The Republic of Cote d’Ivoire 科特迪瓦共和国

【国 名】 科特迪瓦共和国(The Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, La République de Côte d’Ivoire )。

【面 积】 322463平方公里。

【人 口】 2490万(2018年)。全国有69个民族,分为4大族系:阿肯族系约占42%,曼迪族系约占27%,沃尔特族系约占16%,克鲁族系约占15%。近年来,来自布基纳法索、加纳、几内亚、马里和利比里亚等国的外国侨民人口数目增长较快,目前约占人口总数的26%。各民族均有自己的语言,全国大部分地区通用迪乌拉语(无文字)。官方语言为法语。42%的居民信奉伊斯兰教,34%信奉基督教,16.7%无宗教信仰,其余信奉原始宗教等。

【首 都】 政治首都亚穆苏克罗(Yamoussoukro),人口约97万。经济首都阿比让(Abidjan),人口约429万。2~4月气温最高,平均为24~32℃;8月气温最低,平均为22~28℃。1983年3月12日,科决定将首都迁往亚穆苏克罗,但至今政府机构和外交使团仍留在阿比让。

【国家元首】 阿拉萨内·德拉马内·瓦塔拉(Alassane Dramane Ouattara)

【重要节日】 国庆日:8月7日。

【简 况】 位于非洲西部。西与利比里亚和几内亚交界,北与马里和布基纳法索为邻,东与加纳相连,南濒几内亚湾,海岸线长约550公里。属热带气候。北纬7°以南为热带雨林气候,年平均气温25℃;北纬7°以北为热带草原气候,年平均气温略高于南部。全年分为四个季节:4月至7月中旬为大雨季,7月中旬至9月为大旱季,9月至11月为小雨季,12月至次年3月为小旱季。

[Country name] The Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, La République de Côte d’Ivoire.

[area] 322,463 square kilometers.

[People] 24.9 million (2018). There are 69 nationalities in the country, divided into 4 major families: the Akan ethnic group accounts for about 42%, the Mandi family accounts for about 27%, the Walter family accounts for about 16%, and the Crewe family accounts for about 15%. In recent years, the number of foreign nationals from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Mali and Liberia has grown rapidly, currently accounting for 26% of the total population. All ethnic groups have their own language, and the general Diura language (no text) is spoken in most parts of the country. The official language is French. 42% of residents believe in Islam, 34% believe in Christianity, 16.7% have no religious beliefs, and the rest believe in primitive religion.

[The capital] Yamoussoukro, the political capital, has a population of about 970,000. The economic capital of Abidjan has a population of about 4.29 million. The highest temperature in February and April is 24~32°C; the lowest temperature in August is 22~28°C. On March 12, 1983, the department decided to move the capital to Yamoussoukro, but government agencies and diplomatic missions have remained in Abidjan.

[Head of State] Alassane Dramane Ouattara

[Important Festival] National Day: August 7.

[profile] Located in western Africa. It borders Liberia and Guinea in the west, Mali and Burkina Faso in the north, Ghana in the east, and the Gulf of Guinea in the south. The coastline is about 550 kilometers long. It has a tropical climate. It is a tropical rainforest climate south of 7° north latitude, with an average annual temperature of 25°C; north of latitude 7° is a savanna climate with an average annual temperature slightly higher than the south. The whole year is divided into four seasons: the heavy rain season from April to mid-July, the dry season from mid-July to September, the light rain season from September to November, and the small dry season from December to March.

中世纪时期境内曾建立过一些小王国。11世纪,塞努弗人在北部建立的宫格城为当时西非南北贸易中心之一。15世纪后半叶,葡萄牙、荷兰、法国殖民者相继入侵。1893年沦为法自治殖民地。1958年12月,成为“法兰西共同体”内的“自治共和国”。1960年8月7日独立,但仍留在“法兰西共同体”内。翌年4月脱离共同体。首任总统费利克斯·乌弗埃-博瓦尼,曾7次蝉联,直至1993年12月7日逝世。议长亨利·科南·贝迪埃继任总统。1995年10月,贝迪埃胜选蝉联。1999年12月,前总参谋长罗贝尔·盖伊发动军事政变,自任总统和全国救国委员会主席。2000年10月,人民阵线候选人巴博当选总统。2002年9月,科部分军人发动兵变,引发内战,政府军与叛军形成南北对峙局面。2007年3月,巴博总统和叛军领导人、“新生力量”总书记索罗签署旨在结束内战的《瓦加杜古协议》,宣布进入政治过渡期,索罗随后出任过渡政府总理。2010年10月和11月,科先后举行两轮总统选举,反对党“共和人士联盟”候选人瓦塔拉、人民阵线党候选人、离任总统巴博进入第二轮。12月初,科独立选举委员会宣布瓦塔拉当选,而宪法委员会则宣布巴博蝉联,二人随后分别宣誓就职并组建各自政府,出现“一国两主”的选后危机。双方对立最终升级为全国范围的武装冲突。2011年4月巴博被捕,选后危机宣告结束。

【政 治】瓦塔拉于2011年5月宣誓就职,并于6月组建新政府。瓦塔拉执政以来,以整顿社会秩序、恢复重建为工作重点,开展党派对话,成立“真相、和解、对话委员会”,稳步推进民族和解,同时着手革新吏治,启动军队融合进程,改善社会治安。12月,科立法选举平稳举行。2015年10月,瓦塔拉以83%的高得票率赢得大选,蝉联总统。11月,瓦塔拉宣誓就职,将推动全国和解、修改宪法作为两大工作重点,表示将着力提高人民生活水平,实现经济转型,为青年创造更多就业机会,努力提高妇女地位,扶持贫困人口。2016年10月,科特迪瓦举行全民公投,以93.4%支持率通过新宪法,决定设立副总统一职,增设参议院。12月,科举行新一届立法选举。2017年1月,瓦塔拉总统任命原总理敦坎为科首任副总统,任命原总统府秘书长阿马杜·戈恩·库利巴利为总理,成立新一届政府。同年7月,科改组政府。目前科局势总体稳定。

2016年3月13日,科特迪瓦海滨城市大巴萨姆发生科历史上首次恐怖袭击,造成15名平民和3名士兵死亡,30余人受伤。基地组织北非分支伊斯兰马格里布宣布对此事件负责。

联合国于2004年4月向科部署驻科特迪瓦行动团(简称联科团)。2016年4月,联合国安理会通过决议,决定全面解除对科制裁,并于2017年6月30日前撤出联科团。 2017年6月,联科团正式从科特迪瓦全部撤出。

