The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria 阿尔及利亚民主人民共和国

【国名】阿尔及利亚民主人民共和国(The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria)。

【面积】238万平方公里。

【人口】4220万(2017年)。大多数是阿拉伯人,其次是柏柏尔人(约占总人口20%)。少数民族有姆扎布族和图阿雷格族。官方语言为阿拉伯语,通用法语。伊斯兰教为国教。

【首都】阿尔及尔(Algiers),人口376万。

【国家元首】临时总统阿卜杜勒卡德尔·本萨拉赫(Abdelkader Bensalah),2019年4月被议会两院全会任命为临时总统。

【重要节日】独立日:7月5日;国庆日:11月1日。

【自然地理】非洲面积最大的国家。位于非洲西北部。北临地中海,东临突尼斯、利比亚,南与尼日尔、马里和毛里塔尼亚接壤,西与摩洛哥、西撒哈拉交界。海岸线长约1200公里。北部沿海地区属地中海气候,中部为热带草原气候;南部为热带沙漠气候。每年8月最热,最高气温29℃,最低气温22℃;1月最冷,最高气温15℃,最低气温9℃。

[Country name] The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria.

[Area] 2.38 million square kilometers.

[Population] 42.2 million (2017). Most are Arabs, followed by Berbers (about 20% of the total population). Ethnic minorities include the Mzabu and Tuareg. The official language is Arabic and general French. Islam is the state religion.

[Capital] Algiers, with a population of 3.76 million.

[National Head of State] Abdelkader Bensalah, the interim president, was appointed interim president by the parliamentary assembly in April 2019.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: July 5th; National Day: November 1.

[Natural Geography] The largest country in Africa. Located in northwestern Africa. It borders the Mediterranean Sea in the north, Tunisia and Libya in the east, Niger, Mali and Mauritania in the south, and Morocco and Western Sahara in the west. The coastline is about 1,200 kilometers long. The northern coastal region has a Mediterranean climate with a savanna climate in the middle and a tropical desert climate in the south. The hottest in August every year, the highest temperature is 29 °C, the lowest temperature is 22 °C; the coldest in January, the highest temperature is 15 °C, the lowest temperature is 9 °C.

【简史】公元前3世纪,在阿北部建立过两个柏柏尔王国。后罗马、拜占庭、阿拉伯、西班牙、土耳其入侵。1830年法国开始入侵,阿逐步沦为法殖民地。1958年9月19日阿临时政府成立。1962年7月 3日正式宣布独立,7月5日定为独立日。1963年9月,本·贝拉当选首任总统。1965年6月,胡阿里·布迈丁政变上台,成立革命委员会,自任主席兼总理。1976年12月布当选为总统。1979年2月沙德利·本·杰迪德上校当选总统。1992年1月,沙辞职,以穆罕默德·布迪亚夫为首的五人最高国务委员会成立并行使总统职权。7月,卡菲继任最高国务委员会主席。1994年1月,最高国务委员会主席卸任,拉明·泽鲁阿勒被任命为总统。1995年11月泽当选总统。1995年至1997年间,阿完成修宪公投,通过政党法并先后举行总统、立法、地方及民族院(参议院)的选举,各级政权建设基本完成。1998 年9月11日,泽宣布提前卸任。1999年4月15日,阿举行总统选举,阿卜杜勒阿齐兹·布特弗利卡当选总统,并于2004年、2009年、2014年三度连任。2019年2月以来,阿爆发多轮大规模民众示威游行,抗议布特弗利卡总统谋求第5任期。4月2日,布特弗利卡总统宣布辞职。9日,阿议会两院全会投票确认总统职位空缺,由民族院(上院)议长本萨拉赫任临时总统。10日,本萨拉赫宣布7月4日举行总统大选。阿正式启动政治过渡进程。

【政治】2019年2月以来,阿局势发生重大变化。3月31日,布特弗利卡总统宣布辞职前成立新政府,包括总理及27名部长,前政府中只有6名部长留任。

【宪法】阿独立以来共颁布三部宪法。现行宪法于1989年2月颁布,于1996年11月经全民公投修订。修订后的宪法主要内容是:确定阿的伊斯兰、阿拉伯、柏柏尔属性;禁止在宗教、语言、种族、性别、社团主义和地方主义的基础上成立政党;议会由国民议会和民族院组成;总统在议会产生前及其休会期间可以法令形式颁布法律;如政府施政纲领两次被国民议会否决,则解散国民议会,重新选举等。2008年11月,阿议会通过宪法修正案,取消对总统连任次数的限制。2016年2月,阿通过宪法修正案,规定总统只能连任一次。

【议会】由国民议会(众议院)与民族院(参议院)组成,两院共同行使立法权。国民议会通过的法案须经民族院四分之三多数通过后方能生效。2017年5月,新一届国民议会选举产生462名议员,任期5年,萨义德·布哈贾(Said BOUHADJA)当选议长。2018年10月,国民议会召开全会,选举穆阿德·布沙莱卜(Mouad Bouchareb)接替布哈贾担任议长职务。本届议会各政党所占席位如下:民族解放阵线164席,民族民主联盟100席,争取和平社会运动和变革力量联盟33席,希望联盟19席,复兴运动、正义与发展阵线和建设运动三党联盟15席,未来阵线14席,社会主义力量阵线14席,阿尔及利亚人民运动13席,工党11席,其他席位由其余26个政党和独立人士赢取。民族院议员中,三分之二通过间接、无记名投票选出,另三分之一由总统任命。议员任期六年,每三年改选其中一半。本届民族院共有144名议员,2015年12月部分改选,民族民主联盟获42席,民族解放阵线获40席。现任议长为阿卜杜勒卡德尔·本·萨拉赫 (Abdelkader Bensalah),2002年7月当选并连任至今。

[A brief history] In the 3rd century BC, two Berber kingdoms were established in northern Afghanistan. After the invasion of Rome, Byzantium, Arabia, Spain, Turkey. In 1830, France began to invade, and Afghanistan gradually became a colony of France. On September 19, 1958, the Afghan government was established. On July 3, 1962, independence was officially announced, and July 5 was designated as Independence Day. In September 1963, Ben Bella was elected the first president. In June 1965, the Huali Boumedin coup took office and established the Revolutionary Committee, who was the chairman and prime minister. In December 1976, Bu was elected president. In February 1979, Colonel Shadley Ben Jedid was elected president. In January 1992, Shah resigned and the five-member Supreme Council of State headed by Muhammad Budiaf was established and exercised the presidency. In July, Caffee succeeded the chairman of the Supreme Council of State. In January 1994, the President of the Supreme Council of State stepped down and Lamin Zerual was appointed President. In November 1995, Ze was elected president. Between 1995 and 1997, A. completed the constitutional referendum, and successively held elections for the president, the legislature, the local and the nationalities (the Senate) through political party law, and the construction of political power at all levels was basically completed. On September 11, 1998, Ze announced his early retirement. On April 15, 1999, the presidential election was held in Afghanistan. Abdul Aziz Bouteflika was elected president and was re-elected three times in 2004, 2009 and 2014. Since February 2019, a large number of large-scale mass demonstrations have taken place in protest against President Bouteflika’s fifth term. On April 2, President Bouteflika announced his resignation. On the 9th, the Plenary Session of the House of Representatives of the Afghan parliament voted to confirm the vacancy of the presidency, and the Speaker of the National Assembly (Upper House), Ben Salah, was appointed as interim president. On the 10th, Ben Salah announced the presidential election on July 4. A formal launch of the political transition process.

[Politics] Since February 2019, the situation in Afghanistan has undergone major changes. On March 31, President Bouteflika announced the establishment of a new government, including the Prime Minister and 27 ministers, before resignation. Only six of the former governments remained.

[Constitution] A total of three constitutions have been promulgated since independence. The current Constitution was promulgated in February 1989 and revised in November 1996 by a referendum. The main contents of the revised Constitution are: determining the Islamic, Arab, and Berber attributes of Afghanistan; prohibiting the establishment of political parties on the basis of religion, language, race, gender, corporatism, and localism; the parliament is composed of the National Assembly and the Nationalities; The President may enact laws in the form of decrees before and during the parliamentary period; if the government’s policy agenda is vetoed twice by the National Assembly, the National Assembly is dissolved and re-election. In November 2008, the Afghan parliament passed a constitutional amendment to lift restrictions on the number of re-elections. In February 2016, Azerbaijan passed a constitutional amendment, stipulating that the president can only be re-elected once.

[Parliament] is composed of the National Assembly (House of Representatives) and the National Assembly (Senate), and the two houses jointly exercise legislative power. The bill passed by the National Assembly is subject to a three-quarters majority of the National Assembly. In May 2017, the new National Assembly elected 462 members for a five-year term, and Said BOUHADJA was elected as Speaker. In October 2018, the National Assembly held a plenary session to elect Mouad Bouchareb to succeed Bujaja as the Speaker. The seats of the political parties of the current parliament are as follows: 164 seats of the National Liberation Front, 100 seats of the National League for Democracy, 33 seats for the Peace Society Movement and the Revolutionary Force Alliance, and 19 seats for the Alliance, the Renaissance Movement, the Justice and Development Front and the Construction Movement. There are 15 seats in the league, 14 seats in the future, 14 seats in the Socialist Forces Front, 13 seats in the Algerian People’s Movement and 11 seats in the Labour Party. The other seats are won by the remaining 26 political parties and independents. Two-thirds of the members of the National Assembly are elected by indirect and secret ballot, and another third are appointed by the President. Members are elected for a six-year term and are reelected every three years. The National Institute of the People’s Republic of China has a total of 144 members. In December 2015, it was partially re-elected. The National League for Democracy won 42 seats and the National Liberation Front won 40 seats. The current speaker is Abdelkader Bensalah, who was elected in July 2002 and re-elected to this day.

