The Republic of Angola 安哥拉共和国
【国 名】安哥拉共和国（葡萄牙语：A República de Angola，英语：The Republic of Angola）。
【国家元首】若昂·曼努埃尔·贡萨尔维斯·洛伦索（João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço），2017年9月就任。
[Country name] Republic of Angola (Portuguese: A República de Angola, English: The Republic of Angola).
[area] 1,246,700 square kilometers.
[People] 29.8 million (2018). There are mainly Austrian Wendu (about 37% of the total population), Mbendou (25%), Pakistan Congo (13%), Ronda and other ethnic groups. The national average population density is 24 people per square kilometer, the capital of Luanda has the highest population density, and the Cabinda population density is the smallest. The official language is Portuguese and there are 42 national languages. The main national languages are Wen Bendu (Central and Southern), Jinbendu (Luanda and Inland) and Kikongo (Northern). 49% believe in Roman Catholicism, 13% believe in Protestantism, and the rest of the population believe in primitive religion.
[The capital] Luanda, with a population of nearly 2.5 million.
[Head of State] João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço, took office in September 2017.
[Important Festival] Remembrance Day of Anti-colonial Armed Struggle: February 4th; Peace Reconciliation Day: April 4th; National Founder and National Hero Memorial Day: September 17th; Independence Day (National Day): November 11 day.
【简 况】位于非洲西南部。北邻刚果（布）和刚果（金），东接赞比亚，南连纳米比亚，西濒大西洋，海岸线长1650公里。北部大部分地区属热带草原气候，南部属亚热带气候，高海拔地区属温带气候。每年10月至次年4月为雨季，平均气温33度；5月至9月为旱季，平均气温24度。年均降水量约400毫米，由东北高原地区最高1500毫米逐渐向西南沙漠地区50毫米递减。主要由平原、丘陵和高原组成，西部沿海地区地势低，东部内陆地区地势较高，全国65%的土地海拔在1000-1600米。最高峰莫科峰（Monte Moco）高2620米，第二高峰梅科峰（Monte Meco）高2583米。境内河流密布，水利资源丰富，较大河流约30条，主要河流有刚果河、库内内河、宽扎河、库帮戈河等。
[Profile] Located in southwestern Africa. It borders Congo (Brazzaville) and Congo (Gold) in the north, Zambia in the east, Namibia in the south, and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The coastline is 1,650 kilometers long. Most of the northern part has a savanna climate, the south has a subtropical climate, and the high altitudes have a temperate climate. The rainy season is from October to April, with an average temperature of 33 degrees. The dry season is from May to September, with an average temperature of 24 degrees. The average annual precipitation is about 400 mm, which is gradually decreasing from the highest 1500 mm in the northeast plateau to 50 mm in the southwest desert. It is mainly composed of plains, hills and plateaus. The western coastal areas are low in terrain and the inland areas in the east are high. 65% of the country’s land is between 1000 and 1600 meters above sea level. The highest peak of Monte Moco is 2,620 meters high, and the second peak of Monte Meco is 2,583 meters high. There are dense rivers and rich water resources. There are about 30 large rivers. The main rivers are Congo River, Kunene River, Kwanza River and Kubango River.
In history, it was divided into four kingdoms: Congo, Ndongo, Matamba and Ronda. In 1482, the Portuguese colonial fleet arrived for the first time and in 1576 the city of Luanda was established. At the Berlin Conference from 1884 to 1885, Angola was classified as a Portuguese colony. In 1922, Portugal occupied a security situation. In 1951, Portugal changed its name to an “overseas province” of Portugal and sent the governor to rule. Since the 1950s, Angola has established three national liberation organizations: the Angolan People’s Liberation Movement (Angola), the Angolan National Liberation Front (AFD) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (referred to as UNITA). In the 1960s, armed struggles for national independence were carried out. On January 15, 1975, the three organizations reached the “Awar Agreement” on the independence of Angola with the Portuguese government, and together with the Portuguese authorities formed a transitional government on January 31. Soon, there was an armed conflict between An’s people, UNITA and Anji, and the transitional government disintegrated. On November 11, the same year, An Renyun announced the establishment of the People’s Republic of Angola, Agostinho Neto as president.
After independence, Angola has been in a state of civil war for a long time. Under the impetus of Portugal, the United States and the former Soviet Union, on May 31, 1991, the Angolan government and the opposition UNITA headed by Jonas Savimbi signed the Bissé Peace Agreement. In August 1992, the Angola Council decided to change its name to the Republic of Angola. In September, Ann held the first multi-party election. Anshun won the parliamentary election and led the presidential election. UNITA refused to accept the results of the election and settled in the civil war. In November 1994, the Anglia government and UNITA signed the Lusaka Peace Agreement, but the agreement was not effectively implemented. In order to promote reconciliation, An’s people established a national unity and reconciliation government with the participation of UNITA members in April 1997. However, due to the boycott of UNITA leader Savimbi, UNITA split and the internal war continued. . On February 22, 2002, UNITA leader Savimbi was killed by government forces. On April 4, the Angolan government signed a ceasefire agreement with UNITA. The end of the 27-year civil war, the realization of comprehensive peace, into the post-war recovery and reconstruction period.
[Politics] Since the end of the civil war in 2002, the political situation in Angola has remained stable. The Angolan government is committed to advancing the post-war reconstruction cause and taking effective measures to consolidate the country’s peaceful reunification. In September 2008, Ann successfully held the first multi-party parliamentary election since 1992, and Ansheng transported more than 80% of the seats. In February 2010, the An National Assembly passed a new constitution. On August 31, 2012, Ann held the first presidential and parliamentary elections after constitutional amendment. An Renyun won the election with a vote of 71.84%, and Dos Santos was re-elected as president. On August 23, 2017, Angola held a new general election, and Ann’s vote rate was 61.08%. The party candidate Lorenzo was elected president and took office on September 26, 2017.
