The Republic of Angola 安哥拉共和国

【国 名】安哥拉共和国(葡萄牙语:A República de Angola,英语:The Republic of Angola)。

【面 积】1,246,700平方公里。

【人 口】2980万(2018年)。主要有奥温本杜(约占总人口的37%)、姆本杜(25%)、巴刚果(13%)、隆达等民族。全国平均人口密度为24人/平方公里,首都罗安达人口密度最大,卡宾达人口密度最小。官方语言为葡萄牙语,有42种民族语言,主要民族语言有温本杜语(中部和南部地区)、金本杜语(罗安达和内陆地区)和基孔戈语(北部地区)等。49%的人信奉罗马天主教,13%的人信奉基督教新教,其余人口大多信奉原始宗教。

【首 都】罗安达(Luanda),人口近250万。

【国家元首】若昂·曼努埃尔·贡萨尔维斯·洛伦索(João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço),2017年9月就任。

【重要节日】反殖武装斗争纪念日:2月4日;和平和解纪念日:4月4日;国家奠基者和民族英雄纪念日:9月17日;独立日(国庆日):11月11日。

[Country name] Republic of Angola (Portuguese: A República de Angola, English: The Republic of Angola).

[area] 1,246,700 square kilometers.

[People] 29.8 million (2018). There are mainly Austrian Wendu (about 37% of the total population), Mbendou (25%), Pakistan Congo (13%), Ronda and other ethnic groups. The national average population density is 24 people per square kilometer, the capital of Luanda has the highest population density, and the Cabinda population density is the smallest. The official language is Portuguese and there are 42 national languages. The main national languages ​​are Wen Bendu (Central and Southern), Jinbendu (Luanda and Inland) and Kikongo (Northern). 49% believe in Roman Catholicism, 13% believe in Protestantism, and the rest of the population believe in primitive religion.

[The capital] Luanda, with a population of nearly 2.5 million.

[Head of State] João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço, took office in September 2017.

[Important Festival] Remembrance Day of Anti-colonial Armed Struggle: February 4th; Peace Reconciliation Day: April 4th; National Founder and National Hero Memorial Day: September 17th; Independence Day (National Day): November 11 day.

【简 况】位于非洲西南部。北邻刚果(布)和刚果(金),东接赞比亚,南连纳米比亚,西濒大西洋,海岸线长1650公里。北部大部分地区属热带草原气候,南部属亚热带气候,高海拔地区属温带气候。每年10月至次年4月为雨季,平均气温33度;5月至9月为旱季,平均气温24度。年均降水量约400毫米,由东北高原地区最高1500毫米逐渐向西南沙漠地区50毫米递减。主要由平原、丘陵和高原组成,西部沿海地区地势低,东部内陆地区地势较高,全国65%的土地海拔在1000-1600米。最高峰莫科峰(Monte Moco)高2620米,第二高峰梅科峰(Monte Meco)高2583米。境内河流密布,水利资源丰富,较大河流约30条,主要河流有刚果河、库内内河、宽扎河、库帮戈河等。

历史上曾分属刚果、恩东戈、马塔姆巴和隆达四个王国。1482年,葡萄牙殖民者船队首次抵达,1576年建立罗安达城。在1884~1885年柏林会议上,安哥拉被划为葡萄牙殖民地。1922年,葡占领安全境。1951年,葡将安改为葡的一个“海外省”,派总督进行统治。从20世纪50年代起,安哥拉先后成立了三个民族解放组织:安哥拉人民解放运动(简称安人运)、安哥拉民族解放阵线(简称安解阵)和争取安哥拉彻底独立全国联盟(简称安盟),并于60年代相继开展争取民族独立的武装斗争。1975年1月15日,上述三个组织同葡萄牙政府达成关于安哥拉独立的《阿沃尔协议》,并于1月31日同葡当局共同组成过渡政府。不久,安人运、安盟、安解阵之间发生武装冲突,过渡政府解体。同年11月11日,安人运宣布成立安哥拉人民共和国,阿戈斯蒂纽·内图(Agostinho Neto)任总统。

安哥拉独立后长期处于内战状态。在葡萄牙、美国和前苏联的推动下,1991年5月31日,安政府与以萨文比(Jonas Savimbi)为首的反对派安盟签署《比塞斯和平协议》。1992年8月,安议会决定改国名为安哥拉共和国。9月,安举行首次多党制大选。安人运获议会选举胜利并在总统选举中领先。安盟拒绝接受大选结果,安重陷内战。1994年11月,安人运政府与安盟签署《卢萨卡和平协议》,但该协议未得到有效落实。为推动和解,安人运于1997年4月组建了以其为主体、有安盟成员参加的民族团结和解政府,但遭到安盟领导人萨文比的抵制,安盟分裂,安内战继续。2002年2月22日,安盟领导人萨文比被政府军击毙。4月4日,安政府与安盟签署停火协议。安结束长达27年的内战,实现全面和平,进入战后恢复与重建时期。

【政 治】2002年内战结束以来,安哥拉政局保持稳定。安政府致力于推进战后重建事业,采取有力措施巩固国家和平统一局面。2008年9月,安成功举行了自1992年以来的首次多党议会选举,安人运获得80%以上议席。2010年2月,安国民议会通过新宪法。2012年8月31日,安举行修宪后的首次总统和议会选举。安人运以71.84%的得票率赢得选举,多斯桑托斯连任总统。2017年8月23日,安哥拉举行新一届大选,安人运得票率61.08%。该党候选人洛伦索当选总统,并于2017年9月26日就职。

[Profile] Located in southwestern Africa. It borders Congo (Brazzaville) and Congo (Gold) in the north, Zambia in the east, Namibia in the south, and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The coastline is 1,650 kilometers long. Most of the northern part has a savanna climate, the south has a subtropical climate, and the high altitudes have a temperate climate. The rainy season is from October to April, with an average temperature of 33 degrees. The dry season is from May to September, with an average temperature of 24 degrees. The average annual precipitation is about 400 mm, which is gradually decreasing from the highest 1500 mm in the northeast plateau to 50 mm in the southwest desert. It is mainly composed of plains, hills and plateaus. The western coastal areas are low in terrain and the inland areas in the east are high. 65% of the country’s land is between 1000 and 1600 meters above sea level. The highest peak of Monte Moco is 2,620 meters high, and the second peak of Monte Meco is 2,583 meters high. There are dense rivers and rich water resources. There are about 30 large rivers. The main rivers are Congo River, Kunene River, Kwanza River and Kubango River.

In history, it was divided into four kingdoms: Congo, Ndongo, Matamba and Ronda. In 1482, the Portuguese colonial fleet arrived for the first time and in 1576 the city of Luanda was established. At the Berlin Conference from 1884 to 1885, Angola was classified as a Portuguese colony. In 1922, Portugal occupied a security situation. In 1951, Portugal changed its name to an “overseas province” of Portugal and sent the governor to rule. Since the 1950s, Angola has established three national liberation organizations: the Angolan People’s Liberation Movement (Angola), the Angolan National Liberation Front (AFD) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (referred to as UNITA). In the 1960s, armed struggles for national independence were carried out. On January 15, 1975, the three organizations reached the “Awar Agreement” on the independence of Angola with the Portuguese government, and together with the Portuguese authorities formed a transitional government on January 31. Soon, there was an armed conflict between An’s people, UNITA and Anji, and the transitional government disintegrated. On November 11, the same year, An Renyun announced the establishment of the People’s Republic of Angola, Agostinho Neto as president.

After independence, Angola has been in a state of civil war for a long time. Under the impetus of Portugal, the United States and the former Soviet Union, on May 31, 1991, the Angolan government and the opposition UNITA headed by Jonas Savimbi signed the Bissé Peace Agreement. In August 1992, the Angola Council decided to change its name to the Republic of Angola. In September, Ann held the first multi-party election. Anshun won the parliamentary election and led the presidential election. UNITA refused to accept the results of the election and settled in the civil war. In November 1994, the Anglia government and UNITA signed the Lusaka Peace Agreement, but the agreement was not effectively implemented. In order to promote reconciliation, An’s people established a national unity and reconciliation government with the participation of UNITA members in April 1997. However, due to the boycott of UNITA leader Savimbi, UNITA split and the internal war continued. . On February 22, 2002, UNITA leader Savimbi was killed by government forces. On April 4, the Angolan government signed a ceasefire agreement with UNITA. The end of the 27-year civil war, the realization of comprehensive peace, into the post-war recovery and reconstruction period.