【政府】现政府于2019年3月成立。政府由总理、27名部长等组成。主要成员有:总理努尔丁·贝都依(Nouredine Bedoui),外交部长萨比利·布卡杜姆(Sabri Boukadoum),内政和地方行政和土地整治部长萨拉丁·德赫蒙(Salaheddine Dahmoune),司法、掌玺部长苏莱曼·布拉希米(Slimane Brahmi),财政部长穆罕默德·卢卡勒(Mohamed Loukal),能源部长穆罕默德·阿尔卡布(Mohamed Arkab)。

【政府网址】阿尔及利亚总理府:www.cg.gov.dz ;外交部:www.mae.dz

【行政区划】全国共分为48个省:阿尔及尔、阿德拉尔、谢里夫、拉格瓦特、乌姆布阿基、巴特纳、贝贾亚、比斯卡拉、贝沙尔、布利达、布依拉、塔曼拉塞特、特贝萨、特雷姆森、提亚雷特、蒂齐乌祖、杰勒法、吉杰尔、塞蒂夫、赛伊达、斯基克达、西迪·贝勒·阿贝斯、安纳巴、盖尔马、君士坦丁、梅德阿、莫斯塔加纳姆、姆西拉、马斯卡拉、乌尔格拉、奥兰、贝伊德、伊利齐、布尔吉·布阿雷里吉、布迈德斯、塔里夫、廷杜夫、蒂斯姆西勒特、瓦德、罕西拉、苏克·阿赫拉斯、蒂巴扎、密拉、艾因·德夫拉、纳阿马、艾因·蒂姆沈特、格尔达亚、赫利赞。

【司法机构】设最高司法委员会,主席和副主席分别由总统和司法部长担任。法院分三级:最高法院、省级法院和市镇法庭。不设检察院,在最高法院和省级法院设检察长,均受司法部领导。最高法院院长苏莱曼·布迪(Slimane Boudi)。

[Government] The current government was established in March 2019. The government consists of the Prime Minister and 27 ministers. The main members are: Prime Minister Nouredine Bedoui, Foreign Minister Sabri Boukadoum, Minister of Internal Affairs and Local Administration and Land Rehabilitation Salaheddine Dahmoune Slimane Brahmi, Minister of Justice and Lieutenant, Mohamed Loukal, Treasury Secretary, and Mohamed Arkab, Energy Minister.

[Government website] Algerian Prime Minister’s Office: www.cg.gov.dz; Ministry of Foreign Affairs: www.mae.dz

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 48 provinces: Algiers, Adrar, Sharif, Ragwart, Umbuaki, Batna, Bejaia, Biscara, Beshar, Buli Da, Buila, Taman Lasset, Tebesa, Tremson, Tiaret, Tiziuzu, Jerefa, Jijel, Setif, Saida, Skikda , Sidi Baylor Abbes, Annaba, Gailma, Constantine, Medea, Mosta Ghanam, Msira, Mascara, Ulgra, Oran, Bayd , Ilizi, Bourgui Buareeri, Bumedes, Tarif, Tindouf, Tissim Sylt, Wade, Hunsilah, Suk Ahras, Tibazar, Milla, Ain Devra, Naama, Ain Tim Stern, Geldaya, Helizan.

[Judiciary] The Supreme Judicial Council is established. The President and Vice-Chairmen are the President and the Minister of Justice respectively. The court is divided into three levels: the Supreme Court, the Provincial Court and the Municipal Court. There is no procuratorate, and the procurator-general in the Supreme Court and the provincial courts are all led by the Ministry of Justice. Slimane Boudi, President of the Supreme Court.

【政党】根据1996年11月通过的宪法修正案和1997年2月通过的政党法,阿原有30多个合法政党。2012年1月,布特弗利卡总统签署新的《政党法》,阿内政部据此批准了30多个新政党。主要党派有:

(1)民族解放阵线(Front de Libération Nationale):简称“民阵”。前身为“团结与行动委员会”,成立于1954年8月,同年11月1日发动抗法武装起义,改名为“民族解放阵线”,1977年10月又易名为“民族解放阵线党”,1988年11月恢复“民族解放阵线”的名称。民阵积极倡导建立国际经济新秩序,主张恢复阿的国际地位。阿独立后,民阵长期执政。1992年后成为在野党。1997年6月在首届立法选举时成为议会三大执政党之一。2002年在阿第二届立法选举中重新成为阿第一大党,并在2007年、2012年的立法选举中继续保持第一大党地位。2005年2月,布特弗利卡总统被推举为名誉主席。2013年8月起,萨伊达尼(Amar Saidani)担任该党总书记,2016年10月,萨辞去该党总书记职务,阿贝斯接任。2018年11月,阿贝斯辞去总书记职务,新任国民议会议长布沙莱卜暂任代理总书记。

(2)民族民主联盟(Rassemblement National Démocratique):简称“民盟”。成立于1997年2月,由老战士组织、老战士子女组织、烈士子女组织、退役军官协会、工会、农会、全国妇女联盟七个有影响的全国性团体组成。1997年6月,在首届立法选举中获40%的议席,一度成为阿第一大政党。在2002年、2007年、2012年的立法选举中均居议会第二大党。民盟主张“多样性、轮流执政”的原则,要求深化经济结构改革,推进私有化进程。2016年5月,乌叶海亚出任总书记。

(3)争取和平社会运动(Mouvement de la Société pour la Paix):简称“和运”。原名哈马斯,成立于1990年,1997年4月改为现名,系温和伊斯兰主义政党。既倡导伊斯兰化,也主张民主和轮流执政,鼓励推进私有化,努力解决失业和住房等问题。2004年,该党与民阵、民盟组成“总统联盟”,支持布特弗利卡总统连任。2012年因与另外两党政治分歧宣布退盟,并与民族改革运动、复兴运动两个伊斯兰政党组成“绿色阿尔及利亚联盟”参加国民议会和地方选举,但表现不佳。现任党主席阿卜杜拉扎克·摩克里(Abderrazak Mokri)。

(4)阿尔及利亚人民运动(Mouvement Populaire Algérien):简称“阿人运”。2012年3月获批成立。主张振兴经济、解放妇女、改善民生,改善地区和国际关系,反对伊斯兰主义,反对外国势力干涉阿内政。在2012年11月举行的地方选举中一跃成为仅次于民阵、民盟的第三大党。总书记阿马拉·本尤奈斯(Amara Benyounes)。

(5)劳工党(Parti des Travailleurs):1990年3月29日成立,前身是社会主义工人组织。属极端民主派政党,主张一切权力归工人阶级,反对经济私有化,但不反对外国资本进入阿国有经济以外的其他领域。在2007年立法选举中获26席,居第四位。现任总书记露伊莎·哈努娜(Louisa Haroune,女)。

(6)社会主义力量阵线(Front des Forces Socialistes):1963年成立。主张根据人民的需要和意愿发展国家,尊重言论自由,反对个人专制,建设一个自由、进步、团结的社会。

(7)文化与民主联盟(Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Démocratie):1989年2月11日成立,由柏柏尔人组成。主张党政教分离;建立国家与私人相互补充的市场经济;全面改革教育制度。党主席穆赫辛·贝勒阿贝斯(Mohcine Belabbas)。

[Party] According to the constitutional amendment adopted in November 1996 and the political party law passed in February 1997, there are more than 30 legitimate political parties. In January 2012, President Bouteflika signed the new Political Parties Act, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs approved more than 30 new political parties. The main parties are:

(1) Front de Libération Nationale: referred to as “FNL”. Formerly known as the “Unity and Action Committee”, it was established in August 1954. On November 1 of the same year, it launched an anti-French armed uprising and changed its name to the “National Liberation Front.” In October 1977, it was renamed the “National Liberation Front Party.” In November 1988, the name of the National Liberation Front was restored. The FDC actively advocated the establishment of a new international economic order and advocated the restoration of Afghanistan’s international status. After independence, the FDC has been in power for a long time. After 1992, he became an opposition party. In June 1997, he became one of the three ruling parties in the parliament in the first legislative election. In 2002, he became the largest party in the second legislative election in Afghanistan, and continued to maintain the status of the largest party in the legislative elections in 2007 and 2012. In February 2005, President Bouteflika was elected as honorary chairman. Since August 2013, Amar Saidani has served as the party’s general secretary. In October 2016, Sa resigned as the party’s general secretary and Abbes took over. In November 2018, Abbes resigned as general secretary, and the new Speaker of the National Assembly, Buhlaib, was the acting general secretary.

(2) Rassemblement National Démocratique: referred to as the “NLD.” Founded in February 1997, it consists of seven influential national groups, including the Warrior Organization, the Warrior Children’s Organization, the Martyrs’ Children’s Organization, the Retired Officers Association, the Trade Union, the Farmers’ Association, and the National Women’s Union. In June 1997, 40% of the seats in the first legislative elections became the largest political party in Afghanistan. In the 2002, 2007, and 2012 legislative elections, they all ranked the second largest party in the parliament. The NLD advocates the principle of “diversity, taking turns to govern” and demands deepening economic restructuring and promoting the process of privatization. In May 2016, Uye Haiya became the general secretary.

