The Republic of Botswana 博茨瓦纳共和国

【国 名】 博茨瓦纳共和国(The Republic of Botswana)。

【面 积】 581730平方公里。

【人 口】 225万(2016年,国际货币基金组织统计)。绝大部分为班图语系的茨瓦纳人(占人口的90%)。主要民族有恩瓦托、昆纳、恩瓦凯策和塔瓦纳等,其中恩瓦托族最大,约占人口的40%。另有数万欧洲人和亚洲人。官方语言为英语,通用语言为茨瓦纳语和英语。多数居民信奉基督教,农村地区部分居民信奉传统宗教。

【首 都】 哈博罗内(Gaborone),人口约23.6万(2013年)。年均最高气温为28.3℃,年均最低气温为12.9℃,年均气温20.7℃。

【国家元首】 总统莫克维齐·马西西(Mokgweetsi Masisi),2018年4月1日就任。

【重要节日】 新年:1月1日;劳动节:5月1日;塞雷茨·卡马爵士日:7月1日;总统日:7月15日至16日;独立日:9月30日;圣诞节:12月25日。

【简 况】 南部非洲内陆国家。平均海拔1000米左右。东接津巴布韦,西连纳米比亚,北邻赞比亚,南界南非。大部分地区属热带草原气候,西部为沙漠、半沙漠气候。年均气温21℃。年均降水量400毫米。

独立前称贝专纳。公元13~14世纪,茨瓦纳人由北方迁居此地。1885年沦为英国殖民地,称“贝专纳保护地”。1966年9月30日宣布独立,定名为博茨瓦纳共和国,仍留在英联邦内,实行多党制,由博茨瓦纳民主党执政,塞雷茨·卡马任总统。

[Country name] The Republic of Botswana.

[area] 581,730 square kilometers.

[People] 2.25 million (2016, International Monetary Fund statistics). Most of them are Tswana people in the Bantu language family (90% of the population). The main ethnic groups are Enwato, Kunna, Enwakee and Tavana, among which the Enwato are the largest, accounting for about 40% of the population. There are also tens of thousands of Europeans and Asians. The official language is English and the common language is Tswana and English. Most residents believe in Christianity, and some residents in rural areas believe in traditional religion.

[Capital] Gaborone, with a population of about 236,000 (2013). The annual average maximum temperature is 28.3 °C, the average annual minimum temperature is 12.9 °C, and the annual average temperature is 20.7 °C.

[Head of State] President Mokweetsi Masisi, took office on April 1, 2018.

[Important Festival] New Year: January 1st; Labor Day: May 1st; Sir Seret Kama Day: July 1st; President’s Day: July 15th to 16th; Independence Day: September 30th Day; Christmas: December 25.

[profile] Southern African landlocked countries. The average altitude is about 1000 meters. It is connected to Zimbabwe in the east, Namibia in the west, Zambia in the north and South Africa in the south. Most of the area has a savanna climate, and the west has a desert and semi-desert climate. The annual average temperature is 21 °C. The average annual precipitation is 400 mm.

Formerly known as Beacon. From the 13th to the 14th century AD, the Tswana moved from the north to this place. In 1885, it became a British colony, and it was called “Bei Beina Protected Land.” On September 30, 1966, the independence was declared, and it was named the Republic of Botswana. It remained in the Commonwealth and was implemented in a multi-party system. The Democratic Party of Botswana was in power and Seret Kama was the President.

【政 治】 1980年7月,马西雷接任总统职务。1984年、1989年和1994年,民主党在议会选举中接连获胜,马西雷三次蝉联总统。1998年,马西雷主动辞去总统职务,莫哈埃接任总统。1999年和2004年,民主党在大选中均以压倒优势胜出,莫哈埃两度蝉联总统。2008年,莫哈埃总统任期届满,原副总统伊恩·卡马接任总统。在2009年10月举行的大选中,民主党获得议会57个民选议席中的45席,卡马蝉联总统并组成新一届内阁。2014年10月,博茨瓦纳举行独立以来的第十一次大选,卡马再次蝉联总统,但民主党遭遇来自反对党的强力挑战,仅获57个民选议席中的37席,支持率大幅下滑。2018年4月1日,原副总统莫克维齐·马西西接替任期届满的卡马总统,就任博独立以来第五任总统。

【宪 法】 1966年9月30日生效,后几经修改。宪法规定:博实行多党议会制,立法、司法、行政三权分立;总统为国家元首、政府首脑兼武装部队总司令,由国民议会选举产生,任期5年,自首次履行总统职权之日起,累计任职时间不超过10年;总统死亡、辞职或任期届满时,副总统自动接任总统职务;总统和国民议会组成国会,行使立法权;国民议会通过的决议、法案须经总统批准才能生效;总统有权召集和解散议会。

【议 会】 国民议会由57名民选议员、4名特选议员(由总统提名,议会表决通过)、总检察长(由总统任命,接受议会的法律咨询,参加议会,但无投票权)和议长(由议员选出,主持议会会议,无投票权)组成,每届任期5年。议会的主要职权是:选举总统,制定法律,修改宪法,审议国家发展计划和政府财政预算。一般议案半数表决通过,重要议案需2/3赞成通过。本届国民议会于2014年10月大选产生。目前民主党占37席,由民主运动党、民族阵线、人民党组成的民主改革联盟占17席,大会党占3席。4名特选议员均为民主党成员。议长格拉迪斯·科科韦(Gladys Kokorwe,女,民主党),2014年11月就任。

【酋长院】 议会的咨询机构,原由15名成员组成。2005年4月,议会通过对宪法77、78和79条的修正案,规定酋长院成员增至35名,其中8人由8大部族酋长担任,称为“当然成员”,7人由8位当然成员选举产生,称为“选举成员”,其余20人由各地区选举产生,称为“特选成员”。酋长院的职责范围和权力仅限于特定传统事务,如习惯法、非洲法院、领导职务、民族财产、部落首领的任免、宪法修正案等。每年议会开幕前,酋长院先召开例会,向议会提出动议和议案,但不具有任何约束力。酋长院在必要时可要求有关部长到酋长院说明情况,部长也可到酋长院征询意见。2016年1月,酋长院举行第12届大会,选举产生新一届领导人,特罗夸族大酋长哈博罗内(Kgosi Puso Gaborone)连任主席。

[Politics] In July 1980, Masire took over the presidency. In 1984, 1989 and 1994, the Democratic Party won successively in the parliamentary elections, and Masire reelected the president three times. In 1998, Masire took the initiative to resign as president and Mohae took over as president. In 1999 and 2004, the Democratic Party won the overwhelming victory in the general election. Mohae twice won the president. In 2008, President Mogae’s term expired and former Vice President Ian Kama took over as president. In the general election held in October 2009, the Democratic Party won 45 of the 57 elected seats in the parliament, and Kama reelected the president and formed a new cabinet. In October 2014, Botswana held its eleventh general election since independence. Kama once again reelected the president, but the Democratic Party encountered a strong challenge from the opposition party. Only 37 of the 57 elected seats, the support rate dropped sharply. On April 1, 2018, the former Vice President Mokvizi Masisi replaced President Kama, who had expired his term of office, and became the fifth president since Bo independence.

