The Lebanese Republic 黎巴嫩共和国
【国名】黎巴嫩共和国（The Lebanese Republic ）。
【国家元首】 总统米歇尔·奥恩（Michel Aoun）。
[Country name] The Lebanese Republic.
[Area] 10,452 square kilometers.
[Population] About 6.1 million (2018). The vast majority are Arabs. Arabic is the official language, common French, English. 54% of residents believe in Islam, mainly Shiite, Sunni and Druze; 46% believe in Christianity, mainly Marlon, Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Armenian Orthodox.
[Capital] Beirut has a population of about 2 million. The average maximum temperature in July is 32 °C, and the average minimum temperature in January is 11 °C.
[Head of State] President Michel Aoun.
[Important Festival] Martyrs’ Day (May 6th), Army Day (August 1st), Independence Day (November 22nd). There are many sects in Lebanon, and important festivals of all sects are national statutory holidays.
[Geography and Climate] Located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea in southwest Asia. It is adjacent to Syria in the east and north, Palestine in Israel in the south, and the Mediterranean Sea in the west. The coastline is 220 kilometers long. The coastal summer is hot and humid, and the winter is warm.
[A brief history] 2000 BC is part of Phoenician. Later, they were ruled by Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, and Rome. Into the Arab Empire from the 7th to the 16th century. Occupied by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. After the First World War, it became the appointed place of France.
In June 1940, after the French surrendered to Nazi Germany, Li was under the control of the Italian state. In June 1941, the British army occupied Lebanon with the assistance of the Free French Force. In November of the same year, the Free French Force announced the end of the appointment of Lebanon. On November 22, 1943, Lebanon declared independence and established the Lebanese Republic. In December 1946, the British and French troops all evacuated from Lebanon. In April 1975, the conflict between Christianity and Islam in Lebanon was intensified due to the distribution of state power, and civil war broke out. In October 1989, the Iraqi and Kyrgyz parties reached the Taif Agreement and redistributed political power. In 1990, the civil war ended.
黎是议会民主共和国。议会实行一院制，现有128个议席，基督教和伊斯兰教议员各占一半。黎党派林立，但力量分散，目前无一党占绝对优势。2007年11月，拉胡德总统任满离职，议会多数派和反对派在总统选举问题上严重对立，选举被19次推迟，总统职位一直空缺。在阿盟和卡塔尔等八国外长组成的阿国调解委员会共同斡旋下，黎各派达成“多哈协议”，于2008年5月选举黎前武装部队总司令米歇尔·苏莱曼为总统，任期至2014年5月。2009年6月，“未来阵线”领衔的多数派在议会选举中胜选，苏莱曼总统授权多数派领袖萨阿德·哈里里（Saad Hariri）组阁，11月联合政府成立。2011年1月，联合政府因以真主党为主导的“3·8”联盟11名部长集体辞职而解散。苏莱曼总统授命前总理纳吉布·米卡提（Najib Mikati）出任总理并组阁，6月新政府成立。2013年3月22日，因内阁未能就成立黎议会选举监督机构和延长黎治安部队司令任期达成一致，米卡提总理宣布辞职。4月6日，苏莱曼总统授命塔马姆·萨拉姆（Tamam Salam）出任总理，2014年2月完成组建新内阁。苏莱曼总统任期于2014年5月25日结束。2016年10月31日，黎议会举行总统选举，米歇尔·奥恩（Michel Aoun）当选黎总统并随即就职。11月3日，奥恩任命萨阿德·哈里里（Saad Hariri）为总理并组阁，哈里里12月18日组阁成功。2017年11月，哈里里在访问沙特期间宣布辞职，12月宣布收回辞呈。2018年5月6日，黎选举产生新一届议会。5月23日，纳比·贝里连任议长。5月24日，奥恩总统宣布现政府转为看守政府，授权哈里里组建新一届政府。2019年1月31日，黎新政府组成，哈里里连任总理。
本届政府于2019年1月31日组成，共30人，主要成员为：总理萨阿德·哈里里（Saad Hariri），副总理格桑·哈斯巴尼（Ghassan Hasbani）,外交和侨民事务部长纪伯伦·巴西勒(Gebran Bassil）等。
(1) Political situation
Lebanon is a parliamentary democratic republic. The parliament has a one-chamber system with 128 seats and half of Christian and Islamic lawmakers. The Li party is full of strength, but the power is scattered. At present, no party has an absolute advantage. In November 2007, President Lahoud was resigned, the parliamentary majority and the opposition were seriously opposed to the presidential election, the election was postponed 19 times, and the presidential position has been vacant. Under the mediation of the Arab mediation committee composed of eight foreign ministers, including the Arab League and Qatar, the Lebanese parties reached a “Doha Agreement”. In