The Republic of Cabo Verde 佛得角共和国

【国 名】佛得角共和国(The Republic of Cabo Verde, República de Cabo Verde)。

【面 积】4033平方公里。

【人 口】 54万人(2017年)。绝大部分为克里奥尔人,占人口总数的71%;黑色人种占28%,欧洲人种占1%。官方语言为葡萄牙语,民族语言为克里奥尔语。98%的居民信奉天主教,少数人信奉基督教新教等其他宗教。

【首 都】普拉亚(Praia)。人口15.1万(2013年)。最高气温31℃,最低20℃。

【国家元首】 总统若热·卡洛斯·德阿尔梅达·丰塞卡(Jorge Carlos de Almeida Fonseca ),2011年8月当选,2016年10月连选连任。

【重要节日】独立日:7月5日。

【简 况】在北大西洋的佛得角群岛上,东距非洲大陆最西点佛得角(塞内加尔境内)500多公里,海岸线长912.5公里。属热带干燥气候,终年盛行干热的东北信风,年平均温度20℃-27℃。

1495年沦为葡萄牙殖民地。1951年成为葡海外省。自1956年起,在几内亚和佛得角非洲独立党(简称几佛独立党)领导下,佛得角人民与几内亚比绍人民并肩开展争取民族独立的运动。1975年7月5日佛宣布独立,成立佛得角共和国,几佛独立党总书记阿里斯蒂德斯·佩雷拉任首任总统。1981年,另立佛得角非洲独立党(简称独立党),结束了佛同几内亚比绍两国一党的局面。1990年实行多党制。1991年举行议会选举和总统选举,争取民主运动(简称民运)击败独立党获胜,民运候选人安东尼奥·蒙特罗当选总统。

[Country name] The Republic of Cabo Verde, República de Cabo Verde.

[area] 4033 square kilometers.

[People] 540,000 people (2017). The vast majority are Creoles, accounting for 71% of the total population; blacks are 28%, and Europeans are 1%. The official language is Portuguese and the national language is Creole. 98% of the residents believe in Catholicism, and a few believe in other religions such as Protestantism.

[The capital] Praia. The population is 151,000 (2013). The highest temperature is 31 ° C, the lowest is 20 ° C.

[Head of State] President Jorge Carlos de Almeida Fonseca, elected in August 2011, re-elected in October 2016.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: July 5.

[Brief] On the Cape Verde Islands in the North Atlantic, it is more than 500 kilometers east of Cape Verde (in Senegal), the westernmost point of the African continent, with a coastline of 912.5 kilometers. It has a tropical dry climate and is popular in the northeast trade winds with dry heat throughout the year. The annual average temperature is 20°C-27°C.

In 1495 it became a Portuguese colony. In 1951, it became a Portuguese overseas province. Since 1956, under the leadership of the African Independent Party of Guinea and Cape Verde (referred to as the Independence Party of several Buddhas), the people of Cape Verde and the people of Guinea-Bissau have carried out a campaign for national independence. On July 5, 1975, the Buddha declared independence and established the Republic of Cape Verde. Aristide Pereira, the general secretary of the Independent Party of several Buddhas, was appointed as the first president. In 1981, the independence of the African Independent Party of Cape Verde (the Independence Party) ended the situation of the two parties in the two countries of Guinea and Bissau. In 1990, a multi-party system was implemented. In 1991, the parliamentary elections and presidential elections were held. The democratic movement (referred to as the democratic movement) defeated the independent party to win, and the democratic candidate Antonio Montero was elected president.

【政 治】自1991年实行多党制以来,独立党和民运轮流执政2016年3月,民运赢得佛议会选举,重新夺回执政地位。该党主席席尔瓦于4月22日就任总理。同年10月,民运支持的独立候选人丰塞卡胜选连任总统。

【宪 法】现行宪法为佛第二部宪法,1992年8月经国民议会通过,9月25日起实施,1995年11月和1999年7月进行了两次修改。宪法规定,佛得角是一个民主法治的主权国家,实行多元民主和议会制。总统为国家元首,经普选产生,任期五年,可连任一次。政府为国家最高行政机关,向议会负责。总理为政府首脑,由赢得议会选举的执政党或执政党联盟提名,总统任命。

【议 会】国民议会的主要职能是:修改宪法,制定法律,监督宪法和法律的实施,批准国际条约,发起全民公决,决定大赦,批准政令,审议并通过政府的施政纲领、发展计划和预算。本届议会于2016年3月选举产生,任期5年。民运拥有72个议席中的40席,独立党获29席,佛得角民主独立联盟—基督教民主党获3席。议长若热·桑托斯(Jorge Santos),系民运人士,2016年4月当选。