[Constitution] Effective September 30, 1966, after several revisions. The Constitution stipulates that: Bo implements a multi-party parliamentary system, and the separation of legislative, judicial, and administrative powers; the president is the head of state, the head of government, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, elected by the National Assembly for a term of five years, from the date of the first implementation of the presidency. The cumulative time of appointment is no more than 10 years; when the president dies, resigns or the term expires, the vice president automatically assumes the presidency; the president and the National Assembly form the parliament to exercise legislative power; the resolutions and bills passed by the National Assembly must be approved by the president before they can take effect; Have the right to call and dissolve the parliament.

[Parliament] The National Assembly consists of 57 elected members, 4 specially elected members (nominated by the president, voted by the parliament), the Attorney General (appointed by the president, accepting legal advice from the parliament, participating in the parliament, but without voting rights) and the speaker (elected by a member of parliament, presiding over parliamentary meetings, no voting rights), each term is 5 years. The main functions of the parliament are: electing the president, enacting laws, amending the constitution, reviewing the national development plan and the government budget. Half of the general motion was passed, and important bills were approved by 2/3. The current National Assembly was elected in October 2014. At present, the Democratic Party has 37 seats. The Democratic Reform Alliance consisting of the Democratic Movement Party, the National Front and the People’s Party has 17 seats, and the Congress Party has 3 seats. The four elected members are all members of the Democratic Party. Speaker Gladys Kokorwe (female, Democratic Party) took office in November 2014.

[Emirates] The advisory body of the parliament, originally composed of 15 members. In April 2005, the parliament passed amendments to articles 77, 78 and 79 of the Constitution, which stipulated that the number of members of the Emirates increased to 35, 8 of whom were headed by the chiefs of the eight tribes, known as “ex officio members” and 7 by 8 Of course, members are elected, called “elected members,” and the remaining 20 are elected by various regions and are called “selected members.” The scope and powers of the Chiefs are limited to specific traditional matters, such as customary law, African courts, leadership positions, national property, tribal chiefs’ appointments and dismissals, and constitutional amendments. Before the opening of the parliament every year, the Emirates House held a regular meeting to propose motions and motions to the parliament, but it did not have any binding force. The Emirates may request the relevant minister to explain the situation to the Emirates when necessary, and the Minister may also go to the Emirates to seek advice. In January 2016, the 12th General Assembly of the Emirates held a new leader, and Krosi Puso Gaborone, the chief of the Troquabian chief, was re-elected.

【政 府】 本届内阁于2018年4月4日产生,6月20日、12月14日、12月19日三次小幅改组。主要成员有:总统莫克维齐·马西西,副总统斯伦伯·措格瓦内(Slumber Tsogwane),总统事务、政府治理与公共管理部长诺诺福·莫莱菲(Nonofo Molefhi),国防、司法与安全部长肖·卡蒂(Shaw Kgathi),农业发展与粮食安全部长帕特里克·拉洛齐亚(Patrick Ralotsia),国际事务与合作部长尤妮蒂·道(Unity Dow,女),基础教育部长巴哈拉蒂亚·阿龙埃(Bagalatia Arone),环境、自然资源保护与旅游部长基措·莫凯拉(Kitso Mokaila),财政与经济发展部长肯尼思·马坦博(Kenneth Matambo),基础设施与住房发展部长文森特·塞雷茨(Vincent Seretse),卫生与健康部长阿尔弗雷德·马迪戈勒(Alfred Madigele),就业、劳动生产力与技能发展部长采诺洛·马贝奥(Tshenolo Mabeo),土地管理、水资源与公共卫生服务部长凯芬采·姆兹温尼拉(Kefentse Mzwinila),地方政府与农村发展部长弗朗斯·范德韦斯图伊曾(Frans Van Der Westhuizen),矿产资源、绿色科技与能源安全部长埃里克·莫拉莱(Eric Molale),投资、贸易与工业部长博霍洛·凯内文多(Bogolo Kenewendo,女),交通与通讯部长多克斯·马卡托(Dorcas Makgato,女),青年赋权、体育与文化发展部长切凯迪·卡马(Tshekedi Khama),高等教育、研究与科技部长塔佩洛·奥洛彭(Thapelo Olopeng),国籍、移民与性别事务部长恩哈卡·恩哈卡(Ngaka Ngaka)。

【政府网址】 www.gov.bw。

【行政区划】 全国划分为10个行政区。

【司法机构】 由高等法院、上诉法院和传统法院组成。传统法院相当于初级法院,由各民族酋长担任法律执行人。高等法院院长、首席大法官泰伦泽·兰诺瓦内(Terence Rannowane)。总检察长安塔利亚·莫罗科姆(Athalia Molokomme)。

【政 党】 主要政党情况如下:

(1)博茨瓦纳民主党(Botswana Democratic Party):1962年1月成立。独立后一直执政,主张经济独立和自力更生,在发展经济的同时保持社会公正;对外实行多方位外交,维护并促进民族利益。总裁莫克维齐·马西西,全国主席斯伦伯·措格瓦内。

(2)民主改革联盟(Umbrella for Democratic Change):2012年成立。由博茨瓦纳民主运动党(Botswana Movement for Democracy,2010年5月29日成立,是从民主党内分裂出来的一支新反对党,口号是“我们的博茨瓦纳”)、博茨瓦纳民族阵线(Botswana National Front,1967年10月成立,主张在博进行民族民主革命,实现社会主义)和人民党(Botswana People’s Party,1960年殖民地时期成立,是博成立最早的政党)联合组成,在2014年大选中对民主党形成强有力的挑战。总裁杜马·博科(Duma Boko)。2017年2月3日,大会党(Botswana Congress Party,1998年6月成立,由民阵中分裂而来,口号是“为了民族自由”)加入民主改革联盟,与联盟原三党正式成立新的反对党联盟,拟以民主改革联盟的名义参加2019年大选,联盟主张社会民主主义,党派颜色为“皇家蓝”。

(3)博茨瓦纳进步联盟党(Alliance for Progressives):2017年10月成立,是从反对党民主运动党内分裂出来的一支新反对党,致力于带领博人民建设一个全新的博茨瓦纳共和国。总裁恩达巴·赫拉泰(Ndaba Gaolathe)。