(3) Mouvement de la Société pour la Paix: referred to as “Hui Yun”. Formerly known as Hamas, it was established in 1990 and changed its current name in April 1997. It is a moderate Islamist party. It advocates Islamization, advocates democracy and turns in power, encourages privatization, and strives to solve problems such as unemployment and housing. In 2004, the party formed a “presidential alliance” with the FDC and the NLD, and supported the re-election of President Bouteflika. In 2012, due to political differences with the other two parties, he announced his withdrawal from the alliance and formed the “Green Algerian Union” with the Islamic Reform Movement and the Renaissance Movement to participate in the National Assembly and local elections, but the performance was not good. The current party chairman, Abderrazak Mokri.

(4) Mouvement Populaire Algérien: referred to as “Afghanistan”. It was approved in March 2012. It advocates revitalizing the economy, liberating women, improving people’s livelihood, improving regional and international relations, opposing Islamism, and opposing foreign forces’ interference in the internal affairs of Afghanistan. In the local elections held in November 2012, it became the third largest party after the FDC and the NLD. General Secretary Amara Benyounes.

(5) Parti des Travailleurs: Established on March 29, 1990, formerly known as the Socialist Workers’ Organization. It is an ultra-democratic political party that advocates all powers to the working class and opposes economic privatization, but does not oppose foreign capital entering other areas than the A-owned economy. In the 2007 legislative elections, he won 26 seats, ranking fourth. The current general secretary, Louisa Haroune (female).

(6) Front des Forces Socialistes: Established in 1963. It advocates developing the country according to the needs and wishes of the people, respecting freedom of speech, opposing individual autocracy, and building a society of freedom, progress, and unity.

(7) Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Démocratie: Founded on February 11, 1989, composed of Berbers. Advocate the separation of party and government education; establish a market economy in which the state and the private complement each other; and comprehensively reform the education system. Party Chairman Mohcine Belabbas.

【重要人物】阿卜杜勒卡德尔·本萨拉赫:临时总统。1941年出生。早年参加民族解放军抗法战争。曾任阿《人民报》社长、国民议会议员、驻沙特大使、外交部发言人等职。1994-1997年任全国过渡委员会(临时议会)主席。1997年2月成立民族民主联盟党。1997年当选国民议会议长,2002年当选民族院议长。2019年4月被议会两院全会任命为临时总统。2013年来华出席博鳌亚洲论坛2013年年会,2015年来华出席中国人民抗日战争胜利暨世界反法西斯战争胜利70周年纪念活动并访华。

努尔丁·贝都依:总理。1959年出生,阿国家行政学院毕业。早年担任审计法院法官。曾在阿尔及尔、蒂齐乌祖、安纳巴、奥兰等地方行政机构任职。先后任塞蒂夫、君士坦丁等省省长。2013年至2015年任职业教育和培训部长。2015年至2019年3月任内政和地方行政部长。2019年3月被任命为总理。

【经济】阿经济规模在非洲位居前列。石油与天然气产业是阿国民经济的支柱,多年来其产值一直占阿GDP的30%,税收占国家财政收入的60%,出口占国家出口总额的97%以上。粮食与日用品主要依赖进口。

阿自1989年开始市场经济改革,1995年通过私有化法案,加快经济结构调整。2005年以来,国际油价走高,阿油气收入大增,经济稳步增长。阿政府对内实施财政扩张政策,全面开展经济重建,在“五年经济社会振兴规划”(2005-2009年)和南部、高原省份发展计划框架下,斥资近2000亿美元用于国企改造和基础设施建设,推动国有企业和金融体系改革,加大对中小企业的扶持;对外扩大经济开放,出台“新碳化氢法”,鼓励外企参与阿油气开发,密切与欧、美的经贸合作,加紧开展“入世”谈判。

2009年爆发的国际金融危机未对阿金融体系造成较大冲击,但随着危机蔓延,阿石油收入锐减。为减弱金融危机影响,阿加强对金融机构的监督和引导,加大对油气领域投资,加快实施能源多元化战略。2010年、2014年,阿分别启动了旨在振兴经济、加快发展、改善民生的国家投资计划。

2017年主要经济数据(来源:《经济季评》):

国内生产总值:1754亿美元

人均国内生产总值:4443美元

经济增长率:2.1%

通货膨胀率:5.6%

失业率:11.7%

外贸总额:807亿美元

货币名称:第纳尔(Dinar)

汇率:1美元≈114第纳尔

[Important] Abdul Kader Ben Salah: Interim President. Born in 1941. In the early years, he participated in the National Liberation Army’s war against the law. He served as the president of the “People’s Daily”, a member of the National Assembly, a ambassador to Saudi Arabia, and a spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Chairman of the National Transitional Council (Interim Parliament) from 1994-1997. The National Democratic Alliance Party was established in February 1997. In 1997, he was elected as the Speaker of the National Assembly. In 2002, he was elected Speaker of the Nationalities. In April 2019, he was appointed as interim president by the plenary assembly of the two houses of parliament. In 2013, he came to China to attend the Boao Forum for Asia 2013 Annual Meeting. In 2015, he came to China to attend the commemoration of the victory of the Chinese People’s Anti-Japanese War and the 70th anniversary of the victory of the World Anti-Fascist War and visited China.

Nurdin Bedouyi: Prime Minister. Born in 1959, graduated from the National School of Administration. In the early years, he served as a judge of the Court of Audit. He has served in local administrative agencies such as Algiers, Tiziuzu, Annaba and Oran. He has served as the governor of the provinces such as Setif and Constantine. Minister of Vocational Education and Training from 2013 to 2015. From 2015 to 2019, he served as Minister of the Interior and Local Administration. Appointed as Prime Minister in March 2019.

[Economy] The size of the economy is in the forefront of Africa. The oil and gas industry is the backbone of the Afghan national economy. Over the years, its output value has accounted for 30% of the GDP of the country. Taxation accounts for 60% of the state’s fiscal revenue, and exports account for more than 97% of the country’s total exports. Food and daily necessities mainly rely on imports.

A began to reform the market economy in 1989 and passed the privatization bill in 1995 to accelerate economic restructuring. Since 2005, international oil prices have risen, oil and gas revenues have increased, and the economy has grown steadily. The Afghan government implemented a fiscal expansion policy and comprehensively carried out economic reconstruction. Under the framework of the “Five-Year Economic and Social Revitalization Plan” (2005-2009) and the development plan of the southern and plateau provinces, nearly 200 billion U.S. dollars were spent on the transformation and foundation of state-owned enterprises. Facility construction, promote the reform of state-owned enterprises and financial systems, increase support for small and medium-sized enterprises; expand economic opening to the outside world, introduce the “new hydrocarbon hydrogen law”, encourage foreign companies to participate in oil and gas development, and closely cooperate with Europe and the United States to strengthen economic and trade cooperation. WTO accession negotiations.

The international financial crisis that broke out in 2009 did not have a big impact on the financial system of Afghanistan. However, with the spread of the crisis, the income of the oil industry has plummeted. In order to weaken the impact of the financial crisis, Afghanistan has strengthened its supervision and guidance over financial institutions, increased investment in oil and gas fields, and accelerated the implementation of energy diversification strategies. In 2010 and 2014, respectively, Azerbaijan launched a national investment plan aimed at revitalizing the economy, accelerating development, and improving people’s livelihood.

Major economic data for 2017 (Source: Economic Quarterly Review):

Gross domestic product: $175.4 billion

Per capita GDP: $4,443

Economic growth rate: 2.1%

Inflation rate: 5.6%

Unemployment rate: 11.7%

Total foreign trade: 80.7 billion US dollars

Currency Name: Dinar

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 114 dinars

【资源】石油探明储量约17亿吨,占世界总储量1%,居世界第15位,主要是撒哈拉轻质油,油质较高;天然气探明可采储量4.58万亿立方米,占世界总储量的2.37%,居世界第10位。阿油气产品大部分出口。其他矿藏主要有铁、铅锌、铀、铜、金、磷酸盐等。其中铁矿储量为30-50亿吨,主要分布在东部乌昂扎矿和布哈德拉矿。铅锌矿储量估计为1.5亿吨,铀矿5万吨,磷酸盐20亿吨,黄金73吨。阿水利资源丰富,可开发水资源约172亿立方米,水坝64座,蓄水能力710亿立方米。

【工业】工业以油气产业为主,钢铁、冶金、机械、电力等其他工业部门不发达。油气产业占国内生产总值45.1%,制造业仅占5.2%。目前阿工业系统共有员工约43万人,其中国营工业企业职工33万人,私营企业员工约10万人。

【农、林、牧、渔业】阿现有农村人口1300万。 农业产值约占国内生产总值的12%。主要农产品有粮食(小麦、大麦、燕麦和豆类)、蔬菜、葡萄、柑桔和椰枣等。耕地面积约800万公顷,占国土面积的 3%,其中粮田306万公顷,果林57.7万公顷,葡萄8.2万公顷,蔬菜种植面积16万公顷。阿农业靠天吃饭,产量起伏较大。阿是世界粮食、奶、油、糖十大进口国之一,每年进口粮食约500万吨。近年,阿农业发展较快。

