The Republic of Botswana 博茨瓦纳共和国
【国 名】 博茨瓦纳共和国（The Republic of Botswana）。
【面 积】 581730平方公里。
【人 口】 225万（2016年，国际货币基金组织统计）。绝大部分为班图语系的茨瓦纳人（占人口的90%）。主要民族有恩瓦托、昆纳、恩瓦凯策和塔瓦纳等，其中恩瓦托族最大，约占人口的40%。另有数万欧洲人和亚洲人。官方语言为英语，通用语言为茨瓦纳语和英语。多数居民信奉基督教，农村地区部分居民信奉传统宗教。
【首 都】 哈博罗内（Gaborone），人口约23.6万（2013年）。年均最高气温为28.3℃，年均最低气温为12.9℃，年均气温20.7℃。
【国家元首】 总统莫克维齐·马西西（Mokgweetsi Masisi），2018年4月1日就任。
【简 况】 南部非洲内陆国家。平均海拔1000米左右。东接津巴布韦，西连纳米比亚，北邻赞比亚，南界南非。大部分地区属热带草原气候，西部为沙漠、半沙漠气候。年均气温21℃。年均降水量400毫米。
[Country name] The Republic of Botswana.
[area] 581,730 square kilometers.
[People] 2.25 million (2016, International Monetary Fund statistics). Most of them are Tswana people in the Bantu language family (90% of the population). The main ethnic groups are Enwato, Kunna, Enwakee and Tavana, among which the Enwato are the largest, accounting for about 40% of the population. There are also tens of thousands of Europeans and Asians. The official language is English and the common language is Tswana and English. Most residents believe in Christianity, and some residents in rural areas believe in traditional religion.
[Capital] Gaborone, with a population of about 236,000 (2013). The annual average maximum temperature is 28.3 °C, the average annual minimum temperature is 12.9 °C, and the annual average temperature is 20.7 °C.
[Head of State] President Mokweetsi Masisi, took office on April 1, 2018.
[Important Festival] New Year: January 1st; Labor Day: May 1st; Sir Seret Kama Day: July 1st; President’s Day: July 15th to 16th; Independence Day: September 30th Day; Christmas: December 25.
[profile] Southern African landlocked countries. The average altitude is about 1000 meters. It is connected to Zimbabwe in the east, Namibia in the west, Zambia in the north and South Africa in the south. Most of the area has a savanna climate, and the west has a desert and semi-desert climate. The annual average temperature is 21 °C. The average annual precipitation is 400 mm.
Formerly known as Beacon. From the 13th to the 14th century AD, the Tswana moved from the north to this place. In 1885, it became a British colony, and it was called “Bei Beina Protected Land.” On September 30, 1966, the independence was declared, and it was named the Republic of Botswana. It remained in the Commonwealth and was implemented in a multi-party system. The Democratic Party of Botswana was in power and Seret Kama was the President.
【政 治】 1980年7月，马西雷接任总统职务。1984年、1989年和1994年，民主党在议会选举中接连获胜，马西雷三次蝉联总统。1998年，马西雷主动辞去总统职务，莫哈埃接任总统。1999年和2004年，民主党在大选中均以压倒优势胜出，莫哈埃两度蝉联总统。2008年，莫哈埃总统任期届满，原副总统伊恩·卡马接任总统。在2009年10月举行的大选中，民主党获得议会57个民选议席中的45席，卡马蝉联总统并组成新一届内阁。2014年10月，博茨瓦纳举行独立以来的第十一次大选，卡马再次蝉联总统，但民主党遭遇来自反对党的强力挑战，仅获57个民选议席中的37席，支持率大幅下滑。2018年4月1日，原副总统莫克维齐·马西西接替任期届满的卡马总统，就任博独立以来第五任总统。
【宪 法】 1966年9月30日生效，后几经修改。宪法规定：博实行多党议会制，立法、司法、行政三权分立；总统为国家元首、政府首脑兼武装部队总司令，由国民议会选举产生，任期5年，自首次履行总统职权之日起，累计任职时间不超过10年；总统死亡、辞职或任期届满时，副总统自动接任总统职务；总统和国民议会组成国会，行使立法权；国民议会通过的决议、法案须经总统批准才能生效；总统有权召集和解散议会。
【议 会】 国民议会由57名民选议员、4名特选议员（由总统提名，议会表决通过）、总检察长（由总统任命，接受议会的法律咨询，参加议会，但无投票权）和议长（由议员选出，主持议会会议，无投票权）组成，每届任期5年。议会的主要职权是：选举总统，制定法律，修改宪法，审议国家发展计划和政府财政预算。一般议案半数表决通过，重要议案需2/3赞成通过。本届国民议会于2014年10月大选产生。目前民主党占37席，由民主运动党、民族阵线、人民党组成的民主改革联盟占17席，大会党占3席。4名特选议员均为民主党成员。议长格拉迪斯·科科韦（Gladys Kokorwe，女，民主党），2014年11月就任。
【酋长院】 议会的咨询机构，原由15名成员组成。2005年4月，议会通过对宪法77、78和79条的修正案，规定酋长院成员增至35名，其中8人由8大部族酋长担任，称为“当然成员”，7人由8位当然成员选举产生，称为“选举成员”，其余20人由各地区选举产生，称为“特选成员”。酋长院的职责范围和权力仅限于特定传统事务，如习惯法、非洲法院、领导职务、民族财产、部落首领的任免、宪法修正案等。每年议会开幕前，酋长院先召开例会，向议会提出动议和议案，但不具有任何约束力。酋长院在必要时可要求有关部长到酋长院说明情况，部长也可到酋长院征询意见。2016年1月，酋长院举行第12届大会，选举产生新一届领导人，特罗夸族大酋长哈博罗内（Kgosi Puso Gaborone）连任主席。
