The Republic of Burundi 布隆迪共和国
【国 名】 布隆迪共和国（The Republic of Burundi, La République du Burundi）。
【面 积】 27834平方公里。
【人 口】 1086万（2017年）。由胡图（84%）、图西（15%）和特瓦（1%）三个部族组成。官方语言为基隆迪语和法语，国语为基隆迪语，部分居民讲斯瓦希里语。居民中61%信奉天主教，24%信奉基督教新教，3.2%信奉原始宗教，其余信奉其他宗教或不信教。
【首 都】 布琼布拉（Bujumbura），人口约100万。
【国家领导人】 总统皮埃尔·恩库伦齐扎（Pierre NKURUNZIZA），2005年8月19日当选，2010年6月28日胜选连任，2015年8月20日再次连任。第一副总统加斯东·辛迪姆沃（Gaston SINDIMWO）；第二副总统约瑟夫·布托雷（Joseph BUTORE）。
[Country name] The Republic of Burundi, La République du Burundi.
[area] 27,834 square kilometers.
[People] 1086 million (2017). It consists of Hutu (84%), Tucci (15%) and Tewa (1%). The official language is Kirundi and French, the national language is Kirundi, and some residents speak Swahili. 61% of the residents believe in Catholicism, 24% believe in Protestantism, 3.2% believe in primitive religion, and the rest believe in other religions or not.
[The capital] Building (Bujumbura), with a population of about 1 million.
[National Leader] President Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected on August 19, 2005, re-elected on June 28, 2010, and re-elected on August 20, 2015. First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO; Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE.
[Important Festival] National Day (Independence Day) on July 1.
【简 况】 位于非洲中东部赤道南侧。内陆国。北与卢旺达接壤，东、南与坦桑尼亚交界，西与刚果（金）为邻，西南濒坦噶尼喀湖。西部湖滨与河谷及东部为热带草原气候；中西部属热带山地气候。年平均气温为20～24℃，最高可达33℃。2～5月为大雨季，9～11月为小雨季，其他月份为旱季。
17世纪以前建立了封建王国。1890年成为德属东非的一部分。1922年成为比利时委任统治地。1946年联合国将布交由比利时“托管”。1962年7月1日宣布独立，成立布隆迪王国。1966年11月28日米歇尔·米孔贝罗（Michel MICOMBERO）发动政变成立布隆迪共和国。1976年11月1日让·巴蒂斯特·巴加扎（Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA）发动政变成立布隆迪第二共和国。1987年9月3日皮埃尔·布约亚（Pierre BUYOYA）政变上台就任总统，成立第三共和国。1992年实行多党制。1993年6月，布举行多党总统和立法选举，胡图族最大政党布隆迪民主阵线（简称”民阵”）主席梅尔希奥·恩达达耶（Melchior NDADAYE）当选总统，民阵获议会绝对多数。10月，布发生军事政变，恩达达耶总统被害身亡。政变引发大规模民族流血冲突。1994年1月，国民议会选举民阵成员西普里安·恩塔里亚米拉（Cyprien NTARYAMIRA）为总统。4月6日，恩遇空难身亡。9月，民阵同原执政党、图西族政党争取民族进步统一党（又称乌普罗纳党，简称乌党）等反对党达成权力分配”政府契约”，国民议会选举民阵成员西尔维斯特·恩蒂班通加尼亚（Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA）为总统。1996年7月25日，由图西族控制的军队发动政变，废黜恩蒂班通加尼亚，推举前总统布约亚为总统。2000年8月，在国际社会和周边国家调解下，布政府与各政治派别签署阿鲁沙和平与和解协议。2001年11月1日，布过渡政府成立，布约亚出任过渡期前18个月总统，原民阵总书记、胡图人多米蒂昂·恩达伊泽耶（Domitien NDAYIZEYE）出任副总统。2003年4月30日，根据阿鲁沙协议顺利实行政权交接，恩达伊泽耶接任总统，图西人阿尔方斯-马里·卡德盖（Alphonse-Marie KADEGE）出任副总统，布过渡期平稳进入第二阶段。11月，布政府和最大的反政府武装保卫民主力量（FDD）签署一揽子和平协议，FDD加入过渡政府，布和平进程取得重大进展。
【政 治】 2005年6月至8月，布顺利举行地方、立法和总统选举。FDD在地方、国民议会和参议院选举中分别赢得63%、55%和88%的席位，成为执政党，其领导人皮埃尔·恩库伦齐扎作为唯一候选人当选总统，8月26日就职，随后组成新政府。2006年9月7日，布政府与最后一支反政府武装全国解放阵线（FNL）签署全面停火协议。此后，双方因有关落实协议的谈判陷入僵局多次交火，并在国家社会斡旋下多次签署停火或和平协议。2009年4月，全国解放阵线正式宣布放弃军事斗争。2010年6月28日，布举行总统选举，反对党指责政府和执政党在此前举行的地方选举中舞弊拒绝参选，恩库伦齐扎作为唯一候选人以91.62%得票率蝉联。2015年年初以来，布各方因大选问题产生严重分歧，国内局势趋于紧张，并曾于5月发生未遂军事政变。7月21日，布举行总统选举，恩库伦齐扎得票率69.41%，首轮直接胜出。8月20日，恩库伦齐扎宣誓就职。2018年5月，布举行公投高票通过修宪草案。
[profile] Located on the south side of the equator in central and eastern Africa. Landlocked country. It borders Rwanda in the north, borders Tanzania in the east and south, and Congo (Kinshasa) in the west and Tanganyika Lake in the southwest. The western lakeside and river valleys and the eastern part have a savanna climate; the central and western regions have a tropical mountain climate. The annual average temperature is 20 ~ 24 ° C, up to 33 ° C. From February to May, it is a heavy rain season, from September to November, it is a light rainy season, and other months are a dry season.