森林覆盖率11%,总面积367万公顷,其中软木林46万公顷,年产木材20万立方米。阿森林总局数据显示,自2000年推出国家绿化计划至今,阿已植树造林50万公顷。

【旅游业】阿旅游资源丰富,全境有7处自然、文化景点被联合国教科文组织列为世界遗产。目前阿全国有旅游开发区174个,酒店1136家,床位约10万张。

【交通运输】阿陆地运输以公路为主,公路运载量占83%,铁路占17%。

铁路:集中在北部地区,总长4773公里,其中标准轨3683公里,复线345公里,电气化铁路386公里,窄轨1089公里。铁路全线有200余座车站,日客运能力约3.2万人次。

公路:总长约10.7万公里,是非洲密度最大的公路网。其中高速公路1566公里,国家级公路2.9万公里,省级公路2.4万公里,村镇级公路5.4万公里。

水运:共有45个港口,其中渔港31座,多功能港11座,休闲港1座,水利设施专用港2座。最大的港口是阿尔及尔港,有大小泊位37个。阿30%的货物,70%的集装箱通过阿尔及尔港装载。

空运:全国有53个机场,其中29个投入商业运行,包括阿尔及尔、奥兰、安纳巴、君士坦丁等13个国际机场,每年起降飞机10万架次。现有2家国营航空公司和6家私营航空公司,共有飞机60余架,其中大、中型飞机30余架。目前已开通20个国家的50多条国际航线。

管道运输:国内有9条输气管道,总长4699公里,年输送能力820亿立方米;8条输油管道,总长3604公里,年输送能力6390万吨;3条凝析油管道,总长1330公里,年输送能力2100万吨;2条液化石油气管道,总长1331公里,年输送能力986万吨。另有3条通往欧洲的输气管。其中两条名为“穿越地中海输气管”的管线经突尼斯穿越地中海向意大利和斯洛文尼亚送气,分别于1983年和1987年投入运营,全长2509公里(在阿境内549公里),总输气能力为240亿立方米/年。另一条名为“马格里布-欧洲输气管”的管线,经摩洛哥穿越地中海通往葡萄牙和西班牙,1996年11月投入运营,全长1370公里(在阿境内530公里),输气能力为120亿立方米/年。第三条输气管道“medgaz”经地中海连接西班牙,2011年正式投入运营,全长757公里,年输气量80亿立方米。

[Resources] The proven reserves of oil are about 1.7 billion tons, accounting for 1% of the world’s total reserves, ranking 15th in the world, mainly for Sahara light oil, with higher oil quality; the proven reserves of natural gas are 4.58 trillion cubic meters, accounting for The world’s total reserves are 2.37%, ranking 10th in the world. Most of the oil and gas products are exported. Other mineral deposits are mainly iron, lead and zinc, uranium, copper, gold and phosphate. The iron ore reserves are 3 to 5 billion tons, mainly distributed in the eastern Wuangza mine and the Buhadra mine. The reserves of lead and zinc mines are estimated at 150 million tons, uranium mines are 50,000 tons, phosphates are 2 billion tons, and gold is 73 tons. A rich water resources, the development of water resources of about 17.2 billion cubic meters, 64 dams, water storage capacity of 71 billion cubic meters.

[Industrial] The industry is dominated by the oil and gas industry, and other industrial sectors such as steel, metallurgy, machinery, and electric power are underdeveloped. The oil and gas industry accounts for 45.1% of GDP and the manufacturing sector only accounts for 5.2%. At present, the industrial system has a total of about 430,000 employees, 330,000 employees in China’s industrial enterprises, and about 100,000 private employees.

[Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery] A rural population of 13 million. Agricultural output accounts for about 12% of GDP. The main agricultural products are food (wheat, barley, oats and beans), vegetables, grapes, citrus and date palms. The cultivated land area is about 8 million hectares, accounting for 3% of the country’s land area, including 3.06 million hectares of grain fields, 577,000 hectares of fruit trees, 82,000 hectares of grapes, and 160,000 hectares of vegetable planting area. A agriculture relies on the sky to eat, and the output fluctuates greatly. A is one of the top ten importers of food, milk, oil and sugar in the world, with an annual import of about 5 million tons of grain. In recent years, agriculture has developed rapidly.

The forest coverage rate is 11%, with a total area of ​​3.67 million hectares, including 460,000 hectares of softwood forest and an annual output of 200,000 cubic meters of wood. According to the data from the General Administration of Forests, since the introduction of the national greening plan in 2000, Af has planted 500,000 hectares of afforestation.

[Tourism] A tourism resource is abundant. There are 7 natural and cultural attractions in the whole territory listed as World Heritage by UNESCO. At present, there are 174 tourist development zones in the country, 1136 hotels and about 100,000 beds.

[Transportation] A land transportation is mainly roads, with 83% of roads and 17% of railways.

Railway: concentrated in the northern region, with a total length of 4773 kilometers, including 3,683 kilometers of standard rails, 345 kilometers of double lines, 386 kilometers of electrified railways and 1,089 kilometers of narrow rails. There are more than 200 stations on the railway, and the daily passenger capacity is about 32,000.

Highway: With a total length of about 107,000 kilometers, it is the densest road network in Africa. Among them, the highway is 1566 kilometers, the national highway is 29,000 kilometers, the provincial highway is 24,000 kilometers, and the village-level highway is 54,000 kilometers.

Water transport: There are 45 ports, including 31 fishing ports, 11 multi-purpose ports, 1 leisure port and 2 special ports for water conservancy facilities. The largest port is the port of Algiers, with 37 berths. A 30% of the goods, 70% of the containers are loaded through the port of Algiers.

Air transport: There are 53 airports in the country, 29 of which are put into commercial operation, including 13 international airports including Algiers, Oran, Annaba and Constantine, with an annual take-off and landing of 100,000 aircraft. There are two state-owned airlines and six private airlines, with more than 60 aircraft, including more than 30 large and medium-sized aircraft. More than 50 international routes in 20 countries have been opened.

Pipeline transportation: There are 9 gas pipelines in China with a total length of 4,699 kilometers and an annual transportation capacity of 82 billion cubic meters; 8 oil pipelines with a total length of 3,604 kilometers and an annual transportation capacity of 63.9 million tons; and 3 condensate pipelines with a total length of 1,330 kilometers. The annual transportation capacity is 21 million tons; two liquefied petroleum gas pipelines with a total length of 1,331 kilometers and an annual transportation capacity of 9.86 million tons. There are also 3 gas pipelines to Europe. Two of the pipelines, “Through the Mediterranean Gas Pipeline”, were sent to Italy and Slovenia via the Mediterranean Sea in Tunisia. They were put into operation in 1983 and 1987 respectively, with a total length of 2,509 km (549 km in Afghanistan) and a total gas transmission capacity of 24 billion cubic meters / year. Another pipeline, the Maghreb-European Gas Pipeline, was transported to Morocco and Spain via Morocco through the Mediterranean Sea. It was put into operation in November 1996 and has a total length of 1,370 km (530 km in Afghanistan). The gas transmission capacity is 12 billion cubic meters / year. The third gas pipeline “medgaz” is connected to Spain via the Mediterranean Sea. It was officially put into operation in 2011, with a total length of 757 kilometers and an annual gas transmission capacity of 8 billion cubic meters.

【对外贸易】原由国家控制,国营公司垄断经营。1991年3月宣布放开对外贸易。主要出口产品为石油和天然气,主要进口产品为工农业设备、食品、生产原料、非食品消费品等。主要贸易伙伴是西方工业国。政府鼓励非碳化氢产品出口,主张贸易多元化。

【外国投资】外国投资主要集中在能源、基础设施和消费品生产等领域。主要投资国家是:法国、西班牙、美国、科威特等。阿尔及利亚对外国投资限制条件较多,根据世界银行公布的《2015年全球营商环境报告》,阿营商环境在189个国家和地区中排名163位。

【人民生活】据阿尔及利亚国家发展与人口统计局数字,2006年阿人口贫困率不到6%。自2011年起,阿政府每年划拨3000亿第纳尔用作大宗消费品补贴。2012年,阿政府再次投入1.3万亿第纳尔用于家庭、退休、粮、油、电等各类补贴,并将国家最低工资标准提升至1.8万第纳尔/月。2009年以来阿共创造约300万个就业岗位,失业率从2000年的29.7%下滑至目前的10.4%。

【军事】阿武装力量前身为民族解放军,独立后改称阿尔及利亚国家人民军。实行义务兵役制和志愿兵相结合的兵役制度。义务兵役制规定,男性公民服役期为18个月。国防部是军队最高领导机构。总统任国防部长和三军统帅。最高安全委员会负责就国家安全问题向总统提出建议。人民军参谋长为艾哈迈德·盖德·萨拉赫(Ahmed Gaid Salah)中将。全国划分为6个军区,下设若干军分区。装备主要来自前苏联,其余来自美、英、法、意等国。

人民军正规部队20.45万人。其中陆军12.7万人,海军1万人,空军1.4万人。准军事武装(包括宪兵、国家安全部队、共和国卫队、乡镇卫队及合法防卫组织)37.65万人。

【文化教育】阿实行9年制义务教育,小学入学率97%,中学入学率66%。中、小学生教育免费,大学生享受助学金和伙食补贴。2009年,阿中、小学数量增至24795所,全国共有教师近37万人。各类高等教育机构近百所,2012-2013学年在校大学生约140万人。主要大学有:阿尔及尔大学、胡阿里·布迈丁科技大学、君士坦丁大学等。