Some small kingdoms have been established in the Middle Ages. In the 11th century, Gongge City, founded by the Sinuf in the north, was one of the North-South trade centers of West Africa at that time. In the second half of the fifteenth century, Portuguese, Dutch, and French colonists invaded. In 1893, he became a colony of law and autonomous. In December 1958, it became the “autonomous republic” within the “French Community”. Independence on August 7, 1960, but remained in the “French Community”. In April of the following year, he left the community. The first president, Felix Ufère-Boigny, has been reunited seven times until his death on December 7, 1993. Speaker Henry Conan Bedie is succeeding the President. In October 1995, Bedie won the election. In December 1999, former Chief of Staff Robert Gay launched a military coup, acting as president and chairman of the National Salvation Council. In October 2000, the Popular Front candidate Gbagbo was elected president. In September 2002, some soldiers of the Section launched a mutiny, which triggered a civil war. The government and the rebels formed a confrontation between the North and the South. In March 2007, President Gbagbo and the rebel leader, General Secretary of the Forces nouvelles, Soro signed the Ouagadougou Agreement aimed at ending the civil war and announced that he would enter a political transition period. Soro subsequently became the prime minister of the transitional government. In October and November 2010, the division held two rounds of presidential elections. The opposition Republican “United Republican League” candidate Ouattara, the Popular Front Party candidate, and the outgoing President Gbagbo entered the second round. At the beginning of December, the Independent Electoral Commission announced that Ouattara was elected, and the Constitutional Council announced that Gbagbo would be reelected. The two then sworn in and formed their respective governments, and there was a post-election crisis of “one country and two mains”. The confrontation between the two sides eventually escalated into a nationwide armed conflict. Gbagbo was arrested in April 2011 and the crisis was over.

[Politics] Ouattara was sworn in in May 2011 and formed a new government in June. Since Watara came to power, he has focused on rectifying social order and restoring reconstruction, conducting party-participation dialogue, establishing a “truth, reconciliation, and dialogue committee”, steadily advancing national reconciliation, and at the same time embarking on reforming the rule of law, initiating the process of military integration, and improving social order. In December, the legislative elections were held smoothly. In October 2015, Ouattara won the election with a high vote of 83% and won the president. In November, Ouattara was sworn in and will promote national reconciliation and revision of the Constitution as the two major priorities. He said that he will focus on improving people’s living standards, achieving economic transformation, creating more employment opportunities for young people, striving to improve the status of women, and supporting the poor. . In October 2016, Côte d’Ivoire held a referendum, adopted a new constitution with a support rate of 93.4%, decided to establish a vice president, and added a Senate. In December, the Section held a new legislative election. In January 2017, President Ouattara appointed the former Prime Minister Tunkan as the first vice president of the department, and appointed the former presidential secretary-general Amadou Ghon Coulibaly as the prime minister to establish a new government. In July of the same year, the government reformed the government. The current situation in the department is generally stable.

On 13 March 2016, the first terrorist attack in the history of the University of Côte d’Ivoire’s coastal city of Bassam killed 15 civilians and 3 soldiers and injured more than 30. Al-Qaida’s North African branch, the Islamic Maghreb, was responsible for the incident.

The United Nations deployed the Operational Mission to Côte d’Ivoire (UNMIK) to the Section in April 2004. In April 2016, the UN Security Council passed a resolution deciding to lift the sanctions against the law and withdraw it from June 30, 2017. In June 2017, UNSCOM officially withdrew from Côte d’Ivoire.

【宪 法】 2000年7月全民公决通过科独立后的第二部宪法。宪法规定,科实行共和总统制,行政、立法和司法三权分立。总统是国家元首,也是武装部队最高统帅,享有最高行政权力,由普选产生,任期5年,可连选连任一次。总理为政府首脑,由总统任命。

【议 会】实行两院制,即国民议会和参议院,是国家最高立法机构,每届任期5年。2016年12月科举行新一届国民议会选举,在255个议席中,由共和人士联盟、民主党和未来力量联盟组成的执政联盟获得167席,独立人士76席,争取民主与进步联盟6席,科特迪瓦联盟和人民阵线各3席。2017年1月新一届国民议会正式成立,原议长索罗·基格巴福里·纪尧姆(SORO Kigbafory Guillaume)连任。2019年2月,国民议会议长索罗辞职。3月,原总统府负责政治事务部长阿马杜·苏马霍罗(Amadou Soumahoro)当选国民议会议长。参议院共有99个席位,其中三分之二通过选举产生,三分之一由总统任命。2018年3月举行参议院选举,执政联盟获得50席,独立参议员获得16席。本届参议院2018年4月成立,原总统府负责政治对话和机构关系部长让诺·阿胡苏—夸迪奥当选首任参议长。

