The Republic of Cameroon 喀麦隆共和国

【国 名】 喀麦隆共和国(The Republic of Cameroon,La République du Cameroun)。

【面 积】 475442平方公里。

【人 口】 2405万(2017年)。约有200多个民族,主要有富尔贝族、巴米累克族、赤道班图族(包括芳族和贝蒂族)、俾格米族、西北班图族(包括杜阿拉族)。法语和英语为官方语言。约有200种民族语言,但均无文字。40%人口信奉天主教和基督教新教,20%信奉伊斯兰教,40%信奉传统宗教。

【首 都】 雅温得(YAOUNDE),人口253.8万。年均气温24.9℃,降雨量1299毫米,降雨期133天。

【国家元首】 总统保罗·比亚(Paul BIYA)。

【重要节日】 国庆节:5月20日;独立纪念日:1月1日;统一纪念日:10月1日。

【简 况】 位于非洲中部,西南濒几内亚湾,西接尼日利亚,东北界乍得,东与中非共和国、刚果(布)为邻,南与加蓬、赤道几内亚毗连。海岸基准线长360公里。西部沿海和南部地区为赤道雨林气候,北部属热带草原气候。年平均气温24-28℃。

公元5世纪起外来部族大量迁入,并先后形成一些部落王国和部落联盟。1884年沦为德国的“保护国”。第一次世界大战期间,喀东、西部分别被法、英军队占领。1922年国际联盟将东、西喀麦隆分交法、英“委任统治”。第二次世界大战后,联合国将东、西喀分交法、英“托管”。1960年1月1日法托管区根据联合国决议独立,成立喀麦隆共和国,阿赫马杜·阿希乔出任总统。1961年2月,英托管区北部和南部分别举行公民投票,6月1日北部并入尼日利亚,10月1日南部与喀麦隆共和国合并,组成喀麦隆联邦共和国。1972年5月20日,喀公民投票通过新宪法,取消联邦制,成立中央集权的喀麦隆联合共和国。1982年11月阿希乔辞职,保罗·比亚继任总统。1984年1月改国名为喀麦隆共和国。

[Country name] The Republic of Cameroon (La République du Cameroun).

[area] 475,442 square kilometers.

[People] 24.05 million (2017). There are more than 200 ethnic groups, mainly Fuerbe, Bamik, Equatorial Bantu (including aromatic and Betty), Pygmies, and Northwest Bantu (including Douala). French and English are the official languages. There are about 200 national languages, but there are no words. 40% of the population believes in Catholicism and Protestantism, 20% believe in Islam, and 40% believe in traditional religion.

[The capital] Yaounde (YAOUNDE), with a population of 2.538 million. The annual average temperature is 24.9 ° C, the rainfall is 1299 mm, and the rainfall period is 133 days.

[Head of State] President Paul Biya (Paul BIYA).

[Important Festival] National Day: May 20th; Independence Day: January 1st; Unified Day: October 1.

[Brief] Located in central Africa, southwest of Guinea Bay, west of Nigeria, northeastern Chad, east to the Central African Republic, Congo (Brazza), and south to Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The coast baseline is 360 kilometers long. The western coastal and southern regions have an equatorial rainforest climate and the northern part has a savanna climate. The annual average temperature is 24-28 °C.

Since the 5th century AD, a large number of foreign tribes have moved in, and some tribal kingdoms and tribal alliances have been formed. In 1884, it became the “protectorate” of Germany. During the First World War, Kadong and the west were occupied by French and British troops respectively. In 1922, the League of Nations divided East and West Cameroon into France and Britain. After the Second World War, the United Nations handed over the East and West to the French and the British. On January 1, 1960, the French custodian area was independent according to UN resolutions, and the Republic of Cameroon was established. Ahmado Ahicho became president. In February 1961, a referendum was held in the north and south of the British Trusteeship District. In the north of June 1st, it was merged into Nigeria. On the 1st of October, the south merged with the Republic of Cameroon to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. On May 20, 1972, the Kazakh referendum passed a new constitution, canceled the federal system, and established the centralized Cameroon United Republic. In November 1982, Axicho resigned and Paul Biya succeeded as president. In January 1984, the country was renamed the Republic of Cameroon.

【政 治】 比亚总统执政以来,实行“民族复兴”纲领,主张“民主化和民族融合”,政局长期稳定。比亚1984年、1988年两次连任总统。1990年12月实行多党制。1992年举行多党立法选举和总统选举,比亚当选总统,组成以执政党“喀麦隆人民民主联盟”(简称人民盟)为主体的多党联合政府。1997年10月、2004年10月,比亚两度连选连任。2008年4月,喀国民议会以压倒性多数通过宪法修正案,取消对总统任期次数的限制。2011年10月比亚再度连任。2018年10月7日,喀举行总统选举,比亚以71.28%的得票率第七次当选总统。

【宪 法】 现行宪法于1972年5月20日经公民投票通过。1975年5月、1983年11月、1984年1月、1988年3月、1991年4月、1996年1月和2008年4月7次修改。宪法规定,共和国总统是国家元首和武装部队最高统帅,有权任免总理和政府成员,颁布法律和法令,宣布紧急状态,必要时可提前举行总统选举。总统通过直接选举产生,任期7年,可连选连任。总统不能履行职权时,由参议院议长代行总统职务。总理是政府首脑,领导政府工作,负责执行法律,行使制定规章权,任命行政官员。

【议 会】 宪法规定,立法权由国民议会和参议院组成的两院制议会行使。国会议员由直接普选产生,任期5年。本届国民议会于2013年9月选举产生,共有180个席位,由7党组成。其中人民盟占153席,社会民主阵线16席。国民议会设议长1名、副议长6名。议长:卡瓦耶·耶吉·贾布里勒(Cavaye Yeguie DJIBRIL),人民盟成员。本届参议院于2018年3月选举产生,由市镇议员投票产生70名参议员,总统任命30名参议员。100名参议员来自7个政党,其中人民盟占87席,社会民主阵线占7席。参议院设参议长1名、副参议长5名。参议长:马塞尔·恩吉芬吉·尼亚特(Marcel NJIFENJI NIAT ),人民盟成员。

【政 府】 本届政府于2019年1月组成,包括总理1人、国务部长4人、部长35人、部长级代表8人、国务秘书10人。主要成员如下:总理迪翁·恩古特·约瑟夫(Dion Ngute Joseph),旅游和娱乐国务部长贝洛·布巴·迈加里(Bello Bouba Maigari),司法国务部长埃索·洛朗(Esso Laurent),高等教育国务部长法姆·恩东戈·雅克(Fame Ndongo Jacques),国务部长兼总统府秘书长费迪南·恩戈·恩戈(Ferdinand Ngoh Ngoh),总统府负责国防事务的部长级代表贝蒂·阿索莫·约瑟夫(Beti Assomo Joseph),总统府负责国家最高监察事务的部长级代表姆巴·阿查·福曼当·罗丝·恩格瓦里(Mbah Acha née Fomundam Rose Ngwari,女),总统府负责公共采购的部长级代表塔尔巴·马拉·易卜拉欣 (Talba Malla Ibrahim),总统府负责与议会关系部长级代表瓦卡塔·博尔维纳 (Wakata Bolvine),领土管理部长阿坦加·恩吉·保罗(Atanga Nji Paul),社会事务部长恩盖内·肯代克·波利娜·伊雷娜(Nguéné née Kendeck Pauline Irène,女),农业和乡村发展部长姆拜罗贝·加布里埃尔(Mbairobé Gabriel),艺术和文化部长比敦格·姆克帕特·皮埃尔·伊斯梅尔(Bidoung Mkpatt Pierre Ismaël),商务部长姆巴尔加·阿坦加纳·吕克·马格卢瓦尔(Mbarga Atangana Luc Magloire), 新闻部长萨迪·勒内·埃马纽埃尔(Sadi Réné Emmanuel),权力下放和地方发展部长埃兰加·奥巴姆·乔治(Elanga Obam Georges),地产、地籍和土地事务部长埃耶贝·阿伊西·亨利(Eyebé Ayissi Henri),水资源和能源部长埃伦杜·埃松巴·加斯东(Eloundou Essomba Gaston),经济、计划和领土整治部长阿拉明·奥斯曼·梅伊(Alamine Ousmane Mey ),基础教育部长埃通迪·恩戈亚·洛朗·塞尔日(Etoundi Ngoa Laurent Serge),畜牧、渔业和畜产工业部长塔伊加(Taiga),就业和职业培训部长伊萨·奇罗马·巴卡里(Issa Tchiroma Bakary),中等教育部长娜洛瓦·莉翁加·波利娜·埃贝(Nalova Lyonga Pauline Egbe,女),环境、自然保护和可持续发展部长海莱·皮埃尔(Hélé Pierre),财政部长莫塔泽·路易·保罗(Motaze Louis Paul),公职和行政改革部长约瑟夫·勒安德森(Joseph Le Anderson),林业和动物资源部长恩东戈·朱尔·多雷(Ndongo Jules Doret),住房和城市发展部长库尔泰斯·克恰·塞莱斯蒂娜(Courtès née Keutcha Célestine,女),青年和公民教育部长穆努纳·富楚(Mounouna Foutsou),矿产、工业和技术开发部长多多·恩多凯·加布里埃尔(Dodo Ndoké Gabriel),中小企业、社会经济和手工业部长巴西莱金·阿希尔(Bassilekin III Achille),邮电部长利博姆·利·利康·芒多莫·米内特 (Libom Li Likeng née Mendomo Minette,女),妇女和家庭事业促进部长阿贝娜·翁多阿·奥巴马·马里·泰雷兹(Abena Ondoa née Obama Marie Thérèse,女),科研和创新部长楚恩特·马德莱娜(Tchuinte Madeleine,女),对外关系部长姆贝拉·姆贝拉·勒热纳(Mbella Mbella Lejeune),公共卫生部长马纳乌达·马拉切(Manaouda Malachie),运动和体育部长穆埃勒·孔比·纳西斯(Mouelle Kombi Narcisse),交通部长恩加莱·比贝埃·让·埃内斯特·马塞纳(Ngallé Bibehe Jean Ernest Masséna),劳动和社会保障部长奥沃纳·格雷瓜尔(Owona Grégoire ),公共工程部长恩加努·朱梅西·埃马纽埃尔(Nganou Djoumessi Emmanuel)。