【新闻出版】1990年前阿新闻出版由国家垄断,1990年颁布新的新闻法,实行有条件的新闻自由,一些政党创立了党报,也出现了一些独立地方报刊。目前,阿有300余种全国性报刊,其中日报65种,32种阿文报刊,33种法文报刊,平均日发行量243万份。主要有《圣战者报》、《人民报》、《地平线报》、《晚报》、《祖国报》和《自由之声报》等;主要刊物有《阿尔及利亚时事周刊》和《非洲革命》等。

阿尔及利亚新闻通迅社:官方通讯社,创建于1961年,在国内48个省设有分社,在国外设有15个分社,用阿、法、英三种文字发稿,每年发稿20万条。

阿尔及利亚新闻社:目前唯一的私营通讯社,创建于1999年1月,有记者20余名,重点提供经济信息。

阿尔及利亚广播电台:国营电台,创建于1956年,前身为“战斗的阿尔及利亚之声”。有4套节目。

阿尔及利亚电视台:国营电视台,创建于1962年。

[Foreign trade] was originally controlled by the state, and the state-owned company monopolized. In March 1991, it announced the liberalization of foreign trade. The main export products are oil and natural gas. The main imported products are industrial and agricultural equipment, food, raw materials for production, and non-food consumer goods. The main trading partner is the Western industrial country. The government encourages the export of non-hydrocarbon products and advocates trade diversification.

[Foreign Investment] Foreign investment is mainly concentrated in the fields of energy, infrastructure and consumer goods production. The main investment countries are: France, Spain, the United States, Kuwait and so on. Algeria has more restrictions on foreign investment. According to the World Business Environment Report 2015 published by the World Bank, the Alpha business environment ranks 163 in 189 countries and regions.

[People’s Life] According to the National Development and Demographic Bureau of Algeria, the poverty rate in Afghanistan was less than 6% in 2006. Since 2011, the Afghan government has allocated 300 billion dinars per year for subsidies for large consumer goods. In 2012, the Afghan government once again invested 1.3 trillion dinars for household, retirement, food, oil, electricity and other subsidies, and raised the national minimum wage to 18,000 dinars per month. Since 2009, the Communist Party has created about 3 million jobs, and the unemployment rate has fallen from 29.7% in 2000 to the current 10.4%.

[Military] The Afghan armed forces were formerly known as the National Liberation Army. After independence, they were renamed the Algerian National People’s Army. Implement a military service system that combines compulsory military service with volunteers. The compulsory military service system stipulates that male citizens serve for 18 months. The Ministry of National Defense is the highest leading body of the military. The president is the secretary of defense and the commander of the three armed forces. The Supreme Security Council is responsible for making recommendations to the President on national security issues. The Chief of Staff of the People’s Army is Lieutenant General Ahmed Gaid Salah. The country is divided into six military regions, with several military divisions. The equipment is mainly from the former Soviet Union, and the rest are from the United States, Britain, France, Italy and other countries.

The regular army of the People’s Army is 204,000. Among them, the army has 127,000 people, the navy has 10,000 people, and the air force has 14,000 people. Paramilitary armed forces (including the gendarmerie, the National Security Force, the Republican Guard, the Township Guard and the legal defense organization) were 376,500.

[Culture and Education] A nine-year compulsory education is implemented. The primary school enrollment rate is 97%, and the secondary school enrollment rate is 66%. Primary and secondary school students are free of education, and college students enjoy subsidies for bursaries and meals. In 2009, the number of primary and secondary schools in secondary schools increased to 24,795, and there were nearly 370,000 teachers in the country. There are nearly 100 kinds of higher education institutions, and there are about 1.4 million college students in the 2012-2013 school year. The main universities are: Algiers University, Huali Boumedin University of Technology, and the University of Constantine.

[Press and Publication] Before 1990, the press was monopolized by the state. In 1990, a new press law was promulgated, and conditional freedom of the press was implemented. Some political parties created party newspapers, and some independent local newspapers and periodicals appeared. At present, there are more than 300 kinds of national newspapers and periodicals, including 65 kinds of daily newspapers, 32 kinds of Arabic newspapers, 33 French newspapers and periodicals, with an average daily circulation of 2.43 million copies. There are mainly “Jihadist”, “People’s Daily”, “Horizon”, “Evening News”, “The Motherland” and “The Voice of Freedom”; the main publications include “Algeria Current Affairs Weekly” and “African Revolution”.

Algeria News Agency: The official news agency, founded in 1961, has branches in 48 provinces in China, 15 branches in foreign countries, and is published in Arabic, French and English, and publishes 200,000 copies each year.

Algeria News Agency: Currently the only private news agency, founded in January 1999, has more than 20 journalists, focusing on providing economic information.

Algeria Radio: State-run Radio, founded in 1956, formerly known as “The Voice of Algeria in Combat.” There are 4 sets of programs.

Algeria TV: State-run television station, founded in 1962.

【对外关系】阿奉行独立、自主和不结盟的外交政策,主张尊重国家主权与领土完整、互不干涉内政、互不使用武力,相互尊重、互利和对话基础上寻求广泛合作,外交为经济建设服务。反对大国强权政治和借口人权干涉别国内政,主张建立公正合理的国际政治、经济新秩序。反对恐怖主义;致力于马格里布联盟建设和地区和平,积极参与阿拉伯事务;促进非洲团结与和平;支持欧盟-地中海合作,谋求发展与西方国家关系。截至2012年,共与170多个国家建立了外交关系,在60多个国家设立大使馆,外国常驻阿使馆80个。

【同美国关系】1962年9月阿美建交,1967年中东“六·五”战争爆发后宣布同美断交,1974年11月两国复交。布特弗利卡总统执政后,美明确支持布的“全国和解”政策和经济改革政策,多次表示愿在反恐、情报交换、人员培训等方面与阿加强合作。2004年美国宣布给予阿普通最惠国待遇。2007年6月,阿美签署民用核能合作协议。近年来阿美高层互访不断。2010年4月,阿外长梅德西代表布特弗利卡总统出席在华盛顿举行的核安全峰会,并会见了美国务卿克林顿。2011年,美多位助理国务卿访阿,阿外长梅德西访美。2012年1月,阿外长梅德西赴美出席77国集团主席国交接仪式期间赴华盛顿访问。2月,美国务卿克林顿访阿。4月、9月,美军非洲司令部总司令卡特两度访阿;10月,首轮阿美战略对话在华盛顿举行,美国务卿克林顿年内再度访阿。2013年6月,美国政治事务助理国务卿希尔曼访阿。2014年4月,美国务卿克里访阿,并将阿美战略对话上升为部长级。8月,阿总理萨拉勒赴美出席美非峰会。目前美是阿最大的贸易伙伴,阿原油出口一半以上销往美国。2015年3月,阿外长拉马拉访美,与美国务卿克里主持第三轮战略对话。10月,财长本赫尔法与美国驻阿代表两国签署了互换税务信息的协定。2018年7月,阿外长梅萨赫勒赴美国华盛顿出席首届宗教自由部长会。

【同法国关系】阿法有传统关系,法是阿最大债权国和最主要的贸易伙伴之一。阿是法在非洲第一大贸易伙伴、重要的能源供应国和商品出口目的地。阿在法侨民200余万人。2007年7月,法国总统萨科齐访阿,着重探讨两国能源合作和“地中海联盟”计划,双方签署互免外交人员短期签证和在阿共建大学两项协议。2008年,法总理、内政和外交部长等相继访阿。2009年5月,阿国民议会议长齐阿里访法。2010年,法司法部长玛丽访阿。2011年5月,阿工业、中小企业和促进投资部部长迈哈迪与法国前总理拉法兰共同主持第一届阿-法经济伙伴关系论坛开幕式。6月,法外长朱佩访阿。2012年7月,法总统非洲事务顾问依莲、外长法比尤斯访阿;9月,法外交部负责法国侨民和法语国家事务的部长级代表本吉吉、外贸部长布里克访阿;10月,法内政部长瓦尔斯访阿,阿外交部部长级代表梅萨赫勒访法;11月,法生产振兴部长蒙特布赫、前总理、参议院副议长拉法兰访阿;12月,法总统奥朗德访阿。2013年3月,法国民议会议长巴尔托洛内访阿;12月,阿总理萨拉勒访法;同月,法总理埃罗访阿,与萨拉勒共同主持阿法第一届政府间高级别委员会会议。2014年6月,法外长法比尤斯访阿。7月,阿能源部长尤素菲作为政府代表出席法国举行的纪念一战百年阅兵仪式。12月,阿总理萨拉勒访法。2015年1月11日,阿外长拉马拉参加了在巴黎举行的反恐大游行。4月,拉马拉外长访法。5月,法外长法比尤斯访阿。6月,法总统奥朗德对阿进行工作访问。7月拉马拉外长与法外长尤比斯会谈。8月法参议院院长拉尔歇、外交部特别代表比安科分别访阿。10月,法环境可持续发展和能源部长塞戈莱纳·罗亚尔、法国民教育、高等教育和科研部长瓦洛贝尔卡西姆分别访阿。2016年4月,法国总理瓦尔斯访阿。2017年12月,法国总统马克龙访阿,阿总理乌叶海亚访法。2018年4月,阿外长梅萨赫勒访法。2018年9月,布特弗利卡总统同法国总统马克龙通电话。11月,乌叶海亚总理赴法国出席第一次世界大战结束百年纪念活动。