本届议会于2017年9月成立。在220个议席中，安人运占150席，安盟51席，广泛救助同盟16席、社会革新党2席、安解阵1席。现任议长为费尔南多·达皮耶达德·迪亚斯·多斯桑托斯（Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos），来自安人运。
【政 府】本届政府于2017年9月成立，2019年1月进行小幅调整。现任副总统博尔尼托·德索萨·巴尔塔扎尔·迪奥戈（Bornito de Sousa Baltazar Diogo），政府有3名国务部长、28个部和1名部长委员会秘书，主要为：经济和社会发展国务部长曼努埃尔·若泽·努内斯·儒尼奥尔（Manuel José Nunes Junior），国务部长兼总统安全办公室主任佩德罗·塞巴斯蒂昂（Pedro Sebastião），国务部长兼总统民事办公室主任弗雷德里克科·卡多佐（Frederico Cardoso），国防部长萨尔维亚诺·德热苏斯·塞凯拉（Salviano de Jesus Sequeira），内政部长安热洛·塔瓦雷斯（Ângelo Tavares），外交部长曼努埃尔·奥古斯托（Manuel Augusto），财政部长阿谢尔·曼盖拉（Archer Mangeira），国土管理和国家改革部长亚当·德阿尔梅达（Adão Almeida），公共管理、就业和社会保障部长安东尼奥·保罗（António Paulo），农业和林业部长马科斯·尼温加（Marcos Nhunga），工业部长贝尔娜达·达席尔瓦（Bernarda da Silva，女），能源和水利部长若昂·博尔热斯（João Borges），矿产资源和石油部长迪亚曼蒂诺·阿泽维多（Diamantino Azevedo），交通部长里卡尔多·德阿布雷乌（Ricardo de Abreu），建设和公共工程部长曼努埃尔·德阿尔梅达（Manuel de Almeida），渔业和海洋部长玛丽亚·巴普蒂斯塔（Maria Baptista，女），电信和信息技术部长若泽·达罗沙（José da Rocha），国土规划和住房部长安娜·德卡瓦略（Ana de Carvalho，女），经济和计划部长佩德罗·达丰塞卡（Pedro da Fonseca），高等教育、科学、技术和创新部长玛丽亚·桑博（Maria Sambo，女），教育部长玛丽亚·特谢拉（Maria Teixeira，女），卫生部长西尔维娅·卢图库塔（Silvia Lutucuta，女），酒店和旅游部长玛丽亚·布拉干萨（Maria Bragança，女），社会行动、家庭和妇女促进部长福斯蒂纳·阿尔维斯（Faustina Alves，女），文化部长卡罗琳娜·塞凯拉（Carolina Cerqueira，女），青年和体育部长安娜·内图（Ana Neto，女）,新闻部长阿尼巴尔·梅洛（Anibal Melo），老战士部长若昂·多斯桑托斯（João Dos Santos），贸易部长若弗雷·范杜嫩（Jofre Van-Dunem Junior），环境部长保拉·科埃略（Paula Coelho，女），部长委员会秘书安娜·玛丽亚（Ana Maria，女）等。
[Constitution] The first constitution was promulgated on November 11, 1975 and has been revised four times. The current Constitution was promulgated in February 2010. The Constitution stipulates that the primary goal of Angola is to establish a free, fair, democratic and peaceful country. The multi-party system is implemented; the President of the Republic is elected for a term of five years and can be re-elected once; the President is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and has the power to announce or abolish the law, declare war or peace, and appoint and dismiss the vice president and the government. Minister, senior military general, governor, attorney general, judge of the Supreme Court, etc.
[Parliament] The National Assembly of Angola is the highest legislative body of the country. The main functions are: amending the constitution, approving, amending or canceling the law; approving the legislative work of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly; supervising the implementation of the Constitution and laws; supervising the work of the state and government agencies; approving the national economic plan and the state budget and supervising the implementation; Amnesty; declares martial law and emergency laws, and authorizes the president to declare war or peace. Each term is five years and two regular meetings are held each year.
The current parliament was established in September 2017. Among the 220 seats, An’s people accounted for 150 seats, UNITA 51 seats, extensive assistance to the League of 16 seats, the Social Innovation Party 2 seats, and the Security Division’s 1 seat. The current speaker is Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos, from the Anglia.
[Government] The current government was established in September 2017 and made minor adjustments in January 2019. The current Vice President Bornito de Sousa Baltazar Diogo, the government has three ministers of state, 28 ministries and a secretary of the Council of Ministers, mainly: economy and society Manuel José Nunes Junior, Minister of State for Development, Pedro Sebastião, Minister of State and Presidential Security Office, Minister of State Frederico Cardoso, President of the Presidential Civil Office, Salviano de Jesus Sequeira, Secretary of the Interior, Minister of Interior Angelo Tavare Ângelo Tavares, Foreign Minister Manuel Augusto, Finance Minister Archer Mangeira, Minister of Land Management and National Reform Adam de Almeida (Adão Almeida), Minister of Public Administration, Employment and Social Security, António Paulo, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, Marcos Nhunga, Minister of Industry Bernard · Bernarda da Silva (female), Minister of Energy and Water Resources João Borges, Minister of Mineral Resources and Petroleum Diamantino Azevedo, traffic Minister Ricardo de Abreu, Minister of Construction and Public Works Manuel de Almeida, Minister of Fisheries and Oceans Maria Baptista (Maria Baptista, Female), Minister of Telecommunications and Information Technology José da Rocha, Minister of Land Planning and Housing, Ana de Carvalho (female), Minister of Economy and Planning Pedro Dafonce Pedro da Fonseca, Minister of Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation Maria Sambo (female), Minister of Education Maria Teixeira (female), Minister of Health Silvia Lu Gallery Tower (Silvia Lutucuta, female), Minister of Hotel and Tourism Maria Bragança (female), Minister of Social Action, Family and Women’s Promotion Faustina A (Faustina A Lover, female), Minister of Culture Carolina Cerqueira (female), Minister of Youth and Sports Anna Neto (female), Minister of Information Anibal Melo, veteran Minister João Dos Santos, Trade Minister Jofre Van-Dunem Junior, Environment Minister Paula Coelho (female), Secretary of the Council of Ministers Anna Maria (Ana Maria, female) and so on.