May 2008, the former Lieutenant Commander of the former Liberian armed forces, Michelle Suleiman, was elected as president. Until May 2014. In June 2009, the majority led by the “Future Front” won the parliamentary elections. President Suleiman authorized the majority leader Saad Hariri to form a cabinet. In November, the coalition government was established. In January 2011, the coalition government was dissolved due to the collective resignation of 11 ministers of the “3.8” coalition led by Hezbollah. President Suleiman gave the appointment of former Prime Minister Najib Mikati to the Prime Minister and formed the cabinet. The new government was established in June. On March 22, 2013, Prime Minister Mikati announced his resignation because the cabinet failed to reach an agreement on the establishment of the Lebanese parliamentary election monitoring body and the extension of the commander of the Li’an security forces. On April 6, President Suleiman ordered Tamam Salam to serve as Prime Minister and completed the formation of a new cabinet in February 2014. President Suleiman’s term ended on May 25, 2014. On October 31, 2016, the Lebanese parliament held a presidential election, and Michel Aoun was elected President of Lebanon and immediately took office. On November 3, Orn appointed Saad Hariri as Prime Minister and formed a cabinet. Hariri successfully formed the cabinet on December 18. In November 2017, Hariri announced his resignation during his visit to Saudi Arabia and announced his resignation in December. On May 6, 2018, Lebanon elected a new parliament. On May 23, Nabi Berry was re-elected as Speaker. On May 24, President Orn announced that the current government has turned into a caretaker government and authorized Hariri to form a new government. On January 31, 2019, the Li Xin government formed and Hariri was re-elected as prime minister.
It was promulgated on May 23, 1926, and was revised eight times. The foreword was added when it was revised in September 1990. The Constitution stipulates that Lebanon is an independent, unified and sovereign and complete country. It is a parliamentary democratic republic with Arab attributes and a free trade policy. Any power that has the principle of coexistence among sects is illegal. The president is elected by the parliament for a term of six years and is not eligible for re-election. On October 19, 1995, the Parliament amended Article 49 of the Constitution, which stipulates that “the current President shall be appointed for a period of three years under special circumstances (currently) and that he shall be allowed to serve only once.” The amendment of the constitution must be proposed by the president, submitted by the government to the parliament, or moved by more than 10 members, and passed by a two-thirds majority of the parliament.
For a single hospital system. The main functions are to enact laws, amend the constitution, elect the president, approve the prime minister and cabinet candidates, and review the state budget and foreign treaties and agreements. The seats are allocated according to the proportion of the sectarian consultations, and the members are elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years. In July 1992, the Lebanese parliament passed an amendment to the electoral law, and the number of seats increased to 128, divided equally between Christianity and Islam. The current parliament was elected in June 2009. The majority of the Lebanese parliament headed by the “Future Front” won 71 of the 128 seats, and the minority of the parliament headed by Hezbollah won 57 seats. The current Speaker, Nabih Barri, was elected in November 1992 and has been re-elected to this day. The Liben Parliament was elected on May 6, 2018. On May 23, Nabi Berry was re-elected as Speaker.