【政 府】本届政府于2016年4月22日组成,现主要成员有:总理若泽·乌利塞斯·科雷亚·席尔瓦(José Ulisses Correia e Silva),副总理兼财政与公共管理部长奥拉沃·科雷亚(Olavo Correia),国务部长、部长会议、议会事务兼体育部长费尔南多·埃利西奥·弗莱雷(Fernando Elísio Freire),外交与侨民部长兼国防部长路易斯·菲利佩·塔瓦雷斯(Luís Felipe Tavares),司法与劳工部长雅妮内·莱利斯(Janine Lelis,女),旅游与交通兼海洋经济部长若泽·贡萨尔维斯(José Gonçalves),内政部长保罗·罗沙(Paulo Rocha), 工商业与能源部长亚历山大·蒙特罗(Alexandre Monteiro),农业与环境部长吉尔贝托·席尔瓦(Gilberto Silva),教育、家庭与社会融合部长兼高等教育与科技部长玛丽特扎·罗萨巴尔(Maritza Rosabal,女),文化与创意产业部长兼社会传媒部长阿布拉昂·维森特(Abraão Vicente),卫生与社会保障部长阿林多·多·罗萨里奥(Arlindo do Rosário),农业与环境部长吉尔贝托·席尔瓦(Gilberto Silva),基础设施、土地规划与住房部长尤妮斯·席尔瓦(Eunice Silva,女)等。

【行政区划】全国原划分为16个县,1997年1月改划为17个市,2005年5月增至22个市。

[Politics] Since the implementation of the multi-party system in 1991, the Independent Party and the democratic movement have taken turns in power. In March 2016, the democratic movement won the election of the Buddhist parliament and regained its ruling status. The party’s president, Silva, became prime minister on April 22. In October of the same year, the independent candidate Fonseca supported by the democracy movement won the re-election.

[Constitution] The current Constitution is the second Constitution of the Buddha. It was adopted by the National Assembly in August 1992, implemented on September 25, and revised twice in November 1995 and July 1999. According to the Constitution, Cape Verde is a sovereign state with democratic rule of law and a pluralistic democracy and parliamentary system. The President is the head of state and is elected by universal suffrage for a term of five years and can be re-elected once. The government is the highest administrative organ of the country and is accountable to the parliament. The prime minister is the head of government, nominated by the ruling party or the ruling coalition that won the parliamentary election, and the president is appointed.

[Parliament] The main functions of the National Assembly are: amending the constitution, enacting laws, supervising the implementation of the Constitution and laws, approving international treaties, launching referendums, deciding amnesty, approving decrees, deliberating and adopting the government’s policy agenda, development plans and budget. The current parliament was elected in March 2016 for a five-year term. The Democracy Movement has 40 of the 72 seats, the Independent Party has 29 seats, and the Cape Verdean Democratic Independence Alliance – the Christian Democrats won 3 seats. Speaker Jorge Santos, a democracy activist, was elected in April 2016.

[Government] The current government was formed on April 22, 2016. The main members are: Prime Minister José Ulisses Correia e Silva, Deputy Prime Minister and Finance and Public Management Minister Olavo Correia, Minister of State, Ministerial Conference, Parliamentary Affairs and Sports Minister Fernando Elísio Freire, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Overseas Chinese and Minister of Defence Luis Luís Felipe Tavares, Justice and Labour Minister Janine Lelis (female), Tourism and Transport and Marine Economy Minister José Gonçalves ), Interior Minister Paulo Rocha, Minister of Industry, Commerce and Energy Alexandre Monteiro, Minister of Agriculture and Environment Gilberto Silva, Minister of Education, Family and Society Minister of Higher Education and Technology Maritza Rosabal (female), Minister of Culture and Creative Industries and Minister of Social Media, Abraham Vicente Abraão Vicente), Minister of Health and Social Security Arlindo do Rosário, Minister of Agriculture and Environment Gilberto Silva, Minister of Infrastructure, Land Planning and Housing Eunice Silva (female) and so on.

[Administrative Division] The country was originally divided into 16 counties. In January 1997, it was reclassified to 17 cities. In May 2005, it was increased to 22 cities.

【司法机构】法院分最高法院、地区法院和分区法院三级。最高法院院长由总统任免。现任最高法院院长阿尔灵多·梅迪纳(Arlindo Medina),2009年2月就职。检察院分为三级。总检察长由总统任免。现任总检察长奥斯卡·塔瓦雷斯(Óscar Tavares),2014年5月就职。

【政 党】有两个主要政党:

(1)争取民主运动(Movimento para a Democracia):执政党。1990年3月14日成立,1991至2000年间执政,2016年重返执政地位。宗旨是以民主方式发展国家。主张政治多元化和经济私有化,推行市场经济和贸易自由化,在民主基础上同国际上其他政党建立联系。2003年6月,加入中间派民主国际。现任总统丰塞卡系民运创始人之一,后退党成为独立人士,2011年在民运支持下当选总统。2013年6月,时任普拉亚市长、现任总理席尔瓦接替卡洛斯·韦加(Carlos Veiga)当选新一届党主席,并于2017年1月成功连任。

