The Republic of Benin 贝宁共和国

【国 名】 贝宁共和国(The Republic of Benin, La République du Bénin)。

【面 积】 112622平方公里。

【人 口】 1120万。共60多个部族,主要有丰族、阿贾族、约鲁巴族、巴利巴族、奥塔玛里族、颇尔族等。官方语言为法语。全国使用较广的语言有丰语、约鲁巴语和巴利巴语。居民中约65%信奉传统宗教,20%信奉基督教,15%信奉伊斯兰教。

【首 都】 波多诺伏(Porto-Novo),国民议会所在地,人口27万。科托努(Cotonou),政府所在地,人口79万。

【国家元首】 总统帕特里斯·纪尧姆·阿塔纳斯·塔隆(Patrice Guillaume Athanase Talon),2016年3月当选,4月就职。

【重要节日】 独立日:8月1日(亦为国庆日)

[Country name] The Republic of Benin, La République du Bénin.

[area] 112,622 square kilometers.

[People] 11.2 million. A total of more than 60 tribes, mainly Feng, Aja, Yoruba, Boliba, Otamauri, Pall and so on. The official language is French. The languages spoken throughout the country are Hindu, Yoruba and Bariba. About 65% of the residents believe in traditional religion, 20% believe in Christianity, and 15% believe in Islam.

[Crosse] Porto-Novo, the seat of the National Assembly, has a population of 270,000. Cotonou, the seat of the government, has a population of 790,000.

[Head of State] President Patrice Guillaume Athanase Talon, elected in March 2016, took office in April.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: August 1 (also National Day)

【简 况】 位于西非中南部,东邻尼日利亚,西北、东北与布基纳法索、尼日尔交界,西与多哥接壤,南濒大西洋。海岸线长125公里。沿海平原为热带雨林气候,常年气温在20-34℃之间,最高可达42℃;中部和北部为热带草原气候,年平均温度26-27℃。

16世纪前后,贝宁出现许多小王国和酋长国。18世纪阿波美王国鼎盛时期统一了南部和中部。16世纪后期,西方殖民者入侵贝,大肆进行奴隶贸易。1904年,贝并入法属西非,1913年沦为法国殖民地。1958年成为法兰西共同体内的“自治共和国”。1960年8月1日独立,成立达荷美共和国。独立初期政局动荡。1972年10月马蒂厄·克雷库(Mathieu Kerekou)政变上台,宣布“走社会主义发展道路”,长期实行一党制。1975年11月30日改国名为贝宁人民共和国。1990年2月实行多党制,3月改国名为贝宁共和国。1991年3月,尼塞福尔·索格洛(Nicéphore Soglo)在首次多党大选中获胜,当选总统。1996年3月,克雷库在换届选举中击败索格洛重新执政,2001年3月蝉联。2006年3月,独立候选人、前西非开发银行行长托马·博尼·亚伊(Thomas Boni Yayi)在大选中获胜,并于2011年3月连选连任。2016年3月,独立候选人塔隆在新一届总统选举中获胜,4月就职。

【政 治】 塔隆执政后,大力推行政府机构改革,精简各部门行政人员,积极惩治腐败,取得了一定成效。目前,贝政局总体稳定。

【宪 法】 现行宪法于1990年12月2日经公民投票通过,是贝历史上第七部宪法。宪法规定,“建立一个法制和民主多元化的国家”,实行行政、立法和司法分离的原则和总统内阁制。总统为国家元首、政府首脑和武装部队统帅,由直接普选产生,任期5年,可连选连任一次。

【议 会】 称国民议会,最高立法机构,实行一院制,行使立法权并监督政府工作。议员由直接普选产生,任期4年,可连选连任,但不得兼任其他公职。本届议会于2015年4月26日选举产生,共有83名议员,来自11个政党或政党联盟。议会领导机构为执行局,由议长、副议长、总务长、议会书记等7人组成。议会设法律和人权、财贸、生产和计划、教育文化和社会事务以及国防安全和对外合作关系等5个委员会。现任议长阿德里安·温贝吉(Adrien Houngbédji)。

[Profile] It is located in the south-central part of West Africa, bordering Nigeria in the east, bordering Burkina Faso and Niger in the northwest and northeast, bordering Togo in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the south. The coastline is 125 kilometers long. The coastal plain is a tropical rainforest climate with annual temperatures between 20 and 34 °C and a maximum of 42 °C. The central and northern regions have a savanna climate with an average annual temperature of 26-27 °C.

Around the 16th century, there were many small kingdoms and emirates in Benin. In the heyday of the 18th century Abomey, the southern and central parts were unified. In the late 16th century, Western colonists invaded the shells and smashed the slave trade. In 1904, Bein was incorporated into French West Africa and became a French colony in 1913. In 1958, it became the “autonomous republic” of the French Community. On August 1, 1960, he became independent and established the Republic of Dahomey. The political situation was turbulent at the beginning of independence. In October 1972, Mathieu Kerekou’s coup took office and announced that he would “take the path of socialist development” and implement a one-party system for a long time. On November 30, 1975, the country was renamed the People’s Republic of Benin. In February 1990, the multi-party system was implemented. In March, the country was renamed the Republic of Benin. In March 1991, Nicéphore Soglo won the first multiparty election and was elected president. In March 1996, Krekou defeated Soglo in re-election in the election, and re-elected in March 2001. In March 2006, independent candidate and former West African Development Bank President Thomas Boni Yayi won the election and was re-elected in March 2011. In March 2016, independent candidate Talon won the new presidential election and took office in April.

[Politics] After Talong came to power, he vigorously promoted the reform of government institutions, streamlined the administrative staff of various departments, and actively punish corruption, and achieved certain results. At present, the Beizheng Bureau is generally stable.

[Constitution] The current Constitution was adopted by a referendum on December 2, 1990, and is the seventh constitution in the history of the Bay. The Constitution stipulates that “the establishment of a country with a legal system and democratic pluralism” shall be governed by the principles of separation of administration, legislation and judiciary and the presidential cabinet system. The President is headed by the head of state, the head of government and the armed forces. It is elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of five years and can be re-elected once.