[Politics] Since the end of the civil war in 2002, the political situation in Angola has remained stable. The Angolan government is committed to advancing the post-war reconstruction cause and taking effective measures to consolidate the country’s peaceful reunification. In September 2008, Ann successfully held the first multi-party parliamentary election since 1992, and Ansheng transported more than 80% of the seats. In February 2010, the An National Assembly passed a new constitution. On August 31, 2012, Ann held the first presidential and parliamentary elections after constitutional amendment. An Renyun won the election with a vote of 71.84%, and Dos Santos was re-elected as president. On August 23, 2017, Angola held a new general election, and Ann’s vote rate was 61.08%. The party candidate Lorenzo was elected president and took office on September 26, 2017.

【宪 法】1975年11月11日颁布第一部宪法并曾先后四次修改。现行宪法于2010年2月颁布。宪法规定:安哥拉的首要目标是建立一个自由、公平、民主、和平的国家。实行多党制;共和国总统经选举产生,任期5年,可连任一次;总统为国家元首、政府首脑和武装部队总司令,有权公布或废除法律,宣布战争或和平状态,任免副总统、政府部长、军队高级将领、省长、总检察长、最高法院法官等。

【议 会】安哥拉国民议会是国家最高立法机构。主要职能有:修改宪法,批准、修改或取消法律;审批国民议会常务委员会的立法工作;监督宪法和法律的实施;监督国家和政府机关的工作;批准国民经济计划和国家预算并监督执行;批准大赦;宣布戒严和紧急状态法,以及授权总统宣布战争或和平状态。每届任期5年,每年举行两次例会。

本届议会于2017年9月成立。在220个议席中,安人运占150席,安盟51席,广泛救助同盟16席、社会革新党2席、安解阵1席。现任议长为费尔南多·达皮耶达德·迪亚斯·多斯桑托斯(Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos),来自安人运。

【政 府】本届政府于2017年9月成立,2019年1月进行小幅调整。现任副总统博尔尼托·德索萨·巴尔塔扎尔·迪奥戈(Bornito de Sousa Baltazar Diogo),政府有3名国务部长、28个部和1名部长委员会秘书,主要为:经济和社会发展国务部长曼努埃尔·若泽·努内斯·儒尼奥尔(Manuel José Nunes Junior),国务部长兼总统安全办公室主任佩德罗·塞巴斯蒂昂(Pedro Sebastião),国务部长兼总统民事办公室主任弗雷德里克科·卡多佐(Frederico Cardoso),国防部长萨尔维亚诺·德热苏斯·塞凯拉(Salviano de Jesus Sequeira),内政部长安热洛·塔瓦雷斯(Ângelo Tavares),外交部长曼努埃尔·奥古斯托(Manuel Augusto),财政部长阿谢尔·曼盖拉(Archer Mangeira),国土管理和国家改革部长亚当·德阿尔梅达(Adão Almeida),公共管理、就业和社会保障部长安东尼奥·保罗(António Paulo),农业和林业部长马科斯·尼温加(Marcos Nhunga),工业部长贝尔娜达·达席尔瓦(Bernarda da Silva,女),能源和水利部长若昂·博尔热斯(João Borges),矿产资源和石油部长迪亚曼蒂诺·阿泽维多(Diamantino Azevedo),交通部长里卡尔多·德阿布雷乌(Ricardo de Abreu),建设和公共工程部长曼努埃尔·德阿尔梅达(Manuel de Almeida),渔业和海洋部长玛丽亚·巴普蒂斯塔(Maria Baptista,女),电信和信息技术部长若泽·达罗沙(José da Rocha),国土规划和住房部长安娜·德卡瓦略(Ana de Carvalho,女),经济和计划部长佩德罗·达丰塞卡(Pedro da Fonseca),高等教育、科学、技术和创新部长玛丽亚·桑博(Maria Sambo,女),教育部长玛丽亚·特谢拉(Maria Teixeira,女),卫生部长西尔维娅·卢图库塔(Silvia Lutucuta,女),酒店和旅游部长玛丽亚·布拉干萨(Maria Bragança,女),社会行动、家庭和妇女促进部长福斯蒂纳·阿尔维斯(Faustina Alves,女),文化部长卡罗琳娜·塞凯拉(Carolina Cerqueira,女),青年和体育部长安娜·内图(Ana Neto,女),新闻部长阿尼巴尔·梅洛(Anibal Melo),老战士部长若昂·多斯桑托斯(João Dos Santos),贸易部长若弗雷·范杜嫩(Jofre Van-Dunem Junior),环境部长保拉·科埃略(Paula Coelho,女),部长委员会秘书安娜·玛丽亚(Ana Maria,女)等。

1991年2月13日,根据宪法成立了共和国国务委员会。该委员会为总统的政治咨询机构,旨在听取并集中全国各阶层人士意见,供政府制定政策时参考。共和国国务委员会由总统主持,成员包括副总统、议长、宪法法院院长、总检察长、前任总统、拥有议会席位的各政党或政党联盟领袖以及由总统指定的10位社会知名人士、宗教界人士和大酋长组成。

[Constitution] The first constitution was promulgated on November 11, 1975 and has been revised four times. The current Constitution was promulgated in February 2010. The Constitution stipulates that the primary goal of Angola is to establish a free, fair, democratic and peaceful country. The multi-party system is implemented; the President of the Republic is elected for a term of five years and can be re-elected once; the President is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and has the power to announce or abolish the law, declare war or peace, and appoint and dismiss the vice president and the government. Minister, senior military general, governor, attorney general, judge of the Supreme Court, etc.

[Parliament] The National Assembly of Angola is the highest legislative body of the country. The main functions are: amending the constitution, approving, amending or canceling the law; approving the legislative work of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly; supervising the implementation of the Constitution and laws; supervising the work of the state and government agencies; approving the national economic plan and the state budget and supervising the implementation; Amnesty; declares martial law and emergency laws, and authorizes the president to declare war or peace. Each term is five years and two regular meetings are held each year.

The current parliament was established in September 2017. Among the 220 seats, An’s people accounted for 150 seats, UNITA 51 seats, extensive assistance to the League of 16 seats, the Social Innovation Party 2 seats, and the Security Division’s 1 seat. The current speaker is Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos, from the Anglia.

[Government] The current government was established in September 2017 and made minor adjustments in January 2019. The current Vice President Bornito de Sousa Baltazar Diogo, the government has three ministers of state, 28 ministries and a secretary of the Council of Ministers, mainly: economy and society Manuel José Nunes Junior, Minister of State for Development, Pedro Sebastião, Minister of State and Presidential Security Office, Minister of State Frederico Cardoso, President of the Presidential Civil Office, Salviano de Jesus Sequeira, Secretary of the Interior, Minister of Interior Angelo Tavare Ângelo Tavares, Foreign Minister Manuel Augusto, Finance Minister Archer Mangeira, Minister of Land Management and National Reform Adam de Almeida (Adão Almeida), Minister of Public Administration, Employment and Social Security, António Paulo, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, Marcos Nhunga, Minister of Industry Bernard · Bernarda da Silva (female), Minister of Energy and Water Resources João Borges, Minister of Mineral Resources and Petroleum Diamantino Azevedo, traffic Minister Ricardo de Abreu, Minister of Construction and Public Works Manuel de Almeida, Minister of Fisheries and Oceans Maria Baptista (Maria Baptista, Female), Minister of Telecommunications and Information Technology José da Rocha, Minister of Land Planning and Housing, Ana de Carvalho (female), Minister of Economy and Planning Pedro Dafonce Pedro da Fonseca, Minister of Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation Maria Sambo (female), Minister of Education Maria Teixeira (female), Minister of Health Silvia Lu Gallery Tower (Silvia Lutucuta, female), Minister of Hotel and Tourism Maria Bragança (female), Minister of Social Action, Family and Women’s Promotion Faustina A (Faustina A Lover, female), Minister of Culture Carolina Cerqueira (female), Minister of Youth and Sports Anna Neto (female), Minister of Information Anibal Melo, veteran Minister João Dos Santos, Trade Minister Jofre Van-Dunem Junior, Environment Minister Paula Coelho (female), Secretary of the Council of Ministers Anna Maria (Ana Maria, female) and so on.

On February 13, 1991, the State Council of the Republic was established in accordance with the Constitution. The committee is the president’s political advisory body, which aims to listen to and concentrate the opinions of people from all walks of life across the country for reference when the government formulates policies. The State Council of the Republic is chaired by the President and consists of the Vice President, the Speaker, the President of the Constitutional Court, the Attorney General, the former President, the political parties or political party leaders who have seats in the Parliament, and 10 social celebrities and religious figures appointed by the President. And the chieftain.