The feudal kingdom was established before the 17th century. In 1890, it became part of the German East Africa. In 1922, it became the appointed place of Belgium. In 1946, the United Nations will be handed over to Belgium for “hosting.” On July 1, 1962, independence was declared and the Kingdom of Burundi was established. On November 28, 1966, Michel MICOMBERO launched a coup to establish the Republic of Burundi. On November 1, 1976, Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA launched a coup to establish the Second Republic of Burundi. On September 3, 1987, the Pierre BUYOYA coup took office and became the president. A multiparty system was introduced in 1992. In June 1993, cloth held a multi-party presidential and legislative elections. Melchior NDADAYE, chairman of the Hutu’s largest political party, the Burundi Democratic Front (“FNL”), was elected president and the FDC was elected by the parliament. Absolutely majority. In October, a military coup took place in Buddhism, and President Ndadaye was killed. The coup led to a large-scale national bloody conflict. In January 1994, the National Assembly elected the FNL member Cyprien NTARYAMIRA as the president. On April 6, En was killed in an air crash. In September, the FDC and the former ruling party, the Tutsi political party for the National Progressive Unity Party (also known as the Uprona Party, referred to as the Ukrainian Party) and other opposition parties reached a power distribution “government contract”, the National Assembly elected FNL member Silvi Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA is the president. On July 25, 1996, the Tutsi-controlled army launched a coup, dethroning Entibantunja, and elected former President Buyoya as president. In August 2000, under the mediation of the international community and neighboring countries, the government and the political factions signed the Arusha peace and reconciliation agreement. On November 1, 2001, the transitional government was established. Buyoya served as the president for the first 18 months of the transition period. The former Secretary of the National Democratic People’s Bank and the Hutu people Domitien NDAYIZEYE became the vice president. On April 30, 2003, according to the successful transfer of the Arusha agreement, Ndaizeye took over as president, and Tucci Alphonse-Marie KADEGE became the vice president. Smoothly enter the second stage. In November, the government and the largest anti-government armed forces defending democracy (FDD) signed a peace agreement, FDD joined the transitional government, and the peace process made significant progress.
[Politics] From June to August 2005, cloth successfully held local, legislative and presidential elections. FDD won 63%, 55% and 88% of the seats in the local, National Assembly and Senate elections respectively and became the ruling party. Its leader Pierre Nkurunziza was elected as the only candidate and took office on August 26. And then formed a new government. On September 7, 2006, the Bulgarian government signed a comprehensive ceasefire agreement with the last anti-government armed National Liberation Front (FNL). Since then, the two sides have been in a state of stalemate in negotiations on the implementation of the agreement, and have repeatedly signed a ceasefire or peace agreement under the mediation of the state society. In April 2009, the National Liberation Front officially announced the abandonment of the military struggle. On June 28, 2010, the presidential election was held. The opposition party accused the government and the ruling party of refusing to stand for election in the previous local elections. Nkurunziza was the only candidate to win the vote with 91.62% of the votes. Since the beginning of 2015, all sides of the cloth have had serious differences due to the election, the domestic situation has become tense, and an attempted military coup took place in May. On July 21, when the presidential election was held, Nkurunzi got a vote of 69.41% and won directly in the first round. On August 20, Nkurunziza was sworn in. In May 2018, the cloth held a high referendum to pass the draft constitution.
【宪 法】 2005年3月18日，布颁布实施《后过渡时期宪法》。宪法规定：实行多党制。胡图和图西两族在政府和国民议会中所占比例分别不超过60%和40%，在参议院中各占50%。政府成员由总统征询副总统意见后任命，由不同政党代表组成，对总统负责。国防和安全力量服从于国家文职权力机关，由专业人员组成，不参加任何党派，任何一族在国防力量中比例不得超过50%。2018年5月，布举行修宪公投，并以73.26%支持率高票通过新宪法，主要内容包括：总统任期从5年延长至7年，可连任一次；政体从总统制变为半总统半议会制；将两位副总统改为一位副总统和一位总理，均由总统任命。
【议 会】 两院制，由国民议会和参议院组成。本届国民议会和参议院分别于2015年7月、8月成立。国民议会121席，议长帕斯卡尔•尼亚本达（Pascal NYABENDA），第一副议长阿加顿·卢瓦萨（Agathon RWASA），第二副议长乔基·尚塔尔·恩库伦齐扎（女，Jocky Chantal NKURUNZIZA）。参议院共43席，参议长雷韦里安·恩迪库里约（Révérien NDIKURIYO），第一副参议长斯佩·卡里塔斯·恩杰巴里卡努耶（女，Spès Caritas NJEBARIKANUYE），第二副参议长阿尼塞·尼永加博（Anicet NIYONGABO）。
【政 府】 本届政府成立于2015年8月24日，2018年4月改组，由总统、2名副总统、21名部长组成，名单如下：总统皮埃尔·恩库伦齐扎（Pierre NKURUNZIZA）；第一副总统加斯东·辛迪姆沃（Gaston SINDIMWO）；第二副总统约瑟夫·布托雷（Joseph BUTORE）；内政、爱国主义教育和地方发展部长帕斯卡尔·巴兰达吉耶（Pascal BARANDAGIYE）；公共安全和灾害管理部长阿兰·纪尧姆·本约尼（Alain Guillaume BUNYONI）；国防和退伍军人部长埃马纽埃尔·恩塔奥姆武基耶（Emmanuel NTAHOMVUKIYE）；司法、民事保护和掌玺部长艾梅·洛朗蒂娜·康亚纳（女，Aimée Laurentine KANYANA）；外交部长埃策希尔·尼比吉拉（Ezéchiel NIBIGIRA）；财政、预算和经济发展合作部长多米蒂安·恩蒂霍库瓦约 （Domitien NDIHOKUBWAYO）；总统府东非共同体事务部长伊莎贝尔·恩达哈约（女，Isabelle NDAHAYO）；总统府良政部长让娜·达尔克·卡加约（女，Jeanne D’Arc KAGAYO）；人权、社会事务和性别平等部长马丁·尼维亚班迪（Martin NIVYABANDI）；地方分权和机构改革部长让·博斯科·希蒂马纳（Jean Bosco HITIMANA）；公职、劳动和就业部长费利克斯·姆波泽里尼加（Félix MPOZERINIGA）；教育、技术和职业培训部长让维埃·恩迪拉希沙（Janvière NDIRAHISHA）；高等教育和科研部长卡斯帕·巴尼亚恩基姆博纳（Gaspard BANYANKIMBONA）;公共卫生和艾滋病防治部长塔代·恩迪库马纳（Thaddée NDIKUMANA）；环境、农业和牧业部长德奥·吉德·鲁雷马（Déo Guide RUREMA）；水利、能源和矿业部长科姆·马尼拉基扎（Côme MANIRAKIZA）；交通、公共工程、装备和国土整治部长让·博斯科·恩通兹韦尼马纳（Jean Bosco NTUNZWENIMANA）；商业、工业和旅游部长让·马里·尼尤金迪（Jean Marie NIYOKINDI）；青年、邮政和信息技术部长埃弗利娜·布托伊（女，Evelyne BUTOYI）；通信和媒体部长弗雷德里克·纳希马纳（Frédéric NAHIMANA）；文化和体育部长佩拉特·尼永库鲁（Pélate NIYONKURU）。
[Constitution] On March 18, 2005, cloth promulgated and implemented the Post-Transitional Constitution. The Constitution stipulates that a multi-party system is implemented. The Hutu and Tutsi groups account for no more than 60% and 40% respectively in the government and the National Assembly, and 50% in the Senate. Government members are appointed by the President after consultation with the Vice President, composed of representatives of different political parties, and responsible to the President. The defense and security forces are subordinated to the state’s civilian authority, composed of professionals, and do not participate in any party. The proportion of any family in the national defense force must not exceed 50%. In May 2018, Buddhism held a constitutional referendum and passed a new constitution with a high support rate of 73.26%. The main contents include: the presidential term is extended from five years to seven years, and can be re-elected once; the regime is changed from presidential to semi-president Parliamentary system; the two vice presidents were changed to a vice president and a prime minister, all appointed by the president.