[Parliament] The National Assembly, the highest legislative body, implements a one-chamber system, exercises legislative power and supervises government work. Members are elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of four years and are eligible for re-election, but they are not allowed to hold other public positions. The current parliament was elected on April 26, 2015. There are 83 parliamentarians from 11 political parties or coalitions of political parties. The governing body of the parliament is the executive board, which consists of seven members including the speaker, deputy speaker, general secretary, and parliamentary secretary. The Parliament has five committees: law and human rights, finance and trade, production and planning, education, culture and social affairs, and national defense security and foreign cooperation. The current Speaker, Adrien Houngbédji.

【政 府】 本届政府于2016年4月组成,2018年6月改组。总统帕特里斯·纪尧姆·阿塔纳斯·塔隆(Patrice Guillaume Athanase Talon),兼政府首脑。本届政府共24名成员,包括总统塔隆,国务部长2名,部长20名,部长级代表1名。主要为:国务部长、总统府秘书长帕斯卡尔·伊雷内·库帕基(Pascal Irénée Koupaki),计划与发展国务部长阿卜杜拉耶·比奥·查内(Aboudoulaye Bio Tchane),掌玺、司法与立法部长塞弗兰·马克西姆·克南(Sévérin Maxime Quenum),外交合作部长奥雷利安·阿贝农西(Aurélien Agbenonci),经济财政部长罗穆亚尔德·瓦达尼(Romuald Wadagni),内政与公共安全部长萨卡·拉菲亚(Sacca Lafia),生活环境与可持续发展部长若泽·迪迪埃·托纳托(Jose Didier Tonato),农业、牧业与渔业部长加斯东·多苏惠(Gaston Dossouhoui),权力下放与地方管理部长巴纳贝·达西利(Barnabé Z. Dassigli),劳动与公职部长阿迪贾图·马蒂(女)(Adidjatou Mathys),社会事务与小额贷款部长宾图·沙比·亚当(女)(Bintu Chabi Adam),卫生部长本杰明·洪帕廷(Benjamin Hounkpatin),高等教育与科研部长玛丽·奥蒂勒·阿塔纳索(女)(Marie Odile Atanasso),中等教育、技术教育与职业培训部长马乌尼翁·卡克波(Mahougnon Kakpo),幼儿与初等教育部长卡里穆·萨利马内(Karimou Salimane),数字经济与通讯部长奥雷莉·亚当·苏莱(女)(Aurélie Adam Soule),基础设施与交通部长阿拉萨内·赛义杜(Alassane Seidou),工业与贸易部长塞尔日·阿希苏(Serge Ahissou),能源部长多纳·让-克洛德·乌苏(Dona Jean-Claude Houssou),水与矿产部长萨穆·赛义杜·阿当比(Samou Seidou Amambi),中小企业与就业促进部长莫德斯特·克雷库(Modeste Kerekou),旅游与文化部长奥斯瓦尔德·奥梅基(Oswald homeky),负责国防事务的部长级代表福尔蒂内·阿兰·努瓦丁(Fortunet Alain Nouatin)。

【行政区划】 全国可分为省、县(市)、镇、村四级,共12个省,77个县(市)(67个县、10个市)。12个省名称为:滨海、大西洋、韦梅、莫诺、库福、高原、祖、丘陵、东加、博尔古、阿黎博里、阿塔科拉。

【司法机构】 设有宪法法院、最高法院、高等法院、上诉法院和初级法院。宪法法院独立于最高法院,是最高司法机关。负责审理法律的合宪性,调解国家机关权限纠纷,并对立法选举和总统选举的合法性进行裁决。最高法院是国家行政、司法裁判和国家审计的最高权力机关,由司法、行政、审计3个法庭和1个检察院组成。中央一级设上诉法院,系终审法院,各省设初级法院,县(市)设治安法院,各级法院均委派有共和国检察官。高等法院有权审理总统和政府成员在履行职务时所犯叛国和违法行为。本届宪法法院于2013年6月成立,院长泰奥多尔·奥洛(Théodore Holo)。本届最高法院于2011年1月成立,院长奥斯曼·巴托科(Ousmane Batoko)。2016年2月贝宁部长特别会议决定,将巴托科任期延长一届,至2021年2月27日结束。本届高等法院于2015年10月成立,院长塞茜尔·德拉沃·津津多惠(女)(Cécile Dravo-Zinzindohoué)。

[Government] The current government was formed in April 2016 and reorganized in June 2018. President Patrice Guillaume Athanase Talon, head of government. The current government has a total of 24 members, including President Talon, 2 Ministers of State, 20 Ministers, and 1 Ministerial Representative. Mainly: Pascal Irénée Koupaki, Minister of State, Secretary General of the Presidential Office, Aboudoulaye Bio Tchane, Minister of Planning and Development, , Minister of Justice and Legislation, Sévérin Maxime Quenum, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Aurélien Agbenonci, Minister of Economy and Finance, Romuyal Vadani ( Romuald Wadagni), Minister of Home Affairs and Public Safety Sacca Lafia, Minister of Living Environment and Sustainable Development Jose Didier Tonato, Minister of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Gaston Dossouhoui, Decentralization and Local Management Minister Barnabé Z. Dassigli, Minister of Labor and Public Affairs Adidjatou Mathys, Society Minister of Affairs and Microfinance Bintu Chabi Adam, Minister of Health Benjamin Hounkpatin, Minister of Higher Education and Research Mary Marie Odile Atanasso, Minister of Secondary Education, Technical Education and Vocational Training, Mahougnon Kakpo, Minister of Early Childhood and Primary Education, Carimu Salima (Karimou Salimane), Minister of Digital Economy and Communications Aurélie Adam Soule, Minister of Infrastructure and Transport Alassane Seidou, Minister of Industry and Trade Serge Ahissou, Energy Secretary Dona Jean-Claude Houssou, Minister of Water and Minerals Samou Seidou Amambi ) Sisters and Employment Promotion Minister Modeste Kerekou, Tourism and Culture Minister Oswald homeky, Minister of Defense Affairs Fortiny Fortunet Alain Nouatin.