【同欧盟的关系】欧盟是阿最大贸易伙伴。阿是欧盟第二大天然气供应国,占据欧盟天然气市场的1/4。2005年,阿与欧盟联系国协议正式实施。双方还签署了涵盖贸易交流、财经合作及阿在欧劳工享受便利等多项合作协议,但在应对非法移民、反恐等问题上存在分歧。2012年8月,阿与欧盟达成一致,决定将联系国协定关于取消关税的时间表由2017年推迟至2020年。2013年7月,欧盟委员会主席巴罗佐访阿。2014年5月、2015年6月,阿外长拉马拉赴欧举行阿欧联合委员会第8、第9次会议。9月,欧盟委员会政治和安全政策高级代表莫盖里访阿。2018年9月,德国总理默克尔访阿。11月,意大利总理孔特访阿。11月,欧盟委员会副主席、外交与安全政策高级代表莫盖里尼访阿。

[External Relations] A foreign policy of independence, independence and non-alignment is advocated. It advocates respect for national sovereignty and territorial integrity, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, non-use of force, mutual respect, mutual benefit and dialogue. Seeking broad cooperation, diplomacy for economic construction. service. Oppose the power politics of big powers and excuses human rights to interfere in other countries’ internal affairs, and advocate the establishment of a fair and rational new international political and economic order. Combating terrorism; working on the construction of the Maghreb Union and regional peace, actively participating in Arab affairs; promoting African unity and peace; supporting EU-Mediterranean cooperation and seeking to develop relations with Western countries. As of 2012, it has established diplomatic relations with more than 170 countries, established embassies in more than 60 countries, and 80 foreign embassies in Afghanistan.

[Relationship with the United States] In September 1962, Ami established diplomatic relations. In 1967, after the outbreak of the “Six-Five” war in the Middle East, it broke the diplomatic relations with the United States. In November 1974, the two countries resumed diplomatic relations. After President Bouteflika took office, the United States clearly supported Bud’s “national reconciliation” policy and economic reform policy. He repeatedly expressed his willingness to strengthen cooperation with Afghanistan in the areas of counter-terrorism, information exchange and personnel training. In 2004, the United States announced the granting of MFN status. In June 2007, Ami signed a civil nuclear energy cooperation agreement. In recent years, Ami’s high-level visits have continued. In April 2010, Foreign Minister Medesie represented President Bouteflika at the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington and met with US Secretary of State Clinton. In 2011, many US Assistant Secretarys of State visited Afghanistan, and Foreign Minister Medesie visited the United States. In January 2012, Foreign Minister Medesie went to the United States to attend the handover ceremony of the G77 presidency. In February, US Secretary of State Clinton visited Afghanistan. In April and September, Carter, commander-in-chief of the US African Command, visited Afghanistan twice. In October, the first round of the Afghan strategic dialogue was held in Washington. US Secretary of State Clinton visited Afghanistan again during the year. In June 2013, Assistant Secretary of State for Political Affairs Hillman visited Afghanistan. In April 2014, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Afghanistan and raised the Aramco Strategic Dialogue to the ministerial level. In August, Prime Minister Salal went to the United States to attend the US-Africa summit. At present, the United States is Afghanistan’s largest trading partner, and more than half of its crude oil exports are exported to the United States. In March 2015, Afghan Foreign Minister Ramallah visited the United States and hosted the third round of strategic dialogue with US Secretary of State Kerry. In October, Finance Minister Ben Hullfa and the US representative in Afghanistan signed an agreement to exchange tax information. In July 2018, Foreign Minister Mesahler went to Washington, DC to attend the first Ministerial Conference on Religious Freedom.

[Relationship with France] Alpha has a traditional relationship, and France is one of the largest creditor countries and one of the most important trading partners. A is the largest trading partner, an important energy supplier and a commodity export destination in Africa. There are more than 2 million people living in France. In July 2007, French President Nicolas Sarkozy visited Afghanistan, focusing on energy cooperation between the two countries and the “Mediterranean Union” plan. The two sides signed a short-term visa for mutual exemption of diplomats and two agreements for the establishment of a university in Afghanistan. In 2008, the French Prime Minister, the Minister of Internal Affairs and Foreign Affairs visited Afghanistan. In May 2009, the National Assembly Speaker Qi Ali visited France. In 2010, French Minister of Justice Mary visited Afghanistan. In May 2011, the Minister of Industry, SMEs and Investment Promotion, Mahathir, and former French Prime Minister Raffarin co-chaired the opening ceremony of the first Arab-French Economic Partnership Forum. In June, French Foreign Minister Zhu Pei visited Afghanistan. In July 2012, the French President’s African Affairs Adviser Yi Lian and Foreign Minister Fabius visited Afghanistan. In September, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs was responsible for the French expatriate and French-speaking ministers, Benjiji, and Foreign Trade Minister Blake, who visited Afghanistan. In the month, French Interior Minister Wals visited Afghanistan, and Foreign Minister Mesahele visited France; in November, French Minister of Production Promotion Montbech, former Prime Minister and Senate Deputy Speaker Raffarin visited Afghanistan; December, Act President Hollande visited Afghanistan. In March 2013, the French National Assembly Speaker Bartoloone visited Afghanistan; in December, Prime Minister Salal visited the French; in the same month, French Prime Minister Ero visited Afghanistan, and Sarah co-chaired the first inter-governmental high in Alfa Level committee meeting. In June 2014, French Foreign Minister Fabius visited Afghanistan. In July, the Minister of Energy, Yusuf, attended the 100-year military parade in honor of the First World War in France. In December, Prime Minister Salal visited the law. On January 11, 2015, Afghan Foreign Minister Ramallah participated in the anti-terrorism parade in Paris. In April, Foreign Minister Ramallah visited France. In May, French Foreign Minister Fabius visited Afghanistan. In June, French President Hollande paid a working visit to Afghanistan. In July, Foreign Minister Ramallah met with French Foreign Minister Yubis. In August, the Senate of the Senate, Lalche, and the Special Representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bianco, visited Afghanistan. In October, French Minister of Environmental Sustainability and Energy, Segorena Loyal, French National Education, Higher Education and Research Minister Valobel Kassim visited Afghanistan. In April 2016, French Prime Minister Vals visited Afghanistan. In December 2017, French President Mark Long visited Afghanistan, and Prime Minister Uyehaya visited France. In April 2018, A Foreign Minister Mesahler visited France. In September 2018, President Bouteflika spoke with French President Mark Long. In November, Uye Haiya’s Prime Minister went to France to attend the centennial commemoration of the end of the First World War.

[Relationship with the EU] The EU is Afghanistan’s largest trading partner. A is the second largest natural gas supplier in the EU, accounting for 1/4 of the EU natural gas market. In 2005, the agreement between the EU and the EU was officially implemented. The two sides also signed a number of cooperation agreements covering trade exchanges, financial cooperation and the convenience of workers in Europe, but there are differences in dealing with illegal immigration and counter-terrorism. In August 2012, Afghan reached an agreement with the European Union and decided to postpone the timetable for the cancellation of tariffs from 2017 to 2020. In July 2013, European Commission President Barroso visited Afghanistan. In May 2014 and June 2015, Afghan Foreign Minister Ramallah went to Europe to hold the 8th and 9th meetings of the Joint Commission on Europe and the United States. In September, Mogley, a high-level representative of the European Commission’s political and security policy, visited Afghanistan. In September 2018, German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Afghanistan. In November, Italian Prime Minister Conte visited Afghanistan. In November, Mogelini, Vice-Chairman of the European Commission and Senior Representative of the Diplomatic and Security Policy, visited Afghanistan.

【同俄罗斯关系】1962年7月阿独立后与前苏联建交,双边关系十分密切。阿大部分武器装备来自前苏联,但两国贸易处于较低水平。1991年12月,阿承认俄罗斯联邦和独联体。2001年布特弗利卡总统访俄,两国签署战略伙伴关系协定并发表联合声明。2005年10月,两国首届经贸混委会在俄召开。2006年3月,俄罗斯总统普京访阿,免除阿47亿美元债务,双方签署35亿美元军购合同。2008年2月,布特弗利卡总统访俄,双方签署航空合作协议及俄公司承建阿铁路合同。2010年10月,俄罗斯总统梅德韦杰夫访阿。2011年3月,俄罗斯外长拉夫罗夫访阿。2012年3月,俄总统特使、外交部负责中东事务的副部长米哈伊尔访阿;11月,阿外交部部长级代表梅萨赫勒访俄。2013年2月,俄外长拉夫罗夫访阿并进行两国定期政治对话;4月,俄能源部长诺瓦克访阿;6月,阿外长梅德西访俄。2014年5月,俄联邦议会议长马特维延科访阿。2015年7月,阿尔及利亚—俄罗斯第七届政府间经贸、科技合作混委会在莫斯科召开。 2017年10月,俄总理梅德韦杰夫访阿。2018年1月,俄联邦安全会议秘书帕特鲁舍夫访阿。2019年4月,阿拉伯国家—俄罗斯合作论坛第五届部长级会议在莫斯科举行,阿外长布卡杜姆出席会议。