On February 13, 1991, the State Council of the Republic was established in accordance with the Constitution. The committee is the president’s political advisory body, which aims to listen to and concentrate the opinions of people from all walks of life across the country for reference when the government formulates policies. The State Council of the Republic is chaired by the President and consists of the Vice President, the Speaker, the President of the Constitutional Court, the Attorney General, the former President, the political parties or political party leaders who have seats in the Parliament, and 10 social celebrities and religious figures appointed by the President. And the chieftain.
（1）安哥拉人民解放运动（Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola），简称安人运（MPLA），1956年12月成立，安独立后一直为执政党。2016年8月召开第七次全国代表大会，选举产生新的中央委员会，多斯桑托斯再次当选为党主席，若昂·洛伦索和安东尼奥·卡索马（António Paulo Kassoma ）分别当选为党的副主席和总书记。2018年9月召开第六次特别代表大会，选举产生新的中央委员会，洛伦索接任党主席，路易莎·佩德罗·达米昂（Luísa Pedro Damião）和阿尔瓦罗·曼努埃尔·德博阿维斯塔·内图（Álvaro Manuel de Boavida Neto）分别当选为党的副主席和总书记。现有500余万正式党员。建有青年、妇女等组织及老战士协会。
（2）争取安哥拉彻底独立全国联盟（União Nacional Para a Independência Total de Angola），简称安盟（UNITA），主要反对党。成立于1966年3月，若纳斯·萨文比为创始人。1975年初同安人运、安解阵和葡当局组成过渡政府。安内战爆发后，转移到农村和丛林山区，开展反对安人运政府的游击活动。2002年2月22日，萨文比被政府军击毙。此后，安盟与政府正式签署停火协议、完成非军事化并宣布放弃武装夺权目标。2003年6月，安盟召开第九届全国代表大会，选举伊萨亚斯·萨马库瓦（Isaias Samakuwa）为党主席。2011年12月，安盟召开第十一届全国代表大会，选举产生新一届领导层，党主席萨马库瓦（Isaias Samakuwa）以85.6%的得票率再次连任，埃内斯托·穆拉托（Ernesto Mulato）和维托里诺·纳尼（Vitorino Nhany）分别任副主席和总书记。
[Administrative division] The country is divided into 18 provinces.
[Judiciary] There are the Supreme Court, the Military Court, the Court of Appeal and the General Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic. Military courts are directly under the leadership of the National Defense Security Council. The Court of Appeal specifically accepts appeals. The General Prosecutor’s Office is the national legal supervision organ and is directly under the leadership of the President. Hélder Grós, Attorney General of the Attorney General’s Office.
[Political Party] Since 1991, the multi-party system has been implemented. According to the latest figures of the Constitutional Court, there are 77 legal parties and 8 political parties in the country. The main political parties are:
(1) The Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola, referred to as the Anglia (MPLA), was established in December 1956 and has been the ruling party since independence. The seventh national congress was held in August 2016, a new central committee was elected, and Dos Santos was re-elected as party chairman, and João Lorenzo and António Paulo Kassoma were elected as party members. Vice Chairman and General Secretary. The sixth special congress was held in September 2018, a new central committee was elected, Lorenzo took over as party chairman, Luísa Pedro Damião and Alvaro Manuel · Álvaro Manuel de Boavida Neto was elected as the party’s vice chairman and general secretary. There are more than 5 million official party members. There are organizations for youth, women and other organizations and veterans.
(2) For the União Nacional Para a Independência Total de Angola, referred to as UNITA (UNITA), the main opposition party. Founded in March 1966, Jonas Savimbi is the founder. In early 1975, the Tongan People’s Movement, the Security Division and the Portuguese authorities formed a transitional government. After the outbreak of the civil war in Ang, it was transferred to the rural areas and the mountainous areas of the jungle to carry out guerrilla activities against the government of the Anglia. On February 22, 2002, Savimbi was killed by government forces. Since then, UNITA and the government formally signed a ceasefire agreement, completed demilitarization and announced the abandonment of the goal of armed capture. In June 2003, UNITA convened the Ninth National Congress to elect Isaias Samakuwa as the party chairman. In December 2011, UNITA convened the 11th National Congress to elect a new leadership. Party Chairman Isaias Samakuwa was re-elected with 85.6% of the vote, Ernesto Mula Ernesto Mulato and Vitorino Nhany served as Vice-Chairmen and General Secretary respectively.
The more influential parties are: the Angolan Broad Save Alliance (CASA-CE), the Social Reform Party (PRS), the Angolan People’s Liberation Front (FNL), the New Democratic Campaign Coalition (ND), and the Development People’s Party (PAPOD). )Wait.