[Administrative Division] The country can be divided into four levels: provincial, county (city), town, and village. There are 12 provinces and 77 counties (cities) (67 counties and 10 cities). The names of the 12 provinces are: Binhai, Atlantic, Weimei, Mono, Kufu, Plateau, Zu, Hill, Dongjia, Borgu, Alibori, Atakola.

[Judiciary] There are Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, High Court, Court of Appeal and Primary Court. The Constitutional Court is independent of the Supreme Court and is the highest judicial organ. Responsible for hearing the constitutionality of the law, mediating disputes over the authority of state organs, and adjudicating the legitimacy of legislative and presidential elections. The Supreme Court is the highest authority of state administration, judicial adjudication and state audit. It consists of three courts of judicial, administrative and auditing and one procuratorate. There is an appellate court at the central level, which is the court of final judgment. Each province has a primary court, and the county (city) has a magistrate court. The courts at all levels have appointed the procurator of the republic. The High Court has the power to hear treason and illegal acts committed by the President and members of the government in the performance of their duties. The current Constitutional Court was established in June 2013 with Dean Théodore Holo. The current Supreme Court was established in January 2011, Dean Ousmane Batoko. In February 2016, the special meeting of the Minister of Benin decided to extend the term of Bartoco for one term and to end on February 27, 2021. The current High Court was established in October 2015 with the President of Cécile Dravo-Zinzindohoué.

【政 党】 2003年,贝政府颁布新政党宪章,规定合法政党应在每个省至少有10名成员,总人数至少达到120人。2018年7月,贝通过新政党宪章,规定新政党成立时应在每个县至少有15名创始成员,全国至少有1155名创始成员。根据新政党党章,截至2019年2月,共有10个注册政党,主要有:

(1)贝宁崛起贝壳力量(Force Cauris pour un Bénin Emergent):2007年1月成立。2006年4月亚伊以独立候选人身份赢得总统选举,竞选中以贝壳为标志。此后一批支持亚伊、自称“贝壳派”的政党和政党联盟相继成立。在2007年立法选举前,经亚伊大力整合,组成“贝宁崛起贝壳力量”政党联盟。该联盟最初由66个政治团体组成,后不断有党团加入和退出。2018年2月,该联盟改组为政党,执行书记为瓦伦丁·阿戈苏(Valentin Agossou),前总统亚伊担任名誉主席,前国防部长罗贝尔·亚鲁(Robert Yarou)任第一副书记。

(2)民主复兴党(Parti du Renouveau Démocratique):1990年9月成立。该党主张多党民主,加强各派政治力量间对话,维护国家统一,实行市场经济,提倡睦邻友好和地区一体化。势力范围主要集中在高原省、韦梅省和科托努市部分地区。主席为现任议长阿德里安·温贝吉(Adrien Houngbedji)。

(3)进步联盟(Union Progressiste):2018年11月成立。由团结爱国联盟、贝宁复兴党、民主力量联盟、贝宁联盟、公民选择党等政党合并而成。前议长布鲁诺·阿穆苏(Bruno Amoussou)任党主席。

(4)共和阵营(Bloc républicain):2018年12月成立。由80个政党和100多个政治运动合并而成,暂无党主席。

【重要人物】 帕特里斯·纪尧姆·阿塔纳斯·塔隆:总统、国家元首、政府首脑兼武装部队统帅。1958年5月出生于贝宁维达市。曾在塞内加尔达喀尔大学就读,后在法国、贝宁经商。1988年成立洲际派送公司,1990年收购贝宁3家国有棉花脱籽加工厂,发展成为贝宁棉花产业领军人物。2016年3月在总统选举中获胜,4月6日就职,系贝宁共和国第六任总统。

[Political Party] In 2003, the Bayi government issued a new political party charter, stipulating that legitimate political parties should have at least 10 members in each province, with a total number of at least 120. In July 2018, Bei passed the new party charter, stipulating that the new party should have at least 15 founding members in each county when it was established, and at least 1,155 founding members in the country. According to the party chart of the new party, as of February 2019, there are 10 registered political parties, mainly including:

(1) Force Cauris pour un Bénin Emergent: Established in January 2007. In April 2006, Yayi won the presidential election as an independent candidate. The election was marked by shells. Since then, a group of political parties and political party coalitions that support Yayi and claim to be “shells” have been established. Before the 2007 legislative elections, Asia and Iraq were strongly integrated to form a coalition of political parties based on the rise of shell power in Benin. The alliance was originally composed of 66 political groups, and has continued to have party groups to join and withdraw. In February 2018, the alliance was reorganized into a political party, with the executive secretary Valentin Agossou, former President Yayi as honorary chairman, and former Defense Minister Robert Yarou as the first deputy. secretary.

(2) Parti du Renouveau Démocratique: Established in September 1990. The party advocates multi-party democracy, strengthens dialogue among political forces of various factions, safeguards national unity, implements a market economy, and promotes good-neighborly friendship and regional integration. The sphere of influence is mainly concentrated in the provinces of Plateau, Weme and Cotonou. The chairman is the current speaker, Adrien Houngbedji.

(3) Union Progressiste: Founded in November 2018. It was formed by the merger of political parties such as the United Patriotic Union, the Benin Baath Party, the Democratic Forces Alliance, the Benin Union, and the Citizens Choice Party. Former Speaker Bruno Amoussou is the party chairman.

(4) Republic Camp (Bloc républicain): Established in December 2018. It was formed by the merger of 80 political parties and more than 100 political movements.

[Important figures] Patrice Guillaume Atanas Talon: President, head of state, head of government and commander of the armed forces. Born in May 1958 in Vedah City, Benin. He studied at the University of Dakar in Senegal and then worked in France and Benin. In 1988, an intercontinental delivery company was established. In 1990, three state-owned cotton de-germing factories in Benin were acquired and developed into a leading figure in the cotton industry in Benin. He won the presidential election in March 2016 and took office on April 6. He is the sixth president of the Republic of Benin.

