The People’s Republic of Bangladesh 孟加拉人民共和国

【国名】孟加拉人民共和国(The People’s Republic of Bangladesh)。

【面积】147570平方公里。

【人口】约1.6亿。孟加拉族占98%,另有20多个少数民族。孟加拉语为国语,英语为官方语言。伊斯兰教为国教,穆斯林占总人口的88%。

【首都】达卡(Dhaka),人口1600万。

【国家元首】总统阿卜杜勒·哈米德(Abdul Hamid),2013年4月24日就任,2018年2月7日连任。

【重要节日】独立日和国庆日:3月26日;国民革命和团结日:11月7日;胜利日:12月16日;烈士日:2月21日;开斋节和古尔邦节(宰牲节):据回历推算,每年有变化。

【自然条件】 位于南亚次大陆东北部的恒河和布拉马普特拉河冲积而成的三角洲上。东、西、北三面与印度毗邻,东南与缅甸接壤,南临孟加拉湾。海岸线长550公里。全境85%的地区为平原,东南部和东北部为丘陵地带。大部分地区属亚热带季风气候,湿热多雨。全年分为冬季(11月至翌年2月),夏季(3—6月)和雨季(7—10月)。年平均气温为26.5℃。冬季是一年中最宜人的季节。最低温度为4℃,夏季最高温度达45℃,雨季平均温度30℃。

[Country name] The People’s Republic of Bangladesh.

[Area] 147,570 square kilometers.

[Population] about 160 million. Bangladesh accounts for 98% and there are more than 20 ethnic minorities. Bengali is the national language and English is the official language. Islam is the state religion, and Muslims make up 88% of the total population.

[Capital] Dhaka, with a population of 16 million.

[Head of State] President Abdul Hamid took office on April 24, 2013 and was re-elected on February 7, 2018.

[Important Festival] Independence Day and National Day: March 26; National Revolution and Solidarity Day: November 7; Victory Day: December 16; Martyrs Day: February 21; Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha Festival ): According to the retrospective calculation, there are changes every year.

[Natural conditions] Located on the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in the northeastern part of the South Asian subcontinent. The east, west and north sides are adjacent to India, the southeast is bordered by Myanmar, and the south is bordered by the Bay of Bengal. The coastline is 550 kilometers long. 85% of the area is plain, and the southeast and northeast are hilly areas. Most areas have a subtropical monsoon climate, hot and humid. The whole year is divided into winter (November to February), summer (March-June) and rainy season (July-October). The annual average temperature is 26.5 °C. Winter is the most pleasant season of the year. The minimum temperature is 4 ° C, the highest temperature in summer is 45 ° C, and the average temperature in the rainy season is 30 ° C.

【简史】孟加拉族是南亚次大陆古老民族之一。孟加拉地区曾数次建立过独立国家,版图一度包括现印度西孟加拉、比哈尔等邦。16世纪时孟已发展成次大陆上人口最稠密、经济最发达、文化昌盛的地区。18世纪中叶成为英国对印度进行殖民统治的中心。19世纪后半叶成为英属印度的一个省。1947年印巴分治,孟加拉划归巴基斯坦(称东巴)。1971年3月26日东巴宣布独立,1972年1月10日正式成立孟加拉人民共和国。

【政治】20世纪90年代以来,孟加拉国主要由民族主义党和人民联盟轮流执政。2006年10月,孟民族主义党政府结束5年任期。因孟主要政党对选举改革等问题分歧严重,议会解散,成立看守政府。2008年12月,孟举行第9届议会选举,人民联盟领导的联盟获胜。2009年1月6日,人盟主席谢赫·哈西娜(Sheikh Hasina,女)就任总理。2014年1月5日,孟举行第十届议会选举。人民联盟和民族主义党在大选组织形式等问题上立场相去甚远,斗争激烈。执政党人民联盟在民族主义党等反对党抵制下,组织选举并获得议会绝大多数席位。2018年12月30日,孟举行第11届议会选举,哈西娜领导的人盟以压倒性优势赢得大选。2019年1月7日,哈西娜连续第三次就任总理。

【宪法】1972年议会通过并生效。1982年3月军管后,宪法中止实行。1986年11月恢复执行宪法。截至2013年,孟宪法共经过16次修改。第16次宪法修正案主要内容是取消看守政府制度。

【议会】实行一院议会制,即国民议会(Jatiya Sangsad)。宪法规定议会行使立法权。议会由公民直接选出的300名议员和遴选的50名女议员组成,任期5年。议会设正副议长,由议员选举产生。议会还设秘书处以及专门委员会等部门。现任议长希琳·沙尔敏·乔杜里(Shirin Sharmin Chowdhury,女),2014年1月29日就任。

[A brief history] The Bengali is one of the ancient peoples of the South Asian subcontinent. The Bangladeshi region has established independent countries on several occasions. The territory once included the states of West Bengal and Bihar in India. In the 16th century, Meng had developed into the most densely populated, economically developed and culturally prosperous region on the subcontinent. The mid-18th century became the center of British colonial rule against India. In the second half of the 19th century, it became a province of British India. In 1947, India and Pakistan were divided and Bangladesh was placed in Pakistan (called Dongba). On March 26, 1971, Dongba declared independence, and on January 10, 1972, the People’s Republic of Bangladesh was formally established.