[Government] The current cabinet was produced on April 4, 2018, and was reorganized three times on June 20, December 14, and December 19. The main members are: President Mokwezi Masisi, Vice President Slumber Tsogwane, Presidential Affairs, Government Governance and Public Administration Minister Nonofo Molefhi, Defense , Justice and Security Minister Shaw Kgathi, Minister of Agricultural Development and Food Security Patrick Ralotsia, Minister of International Affairs and Cooperation Unity Dow (female), basic education Minister Bagalatia Arone, Minister of Environment, Natural Resources Conservation and Tourism Kitso Mokaila, Minister of Finance and Economic Development Kenneth Matambo , Minister of Infrastructure and Housing Development Vincent Seretse, Minister of Health and Health Alfred Madigele, Minister of Employment, Labor Productivity and Skills Development, Noro Roman Tshenolo Mabeo, Minister of Land Management, Water Resources and Public Health Services, Kefentse Mzwinila, Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development Frans Van Der Westhuizen, Minister of Mineral Resources, Green Technology and Energy Security Eric Molale, Minister of Investment, Trade and Industry Boholo Bogolo Kenewendo (female), Minister of Transport and Communications Dorcas Makgato (female), Minister of Youth Empowerment, Sports and Cultural Development Tshekedi Khama, Higher Education , Research and Technology Minister Thapelo Olopeng, Minister of Nationality, Immigration and Gender Affairs Ngaka Ngaka.

[Government website] www.gov.bw.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 10 administrative regions.

[Judiciary] It consists of the High Court, the Court of Appeal and the Traditional Court. The traditional court is equivalent to the primary court, and the chiefs of the various nationalities act as law enforcers. Terence Rannowane, President of the High Court and Chief Justice. Attorney General Athalia Molokomme.

[Political Party] The main political parties are as follows:

(1) Botswana Democratic Party: Established in January 1962. After independence, he has been in power, advocated economic independence and self-reliance, maintained social justice while developing the economy, and implemented multi-faceted diplomacy to safeguard and promote national interests. President Mokwezi Masisi, National President Sherpa Tugwane.

(2) Umbrella for Democratic Change: Established in 2012. The Botswana Movement for Democracy (Botswana Movement for Democracy, established on May 29, 2010, is a new opposition party split from the Democratic Party, slogan “Our Botswana”), Botswana National Front (Botswana National Front, 1967) Founded in October, it advocates the national democratic revolution in Bo, and realizes socialism. The People’s Party (Botswana People’s Party, established in the colonial period in 1960, was the earliest party established in Bo). It formed a powerful force for the Democratic Party in the 2014 general election. The challenge. President Duma Boko. On February 3, 2017, the Botswana Congress Party (established in June 1998, split by the FDC, with the slogan “For National Freedom”) joined the Democratic Reform Coalition and formally established a new alliance with the original three parties of the Alliance. The opposition coalition intends to participate in the 2019 general election in the name of the Democratic Reform Coalition. The coalition advocates social democracy and the party color is “Royal Blue.”

(3) Alliance for Progressives: Founded in October 2017, it is a new opposition party split from the opposition Democratic Movement Party and is committed to leading the people of Bo to build a brand new Republic of Botswana. President Ndaba Galatthe.

【重要人物】 莫克维齐·马西西:总统。1962年7月生。1984年获博茨瓦纳大学教育学学士学位。曾赴美国佛罗里达州立大学和英国曼彻斯特大学留学,分别获教育学和经济社会学硕士学位。曾在博教育部和联合国任职。2009年当选国民议会议员,任博总统事务与公共管理部副部长。2011年至2014年历任总统事务与公共管理部长、教育部长等职,同时担任内阁消除贫困委员会主席。2014年11月起任副总统。2015年7月当选博民主党全国主席,2017年7月连任。2018年4月1日接任总统、民主党总裁。

斯伦伯·措格瓦内:副总统。1960年生,1999年当选国民议会议员并连任至今。2004至2009年任博财政与经济发展部副部长。2014至2018年3月任地方政府与农村发展部长。2018年4月1日当选博民主党全国主席,4月4日当选副总统。

【经 济】 博是非洲经济发展较快、经济状况较好的国家之一。钻石业是其经济支柱,产值约占国内生产总值的三分之一。畜牧业是传统产业,制造业落后,近年来旅游业发展较快,成为新兴产业。独立后,博政府建立了自由市场经济体制,采取优惠措施吸引外资和国外先进技术,先后制定了11个国家发展计划,经济实现了快速、持续发展。为改变经济发展主要依赖钻石业的状况,从20世纪80年代后期开始,博政府开始推行经济多元化政策,取得一定成效。

卡马总统执政期间,博政府继续实行积极财政政策和稳健货币政策,加大对基础设施和社会领域的投入,努力扩大内需,创造就业。在继续重视钻石经济和提升附加值的同时,吸引外资开发镍、铜等矿产资源;启动火电站建设,加快电力自给和出口;推动旅游业发展,促进经济多元化。受国际金融危机影响,钻石产量和出口收入一度大幅下降。随着国际市场矿产品需求回暖及价格回升,博经济自2009年第二季度起开始复苏。政府加大对主要产业部门扶植力度,确定钻石业、农业、卫生、教育、交通、创新六大重点发展领域。马西西接任总统后将促进经济多元化、增加就业和改善民生作为施政首要目标,将钻石业、旅游业、畜牧业、采矿业和金融服务业确定为重点产业。2018年主要经济数据如下(资料来源:《伦敦经济季评》):

国内生产总值(GDP):185.25亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:8233美元。

经济增长率:4.5%。

货币名称:普拉。

汇率:1美元≈10.2普拉。

通货膨胀率:3.2%

[important figures] Mokwezi Masisi: President. Born in July 1962. He received a bachelor’s degree in education from the University of Botswana in 1984. He studied at Florida State University and the University of Manchester, England, and received a master’s degree in education and economics and sociology. He has served in the Ministry of Education and the United Nations. In 2009, he was elected to the National Assembly and served as deputy director of the Department of Public Affairs and Public Administration. From 2011 to 2014, he served as the Minister of Presidential Affairs and Public Administration, the Minister of Education, and served as Chairman of the Cabinet Committee on Poverty Eradication. Since November 2014, he has served as vice president. In July 2015, he was elected as the national chairman of the Democratic Party of Democracy and re-elected in July 2017. On April 1, 2018, he took over as president and president of the Democratic Party.

Slumber Tugwane: Vice President. Born in 1960, he was elected to the National Assembly in 1999 and has been re-elected to this day. From 2004 to 2009, he served as deputy director of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development. From March 2014 to March 2018, he served as Minister of Local Government and Rural Development. On April 1, 2018, he was elected the National President of the Democratic Party and was elected Vice President on April 4.