【经 济】 联合国公布的最不发达国家之一和重债穷国。农业和转口贸易是国民经济两大支柱。主要经济作物有棉花、腰果、油棕榈等,其中棉花是主要出口创汇产品。是西非重要转口贸易国,到港货物多转口销往尼日利亚等周边国家。工业基础薄弱,主要为农产品加工及纺织业。资源较贫乏,已探明矿藏有石油、黄金等,但储量有限。塔隆执政后,将农业、旅游业、服务业确定为优先发展领域,制定《2016-2021政府行动计划》。重点发展新科技产业,计划建设技术与创新园区,大力发展数字经济。重视棉花生产,加快私有化进程。重视能源领域发展,拟定“人人享有能源”计划。改善投资环境,鼓励外国企业在贝投资,取得一定成效,经济保持增长。目前,贝宁经济运行总体稳定。

2018年贝主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:98亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:941美元。

国内生产总值增长率:6%。

通货膨胀率:1.2%。

货币名称:非洲金融共同体法郎(FCFA,简称非洲法郎)。

汇率:1美元=555.7西非法郎。

(资料来源:2019年第一季度《伦敦经济季评》)

【资 源】 资源贫乏。矿藏主要有石油、天然气、铁矿石、磷酸盐、大理石、黄金等。石油已探明储量52.5亿桶,可开采的约9.2亿桶,天然气储量910亿立方米。2000年8月,贝宁与多哥、加纳、尼日利亚就天然气输出签订了“西非输气管道议定书”。铁矿石储量约10亿吨。渔业资源丰富,海洋鱼类约有257种。森林面积313万公顷,约占国土面积的27%。

【工 业】 基础薄弱,设备陈旧,生产能力较低。2017年,其产值占国内生产总值的比率为24%。主要有食品加工、纺织和建材业。工业人口约占全国劳动人口的10.6%。实行结构调整以来,已有部分企业实行了私有化,剩下的大型国有企业也将陆续私有化。

[Economy] One of the least developed countries and the heavily indebted poor countries announced by the United Nations. Agriculture and entrepot trade are the two pillars of the national economy. The main cash crops are cotton, cashew nuts, oil palm, etc., of which cotton is the main export earning product. It is an important re-exporting country in West Africa. The goods arriving in Hong Kong are re-exported to neighboring countries such as Nigeria. The industrial base is weak, mainly in the processing of agricultural products and the textile industry. The resources are relatively scarce, and the proven deposits are oil, gold, etc., but the reserves are limited. After Talong came to power, the agriculture, tourism, and service industries were identified as priority areas for development, and the 2016-2021 Government Action Plan was formulated. Focus on the development of new technology industries, plan to build technology and innovation parks, and vigorously develop the digital economy. Pay attention to cotton production and accelerate the process of privatization. Pay attention to the development of the energy sector and draw up the “Energy for All” program. Improve the investment environment, encourage foreign companies to invest in Beibei, achieve certain results, and maintain economic growth. At present, the economic operation of Benin is generally stable.

The main economic data of Baye in 2018 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $9.8 billion.

Per capita GDP: $941.

GDP growth rate: 6%.

Inflation rate: 1.2%.

Currency name: African Financial Community Franc (FCFA, referred to as African Franc).

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 555.7 West African CFA franc.

(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, First Quarter, 2019)

[Resources] Resources are scarce. The deposits mainly include oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphate, marble, and gold. The proven reserves of oil are 5.25 billion barrels, about 920 million barrels can be mined, and natural gas reserves are 91 billion cubic meters. In August 2000, Benin and Togo, Ghana and Nigeria signed the “West African Gas Pipeline Protocol” on natural gas output. The iron ore reserves are about 1 billion tons. There are abundant fishery resources and there are about 257 marine fish species. The forest area is 3.13 million hectares, accounting for about 27% of the country’s land area.

[Industrial] The foundation is weak, the equipment is outdated, and the production capacity is low. In 2017, its output value accounted for 24% of GDP. There are mainly food processing, textile and building materials industries. The industrial population accounts for about 10.6% of the country’s working population. Since the implementation of structural adjustment, some enterprises have been privatized, and the remaining large state-owned enterprises will also be privatized.

【农 业】 2017年,农业占国内生产总值的25.2%,以种植业为主,占农业的80%。有可耕地7万平方公里,实际耕种面积不足17%。农业从业人口占在总就业人口的70%。粮食基本自给,部分出口次地区。主要粮食作物有木薯、山药、玉米、小米等;经济作物有棉花、腰果、棕榈、咖啡等,其中棉花出口额约占出口创汇总收入的70%-80%。约30万人直接或间接从事渔业生产,年均捕鱼4万吨。林木年均采伐量2990立方米。2017-2018年,贝宁棉花总产量创历史新高达59.8万吨,腰果产量11万吨,菠萝产量34.5万吨。

【旅游业】 系贝新兴产业,是仅次于棉花的第二大创汇产业。近年来政府对旅游业的投入不断加大。主要旅游景点有冈维埃水上村、维达古城、维达历史博物馆、阿波美古都、野生动物园、埃维埃旅游公园、海滩等。现正兴建从科托努至维达旅游开发区,以发展海滨旅游。拥有各类宾馆、旅店逾300家,其中科托努海滨宾馆为5星级宾馆。

【交通运输】 年产值约占国内生产总值的8%。

铁路:总长685公里,其中579公里为主干线。最主要路段连接科托努和帕拉库,长约440公里,属“贝宁–尼日尔铁路运输共同组织”共同经营铁路的一部分。年设计运力为70万旅客和35万吨物资。由于年久失修,运力严重下降。