【政 府】 本届政府于2017年7月成立。现政府成员包括:政府首脑、总理兼预算与国有资产管理部长阿马杜·戈恩·库利巴利(Amadou Gon COULIBALY);国防国务部长哈米德·巴卡约科(Hamed BAKAYOKO);外交部长马塞尔·阿蒙·塔诺(Marcel AMON-TANOH);高等教育与科研部长阿布杜拉·阿尔贝·图瓦克斯·马布里(Abdallah Albert Toikeusse MABRI);国民教育、技术教育和职业培训部长坎迪娅·卡米索科·卡马拉(Kandia KAMISSOKO CAMARA,女);掌玺、司法与人权部长桑桑·康比莱(Sansan KAMBILE);内政与安全部长西迪基·迪亚基特(Sidiki DIAKITE);水资源与森林部长阿兰·理查德·东瓦伊(Alain Richard DONWAHI);非洲一体化及海外侨民部长阿利·库利巴利(Ally COULIBALY);农业与农村发展部长马马杜·桑加福瓦·库利巴利(Mamadou Sangafowa COULIBALY);畜牧业和水产资源部长科贝纳·夸西·阿朱马尼(Kobenan Kouassi ADJOUMANI);计划与发展部长尼娅雷·卡巴(Nialé KABA,女);交通部长阿马杜·科内(Amadou KONE);就业与社会保障部长帕斯卡·阿比南·夸库(Pascal Abinan KOUAKOU);经济与财政部长阿达马·科内(Adama KONE);建设、住房与城市化部长布鲁诺·纳巴涅·科内(Bruno Nabagné KONE);健康与公共卫生部长阿韦勒·欧仁·阿卡(Aouélé Eugène AKA);城市部长阿尔贝·弗朗索瓦·阿米恰(Albert François AMICHIA);矿业与地质部长让·克劳德·库阿西(Jean Claude KOUASSI);清洁与环境卫生部长安妮·德西雷·乌洛托 (Anne Désirée OULOTO,女);行政现代化与公共部门创新部长雷蒙德·古杜·科菲(Raymonde GOUDOU COFFIE,女);文化与法语国家事务部长莫里斯·夸库·班达曼(Maurice Kouakou BANDAMAN);装备与道路养护部长阿梅德·科菲·夸库(Amédé Koffi KOUAKOU);石油、能源与可再生能源发展部长蒂耶里·塔诺(Thierry TANOH);环境与可持续发展部长约瑟夫·塞卡·塞卡(Joseph SEKA SEKA);妇女、家庭与儿童部长哈玛塔·利—巴卡约科(Ramata LY-BAKAYOKO,女);团结、社会融合与扶贫部长玛里亚图·科内(Mariatou KONE,女);商业、工业和中小企业投资促进部长苏莱曼·迪亚拉苏巴(Souleymane DIARRASSOUBA);手工业部长西迪基·科纳特(Sidiki KONATE);数字经济与邮政部长克洛德·伊萨克·德(Claude Isaac DE);公职部长伊萨·库利巴利(Issa COULIBALY);新闻与媒体部长,政府发言人西迪·蒂莫科·杜尔(Sidi Thiémoko TOURE);旅游与娱乐部长希安杜·福法纳(Siandou FOFANA);体育部长保兰·丹霍(Paulin DANHO);水利部长Ministre de l’Hydraulique洛朗·查巴(Laurent TCHAGBA);青年发展与青年就业部长,政府助理发言人马马杜·杜尔(Mamadou TOURE);总理府负责预算和国有资产管理的国务秘书穆萨·萨诺果(Moussa Sanogo);总理府负责促进私人投资的国务秘书埃马纽埃尔·埃斯梅·埃西斯(Emmanuel Esmel ESSIS);负责公民服务的国务秘书西亚卡·瓦塔拉(Siaka OUATTARA);掌玺、司法与人权部负责人权的国务秘书艾梅·泽贝尤(Aimée ZEBEYOUX,女);商业、工业和中小企业投资促进部负责中小企业投资促进的国务秘书费利克斯·阿诺布莱(Félix ANOBLE);总统府部长:部长、总统府秘书长帕特里克·阿希(Patrick ACHI);总统事务部长特内·比拉伊马·瓦塔拉(Téné Birahima OUATTARA)。

[Constitution] The July 2000 referendum passed the second constitution after independence. The Constitution stipulates that the branch implements a republican presidential system and separates administrative, legislative and judicial powers. The President is the head of state and the supreme commander of the armed forces. He enjoys the highest administrative power and is elected by universal suffrage for a term of five years and can be re-elected once. The Prime Minister is the head of government and is appointed by the President.

[Parliament] The bicameral system, the National Assembly and the Senate, is the highest legislative body of the country, with a term of five years. In December 2016, the Division held a new National Assembly election. Among the 255 seats, the ruling coalition formed by the Republican Union, the Democratic Party and the Future Power Alliance won 167 seats, 76 independents, and 6 Alliance for Democracy and Progress. The Ivorian Union and the Popular Front each have three seats. In January 2017, the new National Assembly was formally established, and the former Speaker, SORO Kigbafory Guillaume, was re-elected. In February 2019, the Speaker of the National Assembly, Soro, resigned. In March, the former president of the government, Amadou Soumahoro, was elected president of the National Assembly. The Senate has a total of 99 seats, of which two-thirds are elected and one-third are appointed by the President. In the Senate elections in March 2018, the ruling coalition won 50 seats and the independent senators won 16 seats. The current Senate was established in April 2018. The former president of the Presidential Office for Political Dialogue and Institutional Relations, Jeanno Ahusu-Quadio, was elected as the first Senate President.

[Government] The current government was established in July 2017. Current government members include: Head of Government, Prime Minister and Minister of Budget and State Asset Management Amadou Gon COULIBALY; Secretary of State for National Defense Hamed BAKAYOKO; Diplomacy Minister Marcel Amon-TANOH; Minister of Higher Education and Research Abdallah Albert Toikeusse MABRI; national education, technical education and Vocational Training Minister Kandia KAMISSOKO CAMARA (female); Minister of Justice, Justice and Human Rights Sansan KAMBILE; Minister of Internal Affairs and Security Siddiqui Di Sidiki DIAKITE; Alain Richard DONWAHI, Minister of Water Resources and Forests; Ally COULIBALY, Minister of African Integration and Overseas Residents; Agriculture and Rural Development Minister Mamadou Sangafowa COULIBALY; Minister of Livestock and Aquatic Resources Kobenan Kouassi ADJOUMANI; Minister of Development and Development Nialé KABA (female); Minister of Transport Amadou Kone; Minister of Employment and Social Security Pascal Abinan KOUAKOU; Economics and Finance Minister Adama Kone; Minister of Construction, Housing and Urbanization Bruno Nabagné KONE; Minister of Health and Public Health Aouélé Eugène AKA ); City Minister Albert François AMICHIA; Minister of Mining and Geology Jean Claude KOUASSI; Minister of Clean and Environmental Health Anne Desire · Anne Désirée OULOTO (female); Raymonde GOUDOU COFFIE, Minister of Administrative Modernization and Public Sector Innovation; Maurice Kwako Banda, Minister of Culture and Francophone Affairs Maurice Kouakou BANDAMAN; Minister of Equipment and Road Maintenance Amédé Koffi KOUAKOU; Minister of Petroleum, Energy and Renewable Energy Development Thierry · Thierry TANOH; Minister of Environment and Sustainable Development Joseph SEKA SEKA; Minister of Women, Family and Children Hamata LY-BAKAYOKO, female ; Mariatou KONE (female), Minister of Solidarity, Social Integration and Poverty Alleviation; Souleymane DIARRASSOUBA, Minister of Investment Promotion, Business, Industry and SMEs; Sidi Minister of Handicraft Industry Sidiki KONATE; Claude Isaac DE, Minister of Digital Economy and Posts; Issa COULIBALY, Minister of Public Service; Minister of News and Media, Government Spokesperson Sidi Thiémoko TOURE; Minister of Tourism and Entertainment Siandou FOFANA; Sports Minister Paulin DANHO; Minister of Water Resources Ministre de l ‘Hydraulique Laurent TCHAGBA; Minister of Youth Development and Youth Employment, Government Assistant Spokesperson Mamadou TOURE; Prime Minister’s Office responsible for budget and state asset management State Secretary Moussa Sanogo; Emmanuel Esmel ESSIS, Secretary of State for Private Investment, and Secretary of State for Citizen Services, Sika Siaka OUATTARA; Secretary of State for Human Rights, Aimée ZEBEYOUX (female); Secretary of State for Business, Industry and SME Investment Promotion, Secretary of State for SME Investment Promotion Félix ANOBLE; Minister of the President: Minister, Presidential Secretary Patrick Achi; Presidential Affairs Minister Téné Birahima OUATTARA ).