[Economy] Bo is one of the countries with faster economic development and better economic conditions in Africa. The diamond industry is the backbone of its economy, with output accounting for about one-third of GDP. Animal husbandry is a traditional industry, and manufacturing is backward. In recent years, tourism has developed rapidly and has become an emerging industry. After independence, the Bo government established a free market economic system, adopted preferential measures to attract foreign capital and foreign advanced technology, and successively formulated 11 national development plans, and the economy achieved rapid and sustained development. In order to change the economic development mainly depends on the status of the diamond industry, since the late 1980s, the Bo government began to implement economic diversification policies and achieved certain results.

During President Kama’s administration, the Bo government continued to implement a proactive fiscal policy and a prudent monetary policy, increased investment in infrastructure and social sectors, and strived to expand domestic demand and create employment. While continuing to attach importance to the diamond economy and increasing added value, it will attract foreign investment to develop mineral resources such as nickel and copper; start construction of thermal power plants, accelerate self-sufficiency and export of electricity; promote tourism development and promote economic diversification. Affected by the international financial crisis, diamond production and export revenues fell sharply. With the recovery of mineral products in the international market and the rebound in prices, the Bo economy has started to recover since the second quarter of 2009. The government has stepped up efforts to support major industrial sectors and identified six key development areas for the diamond industry, agriculture, health, education, transportation and innovation. After taking over as president, Masisi will promote economic diversification, increase employment and improve people’s livelihood as the primary goal of governance, and identify the diamond industry, tourism, animal husbandry, mining and financial services industries as key industries. The main economic data for 2018 are as follows (Source: London Economic Quarterly):

Gross domestic product (GDP): $18.525 billion.

Per capita GDP: $8233.

Economic growth rate: 4.5%.

Currency name: Pula.

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 10.2 Pula.

Inflation rate: 3.2%

【资 源】 矿产资源丰富。主要矿藏为钻石,其次为铜镍、煤、苏打灰、铂、金、锰等。钻石储量和产量均居世界前列。已探明的铜镍矿蕴藏量为4600万吨,煤蕴藏量170亿吨。

【工矿业】 近年,博政府积极发展钻石加工业,以提高钻石业利润。2008年钻石产量3260万克拉,产值32.7亿美元,位列世界第一。受国际金融危机影响,2009年钻石产量大幅减少,为1773万克拉。2011年钻石产量为2290万克拉。铜镍是继钻石后重要的出口矿产品,2011年产量为3.2万吨。2012年,博钻石出口额361亿普拉,占出口总额的79.3%,铜镍出口额33.1亿普拉,占出口总额的7.3%。2013年,博钻石产量提高12.4%,矿业产值增加10.6%。2014年全球原材料价格持续大幅下降,博钻石业遭重创,钻石产量锐减至1223万克拉。得益于全球钻石需求复苏,2015年博钻石产量回升至2037万克拉,2016年为2050万克拉,2017年为2270万克拉。

【制造业】 制造业产值约占国内生产总值的4%,含纺织、啤酒、化工和电力等。

【农牧业】 农业较落后,可耕地占全国面积的15%。2017/2018年耕种面积为26.85万公顷,粮食产量约6.61万吨,只能满足国内粮食需求的22%左右,主要农作物为高粱、玉米、小米、豆类以及水果、蔬菜。政府鼓励农民多种粮,增加粮食自给。

畜牧业占农业产值的70%,是国民经济传统支柱产业之一,也是农民的主要收入来源。畜牧业以养牛为主,养羊为辅。博有现代化的大型屠宰厂和肉类加工厂,年屠宰能力为40~50万头牛。2016年牛肉出口占出口总额的1.3%。家禽养殖业始于1976年,生产的肉鸡和鸡蛋能够满足国内需求。

【旅游业】 博是非洲主要旅游目的国之一。旅游资源丰富,是非洲野生动物种类和数量较多的国家。政府把全国38%的国土划为野生动物保护区,设立了3 个国家公园,5个野生动物保护区。乔贝国家公园和奥卡万戈三角洲野生动物保护区为主要旅游点。旅游业是博GDP的第二大贡献行业,容纳了最大的就业增长。目前,在博注册酒店共80家。酒店业共创造了11604个工作岗位。政府设立了旅游业培训基金,用于旅游业员工培训。

【交通运输】 以公路运输为主,主要城镇之间有公路相连,总长1.94万公里,其中30%为柏油路面。全国各主要城镇之间以及博与南非、赞比亚、津巴布韦和纳米比亚之间已基本由柏油马路连接,其中干线公路等级较高。

铁路长900公里。主要铁路线跨越弗朗西斯敦、哈博罗内和洛巴策,连接南非和津巴布韦。博铁路公司是负责铁路运输的国有企业。

博航空公司辟有飞往南非的地区航线和国内主要城镇及旅游区之间的航线。现有6个国际机场,首都有卡马国际机场,其余5个机场设在弗朗西斯敦、马翁、卡萨尼、塞莱比-皮奎和杭济。此外有数十个小型机场分散在全国各地。2005年,博成立独立的民用航空管理局。博航空公司年运送旅客近百万人次。

[Resources] Rich in mineral resources. The main mineral deposits are diamonds, followed by copper and nickel, coal, soda ash, platinum, gold and manganese. Diamond reserves and production are among the highest in the world. The proven copper-nickel deposit is 46 million tons and the coal reserves are 17 billion tons.

[Industrial and Mining] In recent years, the Bo government has actively developed the diamond processing industry to increase the profit of the diamond industry. In 2008, the diamond output was 32.6 million carats, with an output value of 3.27 billion US dollars, ranking first in the world. Affected by the international financial crisis, diamond production in 2009 decreased significantly, to 17.73 million carats. The diamond production in 2011 was 22.9 million carats. Copper and nickel are important export mineral products after diamonds. In 2011, the output was 32,000 tons. In 2012, Bo Diamond’s exports amounted to 36.1 billion Pula, accounting for 79.3% of total exports, and copper and nickel exports amounted to 3.31 billion Pula, accounting for 7.3% of total exports. In 2013, Bo diamond production increased by 12.4%, and mining output increased by 10.6%. In 2014, global raw material prices continued to drop sharply, and the diamond industry was hit hard. Diamond production dropped sharply to 12.23 million carats. Thanks to the recovery in global diamond demand, Bobo’s diamond production rebounded to 20.37 million carats in 2015, 20.5 million carats in 2016 and 22.7 million carats in 2017.

[Manufacturing] Manufacturing output accounts for about 4% of GDP, including textiles, beer, chemicals and electricity.

[Agriculture and animal husbandry] Agriculture is relatively backward, and arable land accounts for 15% of the country’s total area. In 2017/2018, the cultivated area was 268,500 hectares, and the grain output was about 66,100 tons. It can only meet about 22% of domestic grain demand. The main crops are sorghum, corn, millet, beans, fruits and vegetables. The government encourages farmers to use a variety of foods to increase food self-sufficiency.