Joao Manuel Gonçalves Lorenzo: President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Born on March 5, 1954 in Lobito. In the middle school period, he participated in the struggle against Portuguese colonial rule and joined the Angolan movement. From 1978 to 1982, he went to the Lenin College of the former Soviet Union to study military command courses and studied history. He obtained a master’s degree in history. From 1983 to 1989, he served as Secretary of the Provincial Party Committee and Governor of the Province of Mozambique in Angola, and the First Secretary and Governor of the Benguela Provincial Committee. From 1989 to 1991, he served as the Political Work Director of the People’s Liberation Army. From 1991 to 1998, he served as a member of the Political Bureau of the People’s Republic of China and a secretary of the press and propaganda, and a leader of the Anglican Parliament. From 1998 to 2003, he served as General Secretary of the People’s Movement of the People’s Republic of China. In 2016, he was elected Vice Chairman of the People’s Movement. In September 2018, he was elected president of Anren. From 2003 to 2014, he served as the first deputy speaker of the National Assembly. In 2014, he served as Minister of Defense. He was elected president in August 2017 and took office in September.
Bornito de Souza Baltazar Diogo: Vice President. Born in Gosua, Malange Province on July 23, 1953, he obtained a bachelor’s degree in law from the University of Nato. In 1969, he joined the An People’s Movement and joined the anti-colonial struggle. He has served as political commissar of the Second Military Region of Kabinda Province, political commissar of the Navy, deputy director of the National Political Bureau of the People’s Liberation Army, member of the National Assembly, chairman of the Judiciary Committee of the Parliament, chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee, and leader of the Anglican Parliament. He once served as the first secretary of the Youth People’s Youth League, and the secretary of the Central Committee of the People’s Republic of China, the secretary of the Central Committee of Foreign Affairs, and the secretary of the foreign affairs. He is now a member of the Central Committee of the People’s Republic of China and a member of the Politburo. From February 2010 to September 2017, he served as Minister of Land and Resources. In August 2017, he was elected vice president and took office in September.
Fernando Dapiedad Diaz Dos Santos: President of the National Assembly, member of the Political Bureau of the Central People’s Movement. Born in Luanda in 1952. Bachelor of Laws. In 1970, he engaged in the struggle against colonial rule. In 1973, he was conquered by the Portuguese colonial army and was detained by the colonial authorities for nationalist tendencies. In 1974, he left the Portuguese colonial army and joined the Angolan guerrillas. After independence, he served as the Political Department Officer of the General Staff of the People’s Liberation Army, the Police Force Ombudsman, the Political Commissar of the National People’s Movement Army of Kabinda, the Chief of the Police Force, the Deputy Minister of the Interior, the Deputy Minister of the Ministry of National Security, the Director of the General Administration of Police, and the Minister of the Interior. Waiting for a job. In December 2002, he became the Prime Minister of the National Unity for Reconciliation of the Angola. In September 2008, he became the Speaker of the National Assembly. In February 2010, he became the vice president. Since 2012, he has been the Speaker of the National Assembly.
José Eduardo dos Santos: Former President, former President of the Angolan Games. Born on August 28, 1942 in a worker’s family in Luanda. Since the middle school era, he has actively participated in the struggle against colonial rule and the struggle for national independence. In 1961, he joined the An People’s Movement. In 1962, he served as the vice chairman of the Youth People’s Youth Organization and the An People’s Mission in the Congo. From 1963 to 1970, he studied petroleum and communications in the Soviet Union and obtained a master’s degree. In 1975, he served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Health of the Central People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China. After independence, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs, First Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Planning, Director of the Planning Commission, Secretary of the Central People’s Cultural and Educational Sports of Anren, Secretary of the Ministry of National Reconstruction, and Secretary of the Ministry of Economic Development and Planning. Since September 1979, he has served as President of the Republic and Chairman of the People’s Republic of China. In September 2017, he retired as President. In September 2018, he retired as chairman of the Ansheng.
[Economy] is a least developed country. There is a certain industrial and agricultural foundation, but successive years of war have caused serious damage to infrastructure and economic development has been greatly affected. After the end of the civil war in 2002, the government shifted its focus to economic recovery and social development, worked hard to adjust the economic structure, increased infrastructure construction, and prioritized investment in social development projects related to the national economy and the people’s livelihood. At the same time, it actively carried out mutually beneficial economic and trade cooperation with other countries. Reconstruction attracts foreign investment. Angola is now one of the third largest economies and the largest source of investment in sub-Saharan Africa. Oil is the pillar industry of the Angolan national economy. In December 2006, Angola joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). As the price of crude oil in the international market climbs, the export revenue of An Oil has increased significantly. According to the statistics of the International Monetary Fund, the Angola economy grew at an average annual rate of 11.1% from 2001 to 2010, ranking first in the world.
After the outbreak of the international financial crisis in 2008, affected by the fall in crude oil prices in the international market, the government’s fiscal revenue and foreign investment in security decreased, and several large-scale infrastructure construction projects were even forced to stop work. The economic growth rate of Angola slowed down significantly. Growth of 2.4%. The government has taken a number of measures to actively respond, tighten government spending, strengthen foreign exchange controls, promote diversified economic development, and at the same time seek international assistance, obtain large loans from the International Monetary Fund and some countries, and the international oil price has stabilized and stabilized. recovery. In 2010 and 2011, the economy grew by 3.4% and 3.9% respectively. In 2012, Angola launched the “Angolan Manufacturing Plan” to vigorously promote economic diversification, gradually reduce the dependence of the national economy on the petroleum industry, and introduced a number of specific measures to support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. Angolan companies acquired assets in the fields of telecommunications, banking, and energy in Portugal. In October 2012, Ann announced the establishment of a sovereign wealth fund with a starting amount of US$5 billion, mainly from oil and mining revenues, mainly providing financial support for infrastructure, finance, industry, agriculture and tourism. Since July 1, 2013, the new oil exchange rate law has been officially implemented, and the proceeds from the operation of the oil company and other foreign institutions in the security operations must be settled in the local currency. Since the second half of 2014, affected by fluctuations in international oil prices, Angola’s economic development has faced difficulties, fiscal revenues have decreased, foreign exchange reserves have declined, and economic growth has slowed further.