[Politics] Since the 1990s, Bangladesh has been governed by the Nationalist Party and the People’s Union. In October 2006, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party government ended its five-year term. Because of the serious differences between the main political parties and the election reforms, the parliament was dissolved and the caretaker government was established. In December 2008, Meng held the 9th parliamentary election, and the alliance led by the People’s Alliance won. On January 6, 2009, the president of the People’s Alliance, Sheikh Hasina (female), became the prime minister. On January 5, 2014, Meng held the tenth parliamentary election. The People’s Alliance and the Nationalist Party have far-reaching positions on issues such as the form of general elections and the struggle is fierce. Under the boycott of the opposition party such as the Nationalist Party, the People’s Alliance of the ruling party organized elections and won the majority of seats in the parliament. On December 30, 2018, Meng held the 11th parliamentary election, and Hasina led the people’s alliance to win the election with an overwhelming advantage. On January 7, 2019, Hasina took office for the third time in a row.

[Constitution] The Parliament passed in 1972 and entered into force. After the military administration in March 1982, the constitution was suspended. The constitution was resumed in November 1986. As of 2013, the Bangladesh Constitution has undergone 16 revisions. The main content of the 16th Constitutional Amendment is the abolition of the caretaker government system.

[Parliament] implements the one-parle parliamentary system, namely the National Assembly (Jatiya Sangsad). The Constitution stipulates that the parliament exercises legislative power. The parliament consists of 300 members directly elected by the citizens and 50 women elected by the citizens for a term of five years. The parliament is set up by the deputy speaker and elected by the members. The Parliament also has departments such as the Secretariat and special committees. The current speaker, Shirin Sharmin Chowdhury (female), took office on January 29, 2014.

【政府】孟人民联盟政府组成:谢赫·哈西娜,总理兼国防部长、公共管理部长、电力、能源与矿产资源部长、妇女儿童事务部长;外交部长阿布尔·卡拉姆·阿卜杜勒·莫门(AK Abdul Momen),财政部长穆斯塔法·卡马尔(AHM Mustafa Kamal),工业部长努尔·马吉德·马哈穆德·胡马云(Nurul Majid Mahmud Humayun),商务部长提普·孟希(Tipu Munshi),农业部长穆罕默德·阿卜杜尔·拉扎克(Muhammad Abdur Razzaque),邮政电讯和信息技术部长穆斯塔法·贾巴尔(Mustafa Jabbar),卫生和家庭福利部长扎西德·马利克(Zahid Maleque),地方政府、农村发展和合作社部长塔祖尔·伊斯拉姆(MD Tajul Islam),,内政部长阿萨杜扎曼·汗·卡马尔(Asaduzzaman Khan Kamal),住房和公共工程部长瑞扎乌尔·卡瑞姆(SM Rezaul Karim),独立战争事务部长莫扎梅尔·哈克(A.K.M. Mozammel Haque),纺织和黄麻部苟拉姆·达斯塔吉尔·伽吉(Golam Dastagir Gazi),道路运输和桥梁部长奥拜杜尔·卡德尔(Obaidul Quader),新闻部长穆罕穆德·哈桑·马哈穆德(Mohammad Hasan Mahmud),环境、森林和气候变化部长沙哈布·乌丁(MD Shahab Uddin),教育部长迪普·莫妮(Dr. Dipu Moni,女),司法和议会事务部长安尼苏尔·胡克(Anisul Huq),铁道部长努如尔·伊斯拉姆·苏简(MD Nurul Islam Sujan),计划部长曼南(M.A. Mannan),社会福利部长努鲁扎曼·艾哈迈德(Nuruzzaman Ahmed),国土部长赛义夫扎曼·乔杜里(Saifuzzaman Chowdhury),粮食部长萨汗·昌达·马居穆德(Sadhan Chandra Majumder),科技部长叶菲希·奥斯曼(Yeafesh Osman),吉大港山区事务部长巴哈杜尔·乌瑞·辛(Bir Bahadur Ushwe Sing),青年和体育部国务部长扎希德·阿桑·拉塞尔(MD Zahid Ahsan Russel),宗教事务部国务部长谢赫·MD·阿卜杜拉(Sheikh MD Abdullah),侨民福利和海外就业部国务部长(相当于常务副部长,部长空缺)伊姆兰·艾哈迈德(Imran Ahmad),劳工和就业部国务部长(部长空缺)莫努瓒·苏菲安(Begum Monnuzan Sufian,女),民航和旅游部国务部长(部长空缺)马布波·阿里(MD Mahbub Ali),渔业和畜牧业部国务部长(部长空缺)阿什拉夫·阿里·汗·卡斯鲁(MD Ashraf Ali Khan Khasru),水利部副部长(部长空缺)依纳姆尔·哈克·沙米姆(AKM Enamul Haque Shamim),灾害管理和救助部国务部长(部长空缺)依纳姆尔·拉赫曼(Dr MD Enamur Rahaman),基础和大众教育部国务部长(部长空缺)扎克尔·侯赛因(MD Zakir Hossain),文化部国务部长(部长空缺)卡立德(KM Khalid)。