The livestock industry accounts for 70% of the agricultural output value. It is one of the traditional pillar industries of the national economy and the main source of income for farmers. The animal husbandry mainly focuses on raising cattle and supplementing sheep. There are modern large-scale slaughter plants and meat processing plants with an annual slaughter capacity of 400,000 to 500,000 cattle. In 2016, beef exports accounted for 1.3% of total exports. The poultry farming industry began in 1976 with the production of broilers and eggs to meet domestic demand.

[Tourism] Bo is one of the major destination countries in Africa. It is rich in tourism resources and is a country with a large number and variety of wild animals in Africa. The government has designated 38% of the country’s land as a wildlife sanctuary, and has established three national parks and five wildlife sanctuaries. Chobe National Park and Okavango Delta Wildlife Sanctuary are the main tourist spots. Tourism is the second largest contributor to Bo’s GDP and accommodates the largest employment growth. Currently, there are 80 registered hotels in Bo. The hotel industry has created a total of 11,604 jobs. The government has established a tourism training fund for tourism staff training.

[Transportation] Mainly by road transportation, the main towns are connected by roads with a total length of 19,400 kilometers, of which 30% are tarmac. Between the major towns of the country and between Bo and South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia, the roads are basically connected by asphalt roads, of which the main roads are of higher grade.

The railway is 900 kilometers long. The main railway line spans Francistown, Gaborone and Lobate, connecting South Africa and Zimbabwe. Bo Railway Company is a state-owned enterprise responsible for railway transportation.

Bo Airlines has routes to regional routes to South Africa and major domestic towns and tourist areas. There are 6 international airports, the capital has Kama International Airport, and the remaining 5 airports are located in Francistown, Mahon, Cassani, Selebi-Pique and Hangji. In addition, dozens of small airports are scattered throughout the country. In 2005, Bo established an independent civil aviation administration. Bo Airlines transports nearly one million passengers a year.

【财政金融】 博国家银行于1975年建立,1976年发行本国货币“普拉”。博长期执行审慎的财政政策。前几年受矿业收入下降、普拉对美元升值和政府施行积极财政政策的影响,曾一度出现财政赤字。政府采取了严格控制支出等措施,使财政收支最终处于盈余状态。2018年底博外汇储备为71.91亿美元。2018年,外债余额为20.01亿美元。(资料来源:《伦敦经济季评》)

【对外贸易】 实行自由贸易政策。主要出口钻石、铜镍矿产品、机电产品等;进口钻石、机电产品、燃油、食品等。博主要贸易伙伴为南非、纳米比亚、加拿大和比利时。2018年,博对外贸易总额为117.69亿美元,其中进口额为58.12亿美元,出口额为59.57亿美元,贸易顺差1.45亿美元。(数据来源:《伦敦经济季评》)

【外国资本】 1997年博成立出口发展与投资局(BEDIA),专门负责推动出口和吸引外国投资的工作。2012年4月,博金融服务中心和出口发展与投资局合并,成立博茨瓦纳投资与贸易中心,以促进投资与出口,并为公众提供服务。2018年度,博吸引外资10.82亿普拉,创造1042个就业机会。(数据来源:博投资与贸易中心2018年度报告)2016年,国际评级机构标准普尔发布公告,将博茨瓦纳的主权长期信用评级展望由“可持续”下调为“负面”,同时,信用评级仍维持为“A-”。国际评级机构穆迪维持博茨瓦纳主权信用评级为A2,同时维持博长期信用评级展望为“稳定”。2017年,国际评级机构穆迪对博茨瓦纳主权信用评级为A2。

【外国援助】 主要援助国和国际组织为日本、美国、瑞典、挪威、德国、联合国开发计划署、非洲开发银行等。博成为中等收入国家后,多数西方国家对博提供的官方发展援助和优惠贷款大幅下降。

【人民生活】 根据世界银行《2018年世界发展指数》,2017年博茨瓦纳人口城市化率为68.7%。2016年博人口平均预期寿命男性为64岁,女性为69.5岁。84.4%的城市人口能够使用安全饮用水。根据博中央统计局2013/2014年度报告,全国有医院18所、初级医院17所,带床位的诊所108个,不带床位的诊所180个。全国拥有病床5276张。艾滋病感染率较高,2013年博艾滋病平均感染率为17.6%。博电信网络已全部实现数字化。

【军 事】 1977年建立国防军。现有军人约9000名,其中陆军8500人,空军500人。现任国防军司令普拉希德·塞霍科(Placid Segokgo)中将。警察部队约1500人,警察总署署长基贝茨韦·马科佩(Keabetswe Makgophe)。

【文化教育】 博独立后高度重视国民教育事业,成人识字率从1966年的不足10%提高到2014年的88.6%。教育体系完备,包括小学、中学和大学的正规教育及职业技术教育、特殊学校教育和业余教育,其学制为小学7年,初中3年,高中2年。小学和初中阶段为义务教育,小学和高等教育免学费,中学教育自2006年起实行学费分担制度,初中生每人年缴费300普拉,高中生600普拉,其余大部分由政府负担。2015年,全国共有826所小学、293所中学和40所高等教育机构。主要公立大学包括博茨瓦纳大学、国际科技大学、农业与自然资源大学、开放大学。

[Financial Finance] Bo National Bank was established in 1975. In 1976, the national currency “Pula” was issued. Bo has long implemented a prudent fiscal policy. In the past few years, due to the decline in mining income, the appreciation of Pula against the US dollar and the government’s implementation of a proactive fiscal policy, there was a fiscal deficit. The government has adopted measures such as strict control of expenditures, so that the fiscal revenue and expenditure will eventually be in surplus. At the end of 2018, Bo foreign exchange reserves were 7.191 billion US dollars. In 2018, the balance of external debt was $2.01 billion. (Source: London Economic Quarterly Review)

[Foreign Trade] Implement a free trade policy. Mainly export diamonds, copper-nickel mineral products, mechanical and electrical products, etc.; imported diamonds, mechanical and electrical products, fuel oil, food, etc. The main trading partners of Bo are South Africa, Namibia, Canada and Belgium. In 2018, Bo’s foreign trade totaled 11.769 billion U.S. dollars, of which imports were 5.812 billion U.S. dollars, exports were 5.957 billion U.S. dollars, and trade surplus was 145 million U.S. dollars. (Source: London Economic Quarterly Review)

[Foreign Capital] In 1997, Bo established the Export Development and Investment Agency (BEDIA), which is responsible for promoting exports and attracting foreign investment. In April 2012, Bo Financial Services Center and Export Development and Investment Bureau merged to establish Botswana Investment and Trade Center to promote investment and export and provide services to the public. In 2018, Bo attracted foreign investment of 1.082 billion Pula and created 1042 jobs. (Source: Bo Investment and Trade Center 2018 Annual Report) In 2016, the international rating agency Standard & Poor’s issued an announcement to downgrade Botswana’s sovereign long-term credit rating outlook from “sustainable” to “negative”, while the credit rating remains “A-“. The international rating agency Moody’s maintains Botswana’s sovereign credit rating of A2, while maintaining its long-term credit rating outlook as “stable”. In 2017, the international rating agency Moody’s sovereign credit rating for Botswana was A2.