[Parliament] The bicameral system consists of the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly and the Senate were established in July and August 2015 respectively. 121 seats in the National Assembly, Speaker Pascal NYABENDA, first deputy speaker Agathon RWASA, second deputy speaker Choki Chantal Nkurunziza ( Female, Jocky Chantal NKURUNZIZA). The Senate has a total of 43 seats, the Senate President Révérien NDIKURIYO, the first deputy chief of the Senator, Spés Caritas NJEBARIKANUYE, Second Deputy Speaker, Anicet NIYONGABO.
[Government] The current government was established on August 24, 2015 and reorganized in April 2018. It consists of the president, two vice presidents, and 21 ministers. The list is as follows: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO; Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE; Pascal Barandajiye, Minister of Internal Affairs, Patriotic Education and Local Development ( Pascal BARANDAGIYE); Minister of Public Safety and Disaster Management Alain Guillaume BUNYONI; Minister of Defence and Veterans Emmanuel NTAHOMVUKIYE; Justice, Civil Protection and Lieutenant Minister Aimee Laurentine KANYANA; Foreign Minister Ezéchiel NIBIGIRA; Minister of Finance, Budget and Economic Development Cooperation Dormy Domitien NDIHOKUBWAYO; Isabelle Ndahayo, Minister of the East African Community Affairs of the Presidential Palace; Minister of the Republic of China Martin D’Arc KAGAYO; Martin NIVYABANDI, Minister of Human Rights, Social Affairs and Gender Equality; Jean Bosco, Minister of Decentralization and Institutional Reform · Jean Bosco HITIMANA; Minister of Public Service, Labor and Employment Félix MPOZERINIGA; Minister of Education, Technology and Vocational Training Jean-Jean Vière NDIRAHISHA); Minister of Higher Education and Research, Gaspard BANYANKIMBONA; Minister of Public Health and AIDS, Thaddée NDIKUMANA; Environment, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Minister Déo Guide RUREMA; Minister of Water, Energy and Mining, Côme MANIRAKIZA; Jean Boscoe, Minister of Transport, Public Works, Equipment and Land Rehabilitation Jean Bosco NTUNZWENIMANA; Minister of Commerce, Industry and Tourism Jean Marie NIYOKINDI; Minister of Youth, Post and Information Technology Frédéric NAHIMANA, Minister of Communications and Media; Pélate NIYONKURU, Minister of Culture and Sports.
【司法机构】 司法权独立于立法权和行政权，由各级法院、法庭依法行使。主要司法机构包括最高法院、宪法法院、特别最高法院、上诉法院、审计院、商业法庭、劳动法庭、省级法院，及总检察院、地方检察院等。最高法院和宪法法院成员由总统任命。现任最高法院院长西尔韦斯特· 姆帕文纳约（Sylvestre MPAWENAYO ），宪法法院院长夏尔·恩达吉日马纳（Charles NDAGIJIMANA），总检察长西尔韦斯特·恩扬德维（Sylvestre NYANDWI）。
【政 党】 根据《宪法》和2011年9月颁布的《新政党法》，实施多党制，政党依法在内政部注册登记。截至2015年底，共有43个合法政党。
（1）保卫民主全国委员会－保卫民主力量（Comité National pour la Défense de la Démocratie-Forces pour la Défense de la Démocratie，CNDD-FDD），执政党，以胡图族为主体。曾为布最大反政府武装力量，1994年从民主阵线中分裂出来。随后内部又发生了两次分裂，分成CNDD-FDD主流派及两个少数派。主流派以恩库伦齐扎为首，少数派分别以尼昂戈马和恩达伊岗古鲁基耶为首。后两派势单力薄，影响有限。2003年11月与布过渡政府达成停火协议，于2004年9月正式转为合法政党，并在2005年各级选举中获胜，成为执政党。2007年2月，FDD召开特别党代会，会议决定党内最高权力机构为贤人委员会，并选举恩库伦齐扎总统为该委员会主席，前总书记马纳塞·恩佐博尼姆帕（Manassé NZOBONIMPA）担任委员会书记；会议还选举热雷米•恩冈达库马纳（Jérémie NGENDAKUMANA）为党的新任主席。2012年3月，保卫民主力量举行第二届全国代表大会，选举帕斯卡尔·尼亚本达（Pascal NYABENDA）为主席、维克多·布里库基耶（Victor BURIKUKIYE）为第一副主席、约瑟夫·恩卡塔卢蒂马纳为第二副主席。2016年8月，保卫民主力量举行特别党代会，对党内机构进行改组，选举出由5人组成的贤人委员会，恩库伦齐扎总统担任贤人委员会主席和终身成员。会议还决定以总书记取代党主席一职，埃瓦里斯特·恩达施米耶（Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE）任党总书记。2015年大选后，该党在国民议会和参议院分别占据86席和33席。
（2）争取民族进步统一党（Union pour le Progrès National，UPRONA）：简称乌党，1959年1月成立，是图西族最大政党。布独立以后长期执政。1993年6月多党选举失败后，失去执政党地位。1996年布约亚重新执政后，党内出现分裂。2001年11月，布过渡政府成立，布约亚出任过渡期前18个月总统。2005年大选后，乌党沦为第三大党。2010年在国民议会和参议院选举中，乌党成为第二大党。2016年8月，乌党举行全国党代会，选举新一届领导班子，阿贝尔·加沙特西（Abel GASHATSI）任党主席。2015年大选后，乌党在国民议会和参议院各占2席。
（3）布隆迪民主阵线（Front pour la démocratie au Burundi-FRODEBU）：简称民阵，胡图族主要政党之一，1986年成立。党的目标是建立一个尊重、捍卫、促进人的基本权利和自由的真正的主权国家。1993年，民阵在总统大选和立法选举中获胜，党主席恩达达耶当选总统，民阵成为执政党。10月，恩遇刺身亡。1994年党内因政见分歧而发生分裂。2001年11月1日过渡政府成立后，民阵前总书记恩达伊泽耶出任副总统，民阵主席米纳尼任国民议会议长。2005年立法选举失败后，米纳尼被罢免主席职务，原总书记莱昂斯·恩冈达库马纳（Léonce NGENDAKUMANA）当选主席，厄弗拉希·比基尔马纳（Euphrasie BIGIRMANA）当选总书记。2006年3月，宣布退出政府，成为反对党。
（4）保卫民主全国委员会（Conseil National pour la Défense de la Démocratie -CNDD），于1994年10月从民主阵线中分裂出来，即CNDD-FDD尼昂戈马派。原主张武装斗争、国际军事干预和改组布军队。1998年6月，尼昂戈马参加阿鲁沙和谈，后签署了阿鲁沙和平协议并加入过渡政府。党主席莱奥纳尔·尼昂戈马（Léonard NYANGOMA），现流亡国外。
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 1 municipality (Bujumbura City) and 17 provinces. The names of the provinces are as follows: Bubanza, Bujumbura, Buruli, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Kitt Canada, Carruzi, Kayanza, Kelondo, Macomba, Molongvia, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyji, Lumengai, Mvaro.