(2)佛得角非洲独立党(Partido Africano da Independência de Cabo Verde):主要反对党。1981年与几佛非洲独立党分裂后成立。现有党员1.1万余人。1975年佛独立后长期执政,1991年选举失败,2001年、2006年和2011年连续赢得议会选举,2016年再度败选成为在野党。主张推进民主进程,建立社会正义。1992年加入社会党国际。2014年12月,时任青年、就业和人力资源发展部长贾妮拉·伊莎贝尔·丰塞卡·霍普费尔·阿尔马达(Janira Isabel Fonseca Hopffer Almada,女),接替时任总理内韦斯当选新一届党主席。现任总书记为若昂·多卡尔莫(João do Carmo)。

其它政党还有:佛得角民主独立联盟——基督教民主党(União Cabo-verdiana Independente e Democrática- Partido Democrático Cristão,UCID-PDC);劳动团结党(Partido de Trabalho e da Solidariedade,PTS);民主革新党(Partido da Renovação Democrática,PRD);社会民主党(Partido Social Democrático)等。

【重要人物】若热·卡洛斯·德阿尔梅达·丰塞卡:总统。1950年10月20日生于佛得角圣维森特岛。早年留学葡萄牙里斯本大学,获法学硕士学位。系民运创始人之一。1975年至1977年任佛移民局局长,1977年至1979年任外交国务秘书,1991年至1993年任外长。2001年以独立身份参选总统失败后退出政坛,长期从事教学和法律咨询工作。2011年8月在民运支持下以独立候选人身份在总统选举中胜出,9月9日宣誓就职,2016年10月连任。

若泽·乌利塞斯·科雷亚·席尔瓦:总理。1962年6月4日生于佛得角圣地亚哥岛普拉亚市。1988年毕业于葡萄牙里斯本科技大学,获企业组织与管理学士学位。1989年至1994年在佛得角银行工作,任高级研究员、行政管理部主任等职。1995年至1998年任政府财政国务秘书,1999年至2000年任财政部长,2006年当选国民议会议员,任议会民运党团领袖、民运副主席。2008年当选普拉亚市市长。2013年当选民运主席。2016年4月出任总理。

[Judiciary] The court is divided into three levels: the Supreme Court, the District Court and the District Court. The President of the Supreme Court is appointed and removed by the President. The current President of the Supreme Court, Arlindo Medina, took office in February 2009. The procuratorate is divided into three levels. The Attorney General is appointed and removed by the President. The current Attorney General, Óscar Tavares, took office in May 2014.

[Political Party] There are two main parties:

(1) Movimento para a Democracia: The ruling party. It was established on March 14, 1990, and was in power from 1991 to 2000. In 2016, it returned to ruling status. The aim is to develop the country in a democratic way. It advocates political pluralism and economic privatization, promotes market economy and trade liberalization, and establishes links with other political parties on the basis of democracy. In June 2003, he joined the Central Democratic International. The current president of Fonseca is one of the founders of the democracy movement, and the retreat party became an independent person. In 2011, he was elected president under the support of the democracy movement. In June 2013, the then mayor of Praia, the current Prime Minister Silva replaced Carlos Veiga as the new party chairman and was re-elected in January 2017.

(2) Partido Africano da Independência de Cabo Verde: the main opposition party. It was established in 1981 after the split with the African Independence Party of several Buddhas. There are more than 11,000 party members. In 1975, after the independence of the Buddha, he became a long-term ruling party. In 1991, he failed in the election. In 2001, 2006 and 2011, he won the parliamentary elections in succession. In 2016, he was defeated again and became the opposition party. Advocate the promotion of democratic processes and the establishment of social justice. In 1992, he joined the Socialist International. In December 2014, Janira Isabel Fonseca Hopffer Almada (female), then Minister of Youth, Employment and Human Resources Development, was elected as Prime Minister Neves. The new party chairman. The current general secretary is João do Carmo.

Other political parties include: the Democratic Progressive Alliance of Cape Verde – União Cabo-verdiana Independente e Democrática – Partido Democrático Cristão (UCID-PDC); Partido de Trabalho e da Solidariedade (PTS); Democratic Reform Party (Partido da Renovação Democrática, PRD); Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrático) and so on.

[Important] Joel Carlos de Almeida Fonseca: President. Born on October 20, 1950 in Cape Verde, San Vicente. He studied in the University of Lisbon, Portugal, and obtained a master’s degree in law. One of the founders of the democracy movement. From 1975 to 1977, he served as Director of the Immigration Bureau. From 1977 to 1979, he served as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. From 1991 to 1993, he served as Foreign Minister. After he failed in the independent election in 2001, he withdrew from the political arena and continued to work in teaching and legal consulting. In August 2011, he won the presidential election as an independent candidate with the support of the democracy movement. He was sworn in on September 9 and re-elected in October 2016.

José Ulysses Correa Silva: Prime Minister. Born on June 4, 1962 in Praia, Santiago Island, Cape Verde. He graduated from the Lisbon University of Science and Technology in 1988 with a bachelor’s degree in business organization and management. From 1989 to 1994, he worked at the Bank of Cape Verde as a senior researcher and director of the administrative department. From 1995 to 1998, he served as Secretary of State for Government Finance. From 1999 to 2000, he served as Minister of Finance. In 2006, he was elected as a member of the National Assembly. He was the leader of the Parliamentary Movement and the Vice Chairman of the Democratic Movement. In 2008, he was elected mayor of Praia. In 2013, he was elected chairman of the democracy movement. In April 2016, he became Prime Minister.