【行政区划】全国划分为达卡、吉大港、库尔纳、拉吉沙希、巴里萨尔、锡莱特和朗普尔7个行政区,下设64个县,472个分县,4490个乡,59990个村。

[Government] The composition of the Bangladesh People’s Alliance: Sheikh Hasina, Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, Minister of Public Administration, Minister of Electricity, Energy and Mineral Resources, Minister of Women and Children Affairs; Minister of Foreign Affairs Abul Kalam Abdul · AK Abdul Momen, Finance Minister AHM Mustafa Kamal, Industry Minister Nurul Majid Mahmud Humayun, Minister of Commerce Tip Tipu Munshi, Minister of Agriculture Muhammad Abdur Razzaque, Minister of Posts and Information Technology Mustafa Jabbar, Minister of Health and Family Welfare Tashi Zahid Maleque, Minister of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives, MD Tajul Islam, Minister of the Interior, Asaduzzaman Khan Kamal, Housing and Public Works Minister SM Rezaul Karim, Minister of Independent War Affairs AKM Mozammel Haque, Textile and Golam Dastagir Gazi, Minister of Road Transport and Bridges, Obaidul Quader, Minister of Information Muhammad Hassan Mahmoud (Mohammad Hasan Mahmud), Minister of Environment, Forests and Climate Change MD Shahab Uddin, Minister of Education Dr. Dipu Moni (female), Minister of Justice and Parliamentary Affairs Anne Sour · Anisul Huq, Railway Minister MD Nurul Islam Sujan, Planning Minister MA Mannan, Minister of Social Welfare Nuruzhan Ahmed ( Nuruzzaman Ahmed), Minister of Land Saifuzzaman Chowdhury, Food Minister Sadhan Chandra Majumder, Minister of Science and Technology Yeafesh Osman, Bir Bahadur Ushwe Sing, Minister of Mountain Affairs of Chittagong, MD Zahid Ahsan Russel, Minister of State for Youth and Sports, Minister of State for Religious Affairs, Sheikh ·MD· Sheikh MD Abdullah, Minister of State for Overseas Chinese Welfare and Overseas Employment (equivalent to Deputy Minister, Minister Vacancy) Imran Ahmad, Minister of State for Labour and Employment (Minister of Vacancy) ) Begum Monnuzan Sufian (female), Minister of State for Civil Aviation and Tourism (Minister of Vacancy) MD Mahbub Ali, Minister of State for Fisheries and Livestock (Minister Vacancy) Ash MD Ashraf Ali Khan Khasru, Deputy Minister of Water Resources (Minister of Vacancy) AKM Enamul Haque Shamim, Minister of State for Disaster Management and Relief (Minister vacancy) Dr MD Enamur Rahaman, Minister of State for the Ministry of Basic and Mass Education (Division of Ministers) Ms Zakir Hossain, Minister of State for Culture (Minister of Vacancy) ) KM Khalid.

[Administrative divisions] The country is divided into seven administrative districts of Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Raj Shahi, Barisal, Sylat and Langpur. There are 64 counties, 472 sub-districts, 4490 townships, and 59990. village.

【司法机构】最高法院分为上诉法庭和高等法庭。首席大法官及法官若干人均由总统任命。首席大法官和一部分指定的法官审理上诉法庭的案件,其他法官审理高等法庭的案件。达卡有高等法院和劳工上诉法院。此外还有巡回法院,县法院,民事、刑事法院。

【政党】党派众多,主要有:

(1)孟加拉人民联盟(Awami League):前身是1949年10月建立的巴基斯坦人民穆斯林联盟,1952年改现名。孟独立后至1975年为执政党。其宗旨是民族主义、民主、社会主义和世俗主义。1992年9月人盟全国理事会修改了党章,放弃公有制原则,实行市场经济,引进自由竞争机制;实行不结盟外交政策,主张同一切国家建立友好关系。主席谢赫·哈西娜。