[Politics] In July 1980, Masire took over the presidency. In 1984, 1989 and 1994, the Democratic Party won successively in the parliamentary elections, and Masire reelected the president three times. In 1998, Masire took the initiative to resign as president and Mohae took over as president. In 1999 and 2004, the Democratic Party won the overwhelming victory in the general election. Mohae twice won the president. In 2008, President Mogae’s term expired and former Vice President Ian Kama took over as president. In the general election held in October 2009, the Democratic Party won 45 of the 57 elected seats in the parliament, and Kama reelected the president and formed a new cabinet. In October 2014, Botswana held its eleventh general election since independence. Kama once again reelected the president, but the Democratic Party encountered a strong challenge from the opposition party. Only 37 of the 57 elected seats, the support rate dropped sharply. On April 1, 2018, the former Vice President Mokvizi Masisi replaced President Kama, who had expired his term of office, and became the fifth president since Bo independence.
[Constitution] Effective September 30, 1966, after several revisions. The Constitution stipulates that: Bo implements a multi-party parliamentary system, and the separation of legislative, judicial, and administrative powers; the president is the head of state, the head of government, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, elected by the National Assembly for a term of five years, from the date of the first implementation of the presidency. The cumulative time of appointment is no more than 10 years; when the president dies, resigns or the term expires, the vice president automatically assumes the presidency; the president and the National Assembly form the parliament to exercise legislative power; the resolutions and bills passed by the National Assembly must be approved by the president before they can take effect; Have the right to call and dissolve the parliament.
[Parliament] The National Assembly consists of 57 elected members, 4 specially elected members (nominated by the president, voted by the parliament), the Attorney General (appointed by the president, accepting legal advice from the parliament, participating in the parliament, but without voting rights) and the speaker (elected by a member of parliament, presiding over parliamentary meetings, no voting rights), each term is 5 years. The main functions of the parliament are: electing the president, enacting laws, amending the constitution, reviewing the national development plan and the government budget. Half of the general motion was passed, and important bills were approved by 2/3. The current National Assembly was elected in October 2014. At present, the Democratic Party has 37 seats. The Democratic Reform Alliance consisting of the Democratic Movement Party, the National Front and the People’s Party has 17 seats, and the Congress Party has 3 seats. The four elected members are all members of the Democratic Party. Speaker Gladys Kokorwe (female, Democratic Party) took office in November 2014.
[Emirates] The advisory body of the parliament, originally composed of 15 members. In April 2005, the parliament passed amendments to articles 77, 78 and 79 of the Constitution, which stipulated that the number of members of the Emirates increased to 35, 8 of whom were headed by the chiefs of the eight tribes, known as “ex officio members” and 7 by 8 Of course, members are elected, called “elected members,” and the remaining 20 are elected by various regions and are called “selected members.” The scope and powers of the Chiefs are limited to specific traditional matters, such as customary law, African courts, leadership positions, national property, tribal chiefs’ appointments and dismissals, and constitutional amendments. Before the opening of the parliament every year, the Emirates House held a regular meeting to propose motions and motions to the parliament, but it did not have any binding force. The Emirates may request the relevant minister to explain the situation to the Emirates when necessary, and the Minister may also go to the Emirates to seek advice. In January 2016, the 12th General Assembly of the Emirates held a new leader, and Krosi Puso Gaborone, the chief of the Troquabian chief, was re-elected.