[Judiciary] Judicial power is independent of legislative and executive powers and is exercised by courts and courts at all levels. The main judicial institutions include the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, the Special Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the Court of Audit, the Commercial Court, the Labor Court, the Provincial Court, the General Prosecutor’s Office, and the District Procuratorate. The Supreme Court and members of the Constitutional Court are appointed by the President. Sylvestre MPAWENAYO, President of the Supreme Court, Charles NDAGIJIMANA, President of the Constitutional Court, Sylvester Nyand, Attorney General Sylvestre NYANDWI.
[Political Party] According to the Constitution and the New Party Law promulgated in September 2011, a multi-party system was implemented, and political parties were registered with the Ministry of the Interior according to law. As of the end of 2015, there were 43 legal parties.
(1) The National Council for the Defence of Democracy (Comité National pour la Défense de la Démocratie-Forces pour la Défense de la Démocratie, CNDD-FDD), the ruling party, with the Hutu as the main body. Once the largest anti-government armed force in Buddhism, it split from the Democratic Front in 1994. Then there were two internal splits, divided into CNDD-FDD mainstream and two minority. The mainstream is headed by Nkurunziza, and the minority is headed by Nangoma and Ndayigang Gurujiye. The latter two factions are weak and have limited impact. In November 2003, it reached a ceasefire agreement with the Bhutan transitional government. In September 2004, it officially became a legal party and won the elections in 2005 and became the ruling party. In February 2007, FDD held a special party congress, which decided that the highest authority in the party was the sage committee, and elected President Nkurunziza as the chairman of the committee, former general secretary Manasseé Nbobonimpa (Manassé NZOBONIMPA) served as the secretary of the committee; the meeting also elected Jérémie NGENDAKUMANA as the new chairman of the party. In March 2012, FDLR held the second national congress, electing Pascal NYABENDA as chairman and Victor BURIKUKIYE as the first vice-chairman. Joseph Nkatta Lutimana is the second vice chairman. In August 2016, the Defence Forces of Democracy held a special party congress, reorganized the party’s internal organs, elected a sage committee composed of five people, and President Nkurunziza served as chairman and life member of the sage committee. The meeting also decided to replace the party chairman with the general secretary, Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE as the party secretary. After the 2015 general election, the party occupied 86 seats and 33 seats in the National Assembly and the Senate.
(2) Union pour le Progrès National (UPRONA): referred to as the Ukrainian Party, founded in January 1959, is the largest political party in Tutsi. After the independence of Bu, he was in power for a long time After the failure of the multi-party election in June 1993, the status of the ruling party was lost. After Buyoya regained power in 1996, there was a split within the party. In November 2001, the transitional government was established and Buyoya became the president of the 18 months before the transition. After the 2005 general election, the Ukrainian Party became the third largest party. In 2010, in the National Assembly and Senate elections, the Ukrainian Party became the second largest party. In August 2016, the Ukrainian Party held a national party congress and elected a new leadership team. Abel GASHATSI served as the party chairman. After the 2015 general election, the Ukrainian party occupied two seats in the National Assembly and the Senate.
(3) Front pour la démocratie au Burundi-FRODEBU: referred to as the FDC, one of the main political parties of the Hutu nationality, was established in 1986. The party’s goal is to build a truly sovereign state that respects, defends and promotes the fundamental rights and freedoms of human beings. In 1993, the FDC won the presidential election and the legislative elections. Party President Ndadaye was elected president and the FDC became the ruling party. In October, En was stabbed to death. In 1994, the party split due to political differences. After the establishment of the Transitional Government on November 1, 2001, the former General Secretary of the FDC, Ndaizeye, became the Vice President, and the FDC President Minani was the Speaker of the National Assembly. After the failure of the 2005 legislative elections, Minani was dismissed from the presidency, and the former general secretary, Léonce NGENDAKUMANA, was elected chairman and Euphrasie BIGIRMANA was elected. General secretary. In March 2006, he announced his withdrawal from the government and became an opposition party.
