and met with President Guelleh. In October, President Guellet went to India to attend the 3rd India-Africa Summit and met with Indian Prime Minister Modi. In March 2018, President Guelleh went to India to attend the first International Solar Energy Alliance Summit and met with Indian Prime Minister Modi.
[Relationship with Ethiopia] The two countries have friendly relations and signed 25 agreements including friendly cooperation agreements and agricultural science and technology cooperation. The two countries have frequent high-level exchanges, hold bilateral consultations on a regular basis, and continuously strengthen cooperation in trade, transportation, education cooperation and free movement of personnel. In 2004, Prime Minister Esser visited Kyrgyzstan and the two countries held the eighth ministerial mixed committee. In 2005, the Giese Boundary Commission and the Railway Management Committee were held successively. The two sides believed that the management of illegal immigration and illegal border trade should be strengthened and the role of railways between the two countries should be re-extended. In April 2006, the ninth mixed committee of Gye was held in Kyrgyzstan. The two foreign ministers attended the ceremony. The two sides signed three agreements on culture, youth, sports and communication. In May 2011, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles attended the inauguration ceremony of President Guelleh. In February 2012, Mr. Ji and Finance Minister Esser and Minister of Petroleum and Mines of South Sudan signed cooperation in the fields of telecommunications, railways, oil pipelines, ports and duty-free zones in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia. Memorandum of understanding. In August, President Guelleh called President Essar Gilma to express condolences and condolences to the death of Prime Minister Meles. In September, President Guelleh went to Addis Ababa to attend the funeral of Meles. In the same month, Jie signed a memorandum of understanding from Esser to Djibouti, and Kyrgyzstan signed an agreement with Ethiopia and South Sudan to build a cross-border oil pipeline for the three countries. In February 2015, Ethiopian Prime Minister Haier Mariam paid a state visit to Kyrgyzstan. In 2016, Kyrgyzstan and Ethiopia held a ministerial meeting and a joint defense committee to hold consultations on strengthening cooperation in the areas of economy, trade and defense. In March 2017, President Guelleh visited Ethiopia. In July 2017, Foreign Minister Jie co-chaired the meeting of the mixed committees of the two countries. In April 2018, Ethiopian Prime Minister Abhi visited Djibouti.
[Relationship with Somalia]. In 2004, President Guelleh went to Kenya to attend the inauguration ceremony of the President of the Transitional Federal Government, Yusuf. In November 2006, the President of the Federal Council for the Transition of the Soviet Union, Sharif, visited Kyrgyzstan and met with President Geller. In January 2007, President Guelleh met with the President of the Transitional Government, Yusuf, at the AU Summit. Since August 2008, Kyrgyzstan has actively participated in solving the problem and promoted the Djibouti agreement between the government and the opposition, and became the basic document for the current peace process. In January 2009, the Suo Transitional Council met in Kyrgyzstan and successfully elected the new president. In November 2010, 500 members of the Transitional Government Police arrived in Kyrgyzstan for three months of training. In December 2011, Kyrgyz sent 900 peacekeepers and instructors to Somalia. In February 2012, the 21st meeting of the International Contact Group on Somalia was held in Kyrgyzstan. Representatives of the UN Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Sociés, the Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government, the President of the Transitional Federal Parliament, and 33 countries including the United States, Britain and France, as well as representatives of the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, the African Union, the Arab League and other international organizations attended the meeting. The conference issued a communiqué and expressed its position on issues such as the political process, security and stability. During the meeting, President Guelleh met with the Prime Minister and exchanged views with him. In the same month, President Guelleh met with visiting President Ahmed and went to London to attend the International Conference on the Issue. In May, President Guelleh went to Istanbul, Turkey to attend the International Conference on Somalia. In September, President Guelleh went to Somalia to attend the inauguration ceremony of the new President Mahmoud and delivered a speech reaffirming Kyrgyzstan’s firm support for the government and the people. In November, President Mahmoud paid a state visit to Kyrgyzstan, which was his first visit after his election. In April 2013, Prime Minister Hilltown visited Kyrgyzstan. In May and September, President Guelleh went to the United Kingdom and Belgium to attend the International Conference on Somalia. In June 2014, President Kawari visited Kyrgyzstan and the two sides signed an agreement on cooperation between the two parliaments. In February 2015, President Guelleh visited and accepted the highest honor medal awarded by President Mahmoud. In May 2017, Somali President Muhammad paid an official visit to Kyrgyzstan.
[Relationship with Eritrea] There is a territorial dispute between the two countries. In 1998, Ginère accused him of deviating from Egypt in the border conflict between Egypt and Ecuador. He announced the resumption of diplomatic relations between the two countries in 2000 and the exchange of visits between the two heads of state in 2001. In 2004, the two countries held the third mixed committee in Ecuador, signing a series of agreements on agriculture, tourism, fisheries, land and sea transportation, telecommunications and mutual legal assistance. In July 2006, the Ecuadorian Defense Minister visited Kyrgyzstan and held talks with the Kyrgyz defense minister on strengthening the security of the land and sea borders of the two countries and military cooperation between the two sides. In August, the Minister of Defense of Kyrgyzstan returned to Ecuador. In April 2007, the 4th meeting of the Gee Mixed Commission was held in Kyrgyzstan. The Foreign Minister Yusuf and the Minister of Fisheries and Animal Husbandry, Ahmed, co-chaired the meeting. In June 2008, an armed conflict broke out on the border of Gee, causing tensions between the two countries. In November 2009, Kyrgyzstan and Uganda, Ethiopia, and Somalia pushed the Security Council to pass the sanctions resolution, including the request for the immediate withdrawal of troops from the border with the Gee and the settlement of disputes through dialogue. At the beginning of June 2010, under the mediation of Qatar, the two countries signed a peace agreement, and both sides also withdrew from the disputed areas. At the beginning of October 2011, two prisoners who were detained in Iraq fled back to Djibouti, causing tensions between the two countries. In December 2011, Ethiopia and other countries pushed the Security Council to pass a resolution to strengthen sanctions against Ecuador. Kyrgyzstan expressed support for this. In March 2016, Eritrea released four Djibouti prisoners of war. In June 2017, as Djibouti lowered its level of diplomatic representation in Qatar, Qatar withdrew its peacekeeping forces deployed in the Kyrgyz region of the disputed border of Gee. The situation at the border of Gyeh was once tense. In July, Kyrgyz Foreign Minister Yusuf said that Utter had withdrawn from the disputed area and the situation in the region slowed down. In September 2018, President Guelleh met with Eritrean President Isaias in Saudi Jeddah to initiate the normalization of relations between the two countries.