The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product (GDP): $98.6 billion.
Per capita GDP: $3,308.
Economic growth rate: -0.5%.
Foreign exchange reserves: $ 15.4 billion.
Total external debt: $37.9 billion.
Currency name: Kwanza (Kz).
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 308.6 Kwanza.
(Source: First Quarter of 2019, Economic Quarterly Review)
[Resources] Rich in oil, natural gas and mineral resources. Angola has proven oil recoverable reserves of more than 12.6 billion barrels and natural gas reserves of 7 trillion cubic meters. The main minerals are diamond, iron, phosphate, copper, manganese, uranium, lead, tin, zinc, tungsten, gold, quartz, marble and granite. Hydropower, agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery resources are abundant. The water resource potential is 140 billion cubic meters, hydropower generation accounts for 75% of the country’s total power generation, and the remaining 25% comes from thermal power generation.
[External Relations] Pursuing a peaceful coexistence and non-aligned foreign policy; advocating the development of relations with countries around the world on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty, non-interference in internal affairs and equality and mutual benefit; adhering to an independent and pluralistic diplomatic line, and attaching importance to diplomacy as a domestic economy Building services; calling for the establishment of a new international political and economic order, strengthening South-South cooperation, actively participating in regional and international affairs, and striving to improve its influence.
Now the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Economic Community of Central African States, the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the Group of 77, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the International Civil Aviation Organization, Member of international and regional organizations such as the World Trade Organization. He has established diplomatic relations with more than 100 countries, has embassies in more than 30 countries, and has representative offices in the European Union, the United Nations, UNESCO, and the OSCE. In 2018, the Angolan government closed more than 40 foreign embassies and consulates and representative offices for budgetary savings.
After peace was achieved in 2002, the main objectives of the Angolan government’s diplomatic work were to consolidate peace and post-war reconstruction, to focus economic diplomacy as a diplomatic work, to seek more foreign aid and investment, to actively participate in international and regional affairs, and to strive to improve international and regional The influence in the affairs contributes to regional peace and stability.
[Relationship with the United States] During the civil war in Angola, the United States supported Anwar and UNITA. With the end of the cold war and the continued destruction of the peace process in Angola by UNITA leader Savimbi, the United States stopped supporting UNITA in 1993 and recognized the Angolan government. After Angola and the United States officially established diplomatic relations in 1993, President Dos Santos visited the United States three times. The two countries have expanded their cooperation in the fields of economy, trade and energy, and the relationship has developed smoothly. In 2009, the United States signed an agreement on trade and investment with Angola, and in June 2010 held the first meeting of the US-Ministerial Trade and Investment Committee in Luanda, the capital of Angola. In April 2013, UNITA President Samakuva visited the United States. In May 2014, US Secretary of State Kerry visited An. In August 2014, Vice President Angola Vicente went to the United States to attend the first US-Africa summit. In May 2017, Defense Minister Lorenzo visited the United States. In March 2019, the US Deputy Secretary of State visited An. Angola is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act. At present, Angola is an important US trade partner and oil supplier in Africa. In 2017, the trade volume between the two countries was about 3.4 billion US dollars. The United States mainly exports machinery and equipment, food, steel products, electronic products and aircraft to Angola, and imports crude oil and diamonds from Angola.
[Industrial and mining] Oil and diamond mining is the pillar industry of the national economy. With an annual output of more than 600 million barrels of oil, it is the second largest oil producer in Africa. In 2018, oil exports were 537 million barrels, a decrease of 59 million barrels compared with 2017, and the fiscal revenue of oil exports was 3.33 trillion kwanza. With a reserve of about 180 million carats of diamonds, it is the fifth largest producer of diamonds in the world. In 2018, Anguoying Diamond Company sold 8.2 million carats of rough diamonds with a revenue of 12 billion US dollars. The main industries are cement, building materials, vehicle assembly and repair, textile and garment, food and aquatic products processing.
In May 2016, the Angolan government reorganized Angola (Sonangol). After the reorganization, Sonangol is no longer responsible for oil exploration, production and tendering, only retains the petroleum industry franchise and supervises and manages the oil contract. The Angolan government set up a senior supervisory committee for the petroleum industry to exercise the functions of the state’s shareholders, and established the Petroleum Administration to participate in the granting of oil blocks and dispute settlement. In February 2019, the Angolan government established the National Oil and Gas and Biofuels Authority to exercise national franchise functions in related fields.
[Agriculture] The land is fertile, the rivers are densely covered, and the natural conditions for developing agriculture are good. Before Angola’s independence, food was not only self-sufficient, but also exported in large quantities. It was hailed as the “Southern African Granary” and its export of sisal and coffee was among the highest in the world. But decades of civil war have caused serious damage to the agricultural production system, and nearly half of the food supply is dependent on imports or aid. The country has a land area of about 35 million hectares, and the current cultivated area is about 3.5 million hectares. The agricultural population accounts for about 65% of the national population, and the per capita cultivated area is 0.18 hectares. The northern part is an economic crop producing area, mainly planting coffee, sisal, sugar cane, cotton, peanuts and other crops. The central plateau and southwestern regions are grain-producing areas, mainly producing corn, cassava, rice, wheat, potatoes, and beans. The average yield per plant is low, with 500 kg/ha for corn, 1000 kg/ha for rice and 200 kg/ha for soybeans. In 2013, the grain output was 1.5 million tons, the food self-sufficiency rate was 30%, and the food gap was 3 million tons.