[Politics] Since President Biya took office, he has implemented the “national rejuvenation” program and advocated “democratization and national integration”. The political situation has been stable for a long time. Biya was re-elected twice in 1984 and 1988. A multiparty system was introduced in December 1990. In 1992, he held multi-party legislative elections and presidential elections. Biya was elected president and formed a multi-party coalition government with the ruling party “Cameroon People’s Democratic Alliance” (referred to as the People’s League). In October 1997 and October 2004, Biya was re-elected twice. In April 2008, the Kazakh National Assembly passed an constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority, lifting the restrictions on the number of presidential terms. In October 2011, Biya was re-elected. On October 7, 2018, Kazak held presidential elections, and Biya was elected president for the seventh time with 71.28% of the votes.

[Constitution] The current Constitution was adopted by a referendum on May 20, 1972. Amended in May 1975, November 1983, January 1984, March 1988, April 1991, January 1996 and April 2008. The Constitution stipulates that the President of the Republic is the head of state and the supreme commander of the armed forces. He has the power to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister and members of the government, promulgate laws and decrees, declare a state of emergency, and hold presidential elections in advance if necessary. The president is elected through direct elections for a term of seven years and is eligible for re-election. When the President is unable to perform his duties, the President of the Senate will assume the presidency. The Prime Minister is the head of government, leading the government, responsible for enforcing the law, exercising the power to make regulations, and appointing administrative officials.

[Parliament] The Constitution stipulates that the legislative power is exercised by the bicameral parliament composed of the National Assembly and the Senate. Members of Parliament are elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of five years. The current National Assembly was elected in September 2013 and has a total of 180 seats, consisting of 7 parties. Among them, the People’s League has 153 seats and the Social Democratic Front has 16 seats. The National Assembly has one speaker and six deputy speakers. Speaker: Cavaye Yeguie DJIBRIL, member of the People’s Alliance. The current Senate was elected in March 2018. The town councillors voted for 70 senators and the president appointed 30 senators. The 100 senators came from seven political parties, of which the People’s League occupied 87 seats and the Social Democratic Front occupied 7 seats. The Senate has one Senate and five Vice-Presidents. Senate President: Marcel NJIFENJI NIAT, member of the People’s Alliance.

[Government] The current government was formed in January 2019, including one prime minister, four ministers of state, 35 ministers, eight ministerial representatives, and 10 state secretaries. The main members are as follows: Prime Minister Dion Ngute Joseph, Minister of State for Tourism and Entertainment Bello Bouba Maigari, Minister of State for Justice Esso Laurent Fame Ndongo Jacques, Minister of State for Higher Education, Ferdinand Ngoh Ngoh, Secretary of State and Presidential Office, Ministerial Representative for National Defense Beti Assomo Joseph, Mbah Acha née Fomundam Rose Ngwari, Minister of the Presidential Office responsible for the highest level of supervision of the country (Mbah Acha née Fomundam Rose Ngwari, female ), Talba Malla Ibrahim, the ministerial representative of the presidential palace responsible for public procurement, and Wakata Bolvine, the ministerial representative of the presidential palace, Territory Management Minister Atanga Nji Paul, Minister of Social Affairs Nguéné née Kendeck Pauline Irène (female) ), Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Mbairobé Gabriel, Minister of Arts and Culture Bidoung Mkpatt Pierre Ismaël, Minister of Commerce Mbarga Atangana Luc Magloire, Minister of Information Sadi Réné Emmanuel, Decentralization and Local Development Minister Elanga · Elanga Obam Georges, Minister of Real Estate, Cadastre and Land Affairs Eyebé Ayissi Henri, Minister of Water Resources and Energy Ellen Du Esamba Gaston Eloundou Essomba Gaston), Minister of Economics, Planning and Territorial Rehabilitation, Alamine Ousmane Mey, Minister of Basic Education, Etoundi Ngoa Laurent Serge, Livestock , Minister of Fisheries and Livestock Industry Taiga, Minister of Employment and Vocational Training Issa Tchiroma Bakary, Minister of Secondary Education Narova Lion · Nalova Lyonga Pauline Egbe (female), Minister of Environment, Nature Conservation and Sustainable Development Hélé Pierre, Finance Minister Motaze Louis Paul , Public and Administrative Reform Minister Joseph Le Anderson, Minister of Forestry and Animal Resources Ndongo Jules Doret, Minister of Housing and Urban Development, Kurtese Kchasé Courteès née Keutcha Célestine (female), Minister of Youth and Civic Education Mounouna Foutsou, Minister of Minerals, Industry and Technology Development Dodo Ndoké Gabriel Basilekin III Achille, Minister of SMEs, Socio-Economics and Handicrafts, Minister of Posts and Telecommunications Libom Li Likeng née Mendomo Minette (female), women and Abena Ondoa née Obama Marie Thérèse (female), Ministry of Research and Innovation Tchuinte Madeleine (female), Minister of External Relations Mbella Mbella Lejeune, Minister of Public Health Manaouda Malachie ), Movement and Sports Minister Mouelle Kombi Narcisse, Minister of Transport Ngallé Bibehe Jean Ernest Masséna, Labour and Minister of Social Security Owona Grégoire, Minister of Public Works Nganou Djoumessi Emmanuel.

【行政区划】 全国划分为10个大区(极北、北部、阿达马瓦、东部、中部、南部、滨海、西部、西南、西北),58个省,360个市镇。

【司法机构】 司法权由最高法院、上诉法院、各级法庭行使。总统任命法官。最高司法会议协助总统工作。最高法院院长梅科贝·索内·丹尼尔(MEKOBE SONE Daniel ),总检察长恩乔多·吕克(NDJODO Luc)。

【政 党】 共有合法政党298个,主要政党情况如下:

(1)喀麦隆人民民主联盟(Rassemblement Démocratique du Peuple Camerounais, RDPC):执政党。前身是喀麦隆民族联盟,1966年9月1日成立,1985年3月24日改称现名。1990年12月前为唯一合法政党和执政党。总目标是建立一个以严格、讲道德、自由和民主以及保证人民充分发展为基础的“集体自由主义社会”。恪守的信条是“团结、进步、民主”。当前的任务是促进全国的团结和统一,发展经济和文化,反对部族主义和宗教特权。1990年6月和1996年12月,人民盟分别举行了第一次和第二次全国代表大会,重新选举产生了党的领导机构。2011年9月,人民盟召开第三次全国代表大会,比亚再次当选党主席。该党在国民议会和参议院中分别占153席和87席。