【行政区划】 科特迪瓦行政区划划分为地区、大区、省三级,共有14个地区(2个自治地区和12个普通地区)、30个大区、95个省。

【司法机构】 科司法机构主要包括初审法院、上诉法院、最高法院和特别最高法庭。各级法院设有相应的检察院或总检察院。现任最高法院院长勒内·弗朗索瓦·阿菲—库阿西(René François APHING-KOUASSI),2015年2月就任。现任最高法院总检察长哈达德·苏珊娜(Haddad Suzanne,女)。

【政 党】 1990年4月宣布实行多党制,现有150多个合法政党,主要有:

(1)统一党即“争取民主与和平乌弗埃主义者联盟”(Rassemblement des Houphouëtistes pour la Démocratie et la Paix,RHDP),执政党。前身是以共和人士联盟(Rassemblement des Républicains)为主体的政党联盟,以科开国总统乌弗埃·博瓦尼的治国理念为指导思想,目标是重建团结,服务国家建设,促进政治稳定、经济发展和社会和谐,实现国家繁荣。2018年7月,统一党召开成立大会,定名为“争取民主与和平乌弗埃主义者联盟”,推举瓦塔拉为党主席并负责组建统一党领导委员会和临时机构。2019年1月,统一党召开首届党代会,并正式确认瓦塔拉为党主席。

(2)科特迪瓦民主党(Parti Démocratique de Côte d’Ivoire):反对党。1946年4月30日成立,创始人为科首任总统费利克斯·乌弗埃-博瓦尼,是科成立最早的政党。在阿肯族为主的中东部地区特别是亚穆苏克罗和布瓦凯市影响较大。口号是和平、自由、务实、开放和对话,主张对内通过“对话”和“和解”,实现民族团结;对外通过“对话”和“和平”,在正义的基础上建立国际政治经济新秩序。独立后至1999年底军事政变前近40年间曾长期执政。2010年该党总统候选人贝迪埃与瓦塔拉结成竞选联盟,该党成员加入了瓦塔拉组成的新政府。2018年9月,民主党主席贝迪埃宣布该党退出执政联盟和统一党建设进程,但仍有不少民主党人士继续留在政府任职。主席亨利·科南·贝迪埃(Henri Konan Bédié),总书记阿尔方斯·马蒂·杰杰(Alphonse Mady Djédjé)。

(3)科特迪瓦人民阵线(Front Populaire Ivoirien):简称人阵,主要反对党。1983年3月在法国成立,骨干力量为知识分子和青年学生。在克鲁族为主的中西部地区及经济首都阿比让影响较大。主张平等、自由、公正和多党民主,奋斗目标是建立人人平等的民主制度,实行社会主义。1999年12月军事政变后,参与过渡政府。2000年10月,该党候选人巴博在大选中获胜后上台执政。2011年4月科大选危机结束后,巴博及党主席恩盖桑等被关押,部分骨干流亡加纳,原第二副主席、国民议会议长库利巴利7月宣布退出人阵并另立新党。11月,巴博被科政府移交国际刑事法院。人阵抵制了立法选举。2013年8月,人阵党主席恩盖桑获释。2019年1月,巴博被国际刑事法院有条件释放。目前人阵主席阿菲·恩盖桑(Affi N’Guessan),总书记阿涅·莫奈(Agnès Monnet,女)。

其他政党还有科特迪瓦民主爱国联盟(Union Démocratique et Patriotique de Côte d’Ivoire)、公民民主联盟(Union Démocratique et Citoyenne)、社会民主党(Parti Social Démocrate)等。 【重要人物】 总统阿拉萨内·德拉马内·瓦塔拉:1942年1月1日生于科特迪瓦丁博克罗。信奉伊斯兰教。曾留学美国,获经济学硕士、博士学位。长期在国际货币基金组织和西非国家中央银行工作。1990年11月被博瓦尼总统任命为科首任总理。1999年任“共和人士联盟”主席。2011年5月正式就任总统。2015年10月,瓦塔拉获得连任。

[Administrative Division] The administrative division of Côte d’Ivoire is divided into three levels: regional, regional, and provincial. There are 14 regions (2 autonomous regions and 12 general regions), 30 regions, and 95 provinces.

[Judiciary] The Judiciary mainly includes the court of first instance, the court of appeal, the Supreme Court and the Special Supreme Court. The courts at all levels have corresponding procuratorates or general procuratorates. The current President of the Supreme Court, René François APHING-KOUASSI, took office in February 2015. The current Supreme Court Attorney General Haddad Suzanne (female).

[Political Party] In April 1990, a multi-party system was announced. There are more than 150 legitimate political parties, mainly including:

(1) The united party is the “Rassemblement des Houphouëtistes pour la Démocratie et la Paix (RHDP), the ruling party. The predecessor was a coalition of political parties with the Rassemblement des Républicains as the main body. It was guided by the founding concept of the President of the Kazakh President Ufère Bovani. The goal was to rebuild unity, serve the country, and promote political stability and economic development. Harmony with society and achieve national prosperity. In July 2018, the Unification Party convened an inaugural meeting, named “Ukraine Alliance for Democracy and Peace”, and elected Vatara as the party chairman and responsible for the formation of the Party Leadership Committee and the Provisional Institution. In January 2019, the Unification Party held the first party congress and officially confirmed Ouattara as the party chairman.

(2) Parti Démocratique de Côte d’Ivoire: Opposition. Founded on April 30, 1946, the founder was the first president of the department, Felix Ufère-Boigny, and was the earliest political party. The central and eastern regions dominated by the Akons, especially the cities of Yamoussoukro and Bouaké, have a greater impact. The slogan is peace, freedom, pragmatism, openness and dialogue. It advocates the adoption of “dialogue” and “reconciliation” within the country to achieve national unity; through “dialogue” and “peace”, it establishes a new international political and economic order on the basis of justice. After independence, he had been in power for nearly 40 years before the military coup at the end of 1999. In 2010, the party’s presidential candidate, Bedie, formed a campaign alliance with Ouattara, and the party members joined the new government formed by Ouattara. In September 2018, Democratic Party Chairman Bédière announced that the party had withdrawn from the ruling coalition and the party building process, but many Democrats still stayed in the government. Chairman Henri Konan Bédié, general secretary Alphonse Mady Djédjé.