[Fish Industry] Rich in fishery resources, it is rich in lobster, crab and various marine fish. The fishery has good operating conditions, small wind and waves, and can be operated year-round. Most small and medium-sized fishery companies have been privatized. The fishery is an important industry and employs about 50,000 people. Benguela and Namibe are important fishing areas. In 2015, the amount of fishing was about 400,000 tons.
[Animal Husbandry] Angola has an area of 54 million hectares and a traditional livestock breeding area in the south. Animal husbandry can meet the supply of beef, mutton and chicken in about 50% of Angola.
[Transportation] is mainly based on road transportation. The civil war has caused serious damage to transportation facilities. According to the Angolan government data, since 2005, the Angolan government has invested a total of 25 billion US dollars to complete 12,435 kilometers of national road repairs. There are still 8,570 kilometers of roads being repaired and 4,985 kilometers of roads to be repaired.
Highway: The total mileage is 75,000 kilometers, of which 18,000 kilometers are tarmac roads, and the rest are gravel soil roads with a total length of 25,000 kilometers. In 2010, the road transported 201 million passengers and the cargo was 4.459 million tons.
Railway: The total mileage is 2,800 kilometers, with three main lines: Benguela, Namibe and Luanda-Marange. The Angolan government is repairing the national railway network, plans to invest billions of dollars to repair a total length of about 2,700 kilometers of railway. In 2014, the Benguela Railway Restoration Project was completed and officially opened to traffic, with 500,000 passengers and 10 million tons of cargo.
Water transport: The total tonnage of the shipping fleet is more than 100,000 tons. The main ports such as Luanda, Lobito, Namibe and Cabinda can all be docked for 10,000-ton cargo ships. There are about 1,300 kilometers of water transport routes. The port of Luanda is responsible for handling about 80% of the country’s imported goods. The port of Lobito is one of the best ports on the west coast of Africa. The Cabinda New Bridge Pier has a draught of 4-10 meters and can be docked with ships of 600 to 800 containers and a length of 130 meters.
Air transport: Angola National Airline (TAAG) is a member of ICAO. It has the largest passenger and cargo transportation volume in Africa. It operates several domestic and international routes and has Boeing 777, 747 and 737. In addition, SONAIR is one of the major airlines in Angola, operating direct flights from Luanda to Houston, USA, as well as domestic, regional and international charter flights. There are 193 airports of various types in the country, including 5 large airports. Luanda International Airport can take off and land large passenger planes to Portugal (Lisbon, Porto), France, Britain, Germany, Belgium, Brazil, Cuba, United Arab Emirates, United States, and Mozambique, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia, Zambia, Nigeria Flights from Cameroon, Central Africa, Sao Tome and Principe, Cape Verde, Congo (Brazzaville) and Congo (Kinshasa). Airports such as Cabinda and Benguela have been refurbished, and the first phase of the capital Luanda New International Airport is under construction. The new airport plans to build two runways in the north and south, which can be used for take-off and landing of Airbus A380 passengers. The designed passenger flow can reach 15 million passengers/year and the freight volume is 600,000 tons/year, which will become one of the largest airports in Africa. In 2012, An Shipping sent 2.25 million passengers. In 2013, Angola passed the “New Civil Aviation Law” to make clear provisions on illegal interference flight, threat to civil aviation safety, hijacking and other acts.
【军 事】安哥拉武装力量（简称FAA）为国家军队，成立于1991年，现有陆军8.4万人，空军1.1万人，海军5000人。国家元首兼任武装部队总司令。武装力量总参谋长安东尼奥·埃吉迪奥·德索萨·桑托斯（António Egídio de Sousa Santos）。安全和公共秩序支出占国家预算的17.8%。近年来，安海军多次参加几内亚湾海上联合军演。2018年，安政府先后推出《国防战略概念》和《国防白皮书》等国防战略指导性文件。
【新闻出版】《安哥拉日报》（Jornal de Angola）为葡文官方日报，1923年创刊，发行量5万余份，开设政治、经济、体育、文化、社会等版面，信息主要来自安哥拉通讯社、葡通社（LUSA）、法新社、路透社、西班牙埃菲社等，在全国18个省有记者站。《共和国公报》为安哥拉政府官方不定期刊物，葡文。《安哥拉北方》、《支部》由安人运主办，《劳动者之声》由工人联合会主办。《对外贸易》、《能源》为专业性杂志、季刊。
[Foreign Aid] Bilateral assistance is mainly provided by the United States, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Portugal. Multilateral assistance mainly comes from the European Union, the International Development Association, UNICEF, UNHCR, UNDP, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, African Development Bank and other organizations.
[People’s life] The average life expectancy is 62 years (2018). The safe drinking water coverage rate is 54% (2018), the power population coverage rate is 42% (2015), and the national unemployment rate is 20% (2018).
Free medical care is implemented throughout the country. As of 2012, there were 2,337 medical institutions across the country, with an average of 1.5 doctors per 1,000 people and 23.9 nurses. There are about 300,000 AIDS patients and about 2,000 new infections. In recent years, the AIDS epidemic in Angola has stabilized and the infection rate is about 5%, making it one of the countries with the lowest HIV prevalence among African countries. The incidence of malaria in the country is about 10%, and the incidence of malaria in rural areas is 14 times higher than that in urban areas. The coverage of health care services is 44%. From the end of 2015 to 2016, a large-scale yellow fever epidemic broke out in Angola, with 4,599 confirmed cases and 384 deaths with a mortality rate of 8.36%. At the end of 2016, a cholera epidemic broke out in Assault. As of February 2017, 252 suspected cases of cholera were found and 11 deaths were reported. From the end of 2017 to January 2018, there was another outbreak of cholera in Ang, and 6 cases died. In addition, in January 2017, the Communist Party found 3 cases of Zika virus infection.