(2)社会民主阵线(Social Democratic Front,SDF):主要反对党。1990年5月26日成立。1991年3月1日成为合法政党。以“民主、正义、发展”为口号,宣称以和平手段实现政权交替是该党的责任和义务,主张恢复联邦制。曾抵制1992年的立法选举和1997年的总统选举,在西部英语区和巴米累克人中影响较大。2004年10月,党主席约翰·弗吕·恩迪(John Fru NDI)参加总统选举,获得17.40%选票。2011年10月,恩迪再次参加总统选举,获得10.71%选票,排名第二。2018年10月,该党第一副主席奥什∙乔舒亚∙纳姆邦吉(OSIH Joshua NAMBANGI)参加总统选举,获得3.35%选票,排名第四。该党在国民议会和参议院中分别占16席和7席。

(3)喀麦隆复兴运动(Mouvement pour la Renaissance du Cameroun,MRC)主要反对党。2012年8月成立,主张发起广泛政治讨论,营造更为开放、民主的政治氛围。主席莫里斯∙坎图(Maurice Kamto),曾任联合国国际法委员会委员、司法部部长级代表等职,2018年10月参加总统选举,获得14.23%选票,排名第二。该党在国民议会和参议院中各占1席。

(4)喀麦隆民主联盟(Union Démocratique du Cameroun,UDC):反对党。1991年3月成立,同年4月取得合法地位。寻求建设一个和平、宽容、自由和正义的社会,主张实现在正义、平等、反对部族主义基础上的和平。在西部大区有一定影响。主席恩达姆·恩乔亚(Ndam NJOYA),曾任国际关系学院院长、外交部副部长和国民教育部长等职。2004年10月以反对派联盟“民族和解与国家重建联盟”统一候选人身份参加总统选举,获得4.47%选票,居第三位。2011年10月再次参加总统选举,获1.73%选票,居第四位。2018年10月再次参加总统选举,获1.73%选票,居第五位。该党在国民议会中占6席,在参议院中无席位。

(5)全国民主进步联盟(Union Nationale pour la Démocratie et le Progrès,UNDP):参政党。1990年5月成立,1991年3月25日被批准为合法政党。该党在北方穆斯林居住地区影响较大,领导层中有不少人为前总统阿希乔的支持者。强调喀是公民的国家,支持民族团结和统一,反对分裂。主张经济自由化和地方分权,赞成严格执行经济结构调整计划。1997年曾与社民阵联手抵制总统选举。1998年1月与人民盟达成“政府共同纲领”后加入政府,成为参政党。该党在国民议会和参议院中分别占4席和2席。党主席贝洛·布巴·迈加里(Bello Buba MAIGARI)现任旅游国务部长。

(6)喀麦隆人民联盟(Union des Populations du Cameroun,UPC):参政党。成立于1948年4月,曾为喀独立作出过贡献。因从事反殖斗争,1955年被法国殖民当局取缔。喀独立后于1960年2月25日成为合法政党。1966年,前总统阿希乔宣布实行一党制后,该联盟被解散,其领导人大多流亡国外。喀实行多党制后,该联盟即恢复活动,于1991年2月取得合法地位。该联盟主张加速国家民主变革,鼓励政治自由化,广施民主,分散经济管理权,减少国家干预,提高人民生活水平,建立一个在团结和互相补充基础上的社会。该党多次发生分裂,形成以总书记奥古斯坦·科多克(Augustin KODOCK)、主席恩代·恩图马扎(Ndeh NTUMAZAH)以及亨利·奥科贝·恩朗(Henri HOGBENLEND)为首的三派。2000年1月前两派宣布和解。该党在国民议会和参议院中各占1席。

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 10 regions (North, North, Adamawa, East, Central, South, Binhai, West, Southwest, Northwest), 58 provinces, 360 municipalities.

[Judiciary] Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, and the courts at all levels. The president appoints a judge. The Supreme Judicial Conference assists the President in his work. Supreme Court President MEKOBE SONE Daniel, Attorney General NDJODO Luc.

[Political Party] There are 298 legitimate political parties. The main political parties are as follows:

(1) Rassemblement Démocratique du Peuple Camerounais (RDPC): The ruling party. The predecessor was the Cameroonian National Union, which was established on September 1, 1966 and renamed its current name on March 24, 1985. Before December 1990, it was the only legal party and ruling party. The overall goal is to create a “collective liberal society” based on rigor, morality, freedom and democracy and ensuring the full development of the people. The creed of obedience is “unity, progress, democracy.” The current task is to promote unity and unity throughout the country, to develop the economy and culture, and to oppose patriarchalism and religious privileges. In June 1990 and December 1996, the People’s League held the first and second national congresses respectively, re-electing the party’s leading body. In September 2011, the People’s Alliance held its third national congress, and Biya was re-elected as party chairman. The party has 153 seats and 87 seats in the National Assembly and the Senate respectively.

(2) Social Democratic Front (SDF): The main opposition party. It was established on May 26, 1990. On March 1, 1991, he became a legitimate political party. With the slogan of “democracy, justice, development”, it is the party’s responsibility and obligation to declare that the political power is replaced by peaceful means, and advocates the restoration of federalism. The boycott of the 1992 legislative elections and the 1997 presidential elections have had a greater impact on the English-speaking Western and Bamik. In October 2004, Party Chairman John Fru NDI participated in the presidential election and won 17.40% of the votes. In October 2011, Endy again participated in the presidential election and won 10.71% of the votes, ranking second. In October 2018, OSIH Joshua NAMBANGI, the first vice-president of the party, participated in the presidential election and won the third place with 3.35% of the votes. The party has 16 seats and 7 seats in the National Assembly and the Senate respectively.

(3) The main opposition party of the Mouvement pour la Renaissance du Cameroun (MRC). Established in August 2012, it advocates launching extensive political discussions to create a more open and democratic political atmosphere. Chairman Maurice Kamto, former member of the United Nations International Law Committee and ministerial representative of the Ministry of Justice, participated in the presidential election in October 2018 and won 14.23% of the votes, ranking second. The party has one seat each in the National Assembly and the Senate.

(4) Union Démocratique du Cameroun (UDC): opposition party. It was established in March 1991 and obtained legal status in April of the same year. Seeking to build a society of peace, tolerance, freedom and justice, and advocate the realization of peace based on justice, equality and opposition to tribalism. There is a certain impact in the western region. Chairman Ndam NJOYA has served as Dean of the School of International Relations, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of National Education. In October 2004, he participated in the presidential election as a unified candidate for the “National Reconciliation and National Reconstruction Alliance” of the opposition coalition, winning 4.47% of the votes, ranking third. In October 2011, he again participated in the presidential election and won 1.73% of the votes, ranking fourth. In October 2018, he again participated in the presidential election and won 1.73% of the votes, ranking fifth. The party has six seats in the National Assembly and has no seats in the Senate.

(5) Union Nationale pour la Démocratie et le Progrès (UNDP): Participating parties. It was established in May 1990 and was approved as a legitimate political party on March 25, 1991. The party has a greater influence in the Muslim-populated areas of the North, and many of the leaders are supporters of former President Axicho. Emphasize that Kaz is a citizen’s country, support national unity and unity, and oppose splittism. Advocating economic liberalization and local decentralization, and agreeing to strictly implement economic restructuring plans. In 1997, he joined forces with the Social Democratic Front to boycott the presidential election. After joining the “Government Common Program” with the People’s Alliance in January 1998, he joined the government and became a participating party. The party has 4 seats and 2 seats in the National Assembly and the Senate respectively. Party Chairman Bello Buba MAIGARI is currently Minister of State for Tourism.

(6) Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC): Participating parties. Founded in April 1948, it has contributed to the independence of Kazakh. In 1955, he was banned by the French colonial authorities for his struggle against colonialism. After independence, Kaz became a legitimate political party on February 25, 1960. In 1966, after the former President Axijo announced the implementation of the one-party system, the alliance was disbanded and most of its leaders were exiled abroad. After the implementation of the multi-party system, the alliance resumed its activities and obtained legal status in February 1991. The alliance advocates accelerating national democratic change, encouraging political liberalization, spreading democracy, decentralizing economic management, reducing state intervention, improving people’s living standards, and building a society based on solidarity and complementarity. The party split several times, forming three headed by General Secretary Augustin KODOCK, Chairman Ndeh NTUMAZAH and Henri HOGBENLEND. send. In January 2000, the two factions announced a settlement. The party has one seat each in the National Assembly and the Senate.