公路:总长3.1万多公里。其中国家级公路约6076公里,省级与市级公路2.5万公里左右。2003年1月,科托努至波多诺伏的高速公路开通,全长27公里。有各类汽车10万辆,用于客运和货运。另有4.3万辆摩托出租车。

海运:科托努港为地区性重要转运港口,水深11至14米,可停泊万吨巨轮。该港年营业额约为3000亿西非法郎。2016年,货物吞吐量达870万吨。

空运:科托努国际机场是贝唯一的A1型国际机场,可起降波音747和空中客车等大型飞机。年客运量约35万人次,货运量4600吨。现有法航、摩洛哥、南非航空等十几家航空公司在贝运营。2002年6月,贝首家国际航空公司—贝宁非洲航空公司成立,主要经营科托努—巴黎航线,2006年公司宣布解散。此外,贝还有9个国内机场,但不具备夜航条件。

[Agriculture] In 2017, agriculture accounted for 25.2% of GDP, mainly in crop farming, accounting for 80% of agriculture. There are 70,000 square kilometers of arable land, and the actual cultivated area is less than 17%. The agricultural employment population accounts for 70% of the total employed population. Food is basically self-sufficient and some are exported to sub-regions. The main food crops are cassava, yam, corn, millet, etc.; economic crops include cotton, cashew nuts, palm, coffee, etc., of which cotton exports account for about 70%-80% of the total income of export. About 300,000 people are directly or indirectly involved in fishery production, with an average annual fishing of 40,000 tons. The average annual harvest of forest trees is 2,990 cubic meters. In 2017-2018, the total cotton output in Benin reached a record high of 598,000 tons, cashew output of 110,000 tons and pineapple output of 345,000 tons.

[Tourism] The emerging industry is the second largest foreign exchange earning industry after cotton. In recent years, the government’s investment in tourism has increased. The main tourist attractions are Gangwee Floating Village, Vida Ancient City, Vida Historical Museum, Abomey Ancient Capital, Safari Park, Avière Tourist Park, and beaches. The Cotonou to Vida Tourism Development Zone is being built to develop coastal tourism. There are more than 300 hotels and hotels, among which Cotonou Beach Hotel is a 5-star hotel.

[Transportation] The annual output value accounts for about 8% of GDP.

Railway: The total length is 685 kilometers, of which 579 kilometers are the main line. The most important sections are Cotonou and Paraku, which are about 440 km long and are part of the joint operation of the “Benin-Niger Railway Transport Joint Organization”. The annual design capacity is 700,000 passengers and 350,000 tons of materials. Due to years of disrepair, the capacity has dropped significantly.

Highway: The total length is more than 31,000 kilometers. Among them, the national highway is about 6076 kilometers, and the provincial and municipal highways are about 25,000 kilometers. In January 2003, the highway from Cotonou to Portonovo was opened, with a total length of 27 kilometers. There are 100,000 vehicles of various types for passenger and cargo transportation. There are 43,000 motorcycles.

Shipping: Port Cotonou is a regional important transshipment port with a water depth of 11 to 14 meters and can park 10,000 tons of ships. The port’s annual turnover is about 300 billion West African CFA francs. In 2016, cargo throughput reached 8.7 million tons.

Air transport: Cotonou International Airport is Bay’s only A1 international airport, with large aircraft such as Boeing 747 and Airbus. The annual passenger traffic is about 350,000 passengers and the cargo volume is 4,600 tons. At present, more than a dozen airlines such as Air France, Morocco and South African Airways operate in Beibei. In June 2002, Bei’s first international airline, Benin African Airlines, was established, mainly operating the Cotonou-Paris route. In 2006, the company announced its dissolution. In addition, Bay has nine domestic airports, but does not have night flights.

【财政金融】 国家财政收入主要靠税收,其中关税占40%。

截至2018年,外汇储备为10.2亿美元,外债总额为31亿美元。

【对外贸易】 国民经济支柱产业,收入占到国家预算收入60-80%,转口贸易十分活跃,到港货物70%转销到尼日利亚以及尼日尔、布基纳法索等内陆国家。主要出口棉花、腰果、水泥等产品,进口食品、日用消费品、化学制品等。2018年,贸易总额54.8亿美元,出口额23.72亿美元,进口额31.08亿美元。主要进口对象为泰国、印度、法国和中国等,主要出口对象是孟加拉国、印度、乌克兰和中国等。

【外国援助】 主要援助国家和国际机构为丹麦、法国、德国、中国、美国、日本、世界银行、欧盟、非洲开发基金、西非开发银行及国际货币基金组织等。近年年均获得官方外援约5.8亿美元,约占国内生产总值的8%,主要涉及卫生、教育培训等领域。联合国对贝宁2019-2023年发展支持规划总金额1766.13亿西非法郎,主要在卫生、教育、社会安全、食品、可持续发展等领域提供支持。2018年,世界银行通过国际发展协会拨款2.2亿美元,用于支持贝宁农村地区全民接入饮用水项目,将有170万人受益;在“帮助地方市镇和团体扩大社会服务计划”框架下,向贝捐赠220亿西非法郎,用于帮助贫困人口享受社会服务和保障。同年,欧盟同意捐赠289亿西非法郎用于支持贝政府改革。

【人民生活】 根据联合国开发计划署《2018年人类发展报告》公布的人文发展指数,贝宁在188个国家中居163位。2015年,各行业每月最低保障工资为40000非洲法郎。全国各类医疗卫生机构1302家,其中包括5家国家级医院:位于科托努的国家中心医院、肺结核中心医院、精神病中心医院、老年中心医院与泻湖妇幼保健院;5家省级医院:波多诺伏医院、洛科萨医院、阿波美医院、维达医院和纳蒂丹医院。全国共有病床4053张,各类医务人员5833人。2015年,贝人口增长率为2.7%,婴儿死亡率6.4%。人均寿命59.8岁,其中男子平均寿命58.3岁,女子61.2岁。据贝国家统计局《2017年食品安全》报告,目前贝约有109万人缺少必要的食物。每百人拥有收音机80台,电视机50台,摩托车3.1辆。2007年,手机用户超过100万人。2008年,平均每100名居民中有1.8人使用因特网。

[Financial Finance] The state’s fiscal revenue mainly depends on taxes, of which tariffs account for 40%.