[Military] The Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) is a national army. It was established in 1991. It has 84,000 troops, 11,000 airmen and 5,000 navies. The head of state also serves as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, António Egídio de Sousa Santos. Security and public order expenditures accounted for 17.8% of the national budget. In recent years, the An Navy has participated in the joint military exercise in the Gulf of Guinea. In 2018, the Angolan government issued the “Defense Strategy Concept” and “National Defense White Paper” and other defense strategy guidance documents.
[Cultural Education] Angola’s culture and art have many forms of expression, mainly music, traditional dance, handicrafts, musical instruments, oil paintings and sand paintings.
The education system is divided into basic education, secondary education and higher education. Basic education is compulsory and has a schooling system for 8 years. Children are enrolled from the age of 7. At present, there are 60 higher education institutions in the country, including 20 public education institutions. Agostinho Neto University is the only national comprehensive university with 40 private education institutions. In 2016, there were 240,000 higher education students. There are more than 8,000 teachers and about 14,000 graduates/year. The primary and secondary education systems registered 7.758 million students, including 744,000 pre-school, 5.104 million primary schools, 1.91 million secondary schools, 171,000 teachers, and 30,000 schools. Education spending accounts for 5.8% of the national budget. According to the statistics of the government in 2016, the literacy rate is 81%.
[Press and Publication] “Jornal de Angola” is the Portuguese official daily newspaper. It was founded in 1923 and has a circulation of more than 50,000 copies. It offers political, economic, sports, cultural and social layouts. The information mainly comes from the Angolan news agency and Portugal. The company (LUSA), AFP, Reuters, Effie of Spain, etc., has reporter stations in 18 provinces across the country. The Republican Gazette is an official journal of the Angolan government, Portuguese. “North of Angola” and “Branch” were hosted by An Renyun, and “The Voice of Laborers” was hosted by the Workers’ Federation. “Foreign Trade” and “Energy” are professional magazines and quarterly magazines.
Angolan News Agency (ANGOP): National News Agency, established in Luanda in July 1975, has hundreds of editorial journalists and seven branches abroad. Domestic and international news is broadcast 24 hours a day, and about 300 news items are posted daily. Publish news in Portuguese, French, English and Spanish, about 30-35 times a day.
National Radio (RNA) of Angola: State-run, headquartered in Luanda, with branches in 18 provinces, using FM, medium wave and short wave broadcasts, with signals covering the whole country. It has 6 prefecture-level radio stations, 18 provincial radio stations, 7 regional radio stations, and 30 broadcast centers. The broadcast time is 24 hours, 18 hours and 12 hours respectively. The program is broadcast in Portuguese and dozens of national languages, and broadcasts in Portuguese, English and French.
Angola Television (TPA): State-run, headquartered in Luanda, premiered in Luanda on October 18, 1975. Existing TPA-1 (integrated), TPA-2 (Entertainment and Youth) and TPA International channels are broadcast in Portuguese and a variety of national languages, and broadcast in Portuguese, Western, English and French. It is broadcasted on satellite and cable networks and has a partnership with Portuguese Television (RTP).
【电 信】2001年，安哥拉宣布放弃国家对电信业的垄断，私有化比例最高可达40%。主要电信公司有：国营安哥拉电信公司（ANGOLA TELECOM）、联合电信公司（UNITEL）和移动电信公司（MOVICEL）。安哥拉正在逐步升级电信系统，并引入先进的数字系统。2012年4月，移动电信公司推出了新一代LTE服务，标志着安哥拉首个LTE商用网络开始运营。12月，联合电信公司也推出了4G LTE服务。据统计，截至2016年，安手机和互联网用户分别有1300余万和450余万，其中联合电信公司用户995万。
【旅 游】安哥拉建立了国家公园和保护区，如罗安达省奎卡玛国家公园、莱多角旅游区，马兰热省卡兰杜拉旅游区，宽多库帮戈省奥卡万戈旅游区，莫西科省卡米亚国家公园等。安哥拉与赞比亚、津巴布韦、博茨瓦纳和纳米比亚建立了跨境自然环境保护区。大黑羚羊（Black Antelopes）是安哥拉独有的动物，也是安哥拉国家的标志和象征。目前，安共有183家酒店，88家度假村和6家旅行社，总床位数达17855张。根据2014年安旅游统计年报，2014年安接待境外游客59.4万人次，创收5亿美元。
目前，安哥拉共有20余家商业银行，主要有：储蓄和信贷银行（BPC），国际信贷银行（BIC），安哥拉发展银行（BFA），安哥拉投资银行（BAI），太阳银行（Banco Sol），千禧银行（Banco Millenium）等。2018年，安国家银行提高对商业银行的最低资本金要求，Banco Mais和Banco Postal等银行因资本金不足被吊销营业执照。
[Telecom] In 2001, Angola announced that it would abandon the state’s monopoly on the telecommunications industry, with a privatization rate of up to 40%. The main telecommunications companies are: ANGOLA TELECOM, UNITEL and MOVICEL. Angola is gradually upgrading its telecommunications system and introducing advanced digital systems. In April 2012, mobile telecommunications company launched a new generation of LTE services, marking the beginning of operation of Angola’s first LTE commercial network. In December, United Telecom also launched 4G LTE services. According to statistics, as of 2016, there were more than 13 million mobile phones and Internet users, respectively, and more than 4.5 million, including 9.94 million users of United Telecom.