The current government consisted of 30 people on January 31, 2019. The main members were: Prime Minister Saad Hariri, Deputy Prime Minister Ghassan Hasbani, Foreign Affairs and Expatriate Affairs. Minister Gebran Bassil and so on.
(5) Administrative divisions
There are 8 provinces in the country: Beirut, Mountain Province, Northern Province, Southern Province, Bekaa Province, Nabatiyah Province, Aka Province, Balbeck-Hilmeler Province.
黎巴嫩长枪党（The Lebanese Kataeb Party）：基督教马龙派政党。1936年11月成立，创始人为皮埃尔·杰马耶勒。2008年2月，阿明·杰马耶勒（Amin Gemayel）当选长枪党主席。
“黎巴嫩力量”（Lebanese Forces）：基督教派右翼政党，原系长枪党的武装力量，由长枪党创始人皮埃尔·杰马耶勒次子巴希尔·杰马耶勒1976年创建。现任领导人为执行委员会主席萨米尔·贾加（Samir Jaga）。
自由国民党（The National Liberal Party）：基督教马龙派政党。1958年9月成立，现任主席杜里·夏蒙（Dory Chamoun）。
真主党（The Party of God或Hezbullah）：黎穆斯林什叶派政党。1982年以色列入侵黎巴嫩期间成立，与伊朗关系密切。该党拥有民兵约5000人，集中在黎南部地区。1992年2月18日，谢赫·阿巴斯·穆萨维总书记被炸身亡，哈桑·纳斯鲁拉（Hassan Nasrallah）当选总书记。2005年，真主党成员首次担任政府部长。2009年议会选举中该党获得12席。11月，该党宣布放弃建立伊朗式伊斯兰政权，突出该党的黎巴嫩和阿拉伯属性，强调该党将逐步转变为“防卫力量”和建设国家的支柱。本届政府中有两名阁员来自真主党。2013年7月，欧盟通过决议，将真主党军事分支列为恐怖组织。
自由国民阵线（Free Patriotic Movement）：1992年由黎前军政府总理米歇尔·奥恩（Michel Aoun）将军组建。2005年成为议会内最大的基督教党团。2006年4月正式改组为政党。现任领导人外交和侨民事务部长纪伯伦·巴西勒。
“阿迈勒”运动（Amal Movement）：伊斯兰教什叶派政党。1974年成立，前身为“被剥夺者运动”，为伊斯兰教什叶派主要组织。主席纳比·贝里（Nabih Barri）（现议长）。
社会进步党（The Progressive Socialist Party）：1949年5月成立，为伊斯兰教德鲁兹派政党。1980年该党加入社会党国际。主席瓦立德·琼布拉特（Walid Joumblatt）。
黎巴嫩共产党（The Lebanese Communist Party）：1924年成立，是中东地区创建较早的共产党之一。1948年被宣布为非法，1970年取得合法地位。总书记哈利德·哈达德（Khalid Haddad）。
(6) Political parties
The main political parties in Lebanon have:
“Future Movement”: An Sunni political party in Islam. Created by former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. After the assassination of Ha, in February 2005, his son Saad Hariri took over as the leader of the “Future Front”. In July 2010, the “Future Front” officially formed a political party, Saad Hariri was elected president, and his brother Ahmed Hariri was elected general secretary.
The Lebanese Kataeb Party: Christian Maron Party. Founded in November 1936, the founder was Pierre Gemayel. In February 2008, Amin Gemayel was elected chairman of the Pike Party.
“Lebanese Forces”: The Christian right-wing party, originally the armed arm of the Pike Party, was founded in 1976 by the second son of the Pike Party, Pierre Gemayel, Bashir Gemayel. The current leader is the Executive Committee Chairman Samir Jaga.
The National Liberal Party: A Christian Maron party. Founded in September 1958, the current chairman is Dory Chamoun.