【重要人物】 保罗·比亚:共和国总统、国家元首、全国武装力量最高统帅、人民盟全国主席。1933年2月13日生于南部大区贾埃洛博州。1956至1962年先后在法国路易·勒·克昂公立中学、巴黎大学、海外高等研究学院等攻读法律和政治学,1960年获国际公法学士学位。回国后历任总统府特派员,国民教育、青年和文化部长办公厅主任、秘书长,总统府民事办公室主任,总统府秘书长兼民事办公室主任,总统府国务部长兼秘书长等职。1975年6月出任政府总理。1982年11月任共和国总统至今。1975年2月当选为喀麦隆民族联盟中央委员会副主席,1983年9月任全国主席。1985年3月任喀麦隆人民民主联盟全国主席至今。已婚,有多个子女。

【经 济】 喀地理位置和自然条件优越,资源丰富。农业和畜牧业为国民经济主要支柱。工业有一定基础。独立后实行“有计划的自由主义”、“自主自为平衡发展”和“绿色革命”等经济政策,国民经济发展较快,80年代初期经济增长率曾达到两位数,人均国内生产总值一度达到1200美元。1985年后,由于受国际经济危机的影响,经济陷入困难。喀政府采取了一些措施,但收效甚微,与国际货币基金组织签署的四期结构调整计划均未完成。1994年非洲法郎贬值后,喀经济形势开始好转,通货膨胀得到控制,外贸结构改善,工农业增产,财政收入大幅增加。喀政府加大经济结构调整力度,加强财政管理,推进私有化,国内生产总值连续保持增长。2000年,喀顺利完成第五期结调计划,并被批准加入“重债穷国”减债计划。2000年至2003年,喀在国际货币基金组织资助下实施第二个“减贫促增长”计划。2006年,世界银行、国际货币基金组织确认喀达到“重债穷国减债计划”完成点,喀外债获大幅减免。2008年以来,受国际金融危机影响,喀财政关税和出口产品收入骤减,外部投资和信贷收紧,失业人数增多。2009年,喀政府先后公布《2035年远景规划》和经济增长和就业战略发展规划(2010-2020),重点是发展农业,扩大能源生产,加大基础设施投资,努力改善依赖原材料出口型经济结构,争取到2035年将喀建成“民主、统一、多样的新兴国家”。近年来,由于经济增长未达到预期目标(年均5.5%),喀政府于2014年底出台加快经济增长三年紧急计划(2015-2017),主要目标是尽快将经济增长率提升至6%,为此要着力改善营商环境,实现生产设施现代化,推动喀国内工业崛起。 2018年主要经济指标估算如下:

国内生产总值:379.05亿美元

人均国内生产总值:1576美元

经济增长率:4%

货币名称:中非金融合作法郎(FCFA,简称非洲法郎)

汇率:1美元约合582非洲法郎

通货膨胀率:0.9%

(资料来源:2019年第一季度《伦敦经济季评》)

[Important figures] Paul Biya: President of the Republic, Head of State, Supreme Commander of the National Armed Forces, and National President of the People’s League. Born on February 13, 1933 in the southern region of Jaelobo. From 1956 to 1962, he studied law and political science at the Louis Le Kern Public School in France, the University of Paris, and the Overseas Institute of Advanced Studies. In 1960, he obtained a bachelor’s degree in international public law. After returning to China, he served as special commissioner of the presidential palace, director of the National Education, Youth and Culture Minister, Secretary-General, director of the Presidential Office Civil Office, Secretary-General of the Presidential Office and Director of the Civil Office, and Minister of State and Secretary-General of the Presidential Office. In June 1975, he became the Prime Minister of the government. In November 1982, he was the President of the Republic. In February 1975, he was elected as the vice chairman of the Central Committee of the Cameroon National Union. In September 1983, he was appointed as the national president. In March 1985, he served as the national chairman of the People’s Democratic League of Cameroon. Married with multiple children.

[Economics] The geographical and natural conditions of Kazakh are superior and the resources are abundant. Agriculture and animal husbandry are the main pillars of the national economy. Industry has a certain foundation. After independence, the implementation of “planned liberalism”, “self-balanced development” and “green revolution” and other economic policies, the national economy developed rapidly, the economic growth rate in the early 1980s reached double digits, per capita GDP Once reached $1,200. After 1985, due to the impact of the international economic crisis, the economy was in trouble. The Kazakh government has taken some measures, but the results have been minimal, and the four-phase structural adjustment plan signed with the International Monetary Fund has not been completed. After the depreciation of the African franc in 1994, the economic situation in Kazakh began to improve, inflation was controlled, the structure of foreign trade improved, industrial and agricultural production increased, and fiscal revenue increased substantially. The Kazakh government has intensified economic restructuring, strengthened fiscal management, promoted privatization, and maintained sustained growth in GDP. In 2000, Kazakh successfully completed the fifth phase of the plan and was approved to join the “heavily indebted poor countries” debt reduction plan. From 2000 to 2003, Kazak implemented the second “Poverty Reduction and Growth” program funded by the International Monetary Fund. In 2006, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund confirmed that Kadak reached the completion point of the “heavily indebted poor countries debt reduction plan” and the foreign debts were substantially reduced. Since 2008, affected by the international financial crisis, the fiscal tariffs and export products of the Kazakstan have plummeted, external investment and credit have tightened, and the number of unemployed has increased. In 2009, the Kazakh government announced the “Vision 2035” and the Economic Growth and Employment Strategy Development Plan (2010-2020), focusing on developing agriculture, expanding energy production, increasing infrastructure investment, and striving to improve the export-oriented economic structure. We will strive to build a “democratic, unified and diverse emerging country” by 2035. In recent years, due to the fact that economic growth has not reached the expected target (average 5.5% per annum), the Kazakh government issued a three-year emergency plan for accelerating economic growth (2015-2017) at the end of 2014. The main goal is to increase the economic growth rate to 6% as soon as possible. This should focus on improving the business environment, modernizing production facilities, and promoting the rise of domestic industries in Kazakhstan. The main economic indicators for 2018 are estimated as follows:

Gross domestic product: $37.905 billion

Per capita GDP: $1,576

Economic growth rate: 4%

Currency Name: China-Africa Financial Cooperation Franc (FCFA, African CFA)

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar is about 582 CFA francs

Inflation rate: 0.9%

(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, First Quarter, 2019)

【资 源】 矿产资源较丰富。已探明的主要矿藏有:铝矾土(储量为11亿吨以上,矾土品位为43%,硅石品位为3.4%)、铁矿(约50亿吨)、金红石(约300万吨,钛含量92%至95%)、铀矿(约2万吨)。此外还有锡石矿、黄金、钻石、钴、镍等以及大理石、石灰石、云母等非金属矿产。森林面积2250多万公顷,约占全国总面积的46%,可供开采面积约1700万公顷,木材蓄积总量40亿立方米。水力资源丰富,可利用的水力资源达2080亿立方米,占世界水力资源的3%。水力发电量占喀麦隆总发电量的72%。石油储量约1亿吨,天然气储藏量约5000亿立方米。2016年石油产量480万吨,石油收益约占财政收入的23%。2016年天然气产量达到3.57亿立方米。

喀政府2001年颁布《矿业法》,2010年7月29日修订其中部分条款,进一步明确了矿产证类型、采矿权益保障等内容。目前,喀政府正在酝酿出台新的《矿业法》。截至2016年,喀政府共向314家手工矿产开发商发放1248份许可证,共批准15家手工矿产开发商经营矿产开发业务,共批准设立60个矿产资源商业化办公室,此外还登记并发放了167份勘探许可证、5份开采许可证、45份采石场开采许可证。目前,喀麦隆矿产资源每年财政收入约50亿非郎。

【工 业】 独立后工业发展较快,已有一定基础和规模,工业水平居黑非洲前列。全国15%的劳动力从事工业。主要工业部门有食品、饮料、卷烟、纺织、服装、造纸、建材、化工、炼铝、电力、石油开采与加工、木材开采与加工等。自1990年起推行企业私有化政策。近年来,为促进工业发展,增加就业,吸引投资,喀政府积极完善有关法律法规,大力鼓励中小企业发展。但喀麦隆工业化发展仍面临电力等能源缺乏、基础设施建设落后、加工制造业成本高昂等困难。