【行政区划】全国分为18个省。

【司法机构】设有最高法院、军事法庭、上诉法院和共和国总检察院。军事法庭受国防安全委员会直接领导。上诉法院专门受理上诉案件。总检察院为国家法律监督机关,受总统直接领导。总检察院总检察长埃尔德·格罗斯(Hélder Grós)。

【政 党】自1991年起实行多党制。根据安宪法法院最新数字,全国现有77个合法政党和8个政党联盟。主要政党有:

(1)安哥拉人民解放运动(Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola),简称安人运(MPLA),1956年12月成立,安独立后一直为执政党。2016年8月召开第七次全国代表大会,选举产生新的中央委员会,多斯桑托斯再次当选为党主席,若昂·洛伦索和安东尼奥·卡索马(António Paulo Kassoma )分别当选为党的副主席和总书记。2018年9月召开第六次特别代表大会,选举产生新的中央委员会,洛伦索接任党主席,路易莎·佩德罗·达米昂(Luísa Pedro Damião)和阿尔瓦罗·曼努埃尔·德博阿维斯塔·内图(Álvaro Manuel de Boavida Neto)分别当选为党的副主席和总书记。现有500余万正式党员。建有青年、妇女等组织及老战士协会。

(2)争取安哥拉彻底独立全国联盟(União Nacional Para a Independência Total de Angola),简称安盟(UNITA),主要反对党。成立于1966年3月,若纳斯·萨文比为创始人。1975年初同安人运、安解阵和葡当局组成过渡政府。安内战爆发后,转移到农村和丛林山区,开展反对安人运政府的游击活动。2002年2月22日,萨文比被政府军击毙。此后,安盟与政府正式签署停火协议、完成非军事化并宣布放弃武装夺权目标。2003年6月,安盟召开第九届全国代表大会,选举伊萨亚斯·萨马库瓦(Isaias Samakuwa)为党主席。2011年12月,安盟召开第十一届全国代表大会,选举产生新一届领导层,党主席萨马库瓦(Isaias Samakuwa)以85.6%的得票率再次连任,埃内斯托·穆拉托(Ernesto Mulato)和维托里诺·纳尼(Vitorino Nhany)分别任副主席和总书记。

较有影响的政党还有:安哥拉广泛救助同盟(CASA-CE)、社会革新党(PRS)、安哥拉人民解放阵线(安解阵,FNLA)、新民主竞选联盟(ND)、发展人民党(PAPOD)等。

[Administrative division] The country is divided into 18 provinces.

[Judiciary] There are the Supreme Court, the Military Court, the Court of Appeal and the General Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic. Military courts are directly under the leadership of the National Defense Security Council. The Court of Appeal specifically accepts appeals. The General Prosecutor’s Office is the national legal supervision organ and is directly under the leadership of the President. Hélder Grós, Attorney General of the Attorney General’s Office.

[Political Party] Since 1991, the multi-party system has been implemented. According to the latest figures of the Constitutional Court, there are 77 legal parties and 8 political parties in the country. The main political parties are:

(1) The Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola, referred to as the Anglia (MPLA), was established in December 1956 and has been the ruling party since independence. The seventh national congress was held in August 2016, a new central committee was elected, and Dos Santos was re-elected as party chairman, and João Lorenzo and António Paulo Kassoma were elected as party members. Vice Chairman and General Secretary. The sixth special congress was held in September 2018, a new central committee was elected, Lorenzo took over as party chairman, Luísa Pedro Damião and Alvaro Manuel · Álvaro Manuel de Boavida Neto was elected as the party’s vice chairman and general secretary. There are more than 5 million official party members. There are organizations for youth, women and other organizations and veterans.

(2) For the União Nacional Para a Independência Total de Angola, referred to as UNITA (UNITA), the main opposition party. Founded in March 1966, Jonas Savimbi is the founder. In early 1975, the Tongan People’s Movement, the Security Division and the Portuguese authorities formed a transitional government. After the outbreak of the civil war in Ang, it was transferred to the rural areas and the mountainous areas of the jungle to carry out guerrilla activities against the government of the Anglia. On February 22, 2002, Savimbi was killed by government forces. Since then, UNITA and the government formally signed a ceasefire agreement, completed demilitarization and announced the abandonment of the goal of armed capture. In June 2003, UNITA convened the Ninth National Congress to elect Isaias Samakuwa as the party chairman. In December 2011, UNITA convened the 11th National Congress to elect a new leadership. Party Chairman Isaias Samakuwa was re-elected with 85.6% of the vote, Ernesto Mula Ernesto Mulato and Vitorino Nhany served as Vice-Chairmen and General Secretary respectively.

The more influential parties are: the Angolan Broad Save Alliance (CASA-CE), the Social Reform Party (PRS), the Angolan People’s Liberation Front (FNL), the New Democratic Campaign Coalition (ND), and the Development People’s Party (PAPOD). )Wait.

【重要人物】

若昂·曼努埃尔·贡萨尔维斯·洛伦索:总统兼武装部队总司令。1954年3月5日生于洛比托市。中学时期参加反抗葡萄牙殖民统治的斗争并加入安人运。1978年至1982年赴前苏联列宁高等学院研修军事指挥课程并就读历史学专业,获历史学硕士学位。1983年至1989年历任安哥拉莫西科省省委书记兼省长、本格拉省委第一书记兼省长。1989年至1991年任安人民解放军政工局长。1991年至1998年历任安人运政治局委员兼新闻和宣传书记、安人运议会党团领袖。1998年至2003年任安人运总书记,2016年当选安人运副主席。2018年9月当选安人运主席。2003年至2014年任国民议会第一副议长。2014年任国防部长。2017年8月当选总统,9月就职。

博尔尼托·德索萨·巴尔塔扎尔·迪奥戈:副总统。1953年7月23日出生于马兰热省戈苏阿地区,获内图大学法律学士学位。1969年加入安人运并投身安反殖民斗争。历任卡宾达省第二军区政治委员、海军政治委员、安人民解放军国家政治局副局长,国民议会议员、议会司法委员会主席、外事委员会主席、安人运议会党团领袖。曾任安人运青年团第一书记,安人运中央书记处组织书记、外事书记,现为安人运中央委员、政治局委员。2010年2月至2017年9月任国土资源部部长。2017年8月当选副总统,9月就职。

费尔南多·达皮耶达德·迪亚斯·多斯桑托斯:国民议会议长、安人运中央政治局委员。1952年生于罗安达。获法律学士学位。1970年起从事反对殖民统治的斗争。1973年被葡萄牙殖民军强征服兵役,其间曾因民族主义倾向被殖民当局拘押。1974年脱离葡殖民军,加入安人运游击队。安独立后,历任安人民解放军总参谋部政治处干事、警察部队监察员、卡宾达全国人民运动军政委、警察部队处长、内政部副部长、国家安全部副部长、警察总局局长、内政部长等职。2002年12月就任安民族团结和解政府总理。2008年9月就任国民议会议长。2010年2月就任副总统。2012年至今任国民议会议长。

若泽·爱德华多·多斯桑托斯:前总统、安人运前主席。1942年8月28日生于罗安达市一个工人家庭。从中学时代起积极参加反对殖民统治、争取民族独立的斗争。1961年加入安人运,1962年任安人运青年组织副主席、安人运驻刚果代表。1963—1970年在苏联学习石化和通信专业,获硕士学位。1975年任安人运中央对外联络部长、卫生部长并当选安人运中央委员、中央政治局委员。安独立后,历任外交部长、第一副总理、计划部长、计委主任、安人运中央文教体育书记、国家重建部书记、经济发展和计划部书记等职。1979年9月起,任共和国总统、安人运主席。2017年9月卸任安总统。2018年9月卸任安人运主席。

【VIP】

Joao Manuel Gonçalves Lorenzo: President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Born on March 5, 1954 in Lobito. In the middle school period, he participated in the struggle against Portuguese colonial rule and joined the Angolan movement. From 1978 to 1982, he went to the Lenin College of the former Soviet Union to study military command courses and studied history. He obtained a master’s degree in history. From 1983 to 1989, he served as Secretary of the Provincial Party Committee and Governor of the Province of Mozambique in Angola, and the First Secretary and Governor of the Benguela Provincial Committee. From 1989 to 1991, he served as the Political Work Director of the People’s Liberation Army. From 1991 to 1998, he served as a member of the Political Bureau of the People’s Republic of China and a secretary of the press and propaganda, and a leader of the Anglican Parliament. From 1998 to 2003, he served as General Secretary of the People’s Movement of the People’s Republic of China. In 2016, he was elected Vice Chairman of the People’s Movement. In September 2018, he was elected president of Anren. From 2003 to 2014, he served as the first deputy speaker of the National Assembly. In 2014, he served as Minister of Defense. He was elected president in August 2017 and took office in September.