(3) Front Populaire Ivoirien: The People’s Front, the main opposition party. Founded in France in March 1983, the backbone of the team is intellectuals and young students. In the central and western regions of the Keros and the economic capital Abidjan, the impact is greater. Advocating equality, freedom, justice and multi-party democracy, the goal is to establish a democratic system of equality for all and to implement socialism. After the military coup in December 1999, he participated in the transitional government. In October 2000, the party’s candidate, Gbagbo, came to power after winning the election. After the crisis of the general election in April 2011, Gbagbo and Party Chairman Nguesang were detained, and some of the backbones were in exile in Ghana. The former second vice chairman and National Assembly Speaker Coulibaly announced his withdrawal from the People’s Front and the establishment of a new party in July. . In November, Gbagbo was transferred to the International Criminal Court by the government. The battalion boycotted the legislative elections. In August 2013, Nguyen Sang, chairman of the People’s Party, was released. In January 2019, Gbagbo was conditionally released by the International Criminal Court. At present, Affi N’Guessan, president of the People’s Array, is the general secretary of Agnès Monnet (female).

Other political parties include the Union Démocratique et Patriotique de Côte d’Ivoire, the Union Démocratique et Citoyenne, and the Parti Social Démocrate. [Important figures] President Alassane Dramane Ouattara: Born on January 1, 1942 in Ding Bokro, Côte d’Ivoire. Believe in Islam. He studied in the United States and obtained a master’s degree and a doctorate in economics. Long-term work in the International Monetary Fund and the Central Bank of West African countries. In November 1990, he was appointed as the first prime minister by President Bowani. In 1999, he was the chairman of the Republican Alliance. In May 2011, he officially took office as president. In October 2015, Ouattara was re-elected.

【经 济】 独立后,实行以“自由资本主义”和“科特迪瓦化”为中心内容的自由经济体制。20世纪60、70年代经济发展迅速,国内生产总值年均增长8%,创造了“经济奇迹”。进入80年代后,受西方经济危机的影响,经济状况恶化。90年代中期曾一度复苏。1999年科发生军事政变后,经济急剧恶化。2007年内战结束后,经济低速回升。2011年4月科大选危机结束后,新政府积极开展恢复重建,大力扶持港口、石油等重点部门,振兴咖啡、可可等支柱产业,整顿金融市场,开展基础设施建设,改善投资环境,积极争取外援和外资,取得一定成效。2012-2015年科经济年均增长率约为9.2%。瓦塔拉连任总统后,提出经济结构转型,制定了2016-2020国家发展规划。2018年国民经济实现较快增长。主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值(GDP):449.7亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:1806美元(按购买力平价计算为4199美元)。。

国内生产总值增长率:7.3%。

货币名称:非洲金融共同体法郎(franc de la Communauté financière d’Afrique),简称非洲法郎(FCFA)。

汇率:1欧元=655.957非洲法郎。

通货膨胀率: 1%。

(资料来源:2019年第一季度《伦敦经济季评》)

【资 源】 主要矿藏有钻石、黄金、锰、镍、铀、铁和石油。已探明的石油储量约2.2亿桶,天然气储量1.1万亿立方米,铁矿石15亿吨,铝矾土12亿吨,镍4.4亿吨,锰3500万吨。森林面积250万公顷。受长期战乱影响,科能矿资源开发对国民财富的贡献率不到1%,2017年科石油产量为1244万桶。科矿产资源开发占国内生产总值不到5%,目前仅有黄金和锰实现工业化开采,2013年黄金和锰矿石产量分别为13吨和30万吨。2014年3月,科国民议会通过新《矿业法》。 【工 业】 2013年工业产值约占国内生产总值的21.3%。农产品加工业是主要工业部门。其次是棉纺织业、炼油、化工、建材和木材加工工业。1996年新油田开采后,矿产能源业在工业领域所占比重逐年增加。2015年科石油产量为1073万桶,同比增加55.6%。科曾是西非电力大国,多余电力向贝宁、多哥等国出口。受战乱影响,电力行业一度发展缓慢,2010年甚至从周边国家进口电力。2012年起发电量逐步增加,2015年发电量约为85.27亿千瓦时,同比增加3.79%,并为科创造约1.65亿美元外汇收入。2017年发电量为2200兆瓦。

[Economy] After independence, the free economic system centered on “free capitalism” and “Côte d’Ivoire” is implemented. In the 1960s and 1970s, the economy developed rapidly, and the GDP grew at an average annual rate of 8%, creating an “economic miracle.” After entering the 1980s, the economic situation deteriorated due to the impact of the Western economic crisis. It recovered in the mid-1990s. After the military coup in the branch in 1999, the economy deteriorated sharply. After the end of the civil war in 2007, the economy rebounded at a low rate. After the end of the crisis in April 2011, the new government actively carried out restoration and reconstruction, vigorously supported key departments such as ports and oil, revitalized pillar industries such as coffee and cocoa, reorganized financial markets, carried out infrastructure construction, improved the investment environment, and actively sought foreign aid. And foreign capital, achieved certain results. The average annual growth rate of the economy in 2012-2015 is about 9.2%. After the re-election of Ouattara, he proposed the transformation of the economic structure and formulated the 2016-2020 national development plan. In 2018, the national economy achieved rapid growth. The main economic data are as follows:

Gross domestic product (GDP): $44.97 billion.

Gross domestic product per capita: $1,806 ($4,199 per purchasing power parity). .

GDP growth rate: 7.3%.

Currency name: franc de la Communauté financière d’Afrique, referred to as the African Franc (FCFA).

Exchange rate: 1 euro = 655.957 CFA francs.

Inflation rate: 1%.