【经 济】经济以服务业为主,产值占国内生产总值70%以上。粮食不能自给,工业基础薄弱。20世纪90年代初开始改革经济体制,调整经济结构,推行经济自由化。独立党重新执政后,提出以发展私营经济为核心的国家发展战略,重点发展旅游业、农业、教育、卫生及基础设施建设。2007年12月,佛加入世界贸易组织。2008年,佛正式脱离最不发达国家,进入中等收入国家行列。2009年,受国际金融危机和国内自然灾害影响,经济增长放缓。2010年以来,政府大幅增加公共投资,刺激经济发展。2012年下半年以来,国际金融危机和欧洲主权债务危机对佛经济的滞后影响逐步显现,经济发展速度再度趋缓。2018年主要经济数据:

国内生产总值(GDP):19.9亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:3595美元。

国内生产总值增长率:4.2%。

货币名称:佛得角埃斯库多(Escudo)。

汇率:1美元=93.2佛得角埃斯库多。

通货膨胀率:1.4%。

(资料来源:2019年3月伦敦经济季评)

【资 源】资源匮乏,主要矿产有石灰石、白榴火山灰、浮石、岩盐等。

【工 业】2017年工业产值占国内生产总值18%,工人约占劳动总人口的29%。基础薄弱,以建筑业为主。中小建筑公司主要从事商业和民用住宅建筑,几家大公司主要从事基础设施和公共工程建设。制造业不发达,近年来在国内生产总值中的比重不断下降,目前不足1%。有中小工厂150余家,主要从事制衣、制鞋、水产加工、酿酒、饮料装瓶等。

[Economy] The economy is dominated by services, with output value accounting for more than 70% of GDP. Food cannot be self-sufficient and the industrial base is weak. In the early 1990s, the reform of the economic system began, the economic structure was adjusted, and economic liberalization was promoted. After the Independence Party regained power, it proposed a national development strategy centered on the development of the private economy, with a focus on tourism, agriculture, education, health and infrastructure. In December 2007, Buddha joined the World Trade Organization. In 2008, the Buddha officially left the least developed countries and entered the ranks of middle-income countries. In 2009, due to the international financial crisis and domestic natural disasters, economic growth slowed down. Since 2010, the government has substantially increased public investment and stimulated economic development. Since the second half of 2012, the lag effect of the international financial crisis and the European sovereign debt crisis on the Buddha’s economy has gradually emerged, and the pace of economic development has slowed down again. Main economic data for 2018:

Gross domestic product (GDP): $1.99 billion.

Per capita GDP: $3,595.

GDP growth rate: 4.2%.

Currency name: Escudo, Escudo.

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 93.2 Cape Verde Escudo.

Inflation rate: 1.4%.

(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, March 2019)

[Resources] The resources are scarce. The main minerals include limestone, white volcanic ash, pumice stone and rock salt.

[Industrial] In 2017, industrial output accounted for 18% of GDP, and workers accounted for 29% of the total labor force. The foundation is weak and the construction industry is the mainstay. Small and medium-sized construction companies are mainly engaged in commercial and residential construction, and several large companies are mainly engaged in infrastructure and public works construction. The manufacturing industry is underdeveloped, and its share in GDP has been declining in recent years, currently less than 1%. There are more than 150 small and medium-sized factories, mainly engaged in clothing, shoes, aquatic products processing, wine making, beverage bottling and so on.

【农 业】2017年农业和渔业产值约占国内生产总值6%,全国25%的人口从事农业和渔业。可耕地3.9万公顷(不含牧场),约占国土总面积的10%。其中水浇地3000公顷,旱田3.6万公顷,大部分集中在圣地亚哥和圣安唐两岛。主要产品有玉米、豆类、薯类、甘蔗、香蕉、咖啡等。由于自然条件较差,经常发生旱灾,粮食不能自给,年产仅能满足15%需求。

佛有734265平方公里的专属经济区,渔业资源较丰富,尚未完全开发利用。捕鱼业在国民经济中占重要地位,从事渔业人口约1.4万,捕鱼量每年可达3.7万吨,每年出口海产品约1万吨,主要为龙虾、金枪鱼和虾类。2011年渔业出口额占出口总额的56.4%,系佛重要外汇来源之一。2014年8月,佛与欧盟签署2014-2018年渔业合作协议,规定欧盟71艘渔船可在佛领海捕捞金枪鱼等海产,为此欧盟将于2014-2015年间每年向佛支付55万欧元补偿金,2016-2018年间每年支付50万欧元。补偿金中的一半将用于支持佛加强领海管控并发展当地渔业。