Bornito de Souza Baltazar Diogo: Vice President. Born in Gosua, Malange Province on July 23, 1953, he obtained a bachelor’s degree in law from the University of Nato. In 1969, he joined the An People’s Movement and joined the anti-colonial struggle. He has served as political commissar of the Second Military Region of Kabinda Province, political commissar of the Navy, deputy director of the National Political Bureau of the People’s Liberation Army, member of the National Assembly, chairman of the Judiciary Committee of the Parliament, chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee, and leader of the Anglican Parliament. He once served as the first secretary of the Youth People’s Youth League, and the secretary of the Central Committee of the People’s Republic of China, the secretary of the Central Committee of Foreign Affairs, and the secretary of the foreign affairs. He is now a member of the Central Committee of the People’s Republic of China and a member of the Politburo. From February 2010 to September 2017, he served as Minister of Land and Resources. In August 2017, he was elected vice president and took office in September.

Fernando Dapiedad Diaz Dos Santos: President of the National Assembly, member of the Political Bureau of the Central People’s Movement. Born in Luanda in 1952. Bachelor of Laws. In 1970, he engaged in the struggle against colonial rule. In 1973, he was conquered by the Portuguese colonial army and was detained by the colonial authorities for nationalist tendencies. In 1974, he left the Portuguese colonial army and joined the Angolan guerrillas. After independence, he served as the Political Department Officer of the General Staff of the People’s Liberation Army, the Police Force Ombudsman, the Political Commissar of the National People’s Movement Army of Kabinda, the Chief of the Police Force, the Deputy Minister of the Interior, the Deputy Minister of the Ministry of National Security, the Director of the General Administration of Police, and the Minister of the Interior. Waiting for a job. In December 2002, he became the Prime Minister of the National Unity for Reconciliation of the Angola. In September 2008, he became the Speaker of the National Assembly. In February 2010, he became the vice president. Since 2012, he has been the Speaker of the National Assembly.

José Eduardo dos Santos: Former President, former President of the Angolan Games. Born on August 28, 1942 in a worker’s family in Luanda. Since the middle school era, he has actively participated in the struggle against colonial rule and the struggle for national independence. In 1961, he joined the An People’s Movement. In 1962, he served as the vice chairman of the Youth People’s Youth Organization and the An People’s Mission in the Congo. From 1963 to 1970, he studied petroleum and communications in the Soviet Union and obtained a master’s degree. In 1975, he served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Health of the Central People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China. After independence, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs, First Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Planning, Director of the Planning Commission, Secretary of the Central People’s Cultural and Educational Sports of Anren, Secretary of the Ministry of National Reconstruction, and Secretary of the Ministry of Economic Development and Planning. Since September 1979, he has served as President of the Republic and Chairman of the People’s Republic of China. In September 2017, he retired as President. In September 2018, he retired as chairman of the Ansheng.

【经 济】属最不发达国家。有一定的工农业基础,但连年战乱使基础设施遭到严重毁坏,经济发展受到较大影响。2002年内战结束后,政府将工作重点转向经济恢复和社会发展,努力调整经济结构,加大基础设施建设,优先投资关系国计民生的社会发展项目;同时积极开展同其他国家的经贸互利合作,为国家重建吸引外资。安哥拉现已成为撒哈拉以南非洲第三大经济体和最大引资国之一。石油是安哥拉国民经济的支柱产业。2006年12月,安哥拉加入石油输出国组织(欧佩克)。随着国际市场原油价格攀升,安石油出口收入大幅增加。据国际货币基金组织统计,2001-2010年安哥拉经济年均增长率为11.1%,居全球第一。

2008年国际金融危机爆发后,受国际市场原油价格下跌影响,安政府财政收入和外国对安投资减少,多个大型基础设施建设项目甚至被迫停工,安经济增速明显放缓,2009年经济增长2.4%。政府采取多项措施积极应对,紧缩政府开支,加强外汇管制,促进经济多元化发展,同时多方寻求国际援助,获得国际货币基金组织和部分国家大额贷款,加之国际油价回升趋稳,安经济开始复苏。2010年、2011年经济分别增长3.4%和3.9%。2012年,安哥拉启动了“安哥拉制造计划”,大力推进经济多元化,逐步降低国民经济对石油产业的依赖度,出台多项具体措施支持中小微型企业发展。安哥拉企业收购了葡萄牙电信、银行、能源等领域的资产。2012年10月,安宣布成立主权财富基金,启动金额为50亿美元,主要来自石油和矿业收益,主要为基础设施、金融、工业、农业、旅游业等提供资金支持。2013年7月1日起,新石油汇率法正式实施,石油公司和其他外国机构在安经营所得款项均须使用当地货币宽扎结算。2014年下半年以来,受国际油价波动影响,安哥拉经济发展面临困难增多,财政收入减少,外汇储备下降,经济增速进一步放缓。

2018年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值(GDP):986亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:3308美元。

经济增长率:-0.5%。

外汇储备:154亿美元。

外债总额:379亿美元。

货币名称:宽扎(Kz)。

汇率:1美元≈308.6宽扎。

(资料来源:2019年第一季度《经济季评》)

【资 源】石油、天然气和矿产资源丰富。安哥拉已探明石油可采储量超过126亿桶,天然气储量达7万亿立方米。主要矿产有钻石、铁、磷酸盐、铜、锰、铀、铅、锡、锌、钨、黄金、石英、大理石和花岗岩等。水力、农牧渔业资源较丰富。水资源潜力1400亿立方米,水力发电量占全国总发电量的75%,其余25%来自火力发电。

[Economy] is a least developed country. There is a certain industrial and agricultural foundation, but successive years of war have caused serious damage to infrastructure and economic development has been greatly affected. After the end of the civil war in 2002, the government shifted its focus to economic recovery and social development, worked hard to adjust the economic structure, increased infrastructure construction, and prioritized investment in social development projects related to the national economy and the people’s livelihood. At the same time, it actively carried out mutually beneficial economic and trade cooperation with other countries. Reconstruction attracts foreign investment. Angola is now one of the third largest economies and the largest source of investment in sub-Saharan Africa. Oil is the pillar industry of the Angolan national economy. In December 2006, Angola joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). As the price of crude oil in the international market climbs, the export revenue of An Oil has increased significantly. According to the statistics of the International Monetary Fund, the Angola economy grew at an average annual rate of 11.1% from 2001 to 2010, ranking first in the world.

After the outbreak of the international financial crisis in 2008, affected by the fall in crude oil prices in the international market, the government’s fiscal revenue and foreign investment in security decreased, and several large-scale infrastructure construction projects were even forced to stop work. The economic growth rate of Angola slowed down significantly. Growth of 2.4%. The government has taken a number of measures to actively respond, tighten government spending, strengthen foreign exchange controls, promote diversified economic development, and at the same time seek international assistance, obtain large loans from the International Monetary Fund and some countries, and the international oil price has stabilized and stabilized. recovery. In 2010 and 2011, the economy grew by 3.4% and 3.9% respectively. In 2012, Angola launched the “Angolan Manufacturing Plan” to vigorously promote economic diversification, gradually reduce the dependence of the national economy on the petroleum industry, and introduced a number of specific measures to support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. Angolan companies acquired assets in the fields of telecommunications, banking, and energy in Portugal. In October 2012, Ann announced the establishment of a sovereign wealth fund with a starting amount of US$5 billion, mainly from oil and mining revenues, mainly providing financial support for infrastructure, finance, industry, agriculture and tourism. Since July 1, 2013, the new oil exchange rate law has been officially implemented, and the proceeds from the operation of the oil company and other foreign institutions in the security operations must be settled in the local currency. Since the second half of 2014, affected by fluctuations in international oil prices, Angola’s economic development has faced difficulties, fiscal revenues have decreased, foreign exchange reserves have declined, and economic growth has slowed further.

The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:

Gross domestic product (GDP): $98.6 billion.

Per capita GDP: $3,308.

Economic growth rate: -0.5%.

Foreign exchange reserves: $ 15.4 billion.

Total external debt: $37.9 billion.

Currency name: Kwanza (Kz).

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 308.6 Kwanza.

(Source: First Quarter of 2019, Economic Quarterly Review)

[Resources] Rich in oil, natural gas and mineral resources. Angola has proven oil recoverable reserves of more than 12.6 billion barrels and natural gas reserves of 7 trillion cubic meters. The main minerals are diamond, iron, phosphate, copper, manganese, uranium, lead, tin, zinc, tungsten, gold, quartz, marble and granite. Hydropower, agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery resources are abundant. The water resource potential is 140 billion cubic meters, hydropower generation accounts for 75% of the country’s total power generation, and the remaining 25% comes from thermal power generation.