[Foreign Aid] The main donor countries and international organizations are Japan, the United States, Sweden, Norway, Germany, the United Nations Development Program, and the African Development Bank. After Bo became a middle-income country, the official development assistance and concessional loans provided by Bo in most Western countries fell sharply.

[People’s Life] According to the World Bank’s 2018 World Development Index, the population urbanization rate of Botswana in 2017 was 68.7%. In 2016, the average life expectancy of the Bo population was 64 years for men and 69.5 years for women. 84.4% of the urban population has access to safe drinking water. According to the 2013/2014 annual report of the Central Bureau of Statistics, there are 18 hospitals, 17 primary hospitals, 108 clinics with beds and 180 clinics without beds. There are 5,276 beds in the country. The HIV infection rate is high. In 2013, the average infection rate of AIDS was 17.6%. Bo Telecom’s network has all been digitalized.

[Military] The National Defense Force was established in 1977. There are about 9,000 existing military personnel, including 8,500 Army and 500 Air Force. The current Defence Force Commander Lieutenant General Placid Segokgo. The police force is about 1,500, and the police chief, Keabetswe Makgophe.

[Cultural Education] After independence, Bo attaches great importance to national education. The adult literacy rate has increased from less than 10% in 1966 to 88.6% in 2014. The education system is complete, including formal education and vocational and technical education, special school education and amateur education in primary schools, middle schools and universities. The school system is 7 years in primary school, 3 years in junior high school and 2 years in high school. Primary and junior high school are compulsory, primary and higher education are free of tuition, and secondary education has been implemented in 2006. The junior high school students pay 300 pula per year and high school students 600 pula. Most of the rest is borne by the government. In 2015, there were 826 primary schools, 293 secondary schools and 40 higher education institutions nationwide. Major public universities include the University of Botswana, the International University of Science and Technology, the University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the Open University.

【同欧盟国家的关系】 博与欧盟关系密切,欧盟是博最大的国际援助方之一。2004年欧盟把旨在提高南部非洲国家产品竞争力的“生产力服务中心”设在博。2009年6月,卡马总统访问欧盟委员会,与欧盟签署了临时贸易伙伴协定。2010年,欧盟向博政府提供6.5亿普拉无偿援助,支持博人力资源开发。2012年,欧盟向博非政府组织捐款8000万普拉,用于解决经费紧张问题。2013年1月,欧盟向博政府资助1160万欧元,用于博加快实现联合国千年发展目标中的第四和第五项指标,即将5岁以下儿童死亡率降低2/3和产妇死亡率降低3/4。

同英国有传统密切关系,英是博传统援助国和主要贸易伙伴之一。两国官员互访频繁。英国有70多家企业在博投资。2005年,莫哈埃总统访问英国。2010年6月,英国威廉王子和哈里王子访博。2011年7月,英国安妮公主访博。2017年12月,马西西副总统访问英国。2018年4月,马西西总统赴英出席英联邦政府首脑会议。

同德国经贸关系发展较快,德是博主要贸易伙伴和援助国之一,多年来共向博提供各种援助近10亿普拉,派出250名专家帮助博从事职业培训、中学教育、社区发展、农林业和中小企业发展项目等。2012年2月,卡马总统访问德国。2017年3月,卡马总统赴德国柏林出席2017年国际旅游博览会,并与德国总统、总理会面。

瑞典和挪威也是博重要的援助国。近年来,因博被列入中等收入国家,瑞、挪两国逐步减少援博数额,改为提供低息贷款或开展政府和企业间的合资、合营和技术合作。2010年5月,博、瑞签署《税务合作协定》,瑞将为博提供1250万瑞朗资金援助,以帮助博税务部门培训人员和提高审计能力。2011年3月,瑞典国王卡尔十六世古斯塔夫对博进行国事访问,两国签署了在能源、环境保护及相关方面进行合作的谅解备忘录。2017年6月,卡马总统对瑞典进行国事访问。

法国是博茨瓦纳传统友好国家。在政治领域,两国互信较深,国际问题立场相近。在经济领域,法对博直接投资较少,经贸往来不密切。在人文领域,法通过欧盟、联合国及其非政府组织,向博提供抗击艾滋病、卫生、减贫、人力资源培训等援助,效果较好。2015年6月,卡马总统访问法国。

[Relationship with EU countries] Bo has close ties with the EU, and the EU is one of Bo’s largest international donors. In 2004, the EU set up a “productivity service center” aimed at improving the competitiveness of products in southern African countries. In June 2009, President Kama visited the European Commission and signed an interim trading partnership agreement with the European Union. In 2010, the EU provided 650 million Pula free assistance to the Bo government to support the development of human resources. In 2012, the EU donated 80 million Pula to Bofe NGOs to address funding constraints. In January 2013, the EU subsidized 11.6 million euros to the Bo government to accelerate the achievement of the fourth and fifth indicators of the UN Millennium Development Goals, reducing the under-five mortality rate by 2/3 and maternal mortality. /4.

Closely related to the British tradition, Britain is one of the traditional donor countries and one of the major trading partners. Officials of the two countries exchanged visits frequently. More than 70 companies in the UK invest in Bo. In 2005, President Mogae visited the United Kingdom. In June 2010, Prince William and Prince Harry visited the United Kingdom. In July 2011, Princess Anne of the United Kingdom visited Bo. In December 2017, Vice President Masisi visited the United Kingdom. In April 2018, President Masisi went to the UK to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting.

The economic and trade relations with Germany have developed rapidly. Germany is one of Bo’s main trading partners and donor countries. Over the years, it has provided various assistance to Bo, nearly 1 billion Pula, and sent 250 experts to help Bo engage in vocational training, secondary education, community development, Agroforestry and SME development projects. In February 2012, President Kama visited Germany. In March 2017, President Kama went to Berlin, Germany to attend the 2017 International Tourism Expo and met with the German President and Prime Minister.

Sweden and Norway are also important donors. In recent years, because Bo is listed as a middle-income country, Switzerland and Norway have gradually reduced the amount of aid, and instead offered low-interest loans or joint ventures, joint ventures and technical cooperation between the government and enterprises. In May 2010, Bo and Rui signed the Tax Cooperation Agreement, and Rui will provide 12.5 million Swiss francs of financial assistance to Bo to help the tax authorities train personnel and improve auditing capabilities. In March 2011, Swedish King Carl XVI Gustaf paid a state visit to Bo, and the two countries signed a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in energy, environmental protection and related aspects. In June 2017, President Kama paid a state visit to Sweden.