【服务业】在国民经济中占有相当重要位置,主要包括旅游、运输、商务和公共服务。2017年服务业产值约占国内生产总值的76%。约50%的劳动人口从事服务业。其中旅游业已成为国家经济增长和就业的主要来源,2017年旅游业产值约占国内生产总值的44.4%,旅游业就业岗位占全国总就业岗位的39.3%(资料来源:世界旅游业理事会2018年国别报告)。旅游基础设施发展迅速,截至2017年底,佛共有各类旅馆275家,客房12463间。2017年佛吸引游客总数约71万人次,主要客源地为英国、德国、法国和荷兰等欧洲国家(资料来源:佛国家统计局)。

【交通运输】岛内港口和公路等运输设施较完备。公路总长2250公里,主要是石块路。现有各种机动车辆7.8万辆。全国共有9个机场。萨尔岛的阿·卡布拉尔国际机场可供起降波音747客机,年客流量30万人次。首都普拉亚国际机场、博阿维斯塔岛市国际机场分别于2005年11月和2007年10月建成并投入使用。佛得角航空公司辟有通往欧洲、非洲、巴西和美国的国际航线,葡萄牙等欧洲国家航空公司和包机公司有飞往佛得角的航班。2017年航空旅客265万人次,同比增长19.6%。全国共有港口8个,最大港口为明德罗市的大港(Porto Grande)。2005年底,政府开始扩建普拉亚港。2007年佛全国各港口的集装箱吞吐量为50362个标准集装箱,较2006年增长7%。佛有通往葡萄牙、西班牙、北欧、巴西和非洲大陆的班轮。

【财政金融】截至2018年底,外汇储备(不含黄金)为7.53亿美元,2017年外债余额约为17.32亿美元。

(资料来源:2018年2月伦敦经济季评、国际货币基金组织、世界银行)

【对外贸易】80%以上的日常生活用品及全部机械设备和建筑材料、燃料等依靠进口。主要出口产品为船用燃料、服装、鞋类、金枪鱼罐头、冻鱼、龙虾、食盐、火山灰等。

每年均有巨额贸易逆差。主要贸易伙伴是西班牙、葡萄牙、荷兰、土耳其和阿尔及利亚等。

[Agriculture] In 2017, agriculture and fishery output accounted for about 6% of GDP, and 25% of the country’s population is engaged in agriculture and fisheries. The cultivated land is 39,000 hectares (excluding pasture), accounting for about 10% of the total land area. Among them, 3,000 hectares of irrigated land and 36,000 hectares of dry land, most of which are concentrated in the islands of Santiago and St. Anant. The main products are corn, beans, potatoes, sugar cane, bananas, coffee and so on. Due to poor natural conditions, droughts often occur, food cannot be self-sufficient, and annual output can only meet 15% of demand.

The Buddha has an exclusive economic zone of 734,265 square kilometers. The fishery resources are abundant and have not been fully exploited. The fishing industry plays an important role in the national economy. It has a fishery population of about 14,000, a fishing capacity of 37,000 tons per year, and an annual export of about 10,000 tons of seafood, mainly lobster, tuna and shrimp. In 2011, fishery exports accounted for 56.4% of total exports, which is one of the important sources of foreign exchange for Buddha. In August 2014, Foshan and the European Union signed a fishery cooperation agreement for 2014-2018, stipulating that 71 fishing boats in the EU can fish for seafood such as tuna in the Bohai Sea. For this reason, the EU will pay 550,000 euros in compensation to the Buddha every year from 2014 to 2015. An annual payment of 500,000 Euros is paid between 2016 and 2018. Half of the compensation will be used to support the Buddha’s efforts to strengthen the territorial waters and develop local fisheries.

[Service industry] occupies a very important position in the national economy, mainly including tourism, transportation, business and public services. In 2017, the service industry accounted for about 76% of GDP. About 50% of the working population is engaged in the service industry. Among them, tourism has become the main source of national economic growth and employment. In 2017, tourism output accounted for 44.4% of GDP, and tourism employment accounted for 39.3% of total employment in the country (Source: World Tourism Council 2018) Country report) Tourism infrastructure has developed rapidly. By the end of 2017, there were 275 hotels and 12,463 guest rooms. In 2017, the total number of tourists attracted about 710,000. The main source of tourists is the European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, France and the Netherlands (Source: National Bureau of Statistics of the Buddha).

[Transportation] The transportation facilities such as ports and highways on the island are relatively complete. The total length of the road is 2,250 kilometers, mainly stone roads. There are 78,000 motor vehicles available. There are 9 airports in the country. The Al Kabra International Airport in Sal Island is available for take-off and landing Boeing 747 aircraft with an annual passenger flow of 300,000 passengers. The capital Praia International Airport and the Boavista International Airport were completed and put into use in November 2005 and October 2007, respectively. Cape Verde Airlines has international routes to Europe, Africa, Brazil and the United States, and European and international airlines and charter companies such as Portugal have flights to Cape Verde. In 2017, the number of air passengers was 2.65 million, a year-on-year increase of 19.6%. There are 8 ports in the country, and the largest port is the Grand Grande of Mindelo. At the end of 2005, the government began to expand the port of Praia. In 2007, the container throughput of all ports in the country was 50,362 standard containers, an increase of 7% compared with 2006. The Buddha has liners to Portugal, Spain, Northern Europe, Brazil and the African continent.