(2)孟加拉民族主义党(Bangladesh Nationalist Party,BNP):1978年9月成立。主张维护民族独立、主权和领土完整,信奉真主、民主、民族主义,保证社会和经济上的公正。基本政策是民主多元化、私营化、取消过多的行政干预和建立市场竞争经济。对外政策坚持中立、不结盟,主张同一切国家友好。代理主席为塔里克·拉赫曼(Tariq Rahman)。

(3)孟加拉民族党(Bangladesh Jatiya Party):1986年1月1日成立。主张维护独立和主权,建立伊斯兰理想社会,提倡民族主义、民主和社会进步,发展经济。1997年6月底民族党曾发生分裂,前总理卡齐等成立民族党(扎–穆派),后于1998年12月合并。1999年4月,时任交通部长曼久和原民族党副主席米赞成立民族党(曼久派),民族党再次分裂。民族党主流派主席为前总统侯赛因·穆罕默德·艾尔沙德(Hussain Muhammad Ershad)。

(4)伊斯兰大会党(Jamaat-e-Islami Party):1946年成立。曾因反对孟加拉国独立而遭禁。1979年重新开展活动。2001年10月,作为民族主义党领导的四党联盟一员参加大选,成为执政党之一。该党称,最终目标是将孟加拉国变成一个伊斯兰国家,主张废除一切非伊斯兰法律,认为外交政策应反映伊斯兰的理想。主席为马蒂乌尔·拉赫曼·尼扎米(Matiur Rahman Nizami)。

【重要人物】阿卜杜勒·哈米德:总统。生于1944年1月1日,毕业于达卡大学,获法律学士、硕士学位。长期从事法律工作。早年从政,先后6次当选议员。曾于2001年7—10月、2009年1月至2013年4月任议长。2013年4月24日接替病逝的前总统齐鲁尔·拉赫曼(Zillur Rahman),宣誓成为孟加拉国第20任总统。2018年2月7日,哈米德当选为孟加拉国第21任总统。

谢赫·哈西娜:总理。1947年生。孟加拉达卡大学文学学士。系孟加拉开国总统穆吉布·拉赫曼(Mujibur Rahman)的长女,长期从事政治活动,自20世纪80年代起担任人民联盟(人盟)主席。于1994—2001年、2009年至今出任总理。

[Judiciary] The Supreme Court is divided into the Appeals Tribunal and the High Court. The Chief Justice and a number of judges are appointed by the President. The Chief Justice and a number of designated judges hear cases in the Court of Appeal, and other judges hear cases in the High Court. Dhaka has the High Court and the Labor Court of Appeal. There are also circuit courts, county courts, civil and criminal courts.

[Party parties] There are many parties, mainly including:

(1) Awami League: The predecessor was the Pakistan People’s Muslim League established in October 1949. It was renamed in 1952. After independence, Meng became the ruling party in 1975. Its purpose is nationalism, democracy, socialism and secularism. In September 1992, the National Council of the People’s League revised the party constitution, abandoned the principle of public ownership, implemented a market economy, introduced a free competition mechanism, implemented a non-aligned foreign policy, and advocated the establishment of friendly relations among the same countries. President Sheikh Hasina.

(2) Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP): Established in September 1978. It advocates safeguarding national independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, and believes in God, democracy, and nationalism, and guarantees social and economic justice. The basic policy is democratic pluralism, privatization, elimination of excessive administrative intervention and establishment of a market-competing economy. Foreign policy adheres to neutrality and non-alignment, and advocates the same country-friendly. The acting chairman is Tariq Rahman.

(3) Bangladesh Jatiya Party: Established on January 1, 1986. It advocates the maintenance of independence and sovereignty, the establishment of an Islamic ideal society, the promotion of nationalism, democracy and social progress, and the development of the economy. At the end of June 1997, the Nationalist Party split, and former Prime Minister Kaqi and others established the National Party (Zha-Mupai) and merged in December 1998. In April 1999, the then Minister of Communications Man Jiu and the former National Party Vice Chairman Mi Zan founded the National Party (Manji), and the National Party split again. The chairman of the mainstream party of the National Party is former President Hussain Muhammad Ershad.

(4) Jamaat-e-Islami Party: Established in 1946. Was banned for opposing Bangladesh’s independence. Re-launched in 1979. In October 2001, a member of the four-party coalition led by the Nationalist Party participated in the general election and became one of the ruling parties. The party said that the ultimate goal is to turn Bangladesh into an Islamic state and advocate the abolition of all non-Islamic laws, arguing that foreign policy should reflect the ideals of Islam. The chairman is Matiur Rahman Nizami.