[Travel] Angola has established national parks and protected areas, such as the Quinca National Park in Luanda, the tourist area of Ledo, the Kalandura tourist area in Malange, and the Okavango tourist area in Kuando Kubango. Mozambique, Kamia National Park, etc. Angola has established cross-border natural environmental protection zones with Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia. The Black Antelopes are unique to Angola and a symbol and symbol of the Angolan state. At present, there are 183 hotels, 88 resorts and 6 travel agencies, with a total of 17,855 beds. According to the 2014 annual report on tourism statistics, in 2014, Ann received 554,000 overseas tourists and generated a revenue of 500 million US dollars.
[Financial Finance] In recent years, the Angolan government has vigorously supported the non-oil industry, promoted balanced development of all sectors of the national economy, strengthened economic diversification, and achieved long-term sustainable development of the country. At the same time, it will continue to regulate inflation, implement a sound debt and monetary policy, regulate the financial industry, and maintain macroeconomic stability. In 2019, the state budget totaled 13.36 trillion kwanza. It is expected that the economy will grow by 2.8% in 2019, of which the oil and gas sector is expected to grow by 3.1%, the non-oil sector is expected to grow by 2.6%, and the annual cumulative inflation rate is expected to be 15%.
At present, there are more than 20 commercial banks in Angola, mainly including: Savings and Credit Bank (BPC), International Credit Bank (BIC), Angola Development Bank (BFA), Angola Investment Bank (BAI), Sun Bank (Banco Sol), and Thousand Bank (Banco Millenium) and so on. In 2018, Angola Bank raised the minimum capital requirement for commercial banks, and banks such as Banco Mais and Banco Postal were revoked business licenses due to insufficient capital.
[Foreign Trade] Mainly exports oil, diamonds, natural gas, coffee, sisal, aquatic products and other aquaculture products, wood, cotton, etc., mainly imported mechanical and electrical equipment, vehicles and their parts, medicines, food, textiles, etc. According to Ann’s National Development Plan 2013-2017, in order to protect domestic production, restrict monopoly operations, and eliminate low-end importers, the Angolan government has import quotas for importers and will gradually restrict imports of manufactured goods and encourage bulk commodities. import.
[Foreign Capital] Angola is a major direct investment destination country in Africa. From 2003 to 2011, foreign direct investment totaled over US$58 billion. Foreign capital is mainly concentrated in the petroleum industry, diamond mining, liquefied natural gas, public works, construction, telecommunications, fisheries and processing industries. The main investment countries are the United States, France, Italy, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Germany, Spain, Japan, Brazil, South Africa, South Korea and so on. The capital, Luanda, is the most concentrated investment destination for foreign investment. In addition, the provinces of Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Wanbo, Huila, Zaire and Cabinda have also attracted more foreign investment.
On March 1, 2014, the new tariff law of Angola was officially implemented. The new tariff law product list covers 6651 products, of which 2942 are tax-free and 1150 are reduced to 2%. However, the tariff rate for eggs, garlic, carrots, toilet paper, non-alcoholic beverages increased to 30%, and the tariff rate for vegetables such as yam, sugar cane and cabbage increased to 35%.
In August 2015, Ann enacted a new Private Investment Law, which introduced specific measures to simplify private investment approval procedures, increase tax incentives and incentives, and attract foreign investment in Angola to promote economic diversification.
[Relationship with the EU] The EU is the largest aid partner of Angola. From 2008 to 2013, the EU provided a total of 250 million euros in aid to the government, including the government, justice, health, education, and human rights. The EU is an important economic partner of the Security Council. The EU is the largest importer of Angola and the third largest trading partner of Angola. In April 2014, President Dos Santos paid a state visit to France. In April 2014, Vice President Vicente attended the 4th European-African Summit as the representative of President Dos Santos. In July 2015, French President Hollande visited Angola. In the same month, President Dos Santos visited Italy. In November 2017, President Lorenzo attended the 5th European-African Summit. In May and June 2018, President Lorenzo visited France and Belgium respectively. In August 2018, President Lorenzo visited Germany.
[Relationship with Portugal] Portugal is the original sovereign state of Angola and has maintained a deep relationship with Angola in various fields including politics, economy and society. In 2010, the two countries established a strategic partnership. At the end of 2013, Anshang discontinued the strategic partnership between the two parties. In 2014, the Portuguese Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Ministers visited Angola successively, and the relationship between the two countries changed. In September 2018, Portuguese Prime Minister Costa visited San. In November 2018, President Lorenzo visited Portugal. In March 2019, Portuguese President De Souza visited Angola. At present, Portugal has about 200,000 overseas Chinese, and is the largest investor in the African and African oil fields.
[Relationship with African countries] Attach importance to and prioritize the development of relations with African countries, and close relations with neighboring countries such as Zimbabwe, Namibia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and form a joint defense alliance. Attach importance to the promotion of influence and voice in regional organizations such as the AU, SADC, ECOWAS, and the Gulf of Guinea Committee, and play a positive role in promoting regional peace and stability and resolving conflicts. From January 2014 to October 2017, Angola served as the rotating presidency of the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region. In October 2017, President Lorenzo attended the summit meeting of the Great Lakes International Conference. In August 2017, Angola served as the chairman of the SADC Political, Defence and Security Institution. In November 2017, Angola held a troika and presidency summit to discuss the issue of Zimbabwe, when President Lorenzo visited South Africa. In April 2018, Angola hosted a special summit of the SADC and its political, defense and security agencies “Double Troika” to discuss the situation in Congo (DRC), Lesotho and Madagascar. In August 2018, Angola hosted a regional political coordination meeting in some regions to discuss the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), South Sudan, Central Africa and Burundi.