【农林牧渔业】 素有“中部非洲粮仓”之称。可耕地达到720万公顷,占国土面积的15%,目前仅开发了180万公顷,占25%。喀政府重视农业发展,2005年至2010年农业投资从265亿非郎增加到600亿非郎,同时增加农业发展管理机构的投资,建设农村基层合作组织,加强农业机械化发展,为年轻农民就业提供帮助。2010年建立农业商会,并积极与国际组织联络,争取获得世界银行、欧盟、联合国粮农组织、非洲开发银行、伊斯兰开发银行的资助,扩大农业合作,提高喀麦隆农业产量及竞争力。2012-2015年期间,喀农业年均增速约3.6%,占国内生产总值比重平均为20.9%。农业为60%的劳动人口提供了岗位。主要粮食作物有小米、高粱、玉米、稻谷、薯类、芭蕉等。主要经济作物有可可、棉花、咖啡、香蕉、油棕等,系世界第五大香蕉生产国。2014年至2015年喀生产咖啡2.39万吨,同比下降27%,出口2.37万吨,同比增长8.24%,主要出口目的地国为德国、比利时和俄罗斯。2017年香蕉产量22万吨,棉花产量35万吨。

林业为喀国民经济支柱产业之一,森林面积占国土总面积的46%。喀政府重视林业发展,1999年进行林业改革,明令禁止原木出口,并对林地开采权进行公开招标。同年,针对禁止原木出口造成的出口收入下降问题,将树种分为传统树种和推广树种,后一种原木纳税后准许出口。林业对国民生产总值贡献率为6%,2013-2015年创造的就业岗位数由2.3万个增至2.8万个。

2008年,喀渔业及相关产业从业者约20万人。海洋捕鱼主要依赖手工作业,水产养殖尚在起步阶段。水产品自给不足,每年需从国外进口11万吨左右鱼品。全国牧场和草原面积1430万公顷。北部地区畜牧业较发达,主要以传统方式进行经营。畜牧业年产值占农业产值的14%。2013-2015年生产肉类566716吨、牛奶385676吨、食用鸡蛋135965吨、蜂蜜3341吨(其中出口蜂蜜900吨)。喀政府已着手制定旨在促进养鱼业、捕鱼业、养蜂业等产业多样化发展政策,制定有效防治和减少动物流行病的机制,拟定兽医服务业标准与国际接轨。

【旅游业】 旅游资源丰富,有“微型非洲”之称。政府重视发展旅游业,成立了以总理为主席的国家旅游理事会,在国外开设旅游代表处,并鼓励私人投资旅游业。1975年加入国际旅游组织。1985年建立喀麦隆旅游公司。1989年成立旅游部。1990年成立“全国促进旅游委员会”。全国有381个旅游景点,各类保护区45处。主要旅游点有贝努埃、瓦扎和布巴恩吉达等天然动物园。截至2015年,共计拥有宾馆2092家。2016年,旅游业收入为5600亿非郎,占国内生产总值5.3%。2017年旅游业从业人数达25.7万。

[Resources] Mineral resources are abundant. The main proven deposits are: bauxite (reserve more than 1.1 billion tons, grade of bauxite is 43%, grade of silica is 3.4%), iron ore (about 5 billion tons), rutile (about 3 million tons, titanium) Content 92% to 95%), uranium ore (about 20,000 tons). In addition, there are cassiterite, gold, diamond, cobalt, nickel, etc., as well as non-metallic minerals such as marble, limestone and mica. The forest area is more than 22.5 million hectares, accounting for 46% of the country’s total area. The available mining area is about 17 million hectares and the total wood accumulation is 4 billion cubic meters. It is rich in water resources and has available hydropower resources of 208 billion cubic meters, accounting for 3% of the world’s hydropower resources. Hydropower generation accounts for 72% of Cameroon’s total electricity generation. The oil reserves are about 100 million tons and the natural gas reserves are about 500 billion cubic meters. In 2016, oil production was 4.8 million tons, and oil revenue accounted for 23% of fiscal revenue. In 2016, natural gas production reached 357 million cubic meters.

The Kazakh government promulgated the “Mining Law” in 2001, and some of its provisions were revised on July 29, 2010 to further clarify the types of mineral certificates and the protection of mining rights. At present, the Kazakh government is preparing to introduce a new Mining Law. As of 2016, the Kazakh government issued 1,248 licenses to 314 artisanal mineral developers, and approved 15 artisanal mineral developers to operate the mineral development business. A total of 60 mineral resources commercialization offices were approved, and registration and distribution were also completed. 167 exploration licenses, 5 mining licenses, and 45 quarry mining licenses. At present, Cameroon’s mineral resources have an annual revenue of about 5 billion francs.

[Industrial] After independence, the industry has developed rapidly, and it has a certain foundation and scale. The industrial level is in the forefront of black Africa. 15% of the country’s workforce is engaged in industry. The main industrial sectors are food, beverages, cigarettes, textiles, clothing, paper, building materials, chemicals, aluminum, electricity, oil extraction and processing, timber mining and processing. Since 1990, the company has implemented a policy of privatization. In recent years, in order to promote industrial development, increase employment, and attract investment, the Kazakh government has actively improved relevant laws and regulations and strongly encouraged the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. However, Cameroon’s industrialization development still faces difficulties such as lack of energy such as electricity, backward infrastructure construction, and high cost of processing and manufacturing.

[Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] is known as the “Central African Granary”. The arable land reached 7.2 million hectares, accounting for 15% of the country’s land area. Currently, only 1.8 million hectares have been developed, accounting for 25%. The Kazakh government attaches great importance to agricultural development. From 2005 to 2010, agricultural investment increased from 26.5 billion francs to 60 billion francs. At the same time, it increased investment in agricultural development management institutions, built rural grassroots cooperative organizations, strengthened the development of agricultural mechanization, and provided employment for young farmers. help. In 2010, the Agricultural Chamber of Commerce was established and actively liaised with international organizations to obtain funding from the World Bank, the European Union, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the African Development Bank, the Islamic Development Bank, expand agricultural cooperation, and increase agricultural production and competitiveness in Cameroon. During the period of 2012-2015, the average annual growth rate of agriculture in Kazakhstan was about 3.6%, accounting for an average of 20.9% of GDP. Agriculture provides jobs for 60% of the workforce. The main food crops are millet, sorghum, corn, rice, potato, plantain and so on. The main cash crops are cocoa, cotton, coffee, bananas, oil palm, etc., which is the fifth largest banana producer in the world. From 2014 to 2015, the production of coffee was 23,900 tons, down 27% year-on-year, and the output was 23,700 tons, up 8.24% year-on-year. The main export destination countries were Germany, Belgium and Russia. In 2017, the banana output was 220,000 tons and the cotton output was 350,000 tons.

Forestry is one of the pillar industries of the Kazakh national economy, and the forest area accounts for 46% of the total land area. The Kazakh government attaches great importance to the development of forestry. In 1999, it carried out forestry reform, explicitly prohibited the export of logs, and publicly tendered the right to exploit forest land. In the same year, the tree species were divided into traditional tree species and promoted tree species for the problem of the decline in export revenue caused by the ban on log exports. The latter type of logs were allowed to be exported after tax payment. The contribution rate of forestry to GDP is 6%, and the number of jobs created in 2013-2015 has increased from 23,000 to 28,000.

In 2008, there were about 200,000 people involved in the fishing industry and related industries. Marine fishing relies mainly on manual operations, and aquaculture is still in its infancy. Aquatic products are not self-sufficient, and they need to import about 110,000 tons of fish from abroad every year. The country’s pasture and grassland area is 14.3 million hectares. The livestock industry in the northern region is more developed and operates mainly in the traditional way. The annual output value of animal husbandry accounts for 14% of agricultural output. In 2013-2015, it produced 566,716 tons of meat, 385,676 tons of milk, 135,965 tons of edible eggs, and 3,341 tons of honey (including 900 tons of honey). The Kazakh government has embarked on a policy to promote diversification of fish farming, fishing, beekeeping and other industries, develop mechanisms to effectively prevent and reduce animal epidemics, and develop veterinary service industry standards in line with international standards.

[Tourism] The tourism resources are abundant and it is called “mini Africa”. The government attaches great importance to the development of tourism, established the National Tourism Council chaired by the Prime Minister, opened a tourism representative office abroad, and encouraged private investment in tourism. Joined the International Tourism Organization in 1975. Established Cameroon Tourism Company in 1985. The Ministry of Tourism was established in 1989. In 1990, the National Promotion Committee for Tourism was established. There are 381 tourist attractions in the country and 45 various types of protected areas. The main tourist spots are natural zoos such as Benue, Vaza and Bubaj Jeddah. As of 2015, there are a total of 2,092 hotels. In 2016, tourism revenue was 560 billion francs, accounting for 5.3% of GDP. In 2017, the number of employees in the tourism industry reached 257,000.