【政 府】 本届内阁于2018年4月4日产生，6月20日、12月14日、12月19日三次小幅改组。主要成员有：总统莫克维齐·马西西，副总统斯伦伯·措格瓦内（Slumber Tsogwane），总统事务、政府治理与公共管理部长诺诺福·莫莱菲（Nonofo Molefhi），国防、司法与安全部长肖·卡蒂（Shaw Kgathi），农业发展与粮食安全部长帕特里克·拉洛齐亚（Patrick Ralotsia），国际事务与合作部长尤妮蒂·道（Unity Dow，女），基础教育部长巴哈拉蒂亚·阿龙埃（Bagalatia Arone），环境、自然资源保护与旅游部长基措·莫凯拉（Kitso Mokaila），财政与经济发展部长肯尼思·马坦博（Kenneth Matambo），基础设施与住房发展部长文森特·塞雷茨（Vincent Seretse），卫生与健康部长阿尔弗雷德·马迪戈勒（Alfred Madigele），就业、劳动生产力与技能发展部长采诺洛·马贝奥（Tshenolo Mabeo），土地管理、水资源与公共卫生服务部长凯芬采·姆兹温尼拉（Kefentse Mzwinila），地方政府与农村发展部长弗朗斯·范德韦斯图伊曾（Frans Van Der Westhuizen），矿产资源、绿色科技与能源安全部长埃里克·莫拉莱（Eric Molale），投资、贸易与工业部长博霍洛·凯内文多（Bogolo Kenewendo，女），交通与通讯部长多克斯·马卡托（Dorcas Makgato，女），青年赋权、体育与文化发展部长切凯迪·卡马（Tshekedi Khama），高等教育、研究与科技部长塔佩洛·奥洛彭（Thapelo Olopeng），国籍、移民与性别事务部长恩哈卡·恩哈卡（Ngaka Ngaka）。
【司法机构】 由高等法院、上诉法院和传统法院组成。传统法院相当于初级法院，由各民族酋长担任法律执行人。高等法院院长、首席大法官泰伦泽·兰诺瓦内（Terence Rannowane）。总检察长安塔利亚·莫罗科姆（Athalia Molokomme）。
【政 党】 主要政党情况如下：
（1）博茨瓦纳民主党（Botswana Democratic Party）：1962年1月成立。独立后一直执政，主张经济独立和自力更生，在发展经济的同时保持社会公正；对外实行多方位外交，维护并促进民族利益。总裁莫克维齐·马西西，全国主席斯伦伯·措格瓦内。
（2）民主改革联盟（Umbrella for Democratic Change）：2012年成立。由博茨瓦纳民主运动党（Botswana Movement for Democracy，2010年5月29日成立，是从民主党内分裂出来的一支新反对党，口号是“我们的博茨瓦纳”）、博茨瓦纳民族阵线（Botswana National Front，1967年10月成立，主张在博进行民族民主革命，实现社会主义）和人民党（Botswana People’s Party，1960年殖民地时期成立，是博成立最早的政党）联合组成，在2014年大选中对民主党形成强有力的挑战。总裁杜马·博科（Duma Boko）。2017年2月3日，大会党（Botswana Congress Party，1998年6月成立，由民阵中分裂而来，口号是“为了民族自由”）加入民主改革联盟，与联盟原三党正式成立新的反对党联盟，拟以民主改革联盟的名义参加2019年大选，联盟主张社会民主主义，党派颜色为“皇家蓝”。
（3）博茨瓦纳进步联盟党（Alliance for Progressives）：2017年10月成立，是从反对党民主运动党内分裂出来的一支新反对党，致力于带领博人民建设一个全新的博茨瓦纳共和国。总裁恩达巴·赫拉泰（Ndaba Gaolathe）。
[Government] The current cabinet was produced on April 4, 2018, and was reorganized three times on June 20, December 14, and December 19. The main members are: President Mokwezi Masisi, Vice President Slumber Tsogwane, Presidential Affairs, Government Governance and Public Administration Minister Nonofo Molefhi, Defense , Justice and Security Minister Shaw Kgathi, Minister of Agricultural Development and Food Security Patrick Ralotsia, Minister of International Affairs and Cooperation Unity Dow (female), basic education Minister Bagalatia Arone, Minister of Environment, Natural Resources Conservation and Tourism Kitso Mokaila, Minister of Finance and Economic Development Kenneth Matambo , Minister of Infrastructure and Housing Development Vincent Seretse, Minister of Health and Health Alfred Madigele, Minister of Employment, Labor Productivity and Skills Development, Noro Roman Tshenolo Mabeo, Minister of Land Management, Water Resources and Public Health Services, Kefentse Mzwinila, Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development Frans Van Der Westhuizen, Minister of Mineral Resources, Green Technology and Energy Security Eric Molale, Minister of Investment, Trade and Industry Boholo Bogolo Kenewendo (female), Minister of Transport and Communications Dorcas Makgato (female), Minister of Youth Empowerment, Sports and Cultural Development Tshekedi Khama, Higher Education , Research and Technology Minister Thapelo Olopeng, Minister of Nationality, Immigration and Gender Affairs Ngaka Ngaka.