(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, First Quarter, 2019)

[Resources] The main mineral deposits are diamond, gold, manganese, nickel, uranium, iron and petroleum. The proven oil reserves are about 220 million barrels, natural gas reserves are 1.1 trillion cubic meters, iron ore is 1.5 billion tons, bauxite is 1.2 billion tons, nickel is 440 million tons, and manganese is 35 million tons. The forest area is 2.5 million hectares. Affected by long-term war, the contribution rate of Keeneng mine resources to national wealth is less than 1%. In 2017, the oil production of the section was 12.44 million barrels. The development of mineral resources accounts for less than 5% of GDP. Currently, only gold and manganese are industrially exploited. In 2013, the output of gold and manganese ore was 13 tons and 300,000 tons respectively. In March 2014, the National Assembly passed the new Mining Law. [Industrial] Industrial output in 2013 accounted for approximately 21.3% of GDP. The agricultural product processing industry is the main industrial sector. Followed by the cotton textile industry, refining, chemicals, building materials and wood processing industries. After the exploitation of new oil fields in 1996, the proportion of the mineral energy industry in the industrial sector increased year by year. In 2015, the company’s oil production was 10.73 million barrels, an increase of 55.6% year-on-year. The branch was once a power power in West Africa, and excess power was exported to countries such as Benin and Togo. Affected by the war, the power industry was once slow to develop, and even imported electricity from neighboring countries in 2010. Since 2012, the amount of power generation has gradually increased. In 2015, the power generation was about 8.527 billion kWh, an increase of 3.79% year-on-year, and it created about 165 million US dollars in foreign exchange earnings for the division. In 2017, the power generation was 2,200 MW.

【农 业】农业是科经济基础。全国可耕地面积为802万公顷。农业从业人口占全国劳动力的49%。2013年农业产值占国内生产总值的26.3%。主要经济作物是可可和咖啡,种植面积占全国可耕地面积的 75%。可可生产和出口居世界第一位,占全球供给量的40%。咖啡生产居非洲第三位,世界第十二位。可可和咖啡的出口收入是国家主要外汇来源。2010年科可可和咖啡产量分别为148万吨和10万吨。由于植株老化,可可和咖啡的产量有所下降。2011年可可产量为130万吨,同比下降11.3%;咖啡产量3.2万吨,同比下降65.9%。2011年11月以来,科着手改革可可行业,成立了可可咖啡委员会,负责行业的监管、稳定和发展工作。2012年可可产量139万吨,咖啡产量12万吨。2014-2015产年可可产量达到175万吨,2017年可可产量201.5万吨,咖啡产量14.5万吨。近年来,科腰果产量增加,现已成为世界第一大的腰果生产国,2018年产量为76万吨。棉花也是科传统重要经济作物。2010年-2015年,因棉价回升和良种的使用,产量不断恢复,棉花产量2015年45万吨。2016年受气候影响,减产至31万吨,2017年为32.8万吨,2018年为38.7万吨,总产量居非洲第四。科是世界第五大、非洲第二大棕榈油生产国,2018年产量为51.4万吨。粮食不能自给,大米年消费60%需进口。主要作物有玉米、小米、高粱、稻米、木薯、山药等。2016年科粮食总产量为143.1万吨,同期有所下降。近年来热带水果出口量有所增加,主要有香蕉、菠萝、木瓜等。

森林资源丰富,木材一直是科主要出口产品。由于过量采伐、农业开发、干旱和森林火灾等原因,森林面积锐减;1960年有1500万公顷,1991年仅余250万公顷。当前森林面积约200万公顷,森林覆盖率16%。畜牧业不发达。禽蛋基本自给,88% 的奶制品、56%的肉类依靠进口。渔业产值占农业生产总值的7%,就业人口7万。年捕鱼量8~10万吨,仅能满足20~25%的国内消费需求。

【服务业】 服务业以商业和运输业为主。2013年服务业产值占国内生产总值的52.4%。近年来,在国家的大力扶持下,电信业发展迅速,营业额由2007年的5440亿非郎增至2008年度的6820亿非郎,其中82%的营业额来源于手机通讯业务。2008年度,电信业投资额达1220亿非郎,直接创造就业机会4000多个。2009年电信业产值占当年GDP的5.5%。科固定电话用户近年稳定在30万户左右。2010年每100人拥有移动电话76部,每100人拥有互联网连接数2.6人。截至2010年年底,科共拥有23家信贷机构,其中22家银行,1家金融机构。储蓄额增长10%,达27330亿非郎,贷款额增长13%,为24680亿非郎。

【旅游业】 重视发展旅游业和开发旅游资源。重要的景点有科莫埃国家公园、塔伊国家公园、宁巴山自然保护区和亚穆苏克罗和平圣母大教堂。前三者被列入联合国教科文组织 “世界自然遗产名录”,历史城镇大巴萨姆被列入联合国教科文组织“世界文化遗产名录”。经济首都阿比让毗邻几内亚湾,环绕潟湖,风景优美。由于多年战乱,旅游业受到严重影响,自2011年选后危机平息后,科政府将旅游业发展作为农业和工业之后的第三大产业,加大了对旅游业投入。

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【交通运输】 是非洲交通最发达的国家之一,尤以海运和公路为最。

海运:98%以上的进出口贸易通过海运。阿比让自治港是西非最重要的天然良港和集装箱码头之一,也是布基纳法索、马里等西非内陆国家的主要出海口和进出口货物的集散地。港口设备较完善,可同时停泊60多艘船只,年装卸标准集装箱约60万只。设计年吞吐量为2000万吨。2011年受选后危机影响,港口吞吐量为1660万吨,同比下降26%。2012年科局势稳定以来,港口吞吐量稳步增长。2018年港口吞吐量为2415万吨。圣佩德罗港是第二大港口,年吞吐量120万吨,装卸标准集装箱8万只。主要承运木材、可可等。

铁路:阿比让-瓦加杜古铁路科境内段为科唯一一条铁路。总长630公里。2008年货运量83万吨,客运量50万人次。

公路:公路网四通八达,系西非地区公路最发达的国家。总长近8.3万公里,占整个西非经货联盟道路里程的45%,其中一级公路6500公里(沥青路面)、二级公路7000公里;全国有5850个货运商行,各种车辆31.1万辆,其中货车1.7万辆。

空运:全国有大小机场28个,其中阿比让、布瓦凯、亚穆苏克罗三个机场可供大型飞机起降。阿比让机场是法语非洲国家最大的机场,2000年完成扩建和改造,年客运量由120万人次增至200万人次。由于战乱,客运量一直不高,近年有所回升。据科民航总局统计,2007年运送旅客92.5万人次,同比增长12.8%。目前20多家航空公司经营30余条国际航线。由法航控股的新科特迪瓦航空公司(NAI)于2001年3月开始运营,2011年9月破产。2012年5月,新的航空公司科特迪瓦航空公司(Air Côte d’Ivoire)成立,公司资本约为250亿非郎(约合5000万美元)科政府拥有51%股份,法航拥有20%股份,阿加汗集团拥有15%股份,私人投资者拥有14%股份。