(4) Conseil National pour la Défense de la Démocratie (CNDD), which was split from the Democratic Front in October 1994, the CNDD-FDD Niangoma. Originally advocated armed struggle, international military intervention, and reorganization of the army. In June 1998, Nangoma participated in the Arusha peace talks and signed the Arusha peace agreement and joined the Transitional Government. Party Chairman Léonard Nyangoma is now in exile.
In August 2015, CNDD and the FORFBU, FORDEBU-Nyakuri, the Alliance for Peace and Development (UPD) and some members of the ruling party’s Defence Forces, civil society representatives, etc. in Addis Ababa Pakistan established an opposition coalition to “comply with the Arusha Agreement and the National Committee for the Reconstruction of the Rule of Law” (CNARED), requesting the establishment of a transitional government to reorganize the general election. The United Nations, the African Union, the Eastern Community and the United States and the West have all asked the government to conduct an inclusive dialogue with the opposition represented by CNARED and resolve the crisis peacefully through consultations. However, the authorities in the CNARED have included domestic violence planners. By, refuse CNARED to participate in the dialogue.
Other political parties include: Civil Rights Movement (MRC), Shield Party (MSP INKINZO), Hutu People’s Liberation Party (PALIPEHUTU), People’s Reconciliation Party (PRP), People’s Party (PP), Campaign for Democracy and Economic and Social Development ( RADDES), the People’s Alliance of Burundi (RPB), the National Alliance for Rights and Development (ANADDES), the Liberal Party (PL), the Social Democratic Party (PSD), the Workers’ Independent Party (PIT), the Buenos Aires Alliance (ABASA), the National Baath Party (PARENA), Visionary Alliance (INTWARI), Burundi for Democracy and Reconciliation (PDR), Burundi for Development Freedom Alliance (ALIDE), Burundi New Alliance for Democracy and Development (NADEBU), Burundi for Peace and Development (UPD) Wait.
【重要人物】 皮埃尔·恩库伦齐扎（Pierre NKURUNZIZA），1963年12月18日出生于布琼布拉，胡图族。曾在布隆迪大学任教。1995年加入反政府武装保卫民主力量，1998年任副总书记，2001年被选为主席。2003年11月该组织加入布过渡政府后，恩出任负责良政和国家总检察事务的国务部长。2005年8月19日当选总统，2010年6月28日、2015年8月20日连任。
【经 济】 农牧业国家，经济以农业为主。上世纪90年代以来，布隆迪战争频仍，局势动荡。1996年7月政变后遭受长达30个月的经济制裁，西方国家援助基本停滞，加之难民问题和气候因素，经济形势严重恶化，国内生产总值比战前累计下降了22-25%。2000年布政府与各政治派别达成和平协议后，国际援助逐步恢复，经济形势有所好转。2009年1月，布达到重债穷国减债倡议完成点，获得减免14亿美元的债务。2012年2月，布出台《第二代增长和减贫战略框架》文件。10月，布政府在日内瓦召开“布发展合作伙伴大会”，与会各方承诺提供资金26亿美元。2018年8月，布出台《国家发展规划（2018-2027）》，旨在为布未来10年经济社会发展指明方向，力争到2027年实现10.7%的经济增长。2015年年初以来，因国内局势紧张，外援大幅减少，布经济状况急剧恶化。2018年主要经济指标估算如下：
【资 源】 矿藏主要有镍、泥炭、铈、钒、锡、金、高岭土等。镍矿储量2.61亿吨，品位为1.5%。泥炭储量约5亿吨。磷酸盐储量3050万吨，品位11.1-12.6%。钒储量1600万吨。石灰石储量200万吨。金矿分布较广，西北部储量较大，开采于20世纪30年代。森林覆盖率为3%。
[Important] Pierre NKURUNZIZA was born on December 18, 1963 in Bujumbura, Hutu. He taught at the University of Burundi. In 1995, he joined the anti-government armed forces to defend the democratic forces. In 1998, he served as deputy general secretary and in 2001 was elected chairman. After the organization joined the transitional government in November 2003, he was appointed Minister of State for Good Governance and State Prosecutorial Affairs. He was elected president on August 19, 2005, and was re-elected on June 28, 2010 and August 20, 2015.
[Economy] Agriculture and animal husbandry countries, the economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since the 1990s, the Burundi war has been frequent and the situation has been turbulent. After the coup in July 1996, after 30 months of economic sanctions, the aid of Western countries was basically stagnant. In addition to the refugee and climatic factors, the economic situation deteriorated severely, and the gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 22-25% compared with the pre-war period. After the Bush administration reached a peace agreement with various political factions in 2000, international aid gradually recovered and the economic situation improved. In January 2009, the company reached the completion point of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Debt Relief Initiative and received a debt relief of US$1.4 billion. In February 2012, the document issued the Second Generation Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Framework. In October, the government of the cloth convened the “Bud Development Partnership Conference” in Geneva, and the participating parties pledged to provide funds of 2.6 billion U.S. dollars. In August 2018, the “National Development Plan (2018-2027)” was issued to provide a direction for the economic and social development of the next 10 years, and strive to achieve 10.7% economic growth by 2027. Since the beginning of 2015, due to the domestic situation, foreign aid has been greatly reduced, and the economic situation of the cloth has deteriorated drastically. The main economic indicators for 2018 are estimated as follows:
Gross domestic product: $3.8 billion
Per capita GDP: $350
Economic growth rate: 1%
Currency name: Burundi franc (Brown).
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 1783 blang.
Inflation rate: -2.8%.
(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, First Quarter, 2019)
[Resources] The deposits mainly include nickel, peat, strontium, vanadium, tin, gold and kaolin. The nickel ore reserves are 261 million tons and the grade is 1.5%. Peat reserves are about 500 million tons. The phosphate reserves are 30.5 million tons and the grade is 11.1-12.6%. The vanadium reserves are 16 million tons. The limestone reserves are 2 million tons. The gold mine is widely distributed, with large reserves in the northwest, and was mined in the 1930s. The forest coverage rate is 3%.