【对外关系】奉行和平共处和不结盟的对外政策;主张在相互尊重主权、互不干涉内政和平等互利的基础上发展同世界各国的关系;坚持独立自主的多元化外交路线,重视外交为国内经济建设服务;呼吁建立国际政治经济新秩序,加强南南合作,积极参与地区和国际事务,努力提高自身影响力。

现为联合国、不结盟运动、非洲联盟、南部非洲发展共同体、中部非洲国家经济共同体、葡萄牙语国家共同体、石油输出国组织、七十七国集团、世界银行、国际货币基金组织、国际民航组织、世界贸易组织等国际和地区组织成员。与100多个国家建立了外交关系,在30余个国家设有使馆,并设有驻欧盟、联合国、联合国教科文组织、欧安组织代表处。2018年,安政府为节约预算关闭40余家驻外使领馆和代表处。

2002年实现和平后,安政府外交工作的主要目标是巩固和平和战后重建,把经济外交作为外交工作重点,寻求更多的外援和投资,积极参与国际和地区事务,努力提高在国际和地区事务中的影响力,为地区和平与稳定作出贡献。

【同美国的关系】安哥拉内战期间,美国先后支持安解阵和安盟。随着冷战结束以及安盟领导人萨文比不断破坏安哥拉和平进程,美国于1993年停止了对安盟的支持并承认安人运政府。安哥拉和美国1993年正式建立外交关系后,多斯桑托斯总统曾三次访问美国,两国在经贸、能源等领域合作不断扩大,关系发展较为顺利。2009年美国同安哥拉签署贸易和投资协定,并于2010年6月在安哥拉首都罗安达召开了首次美安贸易和投资委员会会议。2013年4月,安盟主席萨马库瓦访问美国。2014年5月,美国国务卿克里访安。2014年8月,安哥拉副总统维森特赴美出席首届美非峰会。2017年5月,国防部长洛伦索访问美国。2019年3月,美国常务副国务卿访安。安哥拉是美国非洲增长与机遇法受益国。目前,安哥拉是美国在非洲重要的贸易合作伙伴和石油供应国。2017年两国贸易额约34亿美元。美国主要向安哥拉出口机械设备、食品、钢铁制品、电子产品和飞机等,自安哥拉进口原油、钻石等。

[External Relations] Pursuing a peaceful coexistence and non-aligned foreign policy; advocating the development of relations with countries around the world on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty, non-interference in internal affairs and equality and mutual benefit; adhering to an independent and pluralistic diplomatic line, and attaching importance to diplomacy as a domestic economy Building services; calling for the establishment of a new international political and economic order, strengthening South-South cooperation, actively participating in regional and international affairs, and striving to improve its influence.

Now the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Economic Community of Central African States, the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the Group of 77, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the International Civil Aviation Organization, Member of international and regional organizations such as the World Trade Organization. He has established diplomatic relations with more than 100 countries, has embassies in more than 30 countries, and has representative offices in the European Union, the United Nations, UNESCO, and the OSCE. In 2018, the Angolan government closed more than 40 foreign embassies and consulates and representative offices for budgetary savings.

After peace was achieved in 2002, the main objectives of the Angolan government’s diplomatic work were to consolidate peace and post-war reconstruction, to focus economic diplomacy as a diplomatic work, to seek more foreign aid and investment, to actively participate in international and regional affairs, and to strive to improve international and regional The influence in the affairs contributes to regional peace and stability.

[Relationship with the United States] During the civil war in Angola, the United States supported Anwar and UNITA. With the end of the cold war and the continued destruction of the peace process in Angola by UNITA leader Savimbi, the United States stopped supporting UNITA in 1993 and recognized the Angolan government. After Angola and the United States officially established diplomatic relations in 1993, President Dos Santos visited the United States three times. The two countries have expanded their cooperation in the fields of economy, trade and energy, and the relationship has developed smoothly. In 2009, the United States signed an agreement on trade and investment with Angola, and in June 2010 held the first meeting of the US-Ministerial Trade and Investment Committee in Luanda, the capital of Angola. In April 2013, UNITA President Samakuva visited the United States. In May 2014, US Secretary of State Kerry visited An. In August 2014, Vice President Angola Vicente went to the United States to attend the first US-Africa summit. In May 2017, Defense Minister Lorenzo visited the United States. In March 2019, the US Deputy Secretary of State visited An. Angola is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act. At present, Angola is an important US trade partner and oil supplier in Africa. In 2017, the trade volume between the two countries was about 3.4 billion US dollars. The United States mainly exports machinery and equipment, food, steel products, electronic products and aircraft to Angola, and imports crude oil and diamonds from Angola.

【工矿业】石油和钻石开采是国民经济的支柱产业。年产石油逾6亿桶,为非洲第二大产油国。2018年出口石油5.37亿桶,较2017年减少5900万桶,石油出口财政收入3.33万亿宽扎。钻石储量约1.8亿克拉,为世界第五大产钻国,2018年安国营钻石公司出售820万克拉原钻,收入120亿美元。主要工业还有水泥、建材、车辆组装和修理、纺织服装、食品和水产加工等。

2016年5月,安哥拉政府重组安国家石油公司(Sonangol)。重组后,Sonangol不再负责石油勘探、生产和招标,仅保留石油业特许经营权,对石油合同进行监督管理。安政府设立石油业高级监管委员会行使国家股东职能,设立石油管理局参与石油区块授予和争端解决。2019年2月,安政府成立国家石油天然气和生物燃料管理局,行使相关领域国家特许经营职能。

【农 业】土地肥沃,河流密布,发展农业的自然条件良好。安哥拉独立前,粮食不仅自给自足,还大量出口,被誉为“南部非洲粮仓”,其剑麻和咖啡出口量位居世界前列。但长达数十年内战给安农业生产体系造成严重破坏,近一半的粮食供给依赖进口或援助。全国可开垦土地面积约3500万公顷,目前耕地面积约为350万公顷。农业人口约占全国人口的65%,人均耕地面积0.18公顷。北部为经济作物产区,主要种植咖啡、剑麻、甘蔗、棉花、花生等作物。中部高原和西南部地区为产粮区,主要种植玉米、木薯、水稻、小麦、土豆、豆类等作物。主要农作物平均单产低,玉米为500千克/公顷,水稻为1000千克/公顷,大豆为200千克/公顷。2013年粮食产量为150万吨,粮食自给率为30%,粮食缺口为300万吨。

【渔 业】渔业资源丰富,盛产龙虾、蟹、各种海洋鱼类。渔场作业条件好,风浪小,可全年作业,多数中、小渔业公司已私有化。渔业为安重要产业,从业人员约5万人。本格拉和纳米贝是安重要捕鱼区。2015年,捕鱼量约40万吨。

【畜牧业】安哥拉牧场面积5400万公顷,南部为传统畜牧饲养区。畜牧业可满足安国内50%左右的牛羊肉和鸡肉供应。

【交通运输】以公路运输为主。多年内战使交通设施遭到严重破坏。据安政府数据,自2005年以来,安政府共投入250亿美元,完成12435公里国家道路修复,仍有8570公里道路正在修复,4985公里道路有待修复。

公路:总里程7.5万公里,其中1.8万公里为柏油路面,其余为砂石土路面,干线总长2.5万公里。2010年公路运送旅客2.01亿人次,货物445.9万吨。

铁路:总里程2800公里,有本格拉、纳米贝和罗安达-马兰热三条主干线。安政府正在修复全国铁路网,计划投入数十亿美元,修复总长约2700公里铁路。2014年本格拉铁路修复工程全线完工并正式通车,年运送旅客50万人次,货物1000万吨。

水运:海运船队总吨位10万多吨,主要港口罗安达、洛比托、纳米贝、卡宾达等均可停靠万吨级货船。有水运线路约1300公里。罗安达港负责处理全国约80%的进口货物量。洛比托港是非洲西海岸最佳良港之一。卡宾达新桥码头吃水深度4-10米,可停靠承载600~800个货柜、长度为130米的轮船。

空运:安哥拉国家航空公司(TAAG)是国际民航组织成员,航空客货运输量居非洲前列,运营数条国内和国际航线,拥有波音777、747、737等多个机型。此外,SONAIR航空公司也是安哥拉主要航空公司之一,运营罗安达至美国休斯顿直航,以及国内、地区和国际包机。全国共有各类机场193座,其中大型机场5座。罗安达国际机场可起降大型客机,有通往葡萄牙(里斯本、波尔图)、法国、英国、德国、比利时、巴西、古巴、阿联酋、美国,以及莫桑比克、埃塞俄比亚、津巴布韦、南非、纳米比亚、赞比亚、尼日利亚、喀麦隆、中非、圣多美与普林西比、佛得角、刚果(布)、刚果(金)等国的航班。卡宾达、本格拉等地机场已相继翻新,首都罗安达新国际机场一期工程正在建设中。新机场计划建设南北2条跑道,可供空客A380型客机起降,设计客流量可达1500万人次/年,货运量60万吨/年,将成为非洲最大的机场之一。2012年安航运送乘客225万人次。2013年,安哥拉通过《新民航法》,对非法干扰飞行、威胁民航安全、劫机等行为作出了明确规定。

[Industrial and mining] Oil and diamond mining is the pillar industry of the national economy. With an annual output of more than 600 million barrels of oil, it is the second largest oil producer in Africa. In 2018, oil exports were 537 million barrels, a decrease of 59 million barrels compared with 2017, and the fiscal revenue of oil exports was 3.33 trillion kwanza. With a reserve of about 180 million carats of diamonds, it is the fifth largest producer of diamonds in the world. In 2018, Anguoying Diamond Company sold 8.2 million carats of rough diamonds with a revenue of 12 billion US dollars. The main industries are cement, building materials, vehicle assembly and repair, textile and garment, food and aquatic products processing.