【对外贸易】 外贸连年顺差,在国民经济中占重要地位。主要出口可可、原油、咖啡、木材、腰果、金枪鱼、棕榈油、棉花、橡胶、黄金等,进口石油制品、机械设备、交通工具、化学制品、建筑材料、电器、食品等。

2017年,科主要向以下国家出口:荷兰11.8%,美国7.8%,法国6.5%,比利时6.4%;主要从以下国家进口:尼日利亚15%,法国13.8%, 中国11.7%, 美国4.4%。

[Agriculture] Agriculture is the economic basis of the department. The country’s arable land area is 8.02 million hectares. The agricultural sector accounts for 49% of the national workforce. In 2013, agricultural output accounted for 26.3% of GDP. The main cash crops are cocoa and coffee, which accounts for 75% of the country’s arable land. Cocoa production and exports rank first in the world, accounting for 40% of global supply. Coffee production ranks third in Africa and twelfth in the world. The export revenue of cocoa and coffee is the country’s main source of foreign exchange. In 2010, cocoa and coffee production were 1.48 million tons and 100,000 tons, respectively. The yield of cocoa and coffee has decreased due to aging of the plants. In 2011, cocoa production was 1.3 million tons, down 11.3% year-on-year; coffee production was 32,000 tons, down 65.9% year-on-year. Since November 2011, the department has started to reform the cocoa industry and established the Cocoa Coffee Committee, which is responsible for the supervision, stability and development of the industry. In 2012, the cocoa production was 1.39 million tons and the coffee output was 120,000 tons. The cocoa production in the 2014-2015 production year reached 1.75 million tons, the cocoa production in 2017 was 2.015 million tons, and the coffee production was 145,000 tons. In recent years, the production of cashew nuts has increased, and it has become the world’s largest cashew nutrient country, with a production of 760,000 tons in 2018. Cotton is also an important economic crop of the family. From 2010 to 2015, due to the rebound in cotton prices and the use of improved varieties, production continued to recover, and cotton production was 450,000 tons in 2015. In 2016, affected by the climate, the production was reduced to 310,000 tons, in 2017 it was 328,000 tons, in 2018 it was 387,000 tons, and the total output was the fourth in Africa. The branch is the fifth largest in the world and the second largest palm oil producer in Africa. The output in 2018 was 514,000 tons. Food cannot be self-sufficient, and 60% of rice consumption needs to be imported. The main crops are corn, millet, sorghum, rice, cassava, and yam. In 2016, the total grain output was 1.431 million tons, which was down during the same period. In recent years, the export volume of tropical fruits has increased, mainly including bananas, pineapples and papayas.

Rich in forest resources, wood has always been the main export product of the branch. Forest area has declined sharply due to excessive harvesting, agricultural development, drought and forest fires; 15 million hectares in 1960 and only 2.5 million hectares in 1991. The current forest area is about 2 million hectares and the forest coverage rate is 16%. The livestock industry is underdeveloped. Eggs are basically self-sufficient, with 88% of dairy products and 56% of meat being imported. The fishery output value accounts for 7% of the total agricultural production value, and the employed population is 70,000. The annual fishing volume is 8 to 100,000 tons, which can only meet the domestic consumption demand of 20 to 25%.

[Service Industry] The service industry is dominated by business and transportation. In 2013, the output value of the service industry accounted for 52.4% of the GDP. In recent years, with the support of the state, the telecommunications industry has developed rapidly. The turnover has increased from 544 billion francs in 2007 to 682 billion francs in 2008, of which 82% of the turnover comes from mobile communication services. In 2008, the telecom industry invested a total of 122 billion non-lang, directly creating more than 4,000 jobs. In 2009, the output value of the telecommunications industry accounted for 5.5% of the GDP of the year. The number of fixed-line telephone subscribers has stabilized at around 300,000 in recent years. In 2010, there were 76 mobile phones per 100 people, and there were 2.6 Internet connections per 100 people. As of the end of 2010, the Branch had 23 credit institutions, including 22 banks and 1 financial institution. The amount of savings increased by 10% to 273.3 billion francs, and the loan amount increased by 13% to 246 billion francs.

[Tourism] Pay attention to the development of tourism and the development of tourism resources. Important sights include the Comoy National Park, the Tay National Park, the Ninba Mountain Nature Reserve and the Yamoussoukro Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace. The first three are listed on the UNESCO World Natural Heritage List, and the historical town of Grand Bassam is included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List. The economic capital Abidjan is adjacent to the Gulf of Guinea and surrounds the lagoon with beautiful scenery. Due to years of war, the tourism industry has been seriously affected. Since the post-election crisis subsided in 2011, the government has made tourism development the third largest industry after agriculture and industry, and increased investment in tourism.

【外国援助】据经济合作与发展组织统计,2013年科获得的官方发展援助为21亿(美元,下同)。主要捐助方为:德国5.1亿,美国3.05亿,日本2.42亿,法国2.39亿,西班牙2.34亿。2009年3月,科特迪瓦达到国际货币基金组织“重债穷国”减债计划决策点,被正式列入减贫促进增长计划。2012年6月,科达到“重债穷国”减债计划完成点,获得减免总计44亿美元债务(“重债穷国”减债计划和“多边债务”减债计划合计)。2013年2月,欧盟宣布将向科提供1.15亿欧元(约合756亿非郎)的预算援助,支持科政府巩固和平、减少贫困、实现经济增长。3月,联合国与科方签署联合国援助发展框架计划(2013-2015),联合国将向科提供3.426亿美元的援助,用于增加就业、保护环境和可持续发展、教育、卫生、防治艾滋病、饮用水安全等。3月,日本政府决定免除2012年6月1日到期的1100亿非郎(约合2.2亿美元)债务,要求科政府将其用于减贫和发展等国家发展战略。6月,德国政府免除科2521亿非郎(约合5.04亿美元)债务,其中2389亿非郎(约合4.78亿美元)立即免除,另131.2亿(约合2624万美元)以转移支付方式免除,希科政府将转移支付部分的资金用于市镇环境保护项目。2014年1月,日本首相安倍晋三访科期间承诺日将向科提供770万美元援助。 2017年国际货币基金组织宣布向科提供1.365亿美元贷款。