【交通运输】已形成陆海空立体交通网络。公路交通占全国运输总量的90%以上。

铁路:1911年投入使用,但至今未能延伸到全国各地。喀现行铁路总长仅1000公里,分布在部分大城市,且使用单窄轨铁路。2013年营业额为632.62亿非郎。2017年境内铁路运输旅客发送量为85万人次,同比减少近45%。喀政府于2012年推出了“国家铁路指导计划”。该计划被视为投资铁路领域的重要指南。

公路:总长达122108公里,其中沥青路总长约7000公里,主干道总长21490公里,乡村道路长为100243公里。

水运:喀麦隆目前有4个港口:杜阿拉、林贝、克里比3个海港和加鲁阿内陆河港。杜阿拉港位于距大西洋50公里的五里河港湾口,地理位置优越,是中非地区的重要港口,中非、乍得等内陆国进出口商品的转运港。设计吞吐量1000万吨/年,近年来实际吞吐量均超过1000万吨,年吞吐量占喀进出口商品的95%以上。2015年杜阿拉港货物吞吐量达到1130万吨,同比增长4.1%。林贝和克里比港规模较小。加鲁阿港为季节港,每年8-9月份为运输期,近几年没有承担任何运量。2014年12月,由中国进出口银行提供贷款建设的克里比深水港一期项目竣工,码头设计年吞吐量120万吨货物和30万TEU集装箱,2018年3月投入运营。

空运:目前喀麦隆除雅温得-恩西马兰、杜阿拉、加鲁阿等三大国际机场外,还有马鲁阿-萨拉克、恩冈代雷、贝尔图阿、巴富萨姆-巴姆古姆、巴门达-巴富特等五个二级机场。据喀民航局统计,2015年喀机场共计接送旅客约126.5万人次。目前共有20家商业航空公司和3家货运航空公司在喀开展业务。喀麦隆航空公司是在原喀国有航空公司的基础上组建成立的,总部位于杜阿拉市,现有3架波音飞机、两架新舟60飞机和一架庞巴迪飞机,经营国际和国内航线,2011年3月28日实现首航,2017年共运送乘客约23.57万人次。主要目的地城市为巴黎、布鲁塞尔、亚的斯亚贝巴、伊斯坦布尔等。此外,喀还有三家仅从事包机业务的小型航空公司。

【电信业】 近年来,喀麦隆通信业呈现持续发展势头。据喀麦隆邮电部统计,1998年全国仅有6.65万固话用户,2015年增至约90.9万户。互联网用户从1998年的3000人增至2010年的近100万人。2015年,移动通信服务覆盖全国领土超过80%,用户1861万。目前,喀麦隆移动通信和固定电话市场共有三家运营商,提供互联网服务的企业50多家。

【财政金融】 喀现有商业银行13家,截至2015年12月,三大巨头——非陆第一银行(Afriland First Bank),喀麦隆兴业银行(Société générale Cameroun)和喀麦隆储蓄信贷国际银行(BICEC)放款总额和吸纳存款分别占喀麦隆银行业的53.9%和50.2%。此外还有社会保险银行、专门为房地产业提供融资支持的喀麦隆房地产银行、负责管理公共债务的债务自治银行以及邮政储蓄银行等非商业银行或非银行金融机构。

喀杜阿拉证券交易所于1999年挂牌成立,目前已有喀矿泉水公司(SEMC)、喀非洲林业与农业公司(SAFACAM)、喀棕榈公司(SOCAPALM)等三家公司成功上市。截至2017年2月1日,杜阿拉证券交易所市值达3293亿非郎,其中股票市值1485亿非郎,债券市值1808亿非郎。

【对外贸易】 实行贸易开放政策,强调贸易伙伴多样化。同120多个国家和地区有贸易往来,与30多个国家签有贸易协定。主要出口原油、碳氢燃料和润滑油、木材、橡胶、棉花、铝矿、香蕉、咖啡等,主要进口原油、冷冻海鱼产品、大米、药品、化肥、旅游车辆、货物运输车辆等。欧盟始终是喀第一大贸易伙伴,占喀对外贸易总额的50%以上。

【外国援助】 主要援助方为法国、国际开发协会、欧盟、德国、非洲发展基金、英国、美国、日本等。2016年喀获得8.54亿美元外援,其中欧盟援助占57%。

[Transportation] A three-dimensional traffic network of land, sea and air has been formed. Highway traffic accounts for more than 90% of the total national transportation.

Railway: It was put into use in 1911, but it has not been extended to all parts of the country. The total length of the existing railway is only 1000 kilometers, distributed in some large cities, and uses a single narrow-gauge railway. The turnover in 2013 was 63.262 billion francs. In 2017, the number of domestic railway passengers sent was 850,000, a decrease of nearly 45% year-on-year. The Kazakh government launched the “National Railway Guidance Plan” in 2012. The plan is seen as an important guide in the field of investment in railways.

Highway: The total length is 122,108 kilometers, of which the total length of the asphalt road is about 7,000 kilometers, the total length of the main road is 21,490 kilometers, and the length of the country road is 100,243 kilometers.

Water transport: Cameroon currently has four ports: Douala, Limbe, Kriby and the Garou inland river port. Located in the bay of Wuli River, 50 kilometers from the Atlantic Ocean, the port of Douala is an important port in Central Africa, a transshipment port for import and export goods in landlocked countries such as Central Africa and Chad. The designed throughput is 10 million tons/year. In recent years, the actual throughput has exceeded 10 million tons, and the annual throughput accounts for more than 95% of the import and export commodities. In 2015, the cargo throughput of Douala Port reached 11.3 million tons, a year-on-year increase of 4.1%. The forests of Limbe and Kribi are smaller. The port of Garua is a seasonal port. It is a transportation period from August to September every year. In the past few years, it has not taken any traffic. In December 2014, the first phase of the Kribi Deepwater Port project, which was funded by the Export-Import Bank of China, was completed. The terminal designed an annual throughput of 1.2 million tons of cargo and 300,000 TEU containers, which was put into operation in March 2018.

Air transport: At present, Cameroon is in addition to Yaounde-Ensimalan, Douala, Garoua and other three international airports, as well as Maroua-Salak, Ngendare, Bertua, Bafusam-Ba. Five secondary airports such as Mgum and Bamenda-Baufut. According to the statistics of the Kago Civil Aviation Authority, in 2015, the number of passengers at the Kashima Airport was approximately 1.265 million. There are currently 20 commercial airlines and 3 cargo airlines operating in Kaz. Cameroon Airlines was established on the basis of airlines in the country of origin, and is headquartered in Douala. It currently has three Boeing aircraft, two new boat 60 aircraft and one Bombardier aircraft, operating international and domestic routes, 2011 3 The first flight was achieved on the 28th of the month, and a total of 235,700 passengers were transported in 2017. The main destination cities are Paris, Brussels, Addis Ababa, Istanbul, etc. In addition, there are three small airlines that only engage in charter flights.

[Telecommunications Industry] In recent years, Cameroon’s communications industry has shown sustained development momentum. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of Cameroon, there were only 66,500 fixed-line users in 1998, and it increased to about 909,000 in 2015. Internet users increased from 3,000 in 1998 to nearly 1 million in 2010. In 2015, mobile communication services covered more than 80% of the country’s territory and 18.61 million users. At present, Cameroon has three operators in the mobile communication and fixed-line market, and more than 50 companies providing Internet services.

[Financial Finance] There are 13 commercial banks in Kazakhstan. As of December 2015, the three giants – Africa First Bank, Société générale Cameroun and Cameroon Savings International Bank (BICEC) The total amount of loans and deposits accounted for 53.9% and 50.2% of Cameroon’s banking industry, respectively. There are also social insurance banks, Cameroon Real Estate Banks that provide financing support for the real estate industry, debt autonomous banks that manage public debt, and non-commercial banks or non-bank financial institutions such as the Postal Savings Bank.

The Kaduara Stock Exchange was established in 1999 and has been successfully listed by three companies including the SEEC, the SAFACAM and the SOCAPAL. As of February 1, 2017, the market value of the Douala Stock Exchange reached 329.3 billion francs, of which the stock market value was 148.5 billion francs and the bond market value was 180.8 billion francs.

[Foreign Trade] Implement a trade open policy, emphasizing the diversification of trading partners. Trade with more than 120 countries and regions, and trade agreements with more than 30 countries. It mainly exports crude oil, hydrocarbon fuel and lubricating oil, wood, rubber, cotton, aluminum ore, banana, coffee, etc. It mainly imports crude oil, frozen marine fish products, rice, medicines, fertilizers, tourist vehicles, and cargo transportation vehicles. The EU has always been Kazakh’s largest trading partner, accounting for more than 50% of total foreign trade.