[important person] Abdul Hamid: President. Born on January 1, 1944, he graduated from Dhaka University with a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree in law. Has long been engaged in legal work. In his early years, he was elected to the government six times. He served as the speaker in July-October 2001, January 2009-April 2013. On April 24, 2013, Zillur Rahman, the former president who died, was sworn in as the 20th president of Bangladesh. On February 7, 2018, Hamid was elected as the 21st president of Bangladesh.

Sheikh Hasina: Prime Minister. Born in 1947. Bachelor of Arts, Dhaka University, Bangladesh. He is the eldest daughter of the founding President of Bangladesh, Mujibur Rahman. He has been engaged in political activities for a long time and has served as Chairman of the People’s Alliance (MAN) since the 1980s. He was appointed Prime Minister from 1994 to 2001 and 2009.

【经济】孟加拉国是最不发达国家之一,经济发展水平较低,国民经济主要依靠农业。孟近两届政府均主张实行市场经济,推行私有化政策,改善投资环境,大力吸引外国投资,积极创建出口加工区,优先发展农业。人民联盟政府上台以来,制定了庞大的经济发展计划,包括建设“数字孟加拉”、提高发电容量、实现粮食自给等,但面临资金、技术、能源短缺等挑战。2017/2018财年(2017年7月1日—2018年6月30日)主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:22.5万亿塔卡(2741.1亿美元),增长率7.86%

人均收入:1751美元,同比增长8.76%

【资源】孟矿产资源有限。主要能源天然气已公布的储量为3113.9亿立方米,主要分布在东北几小块地区,煤储量7.5亿吨。森林面积约200万公顷,覆盖率约13.4%。

【工业】工业以原材料工业为主,包括水泥、化肥、黄麻及其制品、白糖、棉纱、豆油、纸张等;重工业薄弱,制造业欠发达。主要直接投资国为美国、英国、马来西亚、日本、中国、沙特阿拉伯、新加坡、挪威、德国和韩国等。

【交通运输】公路:总里程21571公里。其中国家公路3570公里,地区公路4323公里,支线公路13678公里。76%的货运及73%的客运由公路运输承担。

铁路:总里程2835.04公里。年旅客周转量约46亿人次,货运量为7.6亿吨公里。

水运:孟加拉内河运输公司(BIWTC)拥有船只195艘。孟加拉运输公司(BSC)拥有船只13艘。

空运:孟航(Biman Bangladesh),国内航线3条,国际航线18条。孟现有国际机场3个(达卡、吉大港、锡莱特),国内机场5个。

【财政金融】截至2018年3月底,孟外汇储备324亿美元。

[Economy] Bangladesh is one of the least developed countries with a low level of economic development and the national economy relies mainly on agriculture. Both the two recent Bangladeshi governments advocated the implementation of a market economy, implemented a privatization policy, improved the investment environment, vigorously attracted foreign investment, actively created export processing zones, and prioritized the development of agriculture. Since the People’s Alliance government took office, it has formulated a huge economic development plan, including the construction of “Digital Bangladesh”, increasing power generation capacity, and achieving food self-sufficiency, but facing challenges such as capital, technology and energy shortage. The main economic data for the 2017/2018 fiscal year (July 1, 2017 – June 30, 2018) is as follows:

Gross domestic product: 22.5 trillion taka ($274.11 billion), an increase of 7.86%

Per capita income: 1751 US dollars, an increase of 8.76%

[Resources] Meng mineral resources are limited. The main energy natural gas reserves have been announced to be 311.39 billion cubic meters, mainly distributed in several small areas in the northeast, with a coal reserve of 750 million tons. The forest area is about 2 million hectares and the coverage rate is about 13.4%.

[Industrial] The industry is mainly based on raw materials, including cement, fertilizer, jute and its products, sugar, cotton yarn, soybean oil, paper, etc.; heavy industry is weak, and manufacturing is underdeveloped. The main direct investment countries are the United States, the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Japan, China, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Norway, Germany and South Korea.

[Transportation] Highway: The total mileage is 21,571 kilometers. Among them, the national highway is 3,570 kilometers, the regional highway is 4,323 kilometers, and the feeder highway is 13,678 kilometers. 76% of freight and 73% of passenger traffic are borne by road transport.

Railway: The total mileage is 2,835.04 km. The annual passenger turnover is about 4.6 billion passengers and the freight volume is 760 million tons.

Water transport: The Bangladesh River Transport Company (BIWTC) owns 195 vessels. The Bangladesh Transport Company (BSC) owns 13 vessels.

Air transport: Biman Bangladesh, 3 domestic routes and 18 international routes. There are 3 international airports (Dhaka, Chittagong, Silete) and 5 domestic airports.

[Financial Finance] As of the end of March 2018, Bangladesh’s foreign exchange reserves were 32.4 billion U.S. dollars.