In May 2016, the Angolan government reorganized Angola (Sonangol). After the reorganization, Sonangol is no longer responsible for oil exploration, production and tendering, only retains the petroleum industry franchise and supervises and manages the oil contract. The Angolan government set up a senior supervisory committee for the petroleum industry to exercise the functions of the state’s shareholders, and established the Petroleum Administration to participate in the granting of oil blocks and dispute settlement. In February 2019, the Angolan government established the National Oil and Gas and Biofuels Authority to exercise national franchise functions in related fields.

[Agriculture] The land is fertile, the rivers are densely covered, and the natural conditions for developing agriculture are good. Before Angola’s independence, food was not only self-sufficient, but also exported in large quantities. It was hailed as the “Southern African Granary” and its export of sisal and coffee was among the highest in the world. But decades of civil war have caused serious damage to the agricultural production system, and nearly half of the food supply is dependent on imports or aid. The country has a land area of ​​about 35 million hectares, and the current cultivated area is about 3.5 million hectares. The agricultural population accounts for about 65% of the national population, and the per capita cultivated area is 0.18 hectares. The northern part is an economic crop producing area, mainly planting coffee, sisal, sugar cane, cotton, peanuts and other crops. The central plateau and southwestern regions are grain-producing areas, mainly producing corn, cassava, rice, wheat, potatoes, and beans. The average yield per plant is low, with 500 kg/ha for corn, 1000 kg/ha for rice and 200 kg/ha for soybeans. In 2013, the grain output was 1.5 million tons, the food self-sufficiency rate was 30%, and the food gap was 3 million tons.

[Fish Industry] Rich in fishery resources, it is rich in lobster, crab and various marine fish. The fishery has good operating conditions, small wind and waves, and can be operated year-round. Most small and medium-sized fishery companies have been privatized. The fishery is an important industry and employs about 50,000 people. Benguela and Namibe are important fishing areas. In 2015, the amount of fishing was about 400,000 tons.

[Animal Husbandry] Angola has an area of ​​54 million hectares and a traditional livestock breeding area in the south. Animal husbandry can meet the supply of beef, mutton and chicken in about 50% of Angola.

[Transportation] is mainly based on road transportation. The civil war has caused serious damage to transportation facilities. According to the Angolan government data, since 2005, the Angolan government has invested a total of 25 billion US dollars to complete 12,435 kilometers of national road repairs. There are still 8,570 kilometers of roads being repaired and 4,985 kilometers of roads to be repaired.

Highway: The total mileage is 75,000 kilometers, of which 18,000 kilometers are tarmac roads, and the rest are gravel soil roads with a total length of 25,000 kilometers. In 2010, the road transported 201 million passengers and the cargo was 4.459 million tons.

Railway: The total mileage is 2,800 kilometers, with three main lines: Benguela, Namibe and Luanda-Marange. The Angolan government is repairing the national railway network, plans to invest billions of dollars to repair a total length of about 2,700 kilometers of railway. In 2014, the Benguela Railway Restoration Project was completed and officially opened to traffic, with 500,000 passengers and 10 million tons of cargo.

Water transport: The total tonnage of the shipping fleet is more than 100,000 tons. The main ports such as Luanda, Lobito, Namibe and Cabinda can all be docked for 10,000-ton cargo ships. There are about 1,300 kilometers of water transport routes. The port of Luanda is responsible for handling about 80% of the country’s imported goods. The port of Lobito is one of the best ports on the west coast of Africa. The Cabinda New Bridge Pier has a draught of 4-10 meters and can be docked with ships of 600 to 800 containers and a length of 130 meters.

Air transport: Angola National Airline (TAAG) is a member of ICAO. It has the largest passenger and cargo transportation volume in Africa. It operates several domestic and international routes and has Boeing 777, 747 and 737. In addition, SONAIR is one of the major airlines in Angola, operating direct flights from Luanda to Houston, USA, as well as domestic, regional and international charter flights. There are 193 airports of various types in the country, including 5 large airports. Luanda International Airport can take off and land large passenger planes to Portugal (Lisbon, Porto), France, Britain, Germany, Belgium, Brazil, Cuba, United Arab Emirates, United States, and Mozambique, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia, Zambia, Nigeria Flights from Cameroon, Central Africa, Sao Tome and Principe, Cape Verde, Congo (Brazzaville) and Congo (Kinshasa). Airports such as Cabinda and Benguela have been refurbished, and the first phase of the capital Luanda New International Airport is under construction. The new airport plans to build two runways in the north and south, which can be used for take-off and landing of Airbus A380 passengers. The designed passenger flow can reach 15 million passengers/year and the freight volume is 600,000 tons/year, which will become one of the largest airports in Africa. In 2012, An Shipping sent 2.25 million passengers. In 2013, Angola passed the “New Civil Aviation Law” to make clear provisions on illegal interference flight, threat to civil aviation safety, hijacking and other acts.

【外国援助】双边援助主要由美国、日本、荷兰、挪威、瑞典、葡萄牙等提供。多边援助主要来自欧盟、国际开发协会、联合国儿童基金会、联合国难民署、联合国开发计划署、世界银行、国际货币基金组织、非洲开发银行等组织。

【人民生活】人均预期寿命62岁(2018年)。安全饮水人口覆盖率为54%(2018年),电力人口覆盖率为42%(2015年),全国失业率为20%(2018年)。

全国实行免费医疗。截至2012年,全国共有各类医疗机构2337家,平均每千人拥有医生1.5名,护士23.9名。艾滋病患者约30万人,年新增感染者约2000人。近年来,安哥拉艾滋病流行趋于稳定,感染率约为5%,是非洲国家中艾滋病感染率最低的国家之一。全国疟疾发病率约为10%,农村地区疟疾发病率较城镇高14倍。医疗卫生服务覆盖率为44%。2015年底至2016年,安哥拉爆发大规模黄热病疫情,共确诊4599例,死亡病例384例,死亡率8.36%。2016年底,安爆发霍乱疫情,截至2017年2月,共发现霍乱疑似病例252例,死亡病例11例。2017年底至2018年1月,安再次爆发霍乱疫情,死亡6例。此外,2017年1月,安共发现3例寨卡病毒感染病例。

【军 事】安哥拉武装力量(简称FAA)为国家军队,成立于1991年,现有陆军8.4万人,空军1.1万人,海军5000人。国家元首兼任武装部队总司令。武装力量总参谋长安东尼奥·埃吉迪奥·德索萨·桑托斯(António Egídio de Sousa Santos)。安全和公共秩序支出占国家预算的17.8%。近年来,安海军多次参加几内亚湾海上联合军演。2018年,安政府先后推出《国防战略概念》和《国防白皮书》等国防战略指导性文件。

【文化教育】安哥拉文化艺术有多种表现形式,主要有音乐、传统舞蹈、手工艺品、乐器、油画和沙画等。

教育体系分为基础教育、中等教育和高等教育。基础教育为义务教育,学制8年。儿童从7岁起入学。目前,全国拥有60所高等教育机构,其中公立教育机构20所,阿戈斯蒂纽·内图大学是唯一的国立综合性大学,私人教育机构40所,2016年高等教育在校生24万人,教师8000余人,毕业生约为14000名/年。初等和中等教育系统注册学生775.8万人,其中学前74.4万人,小学510.4万人,中学191万人,教师数量为17.1万人,学校数量3万所。教育支出占国家预算的5.8%。据政府2016年统计,安识字率为81%。

【新闻出版】《安哥拉日报》(Jornal de Angola)为葡文官方日报,1923年创刊,发行量5万余份,开设政治、经济、体育、文化、社会等版面,信息主要来自安哥拉通讯社、葡通社(LUSA)、法新社、路透社、西班牙埃菲社等,在全国18个省有记者站。《共和国公报》为安哥拉政府官方不定期刊物,葡文。《安哥拉北方》、《支部》由安人运主办,《劳动者之声》由工人联合会主办。《对外贸易》、《能源》为专业性杂志、季刊。

安哥拉通讯社(ANGOP):国家通讯社,1975年7月在罗安达成立,现有编辑记者数百人,驻外有7个分社。全天24小时播发国内和国际新闻,对内每天发布约300条新闻。对外使用葡萄牙语、法语、英语和西班牙语发布新闻,每天约30-35条。

安哥拉国家电台(RNA):国营,总部在罗安达,在18个省设有分支机构,使用调频、中波和短波播出,信号覆盖全国。拥有6个地级电台,18个省级电台,7个地区电台,30个转播中心,每天播出时间分别为24小时、18小时和12小时。对内使用葡萄牙语和数十种民族语言播出节目,对外使用葡萄牙语、英语、法语播出节目。

安哥拉电视台(TPA):国营,总部在罗安达,1975年10月18日在罗安达首播。现有TPA-1(综合),TPA-2(娱乐和青年)和TPA国际等频道,对内使用葡萄牙语和多种民族语言播出,对外用葡、西、英、法等语言播出。通过卫星和有线电视网播出,与葡萄牙电视台(RTP)建有伙伴关系。

[Foreign Aid] Bilateral assistance is mainly provided by the United States, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Portugal. Multilateral assistance mainly comes from the European Union, the International Development Association, UNICEF, UNHCR, UNDP, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, African Development Bank and other organizations.