[Foreign Aid] The main aid parties are France, the International Development Association, the European Union, Germany, the African Development Fund, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan. In 2016, it received US$854 million in foreign aid, of which EU assistance accounted for 57%.

【人民生活】 在联合国2018年公布的189个国家人类发展指数排名中列151位。2014年人均预期寿命57.35岁。城镇人口占56%,15岁以下人口占总人口的41.9%。

医疗卫生状况在中部非洲地区相对较好。2012年,94.1%的城市人口和51.9%的农村居民享有清洁饮用水。2013年,喀因疟疾患病致死人数达3000人。2014年4月,世界卫生组织将喀列为脊髓灰质炎风险国家。2018年艾滋病感染率为3.4%。目前,疟疾仍是喀患者住院、婴儿死亡、适龄儿童辍学的首要原因。目前喀全国共有2260所公共医疗机构,其中4所普通医院、3所中心医院、14所大区医院、164所县级医院、155所小区医疗中心、1920个综合卫生中心。

【军 事】 1960年独立后建军。武装力量由陆、海、空军和宪兵组成。总统为全国武装部队最高统帅。2001年7月,喀军队实行重大改革,建立总统-国防部长-大军区司令-省军区司令的垂直领导体制。全国划分为4个诸军种联合区,司令部分别设在雅温得、杜阿拉、加鲁阿和马鲁阿,10个大区内设立10个军分区。

【教 育】 国家重视发展教育事业,近年来教育经费在政府预算中保持一定增长。2015年,教育领域财政预算占全年预算的13.1%。喀教育分为学前教育、初等教育、中等教育和高等教育四个阶段,目前,全国共有15123所小学、2413所初中和高中、8所国立大学。据联合国儿童基金会统计,适龄儿童入学率已达90%,全国人口文盲率为24.1%。

【新闻出版】 喀麦隆新闻出版公司成立于1977年,下辖喀麦隆通讯社、《喀麦隆论坛报》报社等。登记注册的报刊有500多家,其中绝大部分因经营困难不能定期出版发行。主要有:《喀麦隆论坛报》,1974年创刊,全国性官方报纸(法、英双语版),日发行3万余份;《行动报》,执政党人民盟机关报,法、英双语排版,原为周报,由于资金问题已停刊;《官方公报》,半月刊,由总统府出版发行,法、英文合刊,主要刊载总统、总理及各部颁布的法令、法律;《信使报》,1979年创刊,最有影响的私人报纸,每周出版三期,发行量2万份;《新言论报》,私人报纸,每周三期,发行量约1万份。此外,还有《动荡报》,《前景报》、《先驱报》等。

喀麦隆广播电台:总台设在首都雅温得,从5时至次日凌晨2时连续播音21个小时,用法、英和多种地方语言广播,覆盖率约为60%。在10个大区的首府设立地区电台,并在雅温得、杜阿拉、布埃亚和巴富萨姆四大城市建立了4个商业性的调频电台。

喀麦隆国家电视台:1986年成立, 播放彩色电视节目,发射网可覆盖全国领土的约50%。平日播出时间为10个小时,从15时至次日1时;周六和周日延长至13和16个小时。1988年建成全国电视制作中心。

2000年政府颁布关于私人视听传媒企业建立和运营条件的法令,允许私人进入视听传媒领域。私人电台在首都和杜阿拉等城市有所增加。法国国际广播电台和英国BBC公司均在喀播放调频节目。

[People’s Life] Ranked 151 in the 189 National Human Development Index published by the United Nations in 2018. In 2014, the average life expectancy was 57.35 years. The urban population accounts for 56%, and the population under 15 accounts for 41.9% of the total population.

Health conditions are relatively good in Central Africa. In 2012, 94.1% of the urban population and 51.9% of rural residents enjoyed clean drinking water. In 2013, the number of people suffering from malaria caused by malaria reached 3,000. In April 2014, the World Health Organization will be listed as a polio risk country. The HIV infection rate in 2020 was 3.4%. At present, malaria is still the leading cause of hospitalization for infants, infant deaths, and dropouts for school-age children. At present, there are 2,260 public medical institutions in the country, including 4 general hospitals, 3 central hospitals, 14 regional hospitals, 164 county-level hospitals, 155 community medical centers, and 1920 comprehensive health centers.

[Military] Built in 1960 after independence. The armed forces are composed of land, sea, air force and gendarmerie. The President is the supreme commander of the National Armed Forces. In July 2001, the Kazakh army carried out major reforms and established a vertical leadership system for the President-Defence Minister-Commander of the Grand Military Region-Commander of the Provincial Military Region. The country is divided into four joint areas of military services, with headquarters in Yaoundé, Douala, Garua and Marua, and 10 military divisions in 10 major regions.

[Education] The state attaches great importance to the development of education. In recent years, education funds have maintained a certain growth in the government budget. In 2015, the budget for education accounted for 13.1% of the annual budget. The education of Kazakh is divided into four stages: preschool education, primary education, secondary education and higher education. At present, there are 15,123 elementary schools, 2413 junior high schools and high schools, and 8 national universities. According to UNICEF statistics, the enrollment rate of school-age children has reached 90%, and the national illiteracy rate is 24.1%.

[Press and Publication] The Cameroon Press and Publication Company was established in 1977. It has jurisdiction over the Cameroon News Agency and the Cameroon Tribune newspaper. There are more than 500 registered newspapers, most of which cannot be published regularly due to operational difficulties. Mainly: “Cameroon Tribune”, published in 1974, national official newspaper (British, English bilingual version), more than 30,000 copies issued daily; “Action News”, the ruling party People’s League official newspaper, French, English bilingual layout, Formerly a weekly newspaper, due to funding problems has been suspended; “Official Gazette”, semi-monthly publication, published by the Presidential Palace, French and English, mainly published by the President, the Prime Minister and various departments issued laws and laws; “The Messenger”, started in 1979 The most influential private newspapers, published three times a week, with a circulation of 20,000 copies; New News, private newspapers, three times a week, with a circulation of about 10,000 copies. In addition, there are “The Turbulence”, “Prospects”, “The Herald” and so on.

Cameroon Radio: The main station is located in the capital, Yaoundé. It broadcasts for 21 hours continuously from 5 o’clock to 2 o’clock in the morning, and usage, English and various local language broadcasts cover about 60%. Regional radio stations were established in the capitals of 10 regions, and four commercial FM stations were established in the four major cities of Yaoundé, Douala, Buea and Bafousam.

Cameroon National Television: Established in 1986 to broadcast color television programs, the launch network covers approximately 50% of the national territory. The airtime on weekdays is 10 hours, from 15:00 to 12:00, and on Saturdays and Sundays it is extended to 13 and 16 hours. In 1988, the National Television Production Center was established.

In 2000, the government issued a decree on the establishment and operation of private audiovisual media companies, allowing private access to the audiovisual media sector. Private radio stations have increased in cities such as the capital and Douala. Both France Radio International and British BBC broadcast FM programs in Kaz.

【对外关系】 奉行独立、开放、睦邻友好和多元化的外交政策。主张以和平方式解决国际争端。积极参与地区政治、经济一体化进程。要求国际社会充分关注发展中国家诉求,建立更加多元、公正的国际关系新秩序。重视发展睦邻友好关系,积极参与地区事务,努力推动非洲国家的团结和合作。

【同法国的关系】 喀法关系密切,交往频繁。两国签有经济、财政、军事、司法等多个合作协定。法是喀最重要的合作伙伴、最大援助和投资国、第二大进口来源国,每年对喀援助超过1亿欧元,涉及基础设施建设、农业、人力资源培训等领域。法在“减债促发展合同”第一期(2005-2011)合作项下向喀提供援款3527亿非郎,第二期(2011-2016)提供2138亿非郎。2012年5月,喀批准两国于2009年签署的《防务伙伴关系协定》生效。2013年1月,比亚总统对法国进行工作访问,同奥朗德总统举行会谈。2013年3月,法国外长法比尤斯访喀,会见比亚总统。2014年5月,应法国总统奥朗德邀请,比亚总统赴法国出席“尼日利亚安全峰会”。7月,比亚总统赴法国出席普罗旺斯登陆70周年纪念活动。10月,法国国民议会议长访喀。2015年2月,法国外长法比尤斯访喀。5月,法国内政部长贝尔纳德访喀。11月,比亚总统赴法出席联合国气候变化巴黎大会。2016年6月,比亚总统会见到访的法国外交部负责发展和法语国家事务的国务秘书瓦里尼,期间喀法双方签署“减债促发展合同”第三期(2017—2025),在此框架下法方将向喀方提供4000亿非郎。2018年6月,法国外交和欧洲事务部国务秘书让-巴普蒂斯特·勒穆瓦耶访喀。