As of 2018, foreign exchange reserves were $1.02 billion and foreign debt totaled $3.1 billion.

[Foreign Trade] The pillar industry of the national economy, income accounts for 60-80% of the national budget revenue, and the entrepot trade is very active. 70% of the goods arriving in Hong Kong are resold to Nigeria and landlocked countries such as Niger and Burkina Faso. It mainly exports cotton, cashew nuts, cement and other products, imported food, daily consumer goods, and chemical products. In 2018, the total trade volume was 5.48 billion US dollars, the export value was 2.372 billion US dollars, and the import value was 3.108 billion US dollars. The main import targets are Thailand, India, France and China. The main export targets are Bangladesh, India, Ukraine and China.

[Foreign Aid] The main aid countries and international institutions are Denmark, France, Germany, China, the United States, Japan, the World Bank, the European Union, the African Development Fund, the West African Development Bank and the International Monetary Fund. In recent years, it has received official foreign aid of about 580 million US dollars, accounting for 8% of GDP. It mainly involves health, education and training. The United Nations has supported a total of 176.613 billion West African CFA francs for Benin’s 2019-2023 development support, mainly in the areas of health, education, social security, food, and sustainable development. In 2018, the World Bank allocated $220 million through the International Development Association to support the universal access to drinking water projects in rural Benin, benefiting 1.7 million people; under the framework of “helping local towns and groups expand social service programs” To donate 22 billion West African CFA to Bei, to help the poor to enjoy social services and security. In the same year, the EU agreed to donate 28.9 billion West African CFA francs to support the reform of the Bayi government.

[People’s Life] According to the Human Development Index published by the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report 2018, Benin has 163 in 188 countries. In 2015, the monthly minimum guaranteed wage for each industry was 40,000 CFA francs. There are 1,302 medical and health institutions in the country, including 5 national hospitals: National Central Hospital, Tuberculosis Central Hospital, Psychiatric Center Hospital, Senior Center Hospital and Lagoon Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Cotonou; 5 provincial hospitals: Puerto Novo Hospital, Lokosa Hospital, Abomey Hospital, Vida Hospital and Nadine Hospital. There are 4,053 beds in the country and 5,833 medical personnel. In 2015, the population growth rate was 2.7% and the infant mortality rate was 6.4%. The average life expectancy is 59.8 years, of which the average life expectancy of men is 58.3 years and that of women is 61.2 years. According to the “Food Safety of 2017” report from the National Bureau of Statistics, there are currently 1.09 million people in Bayeux lacking the necessary food. Every 100 people have 80 radios, 50 TV sets and 3.1 motorcycles. In 2007, there were more than 1 million mobile phone users. In 2008, an average of 1.8 out of every 100 residents used the Internet.

【军 事】 1961年建军,1977年改组为国防军、公安军和民兵。1990年实行军队“非政治化”,国防军改称“武装力量”,保留陆、海、空三军、宪兵、共和国卫队。实行义务兵役制。总兵力约1.1万人。现任武装力量总参谋长阿瓦尔·基布里尔·布科·纳尼米(Awal Djibril Bouko Nagnimi)准将,陆军参谋长阿卜杜尔·巴吉尔·萨尼·巴沙比上校(Abdoul Bakil Sanni Bachabi),空军参谋长贝尔丹·巴达上校(Bertin Bada),海军参谋长弗朗索瓦·达西斯·贡萨罗海军中校(François d’Assise J. Gonsallo)。

【文化教育】 2010年,教育支出占国内生产总值5.4%。现有大学2所,分别为阿波美-卡拉维大学(原贝宁国立大学)和帕拉库大学,在校大学生超过8万。技术、专科学校约112所,普通中学约246所,小学约3558所。成人识字率38.4%。

【新闻出版】 国家设有最高视听管理委员会,作为新闻和通讯的监察机构,负责有关新闻、通讯法律的咨询工作,保证新闻、通讯自由。委员会由9名成员组成,由总统、议会和新闻界各推荐3人,任期5年。本届委员会于2014年7月1日成立,现任主席阿当·博尼·特西(Adam Boni Tessi)。

现有报纸28种。其中《民族报》是官方报纸,每周一至五发行,已发行3000多期。私人报纸主要有《早报》、《晨报》和《每日回声报》等。《民族报》和《早报》发行量最大,约5000份。

贝宁通讯社是国家通讯社,1961年成立,主要以电讯稿方式向本国报社、电台、电视台发布消息。自1990年起出版《贝宁新闻》和《经济新闻》两种日刊,每周一至五出版。在国内各省设通讯员。国际新闻多来源于法新社。1997年贝通社与新华社签署了新闻交换合作协议,1998年起可接收新华社消息。

贝宁广播电视局拥有1家国营电视台、4家国营电台和5家地方农业电台。贝宁国家电视台建成于1972年,1978年12月31日正式开播,现日播放时间平均近6小时,本国制作的节目约占45%。贝宁国家电台前身为革命之声电台,建于1953年,每天播音约18小时,用法语、英语和民族语言广播。自1992年起,用调频转播法国国际广播电台的节目。

[Military] In 1961, the army was established. In 1977, it was reorganized into the National Defense Force, the Public Security Army, and the militia. In 1990, the army was “depoliticized”. The National Defense Forces were renamed “armed forces” and retained the army, sea and air forces, the gendarmerie, and the Republican Guard. Implement compulsory military service. The total strength is about 11,000. Brigadier General Awal Djibril Bouko Nagnimi, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, Colonel Abdul Bahil Sani Bashal Sanni, Army Chief of Staff (Abdoul Bakil Sanni Bachabi), Air Force Chief of Staff, Colonel Bertin Bada, Naval Chief of Staff, François d’Assise J. Gonsallo.