【对外贸易】孟加拉国与130多个国家和地区有贸易关系,主要出口市场有美国、德国、英国、法国、荷兰、意大利、比利时、西班牙、加拿大和中国香港。主要出口产品包括:黄麻及其制品、皮革、茶叶、水产、服装等。

主要进口市场有印度、中国、新加坡、日本、中国香港、韩国、美国、英国、澳大利亚和泰国。主要进口商品为生产资料、纺织品、石油及石油相关产品、钢铁等基础金属、食用油、棉花等。

孟2017/2018财年对外贸易情况:出口额为362亿美元,进口额为544.6亿美元。

【外国援助】国际援助是孟外汇储备的重要来源,也是孟投资发展项目的主要资金来源。日本、美国、加拿大和世界银行、亚洲开发银行等国际机构是主要提供者。

【武装力量】孟加拉国武装力量由正规军和准军事力量组成。总统是武装部队最高统帅,总理掌握军队实权。陆、海、空三军分立,三军的作战指挥权分别由三军参谋长负责,实行志愿兵役制。三军总兵力约15.5万人。陆军12万人,海军1万人,空军1万人,准军事组织1.5万人。准军事力量包括边境卫队、乡村卫队、海岸警卫队、国家学员团和警察部队等。

【教育】学制为小学5年、中学7年、大学4年。现政府重视教育,规定8年级以下女生享受免费和义务教育。国立大学29所,私立大学51所。主要高校有达卡大学、孟加拉工程技术大学、拉吉沙希大学等。

【新闻出版】有1660多种报刊获准公开发行,主要孟文报纸有《团结报》《革命报》《人民之声》《新闻日报》。主要英文报纸有:《孟加拉国观察家报》《每日星报》《独立报》和《金融快报》。

通讯社:孟加拉国通讯社(国营)、联合通讯社(私营)和南亚通讯社(私营,1995年12月27日成立)。

广播电台:孟加拉电台建于1982年,除达卡的国家台外,还有8个地方台,每天用英语、乌尔都语、印地语、阿拉伯语、尼泊尔语等7种语言向欧洲、中东、巴基斯坦、印度和尼泊尔等国家和地区广播。

电视台:1964年开办,在达卡和吉大港有2个站点,在全国有11个转播站。设有2个地面卫星转播站。孟还有ATN、Channel-1、N-TV等私营电视台。

[Foreign Trade] Bangladesh has trade relations with more than 130 countries and regions. The main export markets are the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Spain, Canada and Hong Kong. The main export products include: jute and its products, leather, tea, aquatic products, clothing and so on.

The main import markets are India, China, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Thailand. The main imported commodities are production materials, textiles, petroleum and petroleum-related products, basic metals such as steel, edible oil, and cotton.

Meng’s foreign trade in 2017/2018 fiscal year: the export value was 36.2 billion US dollars, and the import value was 54.46 billion US dollars.

[Foreign Aid] International assistance is an important source of Bangladesh’s foreign exchange reserves and a major source of funding for Bangladesh’s investment development projects. International agencies such as Japan, the United States, Canada and the World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank are the main providers.

[Armed Forces] Bangladesh’s armed forces are composed of regular army and paramilitary forces. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces, and the prime minister has the power to control the military. The three armies of the land, sea and air are separated. The operational command of the three armies is under the responsibility of the chiefs of staff of the three armed forces, and the system of voluntary military service is implemented. The total strength of the three armed forces is about 155,000. The army has 120,000 people, the navy has 10,000 people, the air force has 10,000 people, and the paramilitary organization has 15,000 people. Paramilitary forces include the Border Guard, the Country Guard, the Coast Guard, the National Training Corps and the Police Force.

[Education] The academic system is 5 years for elementary school, 7 years for middle school, and 4 years for university. The current government attaches great importance to education and stipulates that girls under the age of 8 enjoy free and compulsory education. There are 29 national universities and 51 private universities. The main universities are Dhaka University, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, and Raj Shahi University.

[News and Publishing] More than 1,660 newspapers and periodicals have been approved for public distribution. The main Mengwen newspapers include “Unity”, “Revolution”, “Voice of the People” and “News Daily”. The main English newspapers are: “Bangladesh Observer”, “Daily Star”, “Independent” and “Financial Express”.

News Agency: Bangladesh News Agency (state-run), United News Agency (private) and South Asia News Agency (private, established on December 27, 1995).

Radio station: Bangladesh Radio was built in 1982. In addition to the national platform in Dhaka, there are 8 local stations. Every day, in 7 languages, including English, Urdu, Hindi, Arabic and Nepali, Broadcasting in countries and regions such as the Middle East, Pakistan, India and Nepal.

TV station: opened in 1964, has 2 stations in Dhaka and Chittagong, and 11 relay stations in the country. There are 2 ground satellite relay stations. Meng also has private TV stations such as ATN, Channel-1 and N-TV.