【同摩洛哥关系】1963年阿摩曾因边界争端发生武装冲突。1976年阿承认“西撒国”后,摩宣布与阿断交。1988年两国复交。布特弗利卡当选总统后,摩国王哈桑二世致电祝贺。哈病逝后,布赴摩参加葬礼,并与新任国王穆罕默德六世建立联系。此后双方电函不断。2003年,两国元首在联大期间举行单独会谈。2004年7月,摩宣布免除阿公民赴摩签证。2005年3月,摩国王赴阿出席阿盟首脑会议并与布特弗利卡总统举行会晤;同月,阿宣布免除摩公民赴阿签证。2007年3月,布特弗利卡总统致电摩国王祝贺国王女儿诞生;11月,摩国王致信布,对阿首都发生爆炸造成人员伤亡表示慰问。2011年3月,阿水资源部长萨拉勒访摩。同月,摩能源、环境与水利大臣本·哈德拉访阿。2012年1月,摩新任外交与合作大臣欧斯曼尼访阿,成为自2004年以来首位访阿的摩外交大臣。3月,摩政府发言人、新闻大臣卡勒菲访阿;4月,阿高教科研部长哈拉乌比亚访摩,摩国民教育大臣乌阿法访阿。2013年10月,摩方为抗议阿在西撒问题上的相关表态,一度召回摩驻阿大使,两国关系有所紧张。目前两国边境仍处于关闭状态。

【同利比亚关系】利比亚是阿尔及利亚的重要邻国。阿利关系曾因利与摩洛哥结盟而一度冷淡。2011年2月,利局势陷入动荡,阿撤回了在利侨民,但以“人道理由”接受利前领导人卡扎菲的妻子、女儿和两个儿子入境。阿外长梅德西多次会见利“国家过渡委员会”执行局前主席吉卜里勒,并与利“过渡委”正式建立关系。2012年3月,阿外长梅德西访利,利内政部长阿卜杜阿里访阿;4月,利“国家过渡委员会”主席贾利勒访阿;12月,利临时政府总理扎伊丹访阿。2013年1月,阿总理萨拉勒赴利出席阿、利、突三国边境安全会议;4月和8月,利临时政府总理扎伊丹两度访阿;12月,阿总理萨拉勒访利。2014年利内部武装冲突升级以来,阿主张利各派通过谈判实现停火,恢复和平,支持成立利民族团结政府,是斡旋解决利比亚问题的重要一方。2015年3月、4月、5月,阿分别召开三轮利比亚内部对话会。5月,利临时政府总理萨尼访阿。2018年11月,乌叶海亚总理赴意大利出席利比亚问题国际会议。

【同突尼斯关系】阿与突尼斯于1983年3月签署“友好和睦条约”。两国关系友好,经济合作发展较快。2011年,突局势剧变后,阿表示尊重突人民的选择,3月突民族团结政府埃塞卜西访阿,阿向突提供1亿美元的财政援助,2012年1月,阿总统布特弗利卡赴突出席纪念活动,对突革命成果予以肯定;2月,突总统马尔祖基访阿;12月,突总理贾巴利访阿。2013年1月,阿民族院议长本·萨拉赫代表布特弗利卡总统赴突出席纪念活动;4月,突总理拉哈耶德访阿;5月,突制宪议会议长加法尔访阿;8月,突外长贾兰迪访阿;9月,突复兴运动主席格努希和突前总理埃塞卜西先后访阿,布特弗利卡总统予以会见。2014年2月,突总理朱玛访阿;同月,阿总理萨拉勒代表布特弗利卡总统出席突新宪法庆典。2015年2月,突新任总统埃塞卜西访阿。3月,突外长巴库什访阿。5月,突总理绥德访阿。11月,萨拉勒总理赴突出席“经济支持与投资国际会议”;12月,突尼斯总统埃塞卜西访阿。2017年3月,突外长朱海纳维外长访阿,萨拉勒总理访问突尼斯。 2018年2月,阿总理乌叶海亚访突。

【同毛里塔尼亚关系】两国致力发展睦邻友好关系,签有渔业合作协议。2009年8月,阿民族院议长本·萨拉赫赴毛出席当选总统阿齐兹就职典礼。2011年,毛总统阿齐兹、外交与合作部长哈马迪相继访阿。2012年7月,毛外长哈马迪访阿;10月,阿外交部部长级代表梅萨赫勒访毛。2013年3月,阿总理萨拉勒访毛;10月,阿外长拉马拉访毛。2014年5月,拉马拉再次访毛。2016年12月,毛总理哈达明访阿。2018年10月,毛塔外长艾哈迈德访阿。

[Relationship with Russia] In July 1962, after independence, diplomatic relations with the former Soviet Union were established, and bilateral relations were very close. Most of the weapons and equipment came from the former Soviet Union, but the trade between the two countries was at a low level. In December 1991, Affirmed the Russian Federation and the Commonwealth of Independent States. In 2001, President Bouteflika visited Russia, and the two countries signed a strategic partnership agreement and issued a joint statement. In October 2005, the first mixed economic and trade committee of the two countries was held in Russia. In March 2006, Russian President Putin visited Afghanistan, exempting A$4.7 billion in debt, and the two sides signed a $3.5 billion military purchase contract. In February 2008, President Bouteflika visited Russia, and the two sides signed an aviation cooperation agreement and a Russian company contract to build a railway. In October 2010, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visited Afghanistan. In March 2011, Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov visited Afghanistan. In March 2012, the special envoy of the Russian President and the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Mikhail visited Afghanistan. In November, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan, Mesahle, visited Russia. In February 2013, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov visited Afghanistan and conducted regular political dialogues between the two countries. In April, Russian Energy Minister Novak visited Afghanistan. In June, Foreign Minister Medesie visited Russia. In May 2014, the President of the Russian Federation, Matviyanenko, visited Afghanistan. In July 2015, Algeria-Russia’s seventh intergovernmental committee on economic, trade, and scientific cooperation was held in Moscow. In October 2017, Russian Prime Minister Medvedev visited Afghanistan. In January 2018, Russian Federal Security Council Secretary Patrushev visited Afghanistan. In April 2019, the Fifth Ministerial Conference of the Arab-Russian Cooperation Forum was held in Moscow, and Foreign Minister Bukadum attended the meeting.

[Relationship with Morocco] In 1963, Amo had an armed conflict due to a border dispute. After acknowledging the “Western Saskatchewan” in 1976, Mo announced his diplomatic ties with Afghanistan. In 1988, the two countries resumed diplomatic relations. After Bouteflika was elected president, King Hassan II called to congratulate. After the death of Harbin, he went to Morocco to attend the funeral and established contact with the new King Mohammed VI. Since then, the two letters have continued. In 2003, the two heads of state held separate talks during the UN General Assembly. In July 2004, Mozambique announced that it would waive the visa of the Afghan citizen. In March 2005, the King of Morocco went to Afghanistan to attend the Arab League summit meeting and met with President Bouteflika. In the same month, Afghan announced that he would exempt the citizens from going to Afghanistan. In March 2007, President Bouteflika called the King of Moga to congratulate the birth of the King’s daughter; in November, the King of Mozambique sent a letter to express his condolences to the casualties caused by the explosion in the capital. In March 2011, the Minister of Water Resources, Salal, visited Morocco. In the same month, Ben Hadrah, Minister of Energy, Environment and Water Resources, visited Afghanistan. In January 2012, Mozin’s Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Osmani, visited Afghanistan and became the first foreign minister to visit Afghanistan since 2004. In March, the spokesman of the Mozambican government and the Minister of Information Kallefi visited Afghanistan. In April, the Minister of Education of the High School of Education, Hara Ubia, visited Morocco, and the Minister of Education of the National People’s Republic of China, Uafa, visited Afghanistan. In October 2013, the Mozambican side recalled the ambassador of the Afghan ambassador in protesting against the issue of Azerbaijan. The relationship between the two countries was tense. The border between the two countries is still closed.

[With Libya] Libya is an important neighbor of Algeria. Avery’s relationship was once indifferent to the alliance with Morocco. In February 2011, the situation was in turmoil. Af was withdrawn from the expatriate, but accepted the wife, daughter and two sons of former leader Gaddafi on “humane grounds”. A foreign minister, Medesie, met with the former Chairman of the Executive Board of the National Transitional Council, Ghibler, and formally established a relationship with Lee’s “Transition Committee.” In March 2012, Afghan Foreign Minister Medesie visited Li, Minister of Internal Affairs Abdul Ali visited Afghanistan; in April, Lee “National Transitional Council” Chairman Jalil visited Afghanistan; in December, Lieutenant Prime Minister Zaidan visited Afghanistan . In January 2013, Prime Minister Salal went to Liby to attend the border security conferences in Afghanistan, Syria and Turkey. In April and August, Prime Minister Zaidan visited the country twice. In December, Prime Minister Salal visited Brazil. . Since the escalation of internal armed conflicts in 2014, Azerbaijan has advocated that the Liberal parties can achieve a ceasefire through negotiations, restore peace, support the establishment of a government of national unity, and be an important party to mediate Libya’s problems. In March, April and May 2015, Azerbaijan held three rounds of internal Libyan dialogues. In May, Prime Minister Sani’s visit to Afghanistan. In November 2018, Umayya’s Prime Minister went to Italy to attend the International Conference on Libya.