[Cultural Education] In 2010, education expenditure accounted for 5.4% of GDP. There are 2 existing universities, namely Abomey-Calavi University (formerly Benin National University) and Palaku University, with more than 80,000 college students. There are about 112 schools and colleges, about 246 general schools, and 3,558 primary schools. The adult literacy rate is 38.4%.

[Press and Publication] The State has the highest audio-visual management committee as the supervisory body for news and communication. It is responsible for consulting on news and communication laws and guarantees freedom of news and communication. The committee consists of nine members, each of whom is recommended by the President, the Parliament and the press for a term of five years. The current committee was established on July 1, 2014, and the current chairman is Adam Boni Tessi.

There are 28 kinds of existing newspapers. Among them, “National Newspaper” is an official newspaper, issued every Monday to Friday, and has issued more than 3,000 issues. Private newspapers mainly include Morning Post, Morning News and Daily Echo. The “National Newspaper” and “The Morning Post” have the largest circulation, about 5,000 copies.

Benin News Agency is a national news agency. It was established in 1961 and mainly publishes news to domestic newspapers, radio stations and television stations by means of telex. Since 1990, two journals, Benin News and Economic News, have been published and published every Monday to Friday. Correspondents are established in various provinces in China. Most of the international news comes from AFP. In 1997, Betong News and Xinhua News Agency signed a news exchange cooperation agreement. Since 1998, Xinhua News Agency can be received.

The Benin Radio and Television Bureau has a state-run television station, four state-run radio stations and five local agricultural radio stations. The national television station in Benin was completed in 1972 and officially launched on December 31, 1978. The average daily broadcast time is nearly 6 hours, and the domestically produced programs account for about 45%. Benin National Radio, formerly known as the Voice of Revolution Radio, was built in 1953 and broadcasts for about 18 hours a day, broadcast in French, English and national languages. Since 1992, the program of Radio France International has been broadcast on FM.

【对外关系】 奉行“实用、灵活和不排他”的多元务实外交政策,积极谋求政治支持和经济援助,主张在和平共处等原则基础上同所有国家发展合作关系。注重保持同法国、美国等西方大国的关系,积极发展同印度等发展中大国关系,重视睦邻友好,主张以和平方式解决同邻国的领土争端。积极参与地区事务,多次派兵参加地区维和行动。是非盟、西非国家经济共同体等组织成员国。

【同法国的关系】 法是贝前宗主国,两国一直保持密切关系。1990年贝实行民主化和自由市场经济后,法大力扶持贝。索格洛执政期间,两国关系曾陷入低潮。1996年克雷库重新执政后,两国关系得到恢复和发展。法是贝主要出资国和贸易伙伴。克雷库、亚伊均曾多次访法。2010年以来,亚伊每年均曾访法。2014年,亚伊出席尼日利亚安全巴黎峰会。2015年,亚伊赴法出席巴黎气候变化峰会。2015年,法国总统奥朗德访问贝宁,奥系贝民主化后首位访贝的法国总统。2016年和2017年,塔隆每年三次访问法国。2017年3月,法国民议会议长访贝。2018年3月,塔隆访问法国,双方共签署5份合作协议,总金额逾2.75亿欧元。6月,塔隆总统在巴黎出席联合国教科文组织举办的文化产品和遗产流转与分享新前景大会。11月,法国宣布归还26件贝宁文物。

【同德国的关系】 1961年贝德建交以来,两国关系发展顺利。贝是德对非援助的重点国家,两国每两年举行一次政府间磋商。2003年,克雷库访德。2004年,德总统霍斯特·克勒访贝。2006年,亚伊访德。2007年,亚伊赴德分别参加“崛起非洲的未来”论坛和第三届德非伙伴关系论坛。 2012年,德国前总理科勒访贝。2013年,亚伊对德国进行正式访问。2018年10月,塔隆赴德参加二十国集团非洲投资峰会,其间会见德国总统施泰因迈尔。

【同美国的关系】 1961年贝美建交。1995年两国成立军事合作混委会。美在贝设有文化中心和《非洲增长和机会法》西非培训中心,并接受贝加入《非洲增长和机会法》和“迎接千年挑战国家组织理事会”。克雷库和亚伊均曾访美。2010年,亚伊会见了来访的美国负责非洲事务的助理国务卿卡尔森。2011年,亚伊访美,与奥巴马总统会晤。2012年,应奥巴马总统邀请,亚伊出席八国集团峰会,美国务卿克林顿对贝进行短暂访问。2014年,亚伊应奥巴马总统邀请出席美非峰会。2015年,亚伊访美,与美国副总统拜登签署“千年挑战账户”二期援助协议,获得4.03亿美元资金支持。2017年,塔隆出席在利雅得召开的美国-阿拉伯-伊斯兰国家峰会,美国承诺未来5年向贝提供4亿美元支持。2018年9月,塔隆赴纽约出席第73届联合国大会。

【同邻近国家的关系】 贝重视发展与尼日利亚、阿尔及利亚等地区大国的关系,积极参与地区合作,推动区域一体化进程。2007年,亚伊与尼日利亚前总统奥巴桑乔共同倡议成立了贝宁、尼日利亚、多哥和加纳四国共荣机制。2008年,贝通过“非洲互查机制(MAEP)”互查报告,成为首个通过互查的法语国家。2010年,亚伊接待了加蓬、布基纳法索、布隆迪、科特迪瓦和尼日利亚等国总统来访,出席了在乍得举行的撒赫勒-撒哈拉国家共同体元首会议。2011年,亚伊接待多哥、尼日利亚、乍得、科特迪瓦等国元首访贝,并先后出访尼日利亚和南非等国。2012年1月至2013年1月,亚伊多次以非盟轮值主席身份在科托努召集部分非盟成员国领导人举行非正式会议,讨论非盟委员会主席选举和地区热点问题。2013年10月,亚伊在达喀尔召开的西非经济货币联盟领导人峰会上被选举为轮值主席。2014年,亚伊接待多哥、塞拉利昂、尼日尔等国元首访贝,并先后访问尼日利亚、加纳、尼日尔等国。2015年,亚伊先后访问埃塞俄比亚、加纳、尼日利亚、科特迪瓦、埃及多国,接待尼日利亚、赤道几内亚等国总统访贝。9月,亚伊与西共体轮值主席、塞内加尔总统萨勒共同赴布基纳法索,斡旋调停布总统卫队政变事件。2016年,亚伊访问尼日利亚。塔隆先后访问多哥、科特迪瓦、尼日尔、尼日利亚,并出席第二届地区安全峰会和第四届阿拉伯—非洲峰会。2017年,塔隆先后访问科特迪瓦、加纳、肯尼亚、布基纳法索、科特迪瓦,并赴阿比让出席西非经货联盟首脑会议,赴阿布贾出席第52届西共体首脑会议。2018年,塔隆访问尼日利亚,并赴亚的斯亚贝巴出席第30届非盟峰会和特别会议。