【外交】奉行独立自主、不结盟政策。在平衡发展同大国关系的同时,注重维护与穆斯林国家的传统关系,努力改善与印度的关系,并加强同西方国家的关系。孟加拉国积极参加联合国、不结盟运动、伊斯兰会议组织、英联邦等国际或地区性组织的活动。孟加拉国注重经济外交,强调建立公正的国际经济新秩序,致力于推动南亚区域合作进程,积极参与次区域和跨区域经济合作。孟主张全面、彻底裁军,反对西方国家利用人权问题干涉别国内政。

【同中国的关系】1975年10月4日两国建交,此后关系发展迅速,双方领导人互访频繁。孟总统齐亚·拉赫曼、艾尔沙德曾多次访华,卡·齐亚和哈西娜出任总理后均首访中国。李先念主席(1986年)、李鹏总理(1989年)、朱镕基总理(2002年1月)、贾庆林政协主席(2003年11月)、温家宝总理(2005年4月)、习近平副主席(2010年6月)、李长春同志(2012年10月)、习近平主席(2016年)先后访孟。2010年中孟建交35周年之际,哈西娜总理访华,宣布建立和发展中孟更加紧密的全面合作伙伴关系。2014年6月,孟总理哈西娜访华。11月,孟总统哈米德来华出席加强互联互通伙伴关系对话会。2015年是中孟建交40周年。5月,刘延东副总理对孟进行正式访问。6月,孟国民议会议长乔杜里赴云南出席第三届中国—南亚博览会开幕式。9月,习近平主席在出席联合国成立70周年系列峰会期间会见孟总理哈西娜。10月,孟国民议会议长乔杜里访华。2016年10月,习近平主席对孟进行国事访问,宣布将中孟关系提升为战略合作伙伴关系。

中国是孟最大的贸易伙伴和进口来源国,孟是我在南亚地区第三大贸易伙伴。2018年前9个月双边贸易额为139亿美元,增长19%,其中我对孟出口增长20%,进口增长8%。。

中国驻孟加拉国大使:张佐。馆址:Plot 2/4,Road No.3,Block-I,Baridhara,Dhaka,Bangladesh。电话:0088–2–8824862,8824164;传真:8823004。电子信箱:CHINAEMB@BDMAIL.NET。经商处电话:8825272,8823313;传真:8823082。

孟加拉国驻华大使:M.法兹勒·卡里姆(M Fazlul Karim)。馆址:北京市朝阳区光华路42号。电话:010–65322521,65323706;传真:65324346。E-mail:embbd@public.intercom.com.cn。

[Diplomatic] pursues an independent and non-aligned policy. While balancing the development of relations with major powers, we will focus on maintaining traditional relations with Muslim countries, strive to improve relations with India, and strengthen relations with Western countries. Bangladesh actively participates in the activities of international or regional organizations such as the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Commonwealth. Bangladesh attaches importance to economic diplomacy, emphasizes the establishment of a fair new international economic order, is committed to promoting the process of regional cooperation in South Asia, and actively participates in sub-regional and inter-regional economic cooperation. Meng advocated full and complete disarmament and opposed the use of human rights by Western countries to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries.

[Relationship with China] On October 4, 1975, the two countries established diplomatic relations. Since then, relations have developed rapidly and leaders of both sides have exchanged visits frequently. President Zia Rahman and Elshad have visited China many times. Kaziya and Hasina first visited China after they became prime ministers. Chairman Li Xiannian (1986), Premier Li Peng (1989), Premier Zhu Rongji (January 2002), Chairman Jia Jialin, CPPCC (November 2003), Premier Wen Jiabao (April 2005), Vice President Xi Jinping (June 2010) ) Comrade Li Changchun (October 2012) and President Xi Jinping (2016) visited Meng. On the occasion of the 35th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Bangladesh in 2010, Prime Minister Hasina visited China and announced the establishment and development of a more comprehensive and comprehensive partnership between China and Bangladesh. In June 2014, Prime Minister Hasina visited China. In November, President Hamid came to China to attend the dialogue on strengthening the partnership. 2015 marks the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Bangladesh. In May, Vice Premier Liu Yandong paid an official visit to Bangladesh. In June, the chairman of the Bangladesh National Assembly, Chowdhury, went to Yunnan to attend the opening ceremony of the third China-South Asia Expo. In September, President Xi Jinping met with Prime Minister Hasina during the series of summits on the 70th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations. In October, the chairman of the Bangladesh National Assembly, Chaudhry, visited China. In October 2016, President Xi Jinping paid a state visit to Bangladesh and announced the promotion of China-Bangladesh relations as a strategic partnership.