[Financial Finance] As of the end of 2018, foreign exchange reserves (excluding gold) were 753 million US dollars, and the balance of foreign debt in 2017 was about 1.732 billion US dollars.

(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, February 2018, International Monetary Fund, World Bank)

[Foreign Trade] More than 80% of daily necessities and all mechanical equipment, construction materials, fuels, etc. rely on imports. The main export products are marine fuel, clothing, footwear, canned tuna, frozen fish, lobster, salt, volcanic ash, etc.

There are huge trade deficits every year. The main trading partners are Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Turkey and Algeria.

【外国援助】据经济与合作组织统计,佛2017年共接受外援1.23亿美元。主要援助方为欧盟(3637万美元)、葡萄牙(3045万美元)、美国(2191万美元)、法国(1660万美元)、卢森堡(1051万美元)、日本(913万美元)等。

【外国资本】据联合国贸易和发展会议公布的《2018年世界投资报告》,佛2017年吸引外国直接投资1.09亿美元,直接投资存量达19.46亿美元。

【人民生活】根据联合国开发计划署公布的《2018年人类发展报告》,佛得角人类发展指数在189个国家中排名第125位。人均预期寿命女性74.9岁,男性70.9岁。医疗支出占国内生产总值的4.8%,5岁以下儿童死亡率为21.4‰。根据国际电信联盟2017年公布的数据,全国37.4%的家庭有电脑,62%接入互联网,国际互联网用户约26万,3G网络用户达47.3万,占全国人口的87.6%。

【军 事】军队创建于1967年1月15日,原称“人民革命武装部队”,改行多党制后更名为“人民革命武装力量”。总统为武装力量最高统帅。政府设国防部,下辖总参谋部,总参谋长由总统根据政府建议任免。实行义务兵役制。服役期14个月。目前总兵力约1200人,分为国民卫队和海岸卫队两大军种,各自拥有空中力量。其中国民卫队下辖宪兵队、海军陆战队和步兵营。近年来军费开支均不足当年国家预算的1%。现任总参谋长阿尼尔多·伊玛努埃尔·达格拉萨·莫赖斯少将(Anildo Emanuel da Graca Morais)。

【文化教育】政府重视发展教育事业,2012-2017年教育支出占国内生产总值的平均比例为5.4%。实行中小学义务教育,小学适龄儿童入学率已达100%,小学辍学率为8.6%,中学入学率为93%。重视成人教育,设有各类培训中心。全国共有516家幼儿园,419所小学,49家中学,2013/2014学年共有注册学生142266人,教师7105名。2006年11月,佛成立第一所公立大学——佛得角大学。目前,佛共有11所高等教育机构,其中6所大学,5所高等学院。2011/2012学年共有1316名大学教师,其中63.5%拥有学士及以上学位;共有1.18万名大学生在读,相当于全国18-22岁人口中的20.7%。2015年全国成人识字率达86.8%,其中15-24岁青年人口中女性识字率达98.7%,男性识字率达97.6%(资料来源:世界银行数据库)。

【新闻出版】主要有《周报》、《岛屿快报》、《民族报》和《佛得角报》4份周报。还有《观点》和《自由》等月刊。

新闻通讯社:1998年2月成立,由原《佛得角新报》、佛通讯社和佛出版社合并组成,向社会提供文字新闻。

有一家国营电视台,即佛得角广播电视台,1997年由佛得角国家电台和佛得角国家电视台合并而成。另外,政府还为一个私人电视台和两个有线电视台颁发了许可证,目前尚未营运。全国有12家广播电台播音。

[Foreign Aid] According to the statistics of the Economic and Cooperative Organization, the Buddha received a total of US$123 million in foreign aid in 2017. The main aids are the European Union ($36.37 million), Portugal ($30.45 million), the United States ($21.91 million), France ($16.6 million), Luxembourg ($10.51 million), and Japan ($9.11 million).

[Foreign Capital] According to the “World Investment Report 2018” published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the Buddha attracted foreign direct investment of $109 million in 2017 and the direct investment stock reached $1.946 billion.

[People’s Life] According to the 2018 Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Programme, the Cape Verde Human Development Index ranks 125th out of 189 countries. The life expectancy per capita is 74.9 years for women and 70.9 years for men. Medical expenditures accounted for 4.8% of GDP, and the under-5 mortality rate was 21.4. According to data released by the International Telecommunication Union in 2017, 37.4% of households in the country have computers, 62% have access to the Internet, about 260,000 Internet users, and 473,000 3G network users, accounting for 87.6% of the national population.