[Government website] www.gov.bw.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 10 administrative regions.
[Judiciary] It consists of the High Court, the Court of Appeal and the Traditional Court. The traditional court is equivalent to the primary court, and the chiefs of the various nationalities act as law enforcers. Terence Rannowane, President of the High Court and Chief Justice. Attorney General Athalia Molokomme.
[Political Party] The main political parties are as follows:
(1) Botswana Democratic Party: Established in January 1962. After independence, he has been in power, advocated economic independence and self-reliance, maintained social justice while developing the economy, and implemented multi-faceted diplomacy to safeguard and promote national interests. President Mokwezi Masisi, National President Sherpa Tugwane.
(2) Umbrella for Democratic Change: Established in 2012. The Botswana Movement for Democracy (Botswana Movement for Democracy, established on May 29, 2010, is a new opposition party split from the Democratic Party, slogan “Our Botswana”), Botswana National Front (Botswana National Front, 1967) Founded in October, it advocates the national democratic revolution in Bo, and realizes socialism. The People’s Party (Botswana People’s Party, established in the colonial period in 1960, was the earliest party established in Bo). It formed a powerful force for the Democratic Party in the 2014 general election. The challenge. President Duma Boko. On February 3, 2017, the Botswana Congress Party (established in June 1998, split by the FDC, with the slogan “For National Freedom”) joined the Democratic Reform Coalition and formally established a new alliance with the original three parties of the Alliance. The opposition coalition intends to participate in the 2019 general election in the name of the Democratic Reform Coalition. The coalition advocates social democracy and the party color is “Royal Blue.”
(3) Alliance for Progressives: Founded in October 2017, it is a new opposition party split from the opposition Democratic Movement Party and is committed to leading the people of Bo to build a brand new Republic of Botswana. President Ndaba Galatthe.
【经 济】 博是非洲经济发展较快、经济状况较好的国家之一。钻石业是其经济支柱，产值约占国内生产总值的三分之一。畜牧业是传统产业，制造业落后，近年来旅游业发展较快，成为新兴产业。独立后，博政府建立了自由市场经济体制，采取优惠措施吸引外资和国外先进技术，先后制定了11个国家发展计划，经济实现了快速、持续发展。为改变经济发展主要依赖钻石业的状况，从20世纪80年代后期开始，博政府开始推行经济多元化政策，取得一定成效。
[important figures] Mokwezi Masisi: President. Born in July 1962. He received a bachelor’s degree in education from the University of Botswana in 1984. He studied at Florida State University and the University of Manchester, England, and received a master’s degree in education and economics and sociology. He has served in the Ministry of Education and the United Nations. In 2009, he was elected to the National Assembly and served as deputy director of the Department of Public Affairs and Public Administration. From 2011 to 2014, he served as the Minister of Presidential Affairs and Public Administration, the Minister of Education, and served as Chairman of the Cabinet Committee on Poverty Eradication. Since November 2014, he has served as vice president. In July 2015, he was elected as the national chairman of the Democratic Party of Democracy and re-elected in July 2017. On April 1, 2018, he took over as president and president of the Democratic Party.
Slumber Tugwane: Vice President. Born in 1960, he was elected to the National Assembly in 1999 and has been re-elected to this day. From 2004 to 2009, he served as deputy director of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development. From March 2014 to March 2018, he served as Minister of Local Government and Rural Development. On April 1, 2018, he was elected the National President of the Democratic Party and was elected Vice President on April 4.
[Economy] Bo is one of the countries with faster economic development and better economic conditions in Africa. The diamond industry is the backbone of its economy, with output accounting for about one-third of GDP. Animal husbandry is a traditional industry, and manufacturing is backward. In recent years, tourism has developed rapidly and has become an emerging industry. After independence, the Bo government established a free market economic system, adopted preferential measures to attract foreign capital and foreign advanced technology, and successively formulated 11 national development plans, and the economy achieved rapid and sustained development. In order to change the economic development mainly depends on the status of the diamond industry, since the late 1980s, the Bo government began to implement economic diversification policies and achieved certain results.
During President Kama’s administration, the Bo government continued to implement a proactive fiscal policy and a prudent monetary policy, increased investment in infrastructure and social sectors, and strived to expand domestic demand and create employment. While continuing to attach importance to the diamond economy and increasing added value, it will attract foreign investment to develop mineral resources such as nickel and copper; start construction of thermal power plants, accelerate self-sufficiency and export of electricity; promote tourism development and promote economic diversification. Affected by the international financial crisis, diamond production and export revenues fell sharply. With the recovery of mineral products in the international market and the rebound in prices, the Bo economy has started to recover since the second quarter of 2009. The government has stepped up efforts to support major industrial sectors and identified six key development areas for the diamond industry, agriculture, health, education, transportation and innovation. After taking over as president, Masisi will promote economic diversification, increase employment and improve people’s livelihood as the primary goal of governance, and identify the diamond industry, tourism, animal husbandry, mining and financial services industries as key industries. The main economic data for 2018 are as follows (Source: London Economic Quarterly):
Gross domestic product (GDP): $18.525 billion.