China is Bangladesh’s largest trading partner and import source country. Meng is my third largest trading partner in South Asia. In the first nine months of 2018, the bilateral trade volume was US$13.9 billion, an increase of 19%. Among them, my exports to Bangladesh increased by 20% and imports increased by 8%. .

Chinese Ambassador to Bangladesh: Zhang Zuo. Website: Plot 2/4, Road No. 3, Block-I, Baridhara, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Tel: 0088–2–882,862,8824,164; fax:8823004. E-mail: CHINAEMB@BDMAIL.NET. Business Office Tel: 8825272, 8823313; Fax: 8822882.

Bangladesh Ambassador to China: M. Fazlul Karim. Website: No. 42 Guanghua Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing. Tel: 010–65322521, 65323706; fax: 65324346. E-mail: embbd@public.intercom.com.cn.

【同美国的关系】孟加拉国政府为摆脱贫困,寻求外援,积极谋求发展同美国的关系。美重视孟“温和穆斯林”人口大国和地区战略地位,一直是孟最大的贸易和投资国,至今已累计向孟提供50多亿美元援助。近年来,两国元首、高官保持密切接触。2012年5月,美国务卿克林顿访孟,两国宣布建立“伙伴关系对话”机制。美承诺未来5年内向孟提供10亿美元援助,并提供数千万美元用于气候变化、卫生、粮食安全等领域。2016年8月,美国务卿克里访孟,双方同意在反恐交流和执法安全等领域加强合作。

【同印度的关系】孟加拉国重视改善和发展与印度的关系。印欢迎哈西娜领导的人盟上台执政,期待与孟进一步加强双边友谊与合作。2010年1月,孟总理哈西娜访印,孟印在基础设施建设、贸易、电力等领域达成具体成果,印度允诺向孟提供10亿美元贷款,孟允许印度使用吉大港和蒙格拉港。2011年9月,印度总理辛格访孟,两国在贸易、教育、交通等领域签署多项合作文件。但在孟关心的跨境河流分水和印关心的跨境交通等方面未能取得进展。2014年6月莫迪政府执政以来重视同孟关系,印外长斯瓦拉吉访孟。2015年6月,印总理莫迪访孟,双方签署22项合作文件,涉及经贸、交通、科技、安全和人文等众多领域。2017年4月,孟总理哈西娜访印,双方签署了关于防务合作、贸易投资、能源电子等34项合作文本。2018年4月,孟总理哈西娜在英国出席第25届英联邦政府首脑峰会期间同印总理莫迪会面。5月,孟总理哈西娜访问印度西孟加拉邦,并同莫迪总理会面。

[Relationship with the United States] The Bangladesh government seeks to develop foreign relations and seek to develop relations with the United States in order to get rid of poverty. The United States attaches importance to the strategic position of Bangladesh’s “moderate Muslim” population and region, and has always been Bangladesh’s largest trade and investment country. It has so far provided more than 5 billion US dollars in aid to Bangladesh. In recent years, the two heads of state and senior officials have maintained close contact. In May 2012, US Secretary of State Clinton visited Bangladesh and the two countries announced the establishment of a “partnership dialogue” mechanism. The United States promises to provide 1 billion U.S. dollars in aid to Bangladesh in the next five years and provide tens of millions of dollars for climate change, sanitation, food security and other fields. In August 2016, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Bangladesh and the two sides agreed to strengthen cooperation in the areas of counter-terrorism exchanges and law enforcement security.

[Relationship with India] Bangladesh attaches importance to improving and developing relations with India. India welcomes the people’s alliance led by Hasina to take office and looks forward to further strengthening bilateral friendship and cooperation with Bangladesh. In January 2010, Prime Minister Hasina visited India. Mengyin reached concrete results in infrastructure construction, trade, electricity and other fields. India promised to provide Bangladesh with a loan of 1 billion US dollars. Meng allowed India to use Chittagong and Mongla. In September 2011, Indian Prime Minister Singh visited Bangladesh and the two countries signed a number of cooperation documents in the fields of trade, education and transportation. However, no progress has been made in the cross-border traffic of Bangladesh’s cross-border rivers and the cross-border traffic. Since the Modi government took office in June 2014, it has attached importance to relations with Bangladesh. Indian Foreign Minister Swaraj visited Bangladesh. In June 2015, Indian Prime Minister Modi visited Bangladesh and the two sides signed 22 cooperation documents covering various fields such as economy, trade, transportation, science and technology, security and humanities. In April 2017, Prime Minister Hasina visited India and the two sides signed 34 cooperation texts on defense cooperation, trade and investment, and energy electronics. In April 2018, Prime Minister Hasina met with Indian Prime Minister Modi during the 25th Commonwealth Summit in the UK. In May, Prime Minister Hasina visited India’s West Bengal and met with Prime Minister Modi.