[Military] The army was founded on January 15, 1967, formerly known as the “People’s Revolutionary Armed Forces”. After the change to the multi-party system, it was renamed “People’s Revolutionary Armed Forces.” The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The government has a Ministry of National Defense, which is under the jurisdiction of the General Staff. The Chief of Staff is appointed and removed by the President on the advice of the government. Implement compulsory military service. The service period is 14 months. At present, the total strength is about 1,200, divided into two major services, the National Guard and the Coast Guard, each with air power. Among them, the National Guard is under the jurisdiction of the Gendarmerie, the Marine Corps and the Infantry Battalion. In recent years, military spending has been less than 1% of the national budget of the year. The current Chief of Staff, Major General Anildo Emanuel da Graca Morais.

[Cultural Education] The government attaches great importance to the development of education. In 2012-2017, the average ratio of education expenditure to GDP was 5.4%. Compulsory education in primary and secondary schools is implemented. The enrollment rate of primary school-age children has reached 100%, the dropout rate in primary schools is 8.6%, and the enrollment rate in secondary schools is 93%. Emphasis on adult education and various training centers. There are 516 kindergartens, 419 primary schools and 49 middle schools nationwide. In the 2013/2014 academic year, there were 142,266 registered students and 7,105 teachers. In November 2006, Foshan established its first public university, the University of Cape Verde. At present, there are 11 higher education institutions in the Buddha, including 6 universities and 5 higher education institutions. In the 2011/2012 academic year, there were 1,316 university teachers, of whom 63.5% had bachelor’s degrees or above; a total of 11,800 college students were enrolled, equivalent to 20.7% of the national population aged 18-22. In 2015, the national adult literacy rate reached 86.8%, among which the female literacy rate among the 15-24-year-old youth population was 98.7%, and the male literacy rate was 97.6% (source: World Bank database).

[News and Publishing] There are four weekly reports of “Weekly”, “Island Express”, “National Daily” and “Cape Verde”. There are also monthly magazines such as “Viewpoint” and “Freedom.”

News Agency: Established in February 1998, it was composed of the original “Cape Verde New Newspaper”, the Buddhism News Agency and the Buddhist Publishing House, providing text news to the society.

There is a state-run television station, Cape Verde Radio and Television, which was formed in 1997 by the merger of Cape Verde National Radio and Cape Verde National Television. In addition, the government has issued a permit for a private television station and two cable television stations, which are not yet operational. There are 12 radio stations broadcasting in the country.

【对外关系】奉行和平、中立和不结盟外交政策。主张外交为发展服务。愿在相互尊重主权、互不干涉内政、平等互利的基础上与世界各国发展友好合作关系。现为联合国、世界贸易组织、不结盟运动、葡语国家共同体、法语国家组织、非洲联盟、西非国家经济共同体等组织成员。同110个国家有外交关系。

【同葡萄牙的关系】两国保持着特殊关系。两国高层交往频繁,各领域合作密切。葡是佛最大援助国和主要贸易伙伴之一。2017年2月,葡总理科斯塔访佛出席第四届葡佛峰会,双方签署两国2017-2021战略合作方案,葡将在未来4年向佛提供1.2亿欧元资助和投资。4月,葡总统索萨访佛。11月,丰塞卡总统、席尔瓦总理先后访葡。2018年1月,葡外长席尔瓦访佛,双方签署司法合作协议。

【同美国的关系】佛美关系良好。佛在美有侨民近40万,年均侨汇1000多万美元。佛系“非洲增长与机遇法”受惠国。佛美签有航空运输合作协议。2007年,佛成为美国“千年挑战帐户”受益国,美承诺五年内在该框架下向佛提供约960万美元,其中700万美元将用于水文、农业和私营企业发展等项目。2012年1月,美国国务卿希拉里过境佛。2012年2月,美佛签署“千年挑战帐户”二期协议,佛成为第一个“千年挑战帐户”二期项目受惠国,美将在此项下向佛提供6620万美元援款。2012年9月,丰塞卡总统赴美国波士顿访问。2013年3月,内韦斯总理应邀赴美出席奥巴马总统与非洲四国(佛得角、塞拉利昂、塞内加尔、马拉维)领导人会晤。2014年5月,美国国务卿克里过境佛。8月,丰塞卡总统出席首届美非峰会。2016年8月,美国国会代表团访佛。【同欧洲联盟的关系】双方关系密切,互访频繁。长期以来,欧盟向佛提供了大量援助。2007年10月,欧盟与佛宣布建立特殊伙伴关系,佛成为第一个与欧盟建立上述关系的非洲国家。2011年12月,欧盟决定免除从佛进口产品关税并取消对佛进口配额限制。2017年5月,欧盟批准对佛渔业产品进口免关税提案。2018年7月,欧盟宣布将向佛提供1000万欧元预算支持,用于发展经济,促进青年就业。12月,第九届欧盟-佛得角部长级政治高层对话会在佛举行。