[People’s life] The average life expectancy is 62 years (2018). The safe drinking water coverage rate is 54% (2018), the power population coverage rate is 42% (2015), and the national unemployment rate is 20% (2018).

Free medical care is implemented throughout the country. As of 2012, there were 2,337 medical institutions across the country, with an average of 1.5 doctors per 1,000 people and 23.9 nurses. There are about 300,000 AIDS patients and about 2,000 new infections. In recent years, the AIDS epidemic in Angola has stabilized and the infection rate is about 5%, making it one of the countries with the lowest HIV prevalence among African countries. The incidence of malaria in the country is about 10%, and the incidence of malaria in rural areas is 14 times higher than that in urban areas. The coverage of health care services is 44%. From the end of 2015 to 2016, a large-scale yellow fever epidemic broke out in Angola, with 4,599 confirmed cases and 384 deaths with a mortality rate of 8.36%. At the end of 2016, a cholera epidemic broke out in Assault. As of February 2017, 252 suspected cases of cholera were found and 11 deaths were reported. From the end of 2017 to January 2018, there was another outbreak of cholera in Ang, and 6 cases died. In addition, in January 2017, the Communist Party found 3 cases of Zika virus infection.

[Military] The Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) is a national army. It was established in 1991. It has 84,000 troops, 11,000 airmen and 5,000 navies. The head of state also serves as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, António Egídio de Sousa Santos. Security and public order expenditures accounted for 17.8% of the national budget. In recent years, the An Navy has participated in the joint military exercise in the Gulf of Guinea. In 2018, the Angolan government issued the “Defense Strategy Concept” and “National Defense White Paper” and other defense strategy guidance documents.

[Cultural Education] Angola’s culture and art have many forms of expression, mainly music, traditional dance, handicrafts, musical instruments, oil paintings and sand paintings.

The education system is divided into basic education, secondary education and higher education. Basic education is compulsory and has a schooling system for 8 years. Children are enrolled from the age of 7. At present, there are 60 higher education institutions in the country, including 20 public education institutions. Agostinho Neto University is the only national comprehensive university with 40 private education institutions. In 2016, there were 240,000 higher education students. There are more than 8,000 teachers and about 14,000 graduates/year. The primary and secondary education systems registered 7.758 million students, including 744,000 pre-school, 5.104 million primary schools, 1.91 million secondary schools, 171,000 teachers, and 30,000 schools. Education spending accounts for 5.8% of the national budget. According to the statistics of the government in 2016, the literacy rate is 81%.

[Press and Publication] “Jornal de Angola” is the Portuguese official daily newspaper. It was founded in 1923 and has a circulation of more than 50,000 copies. It offers political, economic, sports, cultural and social layouts. The information mainly comes from the Angolan news agency and Portugal. The company (LUSA), AFP, Reuters, Effie of Spain, etc., has reporter stations in 18 provinces across the country. The Republican Gazette is an official journal of the Angolan government, Portuguese. “North of Angola” and “Branch” were hosted by An Renyun, and “The Voice of Laborers” was hosted by the Workers’ Federation. “Foreign Trade” and “Energy” are professional magazines and quarterly magazines.

Angolan News Agency (ANGOP): National News Agency, established in Luanda in July 1975, has hundreds of editorial journalists and seven branches abroad. Domestic and international news is broadcast 24 hours a day, and about 300 news items are posted daily. Publish news in Portuguese, French, English and Spanish, about 30-35 times a day.

National Radio (RNA) of Angola: State-run, headquartered in Luanda, with branches in 18 provinces, using FM, medium wave and short wave broadcasts, with signals covering the whole country. It has 6 prefecture-level radio stations, 18 provincial radio stations, 7 regional radio stations, and 30 broadcast centers. The broadcast time is 24 hours, 18 hours and 12 hours respectively. The program is broadcast in Portuguese and dozens of national languages, and broadcasts in Portuguese, English and French.

Angola Television (TPA): State-run, headquartered in Luanda, premiered in Luanda on October 18, 1975. Existing TPA-1 (integrated), TPA-2 (Entertainment and Youth) and TPA International channels are broadcast in Portuguese and a variety of national languages, and broadcast in Portuguese, Western, English and French. It is broadcasted on satellite and cable networks and has a partnership with Portuguese Television (RTP).

【电 信】2001年,安哥拉宣布放弃国家对电信业的垄断,私有化比例最高可达40%。主要电信公司有:国营安哥拉电信公司(ANGOLA TELECOM)、联合电信公司(UNITEL)和移动电信公司(MOVICEL)。安哥拉正在逐步升级电信系统,并引入先进的数字系统。2012年4月,移动电信公司推出了新一代LTE服务,标志着安哥拉首个LTE商用网络开始运营。12月,联合电信公司也推出了4G LTE服务。据统计,截至2016年,安手机和互联网用户分别有1300余万和450余万,其中联合电信公司用户995万。

【旅 游】安哥拉建立了国家公园和保护区,如罗安达省奎卡玛国家公园、莱多角旅游区,马兰热省卡兰杜拉旅游区,宽多库帮戈省奥卡万戈旅游区,莫西科省卡米亚国家公园等。安哥拉与赞比亚、津巴布韦、博茨瓦纳和纳米比亚建立了跨境自然环境保护区。大黑羚羊(Black Antelopes)是安哥拉独有的动物,也是安哥拉国家的标志和象征。目前,安共有183家酒店,88家度假村和6家旅行社,总床位数达17855张。根据2014年安旅游统计年报,2014年安接待境外游客59.4万人次,创收5亿美元。

【财政金融】近年来,安政府大力扶持非石油产业,推动国民经济各领域均衡发展,加强经济多元化,实现国家长期可持续发展。同时,将继续调控通货膨胀,实施稳健的债务和货币政策,规范金融行业,维护宏观经济稳定。安2019年国家预算总额13.36万亿宽扎,预计2019年经济增长2.8%,其中石油天然气领域预计增长3.1%,非石油领域预计增长2.6%,年累计通胀率预计为15%。

目前,安哥拉共有20余家商业银行,主要有:储蓄和信贷银行(BPC),国际信贷银行(BIC),安哥拉发展银行(BFA),安哥拉投资银行(BAI),太阳银行(Banco Sol),千禧银行(Banco Millenium)等。2018年,安国家银行提高对商业银行的最低资本金要求,Banco Mais和Banco Postal等银行因资本金不足被吊销营业执照。

【对外贸易】主要出口石油、钻石、天然气、咖啡、剑麻、水产品及其他养殖产品、木材、棉花等,主要进口机电设备、交通工具及其零部件、药品、食品、纺织品等。根据安《2013年-2017年国家发展计划》,为保护国内生产、限制垄断操作、淘汰低端进口商,安政府对进口商设有进口配额,并将逐步限制制成品进口,鼓励大宗商品进口。

【外国资本】安哥拉是非洲主要直接投资目的地国,2003年至2011年外国在安直接投资总额逾580亿美元。外资主要集中在石油工业、钻石开采、液化天然气、公共工程、建筑、电信、渔业和加工工业等。主要投资国有美国、法国、意大利、比利时、英国、葡萄牙、德国、西班牙、日本、巴西、南非、韩国等。首都罗安达是外资最集中的投向地,此外北宽扎、南宽扎、万博、威拉、扎伊尔和卡宾达等省也吸引了较多外资。

2014年3月1日,安哥拉新关税法正式实施。新关税法产品清单涉及6651项产品,其中2942项产品享受免税,1150项产品的关税减至2%。但鸡蛋、大蒜、胡萝卜、卫生纸、非酒精类饮料等关税税率提高至30%,山药、甘蔗、白菜等蔬菜关税税率提高至35%。

2015年8月,安颁布新的《私人投资法》,在简化私人投资审批程序、提高税费优惠和激励力度等方面推出具体措施,以吸引外国在安投资,推进经济多元化进程。

[Telecom] In 2001, Angola announced that it would abandon the state’s monopoly on the telecommunications industry, with a privatization rate of up to 40%. The main telecommunications companies are: ANGOLA TELECOM, UNITEL and MOVICEL. Angola is gradually upgrading its telecommunications system and introducing advanced digital systems. In April 2012, mobile telecommunications company launched a new generation of LTE services, marking the beginning of operation of Angola’s first LTE commercial network. In December, United Telecom also launched 4G LTE services. According to statistics, as of 2016, there were more than 13 million mobile phones and Internet users, respectively, and more than 4.5 million, including 9.94 million users of United Telecom.