[Tunisia relations] Afghan and Tunisia signed the “Friendship Treaty” in March 1983. The relations between the two countries are friendly and economic cooperation is developing rapidly. In 2011, after the sudden changes in the situation, Azerbaijan expressed respect for the choice of the people of the Turks. In March, the government of the United States united with Ethiopian Eseb visited Afghanistan. Afghan provided $100 million in financial assistance. In January 2012, President A. Lika went to the commemorative activities to affirm the achievements of the revolutionary revolution; in February, President Marzuki visited Afghanistan; in December, Prime Minister Jabali visited Afghanistan. In January 2013, the Speaker of the Nationalities Institute, Ben Salah, represented President Bouteflika in the commemorative activities; in April, Prime Minister Lahayed visited Afghanistan; in May, the Minister of the Constitutional Assembly, Gaffar visited A. In August, Foreign Minister Jalandi visited Afghanistan. In September, the Chairman of the revival movement Gnuush and the former Prime Minister Esebisi visited Afghanistan and President Bouteflika met with him. In February 2014, Prime Minister Zhu Ma visited Afghanistan. In the same month, Prime Minister Salal represented President Bouteflika at the new constitutional celebration. In February 2015, the new president, Eseb, visited Afghanistan. In March, Foreign Minister Bakush visited Afghanistan. In May, Prime Minister Yu De visited Afghanistan. In November, Prime Minister Salal went to the “International Conference on Economic Support and Investment”; in December, Tunisian President Eseb visited Afghanistan. In March 2017, Foreign Minister Zhu Hai Nawei visited Afghanistan and Prime Minister Salal visited Tunisia. In February 2018, Prime Minister Uyehaya visited the United States.

[Relationship with Mauritania] The two countries are committed to developing good-neighborly and friendly relations and signing a fishery cooperation agreement. In August 2009, the Speaker of the Nationalities Institute, Ben Salah, went to Mao to attend the inauguration of President-elect Aziz. In 2011, Chairman Mao Aziz and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Hamadi visited Afghanistan. In July 2012, Foreign Minister Hamady visited Afghanistan; in October, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Mesahler visited Mao. In March 2013, Prime Minister Salal visited Mao. In October, Afghan Foreign Minister Ramallah visited Mao. In May 2014, Ramallah visited Mao again. In December 2016, Prime Minister Hadamin visited Afghanistan. In October 2018, Maotai Foreign Minister Ahmed visited Afghanistan.

【对当前重大国际问题的态度】

关于国际形势:国际关系正处在变化和重组之中,世界和平与安全以及各国的发展仍是当前紧迫的课题。世界形势趋向缓和,全球性冲突虽已避免,但地区冲突依然存在。主张多极化,反对单边主义,主张以国际法和联合国宪章的宗旨和原则为基础,建立民主、公正、平等的新型国际关系和国际秩序。

关于联合国及安理会改革:联合国的改革应以增加其活力和信誉为宗旨,遵循“民主化、合理化和效率化”三原则,正确反映国际关系变化,充分考虑各地区平衡和绝大多数成员国的利益,强调国际社会须通过协商达成共识。坚决主张使所有国家参与联合国所有机构的管理。认为必须改变非洲在联合国安理会代表性不足问题,坚决支持非盟关于联合国改革的共同立场,即非洲应获得两个拥有否决权的安理会常任理事国席位。安理会扩大仅是联合国改革的一部分,联合国改革应包括社会、经济、发展在内的其他方面的改革。

关于气候变化:坚持《联合国气候变化框架公约》和《京都议定书》是气候变化谈判的唯一基础和原则,坚持“共同但有区别的责任”,呼吁各方严格遵循《巴厘岛路线图》确定的目标和期限,主张发达国家应率先承担相关责任,切实履行减排承诺,并通过技术转让等方式帮助发展中国家有效应对气候变化。

关于反恐:阿深受恐怖动乱之害,对恐怖主义有切肤之痛。认为应从全球角度分析恐怖主义,将其与争取解放和民族自决的合法斗争区分开来,避免将其与特定地区、文化和文明相挂钩。支持国际反恐合作,呼吁联合国主持召开国际反恐会议,签署国际反恐公约,统一界定恐怖主义,呼吁切断恐怖活动资金来源,将支付赎金行为定罪。

关于伊朗核问题:阿承认并支持包括伊朗在内的所有核不扩散条约签约国拥有和平利用核能技术的权利。反对在核问题上实行双重标准。认为伊核问题全面协议的达成有利于核裁军、防止核扩散、巩固各国和平利用核能权利,将促进地区的和平、稳定、发展与合作。

关于巴以问题:中东和平倡议是实现本地区公正、全面、持久和平的合适机制。强烈谴责以色列针对巴平民的暴力犯罪和以军队在加沙的暴行。

关于叙利亚问题:阿尊重叙人民选择,希望冲突各派保持克制,停止暴力活动,尽快开启全国对话,通过政治对话和平解决危机。阿反对任何外来武力干涉,坚持在阿盟框架内解决叙问题。

关于马里问题:积极参与斡旋马里问题,在阿尔及尔举行马里各方和谈,受到国际社会肯定。主张坚决执行安理会有关马里问题的决议,区分恐怖势力和一般叛军,通过全面、综合方式解决马政治、人道和安全危机,尊重马里对解决危机的领导地位。主张在尊重马里主权和领土完整前提下,由马里冲突各方通过对话实现政治解决。

关于马格里布联盟建设:阿认为马盟建设符合地区根本利益,有利于马格里布地区各国反恐合作及地区的安全稳定和经济发展。马格里布地区实现政治、经济、社会一体化是该地区年轻一代的希望,任何人无权草率行事,也不能置之不理或设置障碍。

[attitudes on current major international issues]

Regarding the international situation: international relations are undergoing changes and restructuring, and world peace and security and the development of all countries are still urgent issues. The world situation has tended to ease, and although global conflicts have been avoided, regional conflicts still exist. It advocates multi-polarization and opposes unilateralism. It advocates the establishment of a new type of international relations and international order of democracy, justice and equality based on the purposes and principles of international law and the UN Charter.

Regarding the reform of the United Nations and the Security Council: the reform of the United Nations should aim at increasing its vitality and credibility, follow the three principles of “democratization, rationalization and efficiency”, correctly reflect changes in international relations, and fully consider the balance of various regions and the vast majority of member states. The interests emphasize that the international community must reach consensus through consultation. Resolutely advocate the participation of all countries in the management of all United Nations agencies. He believed that it is necessary to change the under-representation of Africa in the UN Security Council and firmly support the AU’s common position on UN reform, that is, Africa should acquire two permanent seats on the Security Council with veto power. The expansion of the Security Council is only part of the reform of the United Nations. The reform of the United Nations should include reforms in other aspects, including society, economy and development.

About climate change: Adherence to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol is the only basis and principle for climate change negotiations. It adheres to “common but differentiated responsibilities” and calls on all parties to strictly follow the “Bali Road Map”. Targets and deadlines, advocated that developed countries should take the lead in taking relevant responsibilities, earnestly fulfill their emission reduction commitments, and help developing countries effectively cope with climate change through technology transfer.

About counter-terrorism: A deep fear of terror and turmoil has a painful effect on terrorism. It is believed that terrorism should be analysed from a global perspective, distinguishing it from the legitimate struggle for liberation and national self-determination, and avoiding linking it to specific regions, cultures and civilizations. Support international anti-terrorism cooperation, call on the UN to host an international counter-terrorism conference, sign an international anti-terrorism convention, unify terrorism, call for cutting off the sources of terrorist activities, and convict the payment of ransom.

Regarding the Iranian nuclear issue: Afghanistan recognizes and supports all nuclear non-proliferation treaty signatories, including Iran, having the right to peaceful use of nuclear energy technology. Oppose the implementation of double standards on the nuclear issue. It is believed that the conclusion of a comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear issue is conducive to nuclear disarmament, preventing nuclear proliferation, consolidating the peaceful use of nuclear energy by all countries, and promoting regional peace, stability, development and cooperation.

Regarding the Palestinian-Israeli issue: The Middle East Peace Initiative is a suitable mechanism for achieving a just, comprehensive and lasting peace in the region. Strongly condemn Israel’s violent crimes against Palestinian civilians and the atrocities committed by the military in Gaza.

Regarding the Syrian issue: Afghanistan respects the choice of the Syrian people and hopes that the various factions of the conflict will exercise restraint, stop the violence, open the national dialogue as soon as possible, and resolve the crisis peacefully through political dialogue. Azerbaijan is opposed to any foreign military intervention and insists on resolving the Syrian issue within the framework of the Arab League.

Regarding the Mali issue: Actively participating in the mediation of Mali, the peace talks between the parties in Mali in Algiers have been recognized by the international community. It advocates the resolute implementation of the Security Council resolution on Mali, distinguishes between terrorist forces and general rebels, resolves the political, humanitarian and security crisis in Malaysia through a comprehensive and comprehensive approach, and respects Mali’s leadership in resolving the crisis. It is advocated that under the premise of respecting Mali’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, the parties to the conflict in Mali will achieve a political solution through dialogue.

Regarding the construction of the Maghreb Union: Azerbaijan believes that the construction of the Ma League is in line with the fundamental interests of the region and is conducive to the anti-terrorism cooperation of the countries in the Maghreb region and the security, stability and economic development of the region. The political, economic and social integration of the Maghreb region is the hope of the younger generation in the region. No one has the right to act rashly, nor to ignore or set obstacles.