Hezbollah (The Party of God or Hezbullah): Limusilin Shiite parties. It was established during the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and has close ties with Iran. The party has about 5,000 militiamen concentrated in southern Lebanon. On February 18, 1992, General Secretary Sheikh Abbas Mousavi was killed and Hassan Nasrallah was elected General Secretary. In 2005, Hezbollah members served as government ministers for the first time. The party won 12 seats in the 2009 parliamentary elections. In November, the party announced its renunciation of the establishment of the Iranian-style Islamic regime, highlighting the party’s Lebanese and Arab attributes, emphasizing that the party will gradually transform into a “defensive force” and build the country’s pillar. Two members of the current government are from Hezbollah. In July 2013, the EU passed a resolution to list the military branch of Hezbollah as a terrorist organization.
Free Patriotic Movement: In 1992, it was formed by General Michel Aoun, the prime minister of the former Li government. In 2005, it became the largest Christian party in Parliament. In April 2006, it was officially reorganized into a political party. The current leader of the Diplomatic and Expatriate Affairs, Gibran Basil.
“Amal Movement”: Islamic Shiite party. Founded in 1974, it was formerly known as the “Deprived Movement” and is the main organization of the Islamic Shiites. Chairman Nabih Barri (current speaker).
The Progressive Socialist Party: Established in May 1949 as a political party for the Islamic Druze. In 1980 the party joined the Socialist International. Chairman Walid Joumblatt.
The Lebanese Communist Party: Founded in 1924, it is one of the early Communist parties in the Middle East. It was declared illegal in 1948 and legally acquired in 1970. General Secretary Khalid Haddad.
[important political figures]
Michel Owen: President. Born in Beirut in February 1935, Christian Maronite. He was educated at the Brotherhood School of the Brothers of Beirut, the Sacred Heart School, the Military School of Lebanon, and trained in military schools such as the French Artillery School. In June 1984, he served as Commander of the Li Jun and was promoted to Lieutenant General. In 1988, he served as Prime Minister and Minister of Defense of the Provisional Military Government of Lebanon. In exile in France in 1991, he established the Free National Front in France in 1996. In 2005, Orn returned to Lebanon and was elected as a member of parliament. The Liberal National Front led by him became the largest Christian party in the Lebanese parliament. In 2015, he stepped down as chairman of the Free National Front. On October 31, 2016, Lebanon held a parliamentary election, and Orn was elected President of Lebanon and immediately took office. Married with 3 children.
Saad Hariri: Prime Minister. Born in Saudi Arabia in April 1970, he is the chairman of the future front of the Sunni Islamist party in Lebanon. He graduated from Georgetown University in Washington, USA with a bachelor’s degree in international business. After the assassination of the old Hariri in 2005, he inherited the leadership of the future front party founded by his father. In 2009, he became prime minister. In 2011, the Hariri cabinet was dissolved due to the resignation of more than one-third of the ministers. Since then, Hariri has lived in Saudi Arabia for a long time. In 2016, Hariri returned to Li Zhengzheng and stayed in Beirut. On November 3, he was appointed as Prime Minister and a new cabinet was formed on December 18. In November 2017, Hariri announced his resignation during his visit to Saudi Arabia and announced his resignation in December. On May 24, 2018, President Orn announced that the current government had turned into a caretaker government and authorized Hariri to form a new government. On January 31, 2019, the Li Xin government formed and Hariri was re-elected as prime minister. Married with 3 children.
Nabi Berry: Speaker. Born in Sierra Leone in 1938, Chairman of the Islamic Shiite and Amal Movement. Graduated from the Faculty of Law of the University of Lebanon and studied in France. In 1963, he served as Chairman of the National Union of University Students, and served as a member of the Executive Committee of the World Federation of Patriotic Students. Later, he served as a member of the Supreme Council of the Islamist Shia, and was elected chairman of the Amal movement in 1980. On April 30, 1984, he served as Minister of State for Water, Electricity, Justice, the South, and Reconstruction. In November 1989, he served as Minister of Water, Electricity Resources, Housing and Cooperation. From December 1990 to May 1992, he served as Minister of State. On October 21, 1992, he was elected as the Speaker. In October 1996, October 2000, June 2005, June 2009, and May 2018, he was re-elected five times. There are 9 children.