【工 业】 工业基础薄弱。从业人数占劳动力人口的2%。2016年工业产值约占国内生产总值的16.6%，主要有农产品加工、化工、纺织、烟酒和发电等，均为中小企业。啤酒业是布产量最高、效益最好的工业。
【通信设施】 世界上电话覆盖率最低的国家之一，平均千人中仅4人拥有固定电话。国家电信局是布唯一的固定电话运营商，全国共有固话用户30000个。全国有U-Com，Onatel，Africell和Econet，Lacel，Lumitel6家移动电话运营商。全国有互联网用户14000个，由U-Com，Onatel，Usan Bu和Cbinet四家网络运营商提供网络支持。布隆迪布琼布拉城域网项目于2015年初开始运营，连通肯尼亚蒙巴萨、坦桑尼亚达累斯萨拉姆的海底电缆，可以向消费者提供宽带网服务。
[Industrial] The industrial base is weak. The number of employees accounts for 2% of the labor force. In 2016, the industrial output value accounted for 16.6% of the gross domestic product, mainly agricultural products processing, chemicals, textiles, tobacco and alcohol, and power generation, all of which are small and medium enterprises. The beer industry is the industry with the highest output and the best efficiency.
[Agriculture and Animal Husbandry] About 90% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. The cultivated land area is 8851 square kilometers, accounting for 31.8% of the country’s land area, of which the irrigable area is 100 square kilometers. In 2016, the output value of agriculture and animal husbandry accounted for 39.8% of GDP. The area planted with grain accounts for 90% of the cultivated land area, mainly including corn, rice, beans, potatoes, and plantains. 90% of agricultural products are self-sufficient. In recent years, the annual output of grain has been more than 1.2 million tons. Economic crops account for 10% of the cultivated land area, mainly coffee, tea, cotton and so on. The animal husbandry industry is relatively developed and is now declining year by year. The natural pasture is 7,277 square kilometers, accounting for 28.2% of the national area, and the livestock production accounts for 5% of the GDP.
[Service Industry] In recent years, the service industry has developed rapidly. In 2016, the output value accounted for 39.5% of the GDP.
[Transportation] No railway.
Highway: The total length of all types of roads is 13,600 kilometers. The capital Bujumbura is a transportation hub. The main route of land transport is from Bujumbura north through Rwanda, Uganda to Mombasa port in Kenya, with a total length of 2,025 km.
Water transport: The main channel is Lake Tanganyika, with a total length of 175 kilometers. The main route is from the south of Lake Tanganyika to the port of Kigoma, Tanzania, and then to the railway port of Dar es Salaam, with a total length of 1,428 kilometers. The main port is Bujumbura Port, which has a 500-meter long dock and can dock 5 freighters at the same time.
Air transport: Bujumbura International Airport can take off and take large passenger aircraft such as Boeing 747 passenger aircraft. It is managed by the National Aviation Administration of Burundi (RSA). From 2012 to 2014, the number of passengers entering and leaving Bujumbura Airport is stable at around 250,000 per year. Belgian Airlines opened a direct flight from Bujumbura to Brussels. The national airlines also have routes to Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia and South Africa.
[Communication facilities] One of the countries with the lowest telephone coverage in the world, only 4 of the average thousand people have fixed telephones. The National Telecommunications Bureau is the only fixed-line operator in the country, with a total of 30,000 fixed-line users nationwide. There are 6 mobile phone operators in U-Com, Onatel, Africell and Econet, Lacel and Lumitel. There are 14,000 Internet users nationwide, and network support is provided by four network operators U-Com, Onatel, Usan Bu and Cbinet. The Burundi Bujumbura Metropolitan Area Network project began operations in early 2015, connecting submarine cables in Mombasa, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to provide broadband network services to consumers.
[Financial Finance] The fiscal revenue mainly depends on various taxes and loans and grants from foreign and international organizations. In recent years, government budgets have increased due to elections and national reconstruction. In 2017, the fiscal revenue was 735 billion blang. In 2018-2019, the budgetary revenue was 1.24 trillion blang (about 707 million U.S. dollars), and the budgetary expenditure was 1.4 trillion blang (about 800 million U.S. dollars).
The main banks are: Bank of the Republic of Burundi, established in 1964, the central bank, under the guidance of the government to establish the official exchange rate. The three largest commercial banks are Bujumbura Credit Bank, Burundi Commercial Bank and Mutual Bank.
[Foreign Trade] The main export products are coffee, tea, etc. The main imported products are industrial manufactured products and fuels. The main export destinations in 2017 are UAE, Congo (Kinshasa), Pakistan, and Germany. The main import countries are India, China, Saudi Arabia, and Tanzania. Foreign trade has been in deficit for years.
[Foreign Aid] After the coup in July 1996, neighboring countries imposed economic sanctions on cloth, and foreign aid decreased significantly. After the sanctions were lifted in 1999, Western aid was restarted. Mainly from France, Belgium, the United States, Japan, Norway, UNHCR, the World Food Program, the European Union, the International Development Association and so on. International assistance to cloth has gradually recovered. In 2014, foreign aid was received totaling $501 million. Due to the 2015 election crisis, major Western aid partners suspended budget and project assistance, retaining only humanitarian emergency assistance. In 2017, it received foreign aid of $203 million and loans of $228 million.
[External Relations] A foreign policy that pursues good-neighborly friendship, non-interference in other countries’ internal affairs, non-alignment and international cooperation. Attach importance to good-neighborly friendship, hope to promote the resolution of internal problems through regional cooperation, support African economic integration, attach importance to relations with Western countries, and call on the international community to pay attention to the layout and provide assistance to the cloth. Currently, Bu has established diplomatic relations with 129 countries.
[Relationship with Belgium] Bu was once a deeper relationship than the colonies. After the coup in 1994, it was once more interrupted with Bu. In recent years, the ratio has increased. In March and December 2005, President Ndayizeye and President Nkurunziza visited Belgium. In April and July 2007, he was interviewed by Foreign Minister De Gucht and Defense Minister Frao. In March 2008, the foreign minister of Bhutto Buvila visited the country and signed an agreement on cooperation between the two governments. In October 2009, President Nkurunziza visited Belgium. In January 2010, he was interviewed by Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Vanaker. In November, he visited the Duke of Defense, Dale Chur. In January and March 2012, the second vice president of the DPRK, Ruffy Kiri, and Foreign Minister Kawakulei visited the two countries. In July, Belgian Crown Prince Philippe attended the 50th anniversary of the independence of the cloth. In April 2014, President Nkurunziza went to the 4th European-African Summit and visited the ratio. In 2015, Bhuban’s elections were opaque, fair, credible and the government refused to engage in dialogue with the opposition, which suspended other assistance in addition to humanitarian assistance. The cloth was subsequently expelled from the ambassador of the station. The government of the ruling party and the ruling party defended the democratic forces repeatedly publicly accused the opposition of interfering with the internal affairs of the cloth and supporting the opposition to plan to subvert the political power. In October 2016, he submitted a credentials to the new ambassador in Bu. In March 2017, Foreign Minister Nimitevo visited Belgium and met with Foreign Secretary Reidels.