[Travel] Angola has established national parks and protected areas, such as the Quinca National Park in Luanda, the tourist area of ​​Ledo, the Kalandura tourist area in Malange, and the Okavango tourist area in Kuando Kubango. Mozambique, Kamia National Park, etc. Angola has established cross-border natural environmental protection zones with Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia. The Black Antelopes are unique to Angola and a symbol and symbol of the Angolan state. At present, there are 183 hotels, 88 resorts and 6 travel agencies, with a total of 17,855 beds. According to the 2014 annual report on tourism statistics, in 2014, Ann received 554,000 overseas tourists and generated a revenue of 500 million US dollars.

[Financial Finance] In recent years, the Angolan government has vigorously supported the non-oil industry, promoted balanced development of all sectors of the national economy, strengthened economic diversification, and achieved long-term sustainable development of the country. At the same time, it will continue to regulate inflation, implement a sound debt and monetary policy, regulate the financial industry, and maintain macroeconomic stability. In 2019, the state budget totaled 13.36 trillion kwanza. It is expected that the economy will grow by 2.8% in 2019, of which the oil and gas sector is expected to grow by 3.1%, the non-oil sector is expected to grow by 2.6%, and the annual cumulative inflation rate is expected to be 15%.

At present, there are more than 20 commercial banks in Angola, mainly including: Savings and Credit Bank (BPC), International Credit Bank (BIC), Angola Development Bank (BFA), Angola Investment Bank (BAI), Sun Bank (Banco Sol), and Thousand Bank (Banco Millenium) and so on. In 2018, Angola Bank raised the minimum capital requirement for commercial banks, and banks such as Banco Mais and Banco Postal were revoked business licenses due to insufficient capital.

[Foreign Trade] Mainly exports oil, diamonds, natural gas, coffee, sisal, aquatic products and other aquaculture products, wood, cotton, etc., mainly imported mechanical and electrical equipment, vehicles and their parts, medicines, food, textiles, etc. According to Ann’s National Development Plan 2013-2017, in order to protect domestic production, restrict monopoly operations, and eliminate low-end importers, the Angolan government has import quotas for importers and will gradually restrict imports of manufactured goods and encourage bulk commodities. import.

[Foreign Capital] Angola is a major direct investment destination country in Africa. From 2003 to 2011, foreign direct investment totaled over US$58 billion. Foreign capital is mainly concentrated in the petroleum industry, diamond mining, liquefied natural gas, public works, construction, telecommunications, fisheries and processing industries. The main investment countries are the United States, France, Italy, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Germany, Spain, Japan, Brazil, South Africa, South Korea and so on. The capital, Luanda, is the most concentrated investment destination for foreign investment. In addition, the provinces of Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Wanbo, Huila, Zaire and Cabinda have also attracted more foreign investment.

On March 1, 2014, the new tariff law of Angola was officially implemented. The new tariff law product list covers 6651 products, of which 2942 are tax-free and 1150 are reduced to 2%. However, the tariff rate for eggs, garlic, carrots, toilet paper, non-alcoholic beverages increased to 30%, and the tariff rate for vegetables such as yam, sugar cane and cabbage increased to 35%.

In August 2015, Ann enacted a new Private Investment Law, which introduced specific measures to simplify private investment approval procedures, increase tax incentives and incentives, and attract foreign investment in Angola to promote economic diversification.

【同欧盟的关系】欧盟是安哥拉最大援助伙伴。2008~2013年,欧盟共向安提供了2.5亿欧元援助,主要用于政府、司法、卫生、教育、人权等领域。欧盟是安重要的经济合作伙伴,欧盟是安最大进口地区和安第三大贸易伙伴。2014年4月,多斯桑托斯总统对法国进行国事访问。2014年4月,维森特副总统作为多斯桑托斯总统的代表出席第四届欧非峰会。2015年7月,法国总统奥朗德访问安哥拉。同月,多斯桑托斯总统访问意大利。2017年11月,洛伦索总统出席第五届欧洲-非洲峰会。2018年5月和6月,洛伦索总统分别访问法国和比利时。2018年8月,洛伦索总统访问德国。

【同葡萄牙的关系】葡萄牙是安哥拉原宗主国,同安哥拉在政治、经济、社会各领域一直保持比较深的联系。2010年,两国建立战略伙伴关系。2013年年底,安单方面中断双方战略伙伴关系。2014年,葡萄牙副总理和外长相继访安,两国关系由此转圜。2018年9月,葡萄牙总理科斯塔访安。2018年11月,洛伦索总统访问葡萄牙。2019年3月,葡萄牙总统德索萨访安。目前,葡在安有侨民约20万人,是安非石油领域最大投资国。

【同非洲国家的关系】重视并优先发展与非洲国家的关系,与邻国津巴布韦、纳米比亚、刚果(金)等关系密切,并结成共同防务联盟。重视提升在非盟、南共体、西共体、几内亚湾委员会等地区组织中的影响力和话语权,为促进地区和平稳定、解决冲突争端发挥积极作用。2014年1月至2017年10月安哥拉担任大湖地区国际会议组织轮值主席国,2017年10月洛伦索总统出席大湖地区国际会议组织峰会。2017年8月起安哥拉担任南共体政治、防务和安全机构主席国,2017年11月安哥拉召开三驾马车及主席国峰会,讨论津巴布韦问题,当月洛伦索总统访问南非。2018年4月,安哥拉召开南共体及其政治、防务和安全机构“双三驾马车”特别峰会,讨论刚果(金)、莱索托和马达加斯加局势。2018年8月,安哥拉举办部分地区国家政治协调会议,讨论刚果(金)、南苏丹、中非、布隆迪局势。

[Relationship with the EU] The EU is the largest aid partner of Angola. From 2008 to 2013, the EU provided a total of 250 million euros in aid to the government, including the government, justice, health, education, and human rights. The EU is an important economic partner of the Security Council. The EU is the largest importer of Angola and the third largest trading partner of Angola. In April 2014, President Dos Santos paid a state visit to France. In April 2014, Vice President Vicente attended the 4th European-African Summit as the representative of President Dos Santos. In July 2015, French President Hollande visited Angola. In the same month, President Dos Santos visited Italy. In November 2017, President Lorenzo attended the 5th European-African Summit. In May and June 2018, President Lorenzo visited France and Belgium respectively. In August 2018, President Lorenzo visited Germany.

[Relationship with Portugal] Portugal is the original sovereign state of Angola and has maintained a deep relationship with Angola in various fields including politics, economy and society. In 2010, the two countries established a strategic partnership. At the end of 2013, Anshang discontinued the strategic partnership between the two parties. In 2014, the Portuguese Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Ministers visited Angola successively, and the relationship between the two countries changed. In September 2018, Portuguese Prime Minister Costa visited San. In November 2018, President Lorenzo visited Portugal. In March 2019, Portuguese President De Souza visited Angola. At present, Portugal has about 200,000 overseas Chinese, and is the largest investor in the African and African oil fields.

[Relationship with African countries] Attach importance to and prioritize the development of relations with African countries, and close relations with neighboring countries such as Zimbabwe, Namibia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and form a joint defense alliance. Attach importance to the promotion of influence and voice in regional organizations such as the AU, SADC, ECOWAS, and the Gulf of Guinea Committee, and play a positive role in promoting regional peace and stability and resolving conflicts. From January 2014 to October 2017, Angola served as the rotating presidency of the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region. In October 2017, President Lorenzo attended the summit meeting of the Great Lakes International Conference. In August 2017, Angola served as the chairman of the SADC Political, Defence and Security Institution. In November 2017, Angola held a troika and presidency summit to discuss the issue of Zimbabwe, when President Lorenzo visited South Africa. In April 2018, Angola hosted a special summit of the SADC and its political, defense and security agencies “Double Troika” to discuss the situation in Congo (DRC), Lesotho and Madagascar. In August 2018, Angola hosted a regional political coordination meeting in some regions to discuss the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), South Sudan, Central Africa and Burundi.