Per capita GDP: $8233.
Economic growth rate: 4.5%.
Currency name: Pula.
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 10.2 Pula.
Inflation rate: 3.2%
【资 源】 矿产资源丰富。主要矿藏为钻石，其次为铜镍、煤、苏打灰、铂、金、锰等。钻石储量和产量均居世界前列。已探明的铜镍矿蕴藏量为4600万吨，煤蕴藏量170亿吨。
【旅游业】 博是非洲主要旅游目的国之一。旅游资源丰富，是非洲野生动物种类和数量较多的国家。政府把全国38%的国土划为野生动物保护区，设立了3 个国家公园，5个野生动物保护区。乔贝国家公园和奥卡万戈三角洲野生动物保护区为主要旅游点。旅游业是博GDP的第二大贡献行业，容纳了最大的就业增长。目前，在博注册酒店共80家。酒店业共创造了11604个工作岗位。政府设立了旅游业培训基金,用于旅游业员工培训。
[Resources] Rich in mineral resources. The main mineral deposits are diamonds, followed by copper and nickel, coal, soda ash, platinum, gold and manganese. Diamond reserves and production are among the highest in the world. The proven copper-nickel deposit is 46 million tons and the coal reserves are 17 billion tons.
[Industrial and Mining] In recent years, the Bo government has actively developed the diamond processing industry to increase the profit of the diamond industry. In 2008, the diamond output was 32.6 million carats, with an output value of 3.27 billion US dollars, ranking first in the world. Affected by the international financial crisis, diamond production in 2009 decreased significantly, to 17.73 million carats. The diamond production in 2011 was 22.9 million carats. Copper and nickel are important export mineral products after diamonds. In 2011, the output was 32,000 tons. In 2012, Bo Diamond’s exports amounted to 36.1 billion Pula, accounting for 79.3% of total exports, and copper and nickel exports amounted to 3.31 billion Pula, accounting for 7.3% of total exports. In 2013, Bo diamond production increased by 12.4%, and mining output increased by 10.6%. In 2014, global raw material prices continued to drop sharply, and the diamond industry was hit hard. Diamond production dropped sharply to 12.23 million carats. Thanks to the recovery in global diamond demand, Bobo’s diamond production rebounded to 20.37 million carats in 2015, 20.5 million carats in 2016 and 22.7 million carats in 2017.
[Manufacturing] Manufacturing output accounts for about 4% of GDP, including textiles, beer, chemicals and electricity.
[Agriculture and animal husbandry] Agriculture is relatively backward, and arable land accounts for 15% of the country’s total area. In 2017/2018, the cultivated area was 268,500 hectares, and the grain output was about 66,100 tons. It can only meet about 22% of domestic grain demand. The main crops are sorghum, corn, millet, beans, fruits and vegetables. The government encourages farmers to use a variety of foods to increase food self-sufficiency.
The livestock industry accounts for 70% of the agricultural output value. It is one of the traditional pillar industries of the national economy and the main source of income for farmers. The animal husbandry mainly focuses on raising cattle and supplementing sheep. There are modern large-scale slaughter plants and meat processing plants with an annual slaughter capacity of 400,000 to 500,000 cattle. In 2016, beef exports accounted for 1.3% of total exports. The poultry farming industry began in 1976 with the production of broilers and eggs to meet domestic demand.
[Tourism] Bo is one of the major destination countries in Africa. It is rich in tourism resources and is a country with a large number and variety of wild animals in Africa. The government has designated 38% of the country’s land as a wildlife sanctuary, and has established three national parks and five wildlife sanctuaries. Chobe National Park and Okavango Delta Wildlife Sanctuary are the main tourist spots. Tourism is the second largest contributor to Bo’s GDP and accommodates the largest employment growth. Currently, there are 80 registered hotels in Bo. The hotel industry has created a total of 11,604 jobs. The government has established a tourism training fund for tourism staff training.
[Transportation] Mainly by road transportation, the main towns are connected by roads with a total length of 19,400 kilometers, of which 30% are tarmac. Between the major towns of the country and between Bo and South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia, the roads are basically connected by asphalt roads, of which the main roads are of higher grade.
The railway is 900 kilometers long. The main railway line spans Francistown, Gaborone and Lobate, connecting South Africa and Zimbabwe. Bo Railway Company is a state-owned enterprise responsible for railway transportation.