[Relationship with France] The relationship between the law and the law has developed steadily for a long time. The two countries have signed economic, technical, military, cultural and other cooperation agreements, and there are more than 150 experts and technicians in the law. After the coup in Buju in July 1996, the law once stopped cooperation with Bu, and only provided humanitarian assistance to Bu. After the signing of the Arusha Peace Agreement in 2000, the law gradually resumed assistance to the cloth and announced the exemption of all debts. In October 2005, Buffa reached an agreement to resume military cooperation between the two countries. In February 2006, French Foreign Minister Dusit Brazi visited Bhutan and met with President Nkurunziza. In November, President Nkurunziza visited France. In February 2007, President Nkurunziza went to France to attend the 24th French-African Summit. In July 2011, the French National Assembly Speaker Akwaye visited Bu. In March 2013, President Nkurunziza paid a state visit to France. In December, President Nkurunziza went to France to attend the French-French Peace and Security Summit in Paris. In June 2014, President Nkurunziza visited the law again. After the outbreak of the cloth crisis in 2015, the law suspended cooperation with the defense and security fields. In July 2016, Resolution 2303 proposed by the Act on the dispatch of 228 United Nations police officers to the United Nations was adopted at the UN Security Council, and a large-scale anti-law demonstration broke out in the country.
[Relationship with the United States] The United States provides assistance to the United States in the areas of health, agriculture, environmental protection, energy and training. In August 2005, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Janda Ie Fraser attended the inauguration ceremony of President Bush. In September, President Nkurunziza went to the United States to attend the summit meeting to mark the 60th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations. In December, the United States will be included in the African Growth and Opportunity Act. In March 2006, the Speaker of the National Assembly of the Republic of China, Nahayo, visited the United States. In March 2007, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Janda Ie Fraser visited the United States and met with President Nkurunziza. In November, the US Senate delegation visited the country. In December, the United States announced that it would raise its annual financial aid from $18.6 million to $28.6 million. In May 2008, President Nkurunziza visited the United States. In March 2012 and June 2013, the second vice president of the cloth, Rufikili, visited the United States twice. In February 2014, the United States signed the “State Forces Agreement.” In August, President Nkurunziza went to the United States to attend the first US-Africa summit. In November 2015, the United States believed that President Nkurunziza’s request for re-election violated the principle of democratic good governance and removed the name from the African Growth and Opportunity Act. In the same month, the United States announced sanctions against four people, including the Minister of Public Security. In November 2018, the United States announced that it would continue to extend sanctions against four people, including the Minister of Public Security.
【军 事】 1967年3月7日建军，2005年结束过渡期后组建新的国防军和警察部队，胡图和图西族官兵各占50%。布国防军由陆军、空军、湖军组成。总统为武装部队统帅。军队总参谋部下设海军局和空军局分管湖军和空军。总参谋长普里姆·尼勇加博（Prime NIYONGABO）。
布隆迪新闻社为官方通讯社，1976年6月创建。黑非洲通讯社（AGENCE AZANIA）和新闻社（NET PRESSE）均为民办通讯社。
[People’s Life] More than 90% of the population live in rural areas, more than 50% are under 17 years old, and an average of 6 children per woman, with an annual population growth rate of 2.5%. The average life expectancy in 2015 was 57.1 years, and the mortality rate for children under 5 years old was 8.17%. The poor account for 64.6% of the total population.
[Medical Health] With the medical mutual fund and medical certificate, military personnel are free of charge, and civilians implement part of free medical care. Public officials pay 6% of their monthly salary to the mutual fund, and the government subsidies 4%. The medical certificate can be used by the whole family, and the medical certificate pays 20% of the medical expenses. In 2006, the government of Bulgaria proposed a policy of free medical care for children under 5 years of age and a free policy for women’s delivery. On average, every 25,000 people have a health center, and 70% of doctors are concentrated in the capital. Common diseases include malaria, AIDS, schistosomiasis, hepatitis, and cholera. Among people aged 14-49, the VIH virus carriers were 1.0% (2015).
[Military] On March 7, 1967, the army was established. After the transition period in 2005, a new IDF and police force was formed. Hutu and Tutsi officers and men each accounted for 50%. The BDF is composed of the Army, the Air Force, and the Lake Army. The president is the commander of the armed forces. The Navy Bureau and the Air Force Bureau under the General Staff of the Army are in charge of the Lakers and Air Force. Chief of Staff, Prime NiYONGABO.
There are 1 defending area and 5 military areas and 20 barracks. The total strength is about 41,000, including 25,000 for the Army, Lake Army and Air Force, and 16,000 for the police. The Army has infantry, armor, mechanics, artillery, communications, engineering, construction and military and reconnaissance camps. The Air Force has air bases in Bujumbura and Gitega, and another paratrooper battalion. The service period of the soldiers is 6 years, and the officers are professional soldiers. Defense spending generally accounts for 20% of the national budget. During the war, military spending was relatively high, once accounting for 30% of the budget. In recent years, with the advancement of the peace process in the cloth, military spending has declined. In recent years, Bu has actively participated in the UN and AU peacekeeping operations and is one of the African countries with the largest number of peacekeeping soldiers.
[Cultural Education] Many schools were closed or destroyed during the Civil War. Since September 2005, a six-year free compulsory education system for primary schools has been implemented. The number of primary school enrolled students has increased significantly, and school buildings are in short supply. According to UNICEF statistics, since the implementation of free primary education in primary schools, the enrollment rate of cloth students has increased from 59% in 2005 to 96.1% in 2011. In 2015, the literacy rate of the population over 15 years old was about 85.6%. Secondary education is divided into three types: general secondary schools, secondary normal schools and secondary technical schools. There are 6 public universities and 24 private universities in Burundi. The University of Burundi is the only comprehensive public university with more than 13,000 students enrolled in 2015. In addition, there are higher agricultural colleges, urban construction planning technical colleges, military cadre colleges, seminaries, international relations research centers, and higher education, journalism, judicial police officers and other colleges and universities.