【同美国的关系】 美是喀主要贸易伙伴。喀主要向美出口石油和矿石,美企业在喀油气开发、矿业、城市交通、电力等多个领域占有重要地位。两国政府间的合作主要集中在军事、农业和教育领域。目前约130名美国和平队队员在喀工作。2007年,美国免除喀到期债务共计160亿非郎。2013年2月,两国在喀北部大区举行代号为“沉默战士”的联合军事演习。2014年8月,比亚总统赴美出席美非峰会。2016年11月,比亚总统向美国新当选总统特朗普致贺电。

【同英联邦关系】 喀麦隆西部两个大区曾为英国殖民地。1995年11月1日获准加入英联邦。英联邦向喀提供援助,用于人权、良政、扶贫和高教等领域的几十个合作项目。2006年,英国免除喀所有双边债务,共计1.06亿英镑。英联邦每年向喀提供十余个赴英国、加拿大和南非的留学名额。2014年5月,英国外交部负责非洲事务的常务次官马克·西蒙斯访问喀麦隆。同月,菲勒蒙总理赴伦敦出席首届英国-喀麦隆贸易与投资论坛。10月,英联邦议会大会在喀麦隆召开。2018年5月,菲勒蒙总理代表比亚总统赴伦敦出席英联邦首脑会议。

[External Relations] Pursue a foreign policy of independence, openness, good neighborliness and diversity. It advocates the peaceful settlement of international disputes. Actively participate in the process of regional political and economic integration. The international community is required to pay full attention to the demands of developing countries and establish a new and more orderly international relations. We will attach importance to the development of good-neighborly and friendly relations, actively participate in regional affairs, and work hard to promote unity and cooperation among African countries.

[Relationship with France] Kfar is closely related and has frequent exchanges. The two countries have signed several cooperation agreements on economic, fiscal, military and judicial. France is the most important partner, the largest aid and investment country, and the second largest source of imports. It has more than 100 million euros of aid per year, covering infrastructure construction, agriculture, and human resources training. The law provided 352.7 billion francs to Kazakh under the cooperation of the first phase of the “Debt Reduction and Development Contract” (2005-2011), and provided 213.8 billion francs in the second phase (2011-2016). In May 2012, Kazakh approved the “Defense Partnership Agreement” signed by the two countries in 2009. In January 2013, President Biya paid a working visit to France and held talks with President Hollande. In March 2013, French Foreign Minister Fabius visited Kara and met with President Biya. In May 2014, at the invitation of French President Hollande, President Biya went to France to attend the “Nigeria Security Summit.” In July, President Biya went to France to attend the 70th anniversary of the Provence landing. In October, the French National Assembly Speaker visited Kazakh. In February 2015, French Foreign Minister Fabius visited Kara. In May, French Interior Minister Bernard visited Kazakhstan. In November, President Biya went to France to attend the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. In June 2016, President Biya met with visiting State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France, Valiny, who is responsible for the development of French-speaking affairs. During the period, the two parties signed the third phase of the “Debt Reduction and Development Contract” (2017-2025). Under this framework, France will provide 400 billion African francs to the Kazakh side. In June 2018, the State Secretary of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Affairs Jean-Baptiste Le Mowaye visited Kazakhstan.

[Relationship with the United States] The United States is a major trading partner of the United States. Kazakh mainly exports oil and ore to the United States, and US companies occupy an important position in various fields such as oil and gas development, mining, urban transportation, and electric power. Cooperation between the two governments is mainly concentrated in the military, agriculture and education sectors. About 130 members of the US Peace Corps are currently working in Kazakh. In 2007, the United States exempted debts from debts totaling 16 billion francs. In February 2013, the two countries held a joint military exercise codenamed “Silent Warriors” in the northern part of Kazakhstan. In August 2014, President Biya went to the United States to attend the US-Africa summit. In November 2016, President Biya sent a congratulatory message to Trump, the newly elected president of the United States.

[Common Relations with the Commonwealth] Two large regions of western Cameroon were former British colonies. On November 1, 1995, he was admitted to the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth provides assistance to Kazakh for dozens of cooperation projects in the fields of human rights, good governance, poverty alleviation and higher education. In 2006, the UK exempted all bilateral debts, totaling 106 million pounds. The Commonwealth provides more than a dozen places to study in the UK, Canada and South Africa each year. In May 2014, Mark Simmons, the permanent deputy of the British Foreign Office responsible for African affairs, visited Cameroon. In the same month, Prime Minister Fremont went to London to attend the first UK-Cameroon Trade and Investment Forum. In October, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Assembly was held in Cameroon. In May 2018, Prime Minister Philemon went to London to attend the Commonwealth Summit on behalf of President Biya.

【同尼日利亚关系】 喀尼边界长1680多公里。由于历史原因,双方曾在一些陆海疆界问题上存有争议。2006年6月,在联合国秘书长安南斡旋下,喀尼两国元首签署和平协议,尼从巴卡西半岛撤军,半岛争端和平解决。2008年8月,尼正式将巴卡西半岛主权移交喀方。2015年7月,尼总统布哈里访喀。2016年2月,尼内政部长访喀。3月,尼外长访喀。5月,比亚总统夫妇对尼日利亚进行国事访问。

【同其他国家和组织的关系】 重视发展睦邻友好关系,积极参与地区事务,努力推动非洲国家的团结和合作。

2011年6月,比亚总统赴赤道几内亚出席非盟第17届首脑会议。2012年7月,比亚总统赴刚果(布)出席中部非洲经济与货币共同体第11届峰会。10月,比亚总统赴刚果(金)出席第14届法语国家组织峰会。12月,比亚总统赴赤道几内亚出席第7届非加太首脑峰会。2014年6月,比亚总统赴赤道几内亚出席非盟峰会。11月,比亚总统赴塞内加尔出席第15届法语国家组织峰会。2016年9月,比亚总统出席第71届联大会议。11月,塞内加尔总统萨勒访喀。2017年7月,菲勒蒙总理代表比亚总统出席在亚的斯亚贝巴召开的第29届非盟峰会。10月,比亚总统赴乍得出席中部非洲经济与货币共同体特别峰会。2018年10-11月,菲勒蒙总理代表比亚总统赴乍得出席中部非洲经济与货币共同体峰会,赴亚的斯亚贝巴出席非盟特别峰会,赴乍得出席乍得湖盆地委员会特别峰会。2019年3月,恩古特总理代表比亚总统赴乍得出席中部非洲经济与货币共同体峰会。

[Relationship with Nigeria] The border of Kani is more than 1,680 kilometers long. Due to historical reasons, the two sides have been controversial on some land and sea border issues. In June 2006, under the mediation of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the heads of state of the two countries signed a peace agreement. Nigeria withdrawed its troops from the Bakassi peninsula and the peninsula dispute was resolved peacefully. In August 2008, Nepal officially handed over the sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Kafang. In July 2015, Nepali President Bukhari visited Kazakh. In February 2016, Minister Nene’s government visited Kazakh. In March, Foreign Minister Nie visited Kara. In May, President Biya’s husband and wife made a state visit to Nigeria.

[Relationship with other countries and organizations] Attach importance to developing good-neighborly and friendly relations, actively participate in regional affairs, and work hard to promote unity and cooperation among African countries.

In June 2011, President Biya went to Equatorial Guinea to attend the 17th AU Summit. In July 2012, President Biya went to the Congo (Brazzaville) to attend the 11th Summit of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community. In October, President Biya went to the Congo (DRC) to attend the 14th Francophone Organization Summit. In December, President Biya went to Equatorial Guinea to attend the 7th ACP summit. In June 2014, President Biya went to Equatorial Guinea to attend the AU summit. In November, President Biya went to Senegal to attend the 15th Francophone Organization Summit. In September 2016, President Biya attended the 71st session of the UN General Assembly. In November, Senegalese President Salle visited Kazakhstan. In July 2017, Prime Minister Philemon attended the 29th AU Summit in Addis Ababa on behalf of President Biya. In October, President Biya went to Chad to attend the special summit of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community. From October to November 2018, Prime Minister Philemon attended the Central African Economic and Monetary Community Summit on behalf of President Biya, went to Addis Ababa to attend the AU Special Summit, and went to Chad to attend the special summit of the Lake Chad Basin Committee. In March 2019, Prime Minister Nguyt visited the Chadian Economic and Monetary Community Summit on behalf of President Biya.