Bo Airlines has routes to regional routes to South Africa and major domestic towns and tourist areas. There are 6 international airports, the capital has Kama International Airport, and the remaining 5 airports are located in Francistown, Mahon, Cassani, Selebi-Pique and Hangji. In addition, dozens of small airports are scattered throughout the country. In 2005, Bo established an independent civil aviation administration. Bo Airlines transports nearly one million passengers a year.
【军 事】 1977年建立国防军。现有军人约9000名，其中陆军8500人，空军500人。现任国防军司令普拉希德·塞霍科（Placid Segokgo）中将。警察部队约1500人，警察总署署长基贝茨韦·马科佩（Keabetswe Makgophe）。
[Financial Finance] Bo National Bank was established in 1975. In 1976, the national currency “Pula” was issued. Bo has long implemented a prudent fiscal policy. In the past few years, due to the decline in mining income, the appreciation of Pula against the US dollar and the government’s implementation of a proactive fiscal policy, there was a fiscal deficit. The government has adopted measures such as strict control of expenditures, so that the fiscal revenue and expenditure will eventually be in surplus. At the end of 2018, Bo foreign exchange reserves were 7.191 billion US dollars. In 2018, the balance of external debt was $2.01 billion. (Source: London Economic Quarterly Review)
[Foreign Trade] Implement a free trade policy. Mainly export diamonds, copper-nickel mineral products, mechanical and electrical products, etc.; imported diamonds, mechanical and electrical products, fuel oil, food, etc. The main trading partners of Bo are South Africa, Namibia, Canada and Belgium. In 2018, Bo’s foreign trade totaled 11.769 billion U.S. dollars, of which imports were 5.812 billion U.S. dollars, exports were 5.957 billion U.S. dollars, and trade surplus was 145 million U.S. dollars. (Source: London Economic Quarterly Review)
[Foreign Capital] In 1997, Bo established the Export Development and Investment Agency (BEDIA), which is responsible for promoting exports and attracting foreign investment. In April 2012, Bo Financial Services Center and Export Development and Investment Bureau merged to establish Botswana Investment and Trade Center to promote investment and export and provide services to the public. In 2018, Bo attracted foreign investment of 1.082 billion Pula and created 1042 jobs. (Source: Bo Investment and Trade Center 2018 Annual Report) In 2016, the international rating agency Standard & Poor’s issued an announcement to downgrade Botswana’s sovereign long-term credit rating outlook from “sustainable” to “negative”, while the credit rating remains “A-“. The international rating agency Moody’s maintains Botswana’s sovereign credit rating of A2, while maintaining its long-term credit rating outlook as “stable”. In 2017, the international rating agency Moody’s sovereign credit rating for Botswana was A2.
[Foreign Aid] The main donor countries and international organizations are Japan, the United States, Sweden, Norway, Germany, the United Nations Development Program, and the African Development Bank. After Bo became a middle-income country, the official development assistance and concessional loans provided by Bo in most Western countries fell sharply.
[People’s Life] According to the World Bank’s 2018 World Development Index, the population urbanization rate of Botswana in 2017 was 68.7%. In 2016, the average life expectancy of the Bo population was 64 years for men and 69.5 years for women. 84.4% of the urban population has access to safe drinking water. According to the 2013/2014 annual report of the Central Bureau of Statistics, there are 18 hospitals, 17 primary hospitals, 108 clinics with beds and 180 clinics without beds. There are 5,276 beds in the country. The HIV infection rate is high. In 2013, the average infection rate of AIDS was 17.6%. Bo Telecom’s network has all been digitalized.
[Military] The National Defense Force was established in 1977. There are about 9,000 existing military personnel, including 8,500 Army and 500 Air Force. The current Defence Force Commander Lieutenant General Placid Segokgo. The police force is about 1,500, and the police chief, Keabetswe Makgophe.
[Cultural Education] After independence, Bo attaches great importance to national education. The adult literacy rate has increased from less than 10% in 1966 to 88.6% in 2014. The education system is complete, including formal education and vocational and technical education, special school education and amateur education in primary schools, middle schools and universities. The school system is 7 years in primary school, 3 years in junior high school and 2 years in high school. Primary and junior high school are compulsory, primary and higher education are free of tuition, and secondary education has been implemented in 2006. The junior high school students pay 300 pula per year and high school students 600 pula. Most of the rest is borne by the government. In 2015, there were 826 primary schools, 293 secondary schools and 40 higher education institutions nationwide. Major public universities include the University of Botswana, the International University of Science and Technology, the University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the Open University.