[External Relations] Pursuing a pragmatic and pragmatic foreign policy of “practical, flexible and non-exclusive”, actively seeking political support and economic assistance, and advocating the development of cooperative relations with all countries on the basis of principles such as peaceful coexistence. Focus on maintaining relations with France, the United States and other Western powers, actively develop relations with developing countries such as India, attach importance to good-neighborly friendship, and advocate peaceful settlement of territorial disputes with neighboring countries. Actively participated in regional affairs and sent troops to participate in regional peacekeeping operations. It is a member of the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States and other organizations.

[Relationship with France] The law is the main country of the former patriarchal clan. The two countries have always maintained close ties. After the implementation of democratization and free market economy in 1990, the law vigorously supported the shell. During Soglo’s administration, relations between the two countries fell into a low tide. After Krekou returned to power in 1996, relations between the two countries were restored and developed. France is a major investor and trading partner of Bay. Krekou and Yayi have visited the law many times. Since 2010, Yayi has visited France every year. In 2014, Yayi attended the Nigeria Security Summit in Paris. In 2015, Yayi went to France to attend the Paris Climate Change Summit. In 2015, French President Hollande visited Benin, the first French president to visit Bay after Democratization. In 2016 and 2017, Talon visited France three times a year. In March 2017, the President of the French National Assembly visited Bay. In March 2018, Talon visited France and the two sides signed five cooperation agreements with a total amount of more than 275 million euros. In June, President Talon attended the UNESCO New Conference on Cultural Products and Heritage Transfer and Sharing in Paris. In November, France announced the return of 26 pieces of Benin artifacts.

[Relationship with Germany] Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between Belgium and Belgium in 1961, relations between the two countries have developed smoothly. Beyed is a key country for aid to Africa. The two countries hold intergovernmental consultations every two years. In 2003, Kreku visited Germany. In 2004, German President Horst Keller visited Bay. In 2006, Yayi visited Germany. In 2007, Yayi went to Germany to participate in the “Rise of Africa’s Future” forum and the third German-African Partnership Forum. In 2012, former German Prime Minister Kohler visited Bay. In 2013, Yayi paid an official visit to Germany. In October 2018, Talon went to Germany to participate in the G20 Africa Investment Summit, during which he met with German President Steinmeier.

[Relationship with the United States] In 1961, the United States established diplomatic relations. In 1995, the two countries established a mixed military cooperation committee. The United States has a cultural center and the West Africa Training Center for the African Growth and Opportunity Act, and accepts the accession to the African Growth and Opportunity Act and the National Council for the Millennium Challenge. Both Krekou and Yayi have visited the United States. In 2010, Yayi met with visiting US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Carlson. In 2011, Yayi visited the United States and met with President Obama. In 2012, at the invitation of President Obama, Yayi attended the G8 summit and US Secretary of State Clinton made a brief visit to Bei. In 2014, Yayi was invited by President Obama to attend the US-Africa summit. In 2015, Yayi visited the United States and signed the “Millennium Challenge Account” Phase II Assistance Agreement with US Vice President Biden, which received $403 million in funding. In 2017, Tallon attended the US-Arab-Islamic Summit in Riyadh, and the United States pledged to provide $400 million in support over the next five years. In September 2018, Talon went to New York to attend the 73rd UN General Assembly.

[Relationship with neighboring countries] Bei attaches importance to developing relations with major countries such as Nigeria and Algeria, actively participates in regional cooperation and promotes regional integration. In 2007, Yayi and former Nigerian President Obasanjo jointly proposed the establishment of a co-prosperity mechanism for Benin, Nigeria, Togo and Ghana. In 2008, Bei passed the “African Mutual Check Mechanism (MAEP)” mutual inspection report and became the first French-speaking country to pass the mutual inspection. In 2010, Yayi hosted visits by Presidents of Gabon, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria to attend the Sahel-Saharan Community Heads of State meeting in Chad. In 2011, Yayi hosted the first visits of Togo, Nigeria, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire and other countries, and visited Nigeria and South Africa. From January 2012 to January 2013, Yayi held a number of informal meetings with leaders of AU member states in Cotonou as Chairman of the AU, to discuss the AU Chairmanial elections and regional hotspot issues. In October 2013, Yayi was elected as the rotating chairman at the Summit of the West African Economic and Monetary Union leaders in Dakar. In 2014, Yayi hosted the heads of countries such as Togo, Sierra Leone and Niger, and visited Nigeria, Ghana and Niger. In 2015, Yayi visited Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire and Egypt to host the presidents of Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea. In September, Yayi and the SADC President-elect and Senegalese President Salle went to Burkina Faso to mediate the incident of the presidential guard coup. In 2016, Yayi visited Nigeria. Tallon visited Togo, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger and Nigeria and attended the second Regional Security Summit and the Fourth Arab-African Summit. In 2017, Tallon visited Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire, and went to Abidjan to attend the summit of the UEMOA and went to Abuja to attend the 52nd ECOWAS Summit. In 2018, Talon visited Nigeria and went to Addis Ababa to attend the 30th AU summit and special meeting.