【人民生活】 根据联合国开发计划署公布的《2018年人类发展报告》,2017年科人类发展指数在世界188个国家中排名第170位。居民预期寿命56岁,人口增长率3%。77%的城市居民和不到15%的农村居民使用电力照明。2012年通电率为47.3%。科是西非地区城市化水平最高的国家,城市人口占总人口的52%,首都阿比让集中了全国人口的20%。2004年,全国共有137所医院(其中妇产医院70家),妇幼保健站27个,农村医疗点366个,各种医疗中心51个,平均10万人拥有12名医生,平均3226人拥有1名护士;平均1000人拥有0.8张病床。截至2004年,全国84%的人口能饮用干净水,60%的人口享受基本医疗。艾滋病传播迅速,2007年艾滋病患者占15-49岁年龄段人数的4.7%。2016年艾滋病发病率为2.7%。目前,约有57万人感染艾滋病。随着近年电信产业的迅速发展,电话、网络普及迅速。2012年,科手机普及率为每100人86部。

【军 事】 全国武装力量创建于1960年7月27日,由武装部队、宪兵和共和国卫队组成。国防委员会为最高军事决策机构,总统兼任武装力量总司令,国防部长具体负责武装力量的管理。实行义务兵役制,服役期6个月。武器装备主要由法国提供。2011年3月,瓦塔拉宣布组成“科特迪瓦共和力量”(Forces républicaines de Côte-d’Ivoire),以原北方叛军“新生力量”为主,并吸收了支持瓦的其他武装力量。“共和力量”随即向支持巴博的政府军发动攻势,并迅速控制全国。6月新政府成立后着手进行军队整合工作。现任总参谋长塞古·杜尔(Sekou TOURE),2017年1月任职。哈米德•巴卡约科(Hamed BAKAYOKO)现任国防国务部长,2017年7月任职。

【文化教育】沿用法国教育体制。初等教育6年,中等教育分两个阶段共7年,高等教育3至4年。科政府重视教育事业。2014年度全国教育、培训投入占国家预算的20.67%,占GDP的4.7%。。2012年小学入学率60.8%,成人文盲率43.8%。科特迪瓦国立大学是一所综合性大学,设2个分校和12个学院。根据联合国教科文组织统计,2006-2007学年科全国教师总数约为6.8万。2007年科高等教育普及率为9%,在国外就读学生约4万人(资料来源:科特迪瓦财政部2008年度财政预算报告,世界银行)。

[Foreign Aid] According to the statistics of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the official development assistance received by the Section in 2013 was 2.1 billion (US$, the same below). The main donors are: Germany 510 million, the United States 305 million, Japan 242 million, France 239 million, Spain 234 million. In March 2009, Côte d’Ivoire reached the decision point of the International Monetary Fund’s “heavily indebted poor countries” debt reduction plan and was formally included in the poverty reduction and growth promotion plan. In June 2012, the division reached the completion point of the “heavily indebted poor countries” debt reduction plan and obtained a total of 4.4 billion US dollars in debt relief (the “heavily indebted poor countries” debt reduction plan and the “multilateral debt” debt reduction plan total). In February 2013, the European Union announced that it would provide the Foundation with a budgetary assistance of 115 million euros (about 75.6 billion francs) to support the government to consolidate peace, reduce poverty and achieve economic growth. In March, the United Nations and the Kuwaiti signed the United Nations Assistance Development Framework (2013-2015). The United Nations will provide $342.6 million in assistance to the Ministry for Employment, Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development, Education, Health, AIDS, Drinking Water safety, etc. In March, the Japanese government decided to waive the 110 billion non-francs (about 220 million U.S. dollars) debt due on June 1, 2012, and asked the government to use it for national development strategies such as poverty reduction and development. In June, the German government exempted the government from 252.1 billion francs (about 504 million US dollars) of debt, of which 238.9 billion francs (about 478 million US dollars) were immediately exempted, and another 13.12 billion (about 26.24 million US dollars) was exempted by transfer payment. The government of Xike will transfer the funds from the payment part to the municipal environmental protection project. In January 2014, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe will provide $7.7 million in assistance to the Section during his commitment to the Section. In 2017, the International Monetary Fund announced a loan of $136.5 million to the Section.

[People’s Life] According to the 2018 Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Program, the 2017 Human Development Index ranks 170th among 188 countries in the world. The life expectancy of residents is 56 years old and the population growth rate is 3%. Seventy-seven percent of urban residents and less than 15% of rural residents use electric lighting. The electricity rate in 2012 was 47.3%. The city is the country with the highest level of urbanization in West Africa. The urban population accounts for 52% of the total population. The capital Abidjan concentrates 20% of the national population. In 2004, there were 137 hospitals in the country (including 70 maternity hospitals), 27 maternal and child health stations, 366 rural medical centers, 51 medical centers, an average of 100,000 doctors, and an average of 3,226 people. A nurse; an average of 1,000 people have 0.8 beds. As of 2004, 84% of the country’s population can drink clean water, and 60% of the population enjoy basic medical care. AIDS spreads rapidly. In 2007, AIDS patients accounted for 4.7% of the 15-49 age group. The incidence of AIDS in 2016 was 2.7%. About 570,000 people are currently infected with AIDS. With the rapid development of the telecommunications industry in recent years, telephone and Internet have become popular. In 2012, the mobile phone penetration rate was 86 per 100 people.

[Military] The National Armed Forces were founded on July 27, 1960 and consisted of the Armed Forces, the Gendarmerie and the Republican Guard. The National Defense Commission is the highest military decision-making body, the president is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and the defense minister is specifically responsible for the management of the armed forces. The compulsory military service system is implemented and the service period is 6 months. Weaponry is mainly provided by France. In March 2011, Ouattara announced the formation of the “Forces républicaines de Côte-d’Ivoire”, which was dominated by the former Northern Rebels “New Forces” and absorbed other armed forces supporting the tile. The “Republican Force” immediately launched an offensive against the government forces supporting Gbagbo and quickly controlled the country. After the establishment of the new government in June, the army began to work on integration. The current Chief of Staff, Sekou TOURE, served in January 2017. Hamed BAKAYOKO is the current Minister of National Defense and served in July 2017.

[Culture Education] The French education system is used. Primary education is 6 years, secondary education is divided into two phases for 7 years, and higher education is 3 to 4 years. The government attaches importance to education. In 2014, the national education and training investment accounted for 20.67% of the national budget, accounting for 4.7% of GDP. . In 2012, the primary school enrollment rate was 60.8%, and the adult illiteracy rate was 43.8%. The National University of Côte d’Ivoire is a comprehensive university with two branches and 12 colleges. According to UNESCO statistics, the total number of national teachers in the 2006-2007 school year is about 68,000. In 2007, the rate of higher education was 9%, and about 40,000 students were studying abroad (source: Côte d’Ivoire Ministry of Finance 2008 Budget Report, World Bank).