[Judiciary] The court is divided into the court of first instance, the court of appeal, the supreme court, the administrative court and the magistrate court. There are also religious courts dealing with issues such as marriage and funeral and inheritance.
[Economic Profile] Lebanon implements a free and open market economy, and the private economy dominates. Before the war, Li was once famous for the financial, trade, transportation and tourism centers of the Middle and Near East, but the 16-year civil war combined with the Israeli invasion caused direct and indirect economic losses of about 165 billion US dollars. After the start of the Middle East peace process in 1991, Lebanon expected economic prosperity and great development. Later, due to the continued turmoil in the regional situation, its economic recovery plan was frustrated and carried a heavy debt burden. In the late 1990s, the economic situation in Lebanon gradually became difficult, the fiscal deficit remained high, and debts climbed. The 2006 Lebanon-Israel conflict resulted in the destruction of a large number of infrastructures in Lebanon. The direct economic losses amounted to 3.2 billion U.S. dollars and the indirect losses exceeded 7 billion U.S. dollars. This caused the economic development of Lebanon to come to a standstill, the debt burden was aggravated, and the task of post-war reconstruction was arduous. After the conflict ended, Lebanon received more than $10 billion in aid commitments.
Since the outbreak of the international financial crisis at the end of 2008, due to the weak link between the domestic financial system and the international economy, and the flexible use of foreign exchange and gold reserves by the Central Bank of Lebanon, Li has smoothly weathered the crisis and the economy has grown against the trend. The main economic figures for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product (GDP): $51.8 billion
GDP per capita: $8,492
Economic growth rate: 1.5%
Currency Name: Lebanese Pound
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 1507 Lebanese pound
Total imports: $18 billion
Total exports: $4 billion
External debt: $31.6 billion
Foreign exchange and gold reserves: $53.1 billion
Inflation rate: 3.1%
[Resources] There are few mineral resources and there is not much mining. The deposits mainly include iron, lead, copper, lignite and asphalt.
[Industrial] The industrial base of Lebanon is relatively weak, mainly in the processing industry. The main industries are non-metal manufacturing, metal manufacturing, furniture, clothing, wood processing, textiles, etc. The number of employees is about 200,000, accounting for 7% of the labor force in Lebanon. It is the third largest industry after commercial and non-financial services.
[Agriculture] Agriculture is underdeveloped. The country’s arable land area is 248,000 hectares, of which 104,000 hectares are irrigated. There are 360,000 hectares of pasture and 790,000 hectares of forest land. The Bekaa Valley is the main agricultural area of Lebanon, and the arable land area accounts for 52% of the country. Agricultural products are mainly fruits and vegetables. The food production in Lebanon is backward, mainly imported, and the crops include barley, wheat, corn and potatoes. Cash crops include tobacco, beets, and olives. In recent years, the grape growing industry in Lebanon has developed rapidly, with an annual output of 6 million to 7 million bottles of wine and an export value of about 12 million US dollars.
[Tourism] Liyuan is a tourist destination in the Middle East. Before the civil war, there were 2 million inbound passengers each year, and tourism revenue accounted for more than 20% of national income. During the civil war, the tourism industry was in a slump. After the war, the Lebanese government once revitalized tourism as an important part of the reconstruction plan. However, the recent conflicts in Lebanon and Israel and the unstable security situation have once again affected the revitalization of tourism in Lebanon. There are 398 star-rated hotels in Lebanon. The main tourist spots are the city of Bibrus built in the Phoenician era, the Balbeck city built in the Roman era, and the Seda Castle built during the Crusades. In addition, there are many ski resorts in the snowy mountains in the north, attracting a large number of tourists.