[Relationship with EU countries] Bo has close ties with the EU, and the EU is one of Bo’s largest international donors. In 2004, the EU set up a “productivity service center” aimed at improving the competitiveness of products in southern African countries. In June 2009, President Kama visited the European Commission and signed an interim trading partnership agreement with the European Union. In 2010, the EU provided 650 million Pula free assistance to the Bo government to support the development of human resources. In 2012, the EU donated 80 million Pula to Bofe NGOs to address funding constraints. In January 2013, the EU subsidized 11.6 million euros to the Bo government to accelerate the achievement of the fourth and fifth indicators of the UN Millennium Development Goals, reducing the under-five mortality rate by 2/3 and maternal mortality. /4.
Closely related to the British tradition, Britain is one of the traditional donor countries and one of the major trading partners. Officials of the two countries exchanged visits frequently. More than 70 companies in the UK invest in Bo. In 2005, President Mogae visited the United Kingdom. In June 2010, Prince William and Prince Harry visited the United Kingdom. In July 2011, Princess Anne of the United Kingdom visited Bo. In December 2017, Vice President Masisi visited the United Kingdom. In April 2018, President Masisi went to the UK to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting.
The economic and trade relations with Germany have developed rapidly. Germany is one of Bo’s main trading partners and donor countries. Over the years, it has provided various assistance to Bo, nearly 1 billion Pula, and sent 250 experts to help Bo engage in vocational training, secondary education, community development, Agroforestry and SME development projects. In February 2012, President Kama visited Germany. In March 2017, President Kama went to Berlin, Germany to attend the 2017 International Tourism Expo and met with the German President and Prime Minister.
Sweden and Norway are also important donors. In recent years, because Bo is listed as a middle-income country, Switzerland and Norway have gradually reduced the amount of aid, and instead offered low-interest loans or joint ventures, joint ventures and technical cooperation between the government and enterprises. In May 2010, Bo and Rui signed the Tax Cooperation Agreement, and Rui will provide 12.5 million Swiss francs of financial assistance to Bo to help the tax authorities train personnel and improve auditing capabilities. In March 2011, Swedish King Carl XVI Gustaf paid a state visit to Bo, and the two countries signed a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in energy, environmental protection and related aspects. In June 2017, President Kama paid a state visit to Sweden.
France is a traditional friendly country in Botswana. In the political arena, the two countries have deep mutual trust and similar positions on international issues. In the economic field, the law has less direct investment in Bo, and economic and trade exchanges are not close. In the humanities field, the law provides assistance to the Bo, including the AIDS, health, poverty alleviation and human resources training, through the EU, the UN and its NGOs. In June 2015, President Kama visited France.
【新闻出版】 现有报纸12种，包括官方日报《每日新闻》（Daily News）和私营日报《报道者》（Mmegi）及私营周报《博茨瓦纳卫报》（Botswana Guardian）、《太阳报》（The Mid-week Sun）、《博茨瓦纳公报》（Botswana Gazette）、《回声报》（Echo）等。《每日新闻》是免费报纸，日发行量约6.5万份，用英文和茨瓦纳语出版。《报道者》和周刊《观察家》为博最大的私人出版公司Dikgang公司发行。《报道者》日发行量约2万份。其它报纸发行量在1.5至2万份之间。2013年博共刊印报纸758万份。
[Press and Publication] There are 12 kinds of existing newspapers, including the official daily newspaper Daily News and the private daily newspaper “Mmegi” and the private weekly “Botswana Guardian” (The Sun). The Mid-week Sun), the Botswana Gazette, and the Echo. The Daily News is a free newspaper with a daily circulation of about 65,000 copies, published in English and Tswana. The “Reporter” and the weekly “Observer” were released by Dikgang, the largest private publishing company. The “Reporter” has a daily circulation of about 20,000 copies. The circulation of other newspapers is between 1.5 and 20,000. In 2013, the blog printed a total of 7.58 million copies of newspapers.
The Botswana News Agency, an official news agency, was created in 1981 and mainly covers domestic news. It is the main contributor to Daily News and Radio.
The official radio station of the Botswana Radio Station, created in 1965, is broadcast in English and in Tswana.
Gaborone TV is a private TV station. It was created in 1988 and mainly broadcasts video.
The national television station in Botswana was launched in July 2000. The program is divided into English and Tswana, all using digital transmission technology, covering most of Africa through satellite.
[External Relations] Pursuing a non-aligned foreign policy and actively participating in regional political affairs and economic cooperation. It advocates equality of state sovereignty and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs and resolves disputes through negotiations. Advocate the establishment of a fair and equitable new international political and economic order. Actively participate in African and regional affairs and promote regional stability, development and cooperation. It is advocated that developing countries, especially small and medium-sized countries, should strengthen cooperation and jointly address the challenges of globalization. The Secretariat of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) is located in Gaborone. Bo is also a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Commonwealth, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Southern African Customs Union.