France is a traditional friendly country in Botswana. In the political arena, the two countries have deep mutual trust and similar positions on international issues. In the economic field, the law has less direct investment in Bo, and economic and trade exchanges are not close. In the humanities field, the law provides assistance to the Bo, including the AIDS, health, poverty alleviation and human resources training, through the EU, the UN and its NGOs. In June 2015, President Kama visited France.

【新闻出版】 现有报纸12种,包括官方日报《每日新闻》(Daily News)和私营日报《报道者》(Mmegi)及私营周报《博茨瓦纳卫报》(Botswana Guardian)、《太阳报》(The Mid-week Sun)、《博茨瓦纳公报》(Botswana Gazette)、《回声报》(Echo)等。《每日新闻》是免费报纸,日发行量约6.5万份,用英文和茨瓦纳语出版。《报道者》和周刊《观察家》为博最大的私人出版公司Dikgang公司发行。《报道者》日发行量约2万份。其它报纸发行量在1.5至2万份之间。2013年博共刊印报纸758万份。

博茨瓦纳通讯社为官方通讯社,1981年创建,主要报道国内消息,是《每日新闻》和博广播电台的主要供稿者。

博茨瓦纳广播电台系官方电台,1965年创建,用英语和茨瓦纳语广播。

哈博罗内电视台为私营电视台,1988年创建,主要播放录像片。

博茨瓦纳国家电视台于2000年7月开播,节目分英语和茨瓦纳语,全部使用数字传输技术,可通过卫星覆盖非洲大部分地区。

【对外关系】 奉行不结盟的对外政策,积极参与地区政治事务及经济合作。主张国家主权平等和互不干涉内政,通过谈判解决争端。提倡建立公正、平等的国际政治经济新秩序。积极参与非洲和地区事务,促进区域稳定、发展和合作。主张发展中国家尤其是中小国家应加强合作,共同应对全球化挑战。南部非洲发展共同体(南共体)秘书处设在哈博罗内。博还是联合国、非盟、英联邦、不结盟运动和南部非洲关税同盟成员。

[Press and Publication] There are 12 kinds of existing newspapers, including the official daily newspaper Daily News and the private daily newspaper “Mmegi” and the private weekly “Botswana Guardian” (The Sun). The Mid-week Sun), the Botswana Gazette, and the Echo. The Daily News is a free newspaper with a daily circulation of about 65,000 copies, published in English and Tswana. The “Reporter” and the weekly “Observer” were released by Dikgang, the largest private publishing company. The “Reporter” has a daily circulation of about 20,000 copies. The circulation of other newspapers is between 1.5 and 20,000. In 2013, the blog printed a total of 7.58 million copies of newspapers.

The Botswana News Agency, an official news agency, was created in 1981 and mainly covers domestic news. It is the main contributor to Daily News and Radio.

The official radio station of the Botswana Radio Station, created in 1965, is broadcast in English and in Tswana.

Gaborone TV is a private TV station. It was created in 1988 and mainly broadcasts video.

The national television station in Botswana was launched in July 2000. The program is divided into English and Tswana, all using digital transmission technology, covering most of Africa through satellite.

[External Relations] Pursuing a non-aligned foreign policy and actively participating in regional political affairs and economic cooperation. It advocates equality of state sovereignty and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs and resolves disputes through negotiations. Advocate the establishment of a fair and equitable new international political and economic order. Actively participate in African and regional affairs and promote regional stability, development and cooperation. It is advocated that developing countries, especially small and medium-sized countries, should strengthen cooperation and jointly address the challenges of globalization. The Secretariat of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) is located in Gaborone. Bo is also a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Commonwealth, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Southern African Customs Union.

【同美国的关系】 博美关系密切,高层往来不断。2002年,美同意将博列为最不发达国家,以享受美《非洲增长与机会法案》(AGOA)的优惠政策。美向博派有和平队。1998年,美总统克林顿访博。2003年,布什总统和莫哈埃总统互访。同年美国对博防治艾滋病领域的援助达到3500万美元。2005年,博与美国成立“非洲增长与机遇法案论坛”,以扩大对美出口,2008年博在该项下对美出口额达1660万美元,其中主要为纺织品。2007年,美军非洲司令部司令威廉·沃德访博,莫哈埃总统两次访美。2009年11月,卡马总统赴美出席2009年度“保护国际”理事会议,其间会见美国总统奥巴马。2010年4月,美军非洲司令部司令瓦尔德将军访博。2011年6月,美国第一夫人米歇尔·奥巴马访博,主要议题是妇女和儿童的教育及其他权益。2012年7月,美国前总统乔治·布什及夫人劳拉访博,并启动美援博医疗项目。8月,博国防军与美军联合举行军事演习,美军非洲司令部司令卡特·哈姆访博。2017年7月,卡马总统访问美国。2018年5月,美国会众议院外交事务委员会主席罗伊斯访博。2018年9月,马西西总统赴美国纽约出席联合国大会第73届会议并访问佛罗里达州和德克萨斯州。

【同亚洲国家的关系】 近年来,日本对博援助逐渐增加。2006年5月莫哈埃总统访日并出席在东京举办的“博茨瓦纳周”活动。2007年,日在博设立使馆。2010年10月,卡马总统对日本进行正式访问。2011年1月,纳莎议长率团访问日本。2011年6月,日本援博教育频道正式启动,定时在博电视台为小学生和偏远地区学生播放教育节目。2012年,日本与博签署协议,向博提供8.85亿普拉政府援助发展贷款,用于博与赞比亚边境卡尊古拉大桥的建设。2013年6月,卡马总统出席在日本横滨举行的第五届非洲发展东京国际会议。2017年1月,马西西副总统访问日本。

博与印度关系友好。在博印度侨民约有9000人,其中三分之一加入博籍。两国签有最惠国待遇贸易协定和避免双重征税协定。博印在人力资源培训领域开展了多项合作。2006年12月莫哈埃总统率团对印进行国事访问。2007年,印在博设立高专署。2010年,印度副总统安萨里和博副总统梅拉费实现互访。2015年博副总统马西西出席印非峰会。2018年10月,印度副总统奈杜对博进行正式访问。