[Press and Publication] The main newspapers include: “New Life”, the official French daily newspaper, which was founded in April 1978; the “Unity” weekly magazine, the official publication of Keelundi, mainly for the rural areas; in addition to a number of private newspapers.
The Burundi News Agency is an official news agency, created in June 1976. Both AGENCE AZANIA and NET PRESSE are private news agencies.
The Radio Station of Burundi is a national radio station, one and two, one broadcasting in the Kirundi language and the other broadcasting in French, English and Swahili. There are also several private radio stations.
The Burundi TV station is a national television station. It was built by France in December 1982. It broadcasts news and feature programs in Kirundi and French every day from 17 to 23 hours.
[Relationship with African countries] Attach importance to good-neighborly friendship, emphasize the important role of neighboring countries in peace, and actively restore and develop relations with neighboring countries. On January 22, 1999, after the 7th Burundi Summit of the Great Lakes International Organization decided to suspend economic sanctions against Burkina, relations between neighboring countries and neighboring countries continued to improve. In April 2006, the “Three-Party Plus” conference in the Great Lakes region was held in Bujumbura. The foreign ministers of Burundi, Rwanda, Congo (DRC) and Uganda, as well as the United States, the European Union, the African Union, the United Nations and other countries and organizations attended the meeting. To discuss illegal armed forces in the region and strengthen security cooperation, and to issue a joint communique. In July 2007, the cloth officially joined the Eastern African Community. In July 2012, cloth held the celebration of the 50th anniversary of independence. Among the African countries, Kenya, Central Africa, Equatorial Guinea, Somalia, Congo (Kinshasa), the six presidents of Tanzania and the Vice President of Uganda and the Prime Minister of Rwanda attended the ceremony. In July 2013, Rwanda, the President of Kenya and the Speaker of the National Assembly of Gabon and the Deputy Prime Minister of Uganda attended the 51st anniversary of the independence of Buddhism. In February 2016, South Africa, Gabon, Senegal, Mauritania and the Ethiopian Prime Minister were entrusted by the AU summit to participate in the negotiations to resolve the crisis. In April 2018, Gabonese President Bongo visited Buddhism. In February 2019, Somali President Muhammad visited Buddhism.
Before the independence of Burundi and Rwanda, they belonged to the Belgian Trusteeship. The two countries are identical or similar in terms of ethnicity, religion, language, culture and customs. The two countries have frictions on issues such as ethnic groups and nationals. After the coup in 1994 in July, Lu participated in the sanctions against the cloth. After the suspension of the sanctions, relations between the two countries improved rapidly. President Bujuya, Ndayizeye, and Nkurunziza visited Lu. In May 2008, the first vice president of the cloth, Sahin Guwu, visited Lu. In July, Lushen Speaker Biruta visited Bu. In August 2010, President Nkurunziza and President Kagame exchanged congratulatory messages to congratulate each other on their successful re-election. In January and September 2011, Rwandan President Kagame visited the two times. After the outbreak of the cloth crisis in 2015, the cloth accused Lu of supporting the insurgents and Lu denied it. In August 2016, the government announced that it had suspended trade with Lu and stopped the operation of public transport routes between the two countries. In December of the same year, Bufang recalled his ambassador to Lu.
Cloth and Congo (Kinshasa) are closely related in history, geography, economy and culture. After the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1998, the government troops entered the territory and the relations between the two countries deteriorated. After Joseph Kabila was appointed President in 2001, relations between the two countries improved. Just promised no longer support the anti-government armed forces, and the cloth has just withdrawn. In February 2003, President Buyoya signed a Brussels Agreement with Gang (Golden) and Rwandan Foreign Minister to promote regional peace. In February 2005, Foreign Minister Xiong Guruza visited Gang. In March 2010, the cloth dispatched the ambassador again after 15 years. In April, President Nkurunziza visited Gang. This is the first visit of President Bush in the past 25 years. The two sides exchanged views on issues such as elections and security cooperation. After the situation in the eastern part of the Congo (Golden) deteriorated again at the end of 2012, the Burmese government supported the Congolese government to fight the rebels. In October 2017, the two foreign ministers and defense ministers held the first ministerial consultations, focusing on issues such as strengthening security in the border areas of the two countries.
Bu attaches importance to developing relations with Tanzania. More than half of the cloth is imported and exported. There are still a large number of refugees living in Tanzania. After the coup in Buddy in July 1996, Tanzania and other neighboring countries imposed economic sanctions on cloth, and relations between the two countries deteriorated severely. After the suspension of sanctions in 1999, the relations between Buttan began to improve and the presidents of the two countries exchanged visits several times. In January 2008, Nkurunziza paid a working visit to Tan. In June, the first vice president of the cloth, Sahin Guwu, went to Tanzania to attend the summit meeting of the sub-regional development issues. In November, the first vice president of the cloth, Sahin Guwu, went to Tan to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Kikwete. When the coup was in May 2015, Nkurunziza was participating in the special summit of the EAC. With the assistance of Tanzania, En went back to China smoothly. In February 2016, former Tanzanian President Mkapa was appointed as the mediator of the crisis by the East African Community and mediated with the Ugandan President Museveni on the issue of cloth. In July 2017, Nkurunziza visited Tan and met with President Magufuli.
The relationship between Bud and Uganda is relatively close, and a large amount of materials must be imported through Uzbekistan. After the coup in 1994 in July, Uganda was tough on the issue of sanctions against the cloth. After the launch of the peace process in 1998, Uganda’s sanctions were terminated. From 2000 to 2008, President Bush visited Ukraine many times. In April 2010, First Vice President Sahin Guwu went to Ukraine to attend the Third East African Community Investment Conference. In October, the second vice president of the cloth, Rufikiri, visited Uzbekistan as a special envoy of the government, and attended the international business exhibition held in Kampala and the 48th anniversary celebration of Uzbekistan independence. After the situation in the eastern part of the Congo (Golden) was further deteriorated at the end of 2012, under the framework of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (CIRGL), the United States strengthened communication and cooperation with Uzbekistan. President Nkurunziza visited Kampala twice in Kampala. Uzbek President Museveni was appointed by the East African Community as a mediator of the crisis.