[Relationship with the United States] Pomeranian relations are close and high-level exchanges continue. In 2002, the United States agreed to list the country as a least developed country to enjoy the preferential policies of the United States African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The United States has a peace team. In 1998, US President Clinton visited Bo. In 2003, President Bush and President Mogae exchanged visits. In the same year, the United States reached $35 million in aid to the AIDS field. In 2005, Bo and the United States established the “African Growth and Opportunity Bill Forum” to expand exports to the United States. In 2008, Bo’s exports to the United States reached US$16.6 million, mainly textiles. In 2007, William Ward, commander of the US Army’s African Command, visited Bo, and President Mogae visited the United States twice. In November 2009, President Kama went to the United States to attend the 2009 “Protection International” Council meeting, during which he met with US President Barack Obama. In April 2010, the commander of the US Army’s African Command, General Wald, visited Bo. In June 2011, the first lady of the United States, Michelle Obama, visited Bo. The main topic was the education and other rights of women and children. In July 2012, former US President George Bush and his wife Laura visited Bo and launched the US aid medical program. In August, the BDF and the US military jointly held a military exercise, and the US Army Commander of the African Command, Carter Hamm, visited Bo. In July 2017, President Kama visited the United States. In May 2018, Royce, chairman of the US Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives, visited Bo. In September 2018, President Masisi went to New York to attend the 73rd session of the UN General Assembly and visited Florida and Texas.
[Relationship with Asian countries] In recent years, Japan’s aid to Bo has gradually increased. In May 2006, President Mogae visited Japan and attended the “Botswana Week” held in Tokyo. In 2007, the embassy was established in Bo. In October 2010, President Kama paid an official visit to Japan. In January 2011, Speaker Nasha led a delegation to visit Japan. In June 2011, the Japan Assisted Education Channel was officially launched, and educational programs were broadcasted regularly for students in primary schools and remote areas on Bo TV. In 2012, Japan and Bo signed an agreement to provide Bo with a 885 million Pula government aid development loan for the construction of the Bo Zangula Bridge on the border with Zambia. In June 2013, President Kama attended the 5th Tokyo International Conference on African Development held in Yokohama, Japan. In January 2017, Vice President Masisi visited Japan.
Bo has a friendly relationship with India. There are about 9,000 overseas Chinese in Bo, and one third of them join the blog. The two countries signed a MFN trade agreement and a double taxation agreement. BRO has carried out a number of cooperation in the field of human resources training. In December 2006, President Mogae led a delegation to pay a state visit to India. In 2007, the company set up a high-tech office in India. In 2010, Indian Vice President Ansari and Vice President Merafe exchanged visits. In 2015, Vice President Ma Xixi attended the India-Africa Summit. In October 2018, Indian Vice President Naidu paid an official visit to Bo.
President Kama visited Singapore in 2009. In March 2012, Bo officially established diplomatic relations with Indonesia. In October 2015, President Kama visited South Korea.
[Relationship with other African countries] Bo maintains good-neighborly relations with neighboring countries. Bo is a member of the Southern African Customs Union with South Africa, Namibia, Lesotho and Swaziland. It has close economic ties and is particularly close to South Africa in the fields of economy and trade.
In 2011, President Kama visited Mozambique, Nigeria, Ghana and Liberia. The President of Malawi and the Prime Minister of Mauritius visited Bo. In February, Bo announced the severance of diplomatic relations with Libya and in September confirmed the Libyan Transitional Council as a legitimate interim government. In July, Bo officially established diplomatic relations with the Republic of South Sudan. In 2012, President Kama visited Namibia and Uganda. South Africa, Zambia, Liberia, Nigerian President and Prime Minister of Zimbabwe visited Bo. In March 2013, Malawi President Banda paid a state visit to Bo. In 2015, President Kama visited South Africa, Angola and Namibia. In May 2016, President Kama visited Mozambique. In February 2017, Zambian President Lun Gu visited Bo. In April, Mozambican President Newey visited Bo. In May, the SADC Chairman-in-Office and Swaziland King Mswati III visited Bo. In October, President Kama attended the 53rd anniversary of Zambia’s independence. In November, President Kama went to Zimbabwe and Kenya to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Mnanagaguwa and President Kenya. In February 2018, President Kama visited Namibia. In April 2018, President Masisi made a working visit to Namibia, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angola, South Africa, Mozambique and Lesotho. In May, President Masisi made a working visit to Mauritius, Malawi, Seychelles, Comoros and Swaziland. In August, President Masisi went to Namibia to attend the 38th Southern African Development Community Summit. At the end of October and early November, President Masisi paid a state visit to Mozambique. In January 2019, the SADC Chairman-in-Office and Namibian President Gengob visited Bo. In February, President Masisi went to Ethiopia to attend the 32nd AU Summit and signed the African Free Trade Area Agreement on behalf of the Bo government. In the same month, President Masisi went to Zimbabwe to attend the first meeting of the Bojin Bilateral Relations Committee.