2009年卡马总统访问新加坡。2012年3月,博与印度尼西亚正式建立外交关系。2015年10月卡马总统访问韩国。

[Relationship with the United States] Pomeranian relations are close and high-level exchanges continue. In 2002, the United States agreed to list the country as a least developed country to enjoy the preferential policies of the United States African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The United States has a peace team. In 1998, US President Clinton visited Bo. In 2003, President Bush and President Mogae exchanged visits. In the same year, the United States reached $35 million in aid to the AIDS field. In 2005, Bo and the United States established the “African Growth and Opportunity Bill Forum” to expand exports to the United States. In 2008, Bo’s exports to the United States reached US$16.6 million, mainly textiles. In 2007, William Ward, commander of the US Army’s African Command, visited Bo, and President Mogae visited the United States twice. In November 2009, President Kama went to the United States to attend the 2009 “Protection International” Council meeting, during which he met with US President Barack Obama. In April 2010, the commander of the US Army’s African Command, General Wald, visited Bo. In June 2011, the first lady of the United States, Michelle Obama, visited Bo. The main topic was the education and other rights of women and children. In July 2012, former US President George Bush and his wife Laura visited Bo and launched the US aid medical program. In August, the BDF and the US military jointly held a military exercise, and the US Army Commander of the African Command, Carter Hamm, visited Bo. In July 2017, President Kama visited the United States. In May 2018, Royce, chairman of the US Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives, visited Bo. In September 2018, President Masisi went to New York to attend the 73rd session of the UN General Assembly and visited Florida and Texas.

[Relationship with Asian countries] In recent years, Japan’s aid to Bo has gradually increased. In May 2006, President Mogae visited Japan and attended the “Botswana Week” held in Tokyo. In 2007, the embassy was established in Bo. In October 2010, President Kama paid an official visit to Japan. In January 2011, Speaker Nasha led a delegation to visit Japan. In June 2011, the Japan Assisted Education Channel was officially launched, and educational programs were broadcasted regularly for students in primary schools and remote areas on Bo TV. In 2012, Japan and Bo signed an agreement to provide Bo with a 885 million Pula government aid development loan for the construction of the Bo Zangula Bridge on the border with Zambia. In June 2013, President Kama attended the 5th Tokyo International Conference on African Development held in Yokohama, Japan. In January 2017, Vice President Masisi visited Japan.

Bo has a friendly relationship with India. There are about 9,000 overseas Chinese in Bo, and one third of them join the blog. The two countries signed a MFN trade agreement and a double taxation agreement. BRO has carried out a number of cooperation in the field of human resources training. In December 2006, President Mogae led a delegation to pay a state visit to India. In 2007, the company set up a high-tech office in India. In 2010, Indian Vice President Ansari and Vice President Merafe exchanged visits. In 2015, Vice President Ma Xixi attended the India-Africa Summit. In October 2018, Indian Vice President Naidu paid an official visit to Bo.

President Kama visited Singapore in 2009. In March 2012, Bo officially established diplomatic relations with Indonesia. In October 2015, President Kama visited South Korea.

【同非洲其他国家的关系】 博与邻国保持睦邻友好关系。博与南非、纳米比亚、莱索托和斯威士兰同为南部非洲关税同盟成员国,经济关系密切,与南非在经济、贸易等领域联系尤为紧密。

2011年,卡马总统先后访问莫桑比克、尼日利亚、加纳和利比里亚。马拉维总统和毛里求斯总理先后访博。2月,博宣布与利比亚断绝外交关系,并于9月承认利比亚过渡委员会为利合法临时政府。7月,博与南苏丹共和国正式建立外交关系。2012年,卡马总统访问纳米比亚和乌干达。南非、赞比亚、利比里亚、尼日利亚总统及津巴布韦总理先后访博。2013年3月,马拉维总统班达对博进行国事访问。2015年,卡马总统访问南非、安哥拉、纳米比亚等国。2016年5月,卡马总统访问莫桑比克。2017年2月,赞比亚总统伦古访博。4月,莫桑比克总统纽西访博。5月,南共体轮值主席、斯威士兰国王姆斯瓦蒂三世访博。10月,卡马总统出席赞比亚独立53周年庆典。11月,卡马总统先后赴津巴布韦和肯尼亚出席津总统姆南加古瓦和肯总统肯雅塔的就职仪式。2018年2月,卡马总统访问纳米比亚。2018年4月,马西西总统对纳米比亚、津巴布韦、赞比亚、安哥拉、南非、莫桑比克、莱索托进行工作访问。5月,马西西总统对毛里求斯、马拉维、塞舌尔、科摩罗、斯威士兰进行工作访问。8月,马西西总统赴纳米比亚出席第38届南部非洲发展共同体峰会。10月底11月初,马西西总统对莫桑比克进行国事访问。2019年1月,南共体轮值主席、纳米比亚总统根哥布访博。2月,马西西总统赴埃塞俄比亚出席第32届非盟峰会首脑会议,并代表博政府签署非洲大陆自由贸易区协定。同月,马西西总统赴津巴布韦出席博津双边关系委员会首次会议。

[Relationship with other African countries] Bo maintains good-neighborly relations with neighboring countries. Bo is a member of the Southern African Customs Union with South Africa, Namibia, Lesotho and Swaziland. It has close economic ties and is particularly close to South Africa in the fields of economy and trade.

In 2011, President Kama visited Mozambique, Nigeria, Ghana and Liberia. The President of Malawi and the Prime Minister of Mauritius visited Bo. In February, Bo announced the severance of diplomatic relations with Libya and in September confirmed the Libyan Transitional Council as a legitimate interim government. In July, Bo officially established diplomatic relations with the Republic of South Sudan. In 2012, President Kama visited Namibia and Uganda. South Africa, Zambia, Liberia, Nigerian President and Prime Minister of Zimbabwe visited Bo. In March 2013, Malawi President Banda paid a state visit to Bo. In 2015, President Kama visited South Africa, Angola and Namibia. In May 2016, President Kama visited Mozambique. In February 2017, Zambian President Lun Gu visited Bo. In April, Mozambican President Newey visited Bo. In May, the SADC Chairman-in-Office and Swaziland King Mswati III visited Bo. In October, President Kama attended the 53rd anniversary of Zambia’s independence. In November, President Kama went to Zimbabwe and Kenya to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Mnanagaguwa and President Kenya. In February 2018, President Kama visited Namibia. In April 2018, President Masisi made a working visit to Namibia, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angola, South Africa, Mozambique and Lesotho. In May, President Masisi made a working visit to Mauritius, Malawi, Seychelles, Comoros and Swaziland. In August, President Masisi went to Namibia to attend the 38th Southern African Development Community Summit. At the end of October and early November, President Masisi paid a state visit to Mozambique. In January 2019, the SADC Chairman-in-Office and Namibian President Gengob visited Bo. In February, President Masisi went to Ethiopia to attend the 32nd AU Summit and signed the African Free Trade Area Agreement on behalf of the Bo government. In the same month, President Masisi went to Zimbabwe to attend the first meeting of the Bojin Bilateral Relations Committee.