【同葡语国家共同体的关系】1996年7月17日加入葡语国家共同体,为创始国之一。强调葡语国家间“共同文化属性”,主张成员国间加强政治、外交、经济和社会方面的合作。2004年7月,佛常驻联合国代表丰塞卡在第5届葡共体首脑会议上当选为葡共体执行秘书。2008年4月、10月、11月,葡共体卫生部长会议、海关关长会议、议会秘书长会议分别在佛召开。6月,葡共体执行秘书丰塞卡访佛。2013年4月,葡共体执行秘书穆拉尔基访佛。同月,丰塞卡总统赴安出席非洲葡语国家峰会。7月,博尔热斯外长代表内韦斯总理赴东帝汶出席葡共体峰会,支持赤道几内亚加入葡共体。2015年10月,丰塞卡总统赴巴西利亚参加葡共体峰会。2018年,佛得角接任葡共体主席国。7月,葡共体峰会在佛萨尔岛召开。11月,葡共体内政部长会议在佛召开。同月,丰塞卡总统就任葡共体企业联合会指导机构主席和其他相关机构主席,任期2018至2020年。2019年1月,葡共体议会大会在佛首都普拉亚召开。

[External Relations] Pursue a peaceful, neutral and non-aligned foreign policy. Advocating diplomacy for development. We are willing to develop friendly and cooperative relations with all countries in the world on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit. He is currently a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries, the Organization of la Francophonie, the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States. Has diplomatic relations with 110 countries.

[Relationship with Portugal] The two countries maintain a special relationship. The two countries have frequent high-level exchanges and close cooperation in various fields. Portugal is one of the largest donors and one of the major trading partners of the Buddha. In February 2017, Portuguese Prime Minister Costa Visited the 4th Portuguese Foshan Summit. The two sides signed a strategic cooperation plan for 2017-2021. Portugal will provide 120 million euros in funding and investment in the next four years. In April, Portuguese President Sousa visited the Buddha. In November, President Fonseca and Prime Minister Silva visited Portugal. In January 2018, Portuguese Foreign Minister Silva visited the Buddha and the two sides signed a judicial cooperation agreement.

[Relationship with the United States] The relationship between the Buddha and the United States is good. There are nearly 400,000 overseas Chinese in the United States, and the average annual remittance is more than 10 million US dollars. The Buddha is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Law. Fomei signed an air transport cooperation agreement. In 2007, Buddha became a beneficiary of the US Millennium Challenge Account. The United States promised to provide about $9.6 million to the Buddha within the framework within five years, of which $7 million will be used for projects in hydrology, agriculture and private enterprise development. In January 2012, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton crossed the border. In February 2012, the United States signed the second phase of the “Millennium Challenge Account” agreement, and Buddha became the beneficiary of the first “Millennium Challenge Account” Phase II project, under which the United States will provide US$66.2 million in aid to the Buddha. In September 2012, President Fonseca visited Boston, USA. In March 2013, Prime Minister Neves was invited to the United States to attend the meeting between President Obama and the leaders of the four African countries (Cape Verde, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Malawi). In May 2014, US Secretary of State Kerry passed through the Buddha. In August, President Fonseca attended the first US-Africa summit. In August 2016, the US Congress delegation visited the Buddha. [Relationship with the European Union] The two sides have close ties and frequent exchanges of visits. The EU has provided a lot of assistance to the Buddha for a long time. In October 2007, the EU and the Buddha announced the establishment of a special partnership, and the Buddha became the first African country to establish such relations with the EU. In December 2011, the EU decided to waive tariffs on imports from Buddha and lift restrictions on import quotas for Buddha. In May 2017, the EU approved a tariff-free proposal for the import of fossil fishery products. In July 2018, the European Union announced that it would provide 10 million euros of budget support to the Buddha to develop the economy and promote youth employment. In December, the 9th EU-Cape Verde Ministerial High-level Political Dialogue was held in Buddhism.

[Relationship with the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries] Joined the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries on July 17, 1996, as one of the founding countries. Emphasize the “common cultural attributes” among Portuguese-speaking countries and advocate strengthening political, diplomatic, economic and social cooperation among member states. In July 2004, the Permanent Representative of the Buddha to the United Nations, Fonseca, was elected as the Executive Secretary of the Portuguese Community at the 5th Portuguese Community Summit. In April, October and November 2008, the meeting of the Portuguese Health Ministers, the Customs Commissioner’s Meeting, and the Parliamentary Secretary-General Meeting were held in the Buddha. In June, the Executive Secretary of the Portuguese Community, Fonseca, visited the Buddha. In April 2013, the Executive Secretary of the Portuguese Community, Muralki, visited the Buddha. In the same month, President Fonseca went to Ann to attend the African Portuguese-speaking Countries Summit. In July, Foreign Minister Borges represented Prime Minister Neves to attend the Portuguese Community Summit in East Timor and supported Equatorial Guinea to join the Portuguese Community. In October 2015, President Fonseca went to Brasilia to attend the Portuguese Community Summit. In 2018, Cape Verde took over as the presidency of the Portuguese Community. In July, the Portuguese Community Summit was held in Fossa Island. In November, the meeting of the Portuguese Ministers of Internal Affairs was held in Buddhism. In the same month, President Fonseca became the chairman of the guiding body of the Portuguese Federation of Enterprises and other relevant institutions, with a term of 2018 to 2020. In January 2019, the Portuguese Parliamentary Assembly was held in Praia, the capital of the Buddha.