Water transport: The main ports are Beirut Port, Tripoli Port and Saida Port. Among them, there are 14 container and bulk cargo terminals in Beirut Port, which are responsible for the import and export volume of Li Bacheng.
Air transport: Beirut International Airport is a famous air port. In 1990, the Lebanese government invested 400 million U.S. dollars to renovate Beirut Airport, increasing its throughput from 2 million to 6 million per year. In May 2005, it was renamed “Rafik Hariri International Airport”.
Highway: Throughout the whole territory, the total length is about 7,300 kilometers, of which about 530 kilometers are high-speed or expressways. The roads were seriously damaged during the civil war and the Lebanon-Israel conflict, and the repair work was slow. The total number of vehicles in Lebanon is about 1.6 million, with an average of one car per 2.5 people, and the per capita possession ranks among the top in the world.
Railway: The total length of 402 kilometers, all state-owned, except for the Beirut-Cheka section, the rest were abandoned due to war damage.
[Financial Finance] Beirut was once the financial center of the Middle East, and foreign exchange and gold were freely traded. There are 72 banks across the country, including 65 commercial banks. Banks in Lebanon are mostly privately owned, with the larger ones being Oddi Bank, Lebanese-French Bank, and Bibrus Bank.
[Foreign Trade] Foreign trade plays an important role in the national economy of Lebanon. The government implements a foreign trade policy that is open to the outside world and that protects the national economy. Export commodities mainly include vegetables, fruits, metal products, textiles, chemical products, glass products and cement. The main trade targets are the United States, China, France, Italy, Germany and so on.
[Medical and Health] There are 161 hospitals in Li, with a total of 13,516 beds, about 5,000 registered doctors, and about 20,000 medical staff.
2014年3月，黎时任总统苏莱曼赴法出席黎“国际支持小组”会议。4月，法议会法黎友好小组访黎。5月，法总统奥朗德与时任黎总统苏莱曼通电话，对苏在任期间的工作表示赞赏。2015年2月，法国总统特使吉鲁访黎。4月，黎马龙派大主教拉伊访法。9月，黎总理萨拉姆在纽约联大期间会见法国总统奥朗德。2016年4月，法国总统奥朗德访黎。7月，法国外长艾罗访黎。11月，法国总统奥朗德致电祝贺奥恩当选总黎统。2017年3月，法国国防部长勒德里昂访黎。5月，黎总统奥恩与法国新任总统马克龙通电话。9月，黎总统奥恩访法。11月，黎总理哈里里、外长巴西勒分别访法。12月，黎总理哈里里访法。2018年3月，法国特使、地中海事务代表杜克森访黎。4月，黎总理哈里里访法，出席在巴黎召开的“西德尔会议”。6月，黎马龙派大主教拉伊访法。8月，法参议员代表团访黎。10月，奥恩总统会见法国总统马克龙。11月，看守内阁总理哈里里赴法出席巴黎和平论坛（Paris Peace Forum）开幕式，其间会见法国总统马克龙。
[External Relations] Li Fengxing’s neutral non-alignment policy advocates the establishment of a fair, rational, equal and balanced international political and economic new order. He emphasized the attributes of his Arab countries, adjusted relations with Syria, actively developed relations with Arab countries such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia, and attached importance to relations with Western countries such as the United States and France.
Relations with the United States: Lebanon and the United States established diplomatic relations in 1943. Lebanon attaches importance to developing relations with the United States and strives for political, economic and military support and assistance from the United States. The United States supports Lebanon’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, supports the Taif Agreement, urges Syrian troops to withdraw from Lebanon, and demands that the Lebanese government disarm Hezbollah. In 1997, the United States lifted the 12-year ban on US citizens going to Lebanon. After the “9.11” incident, the United States announced that Hezbollah was a terrorist organization and proposed to the Lebanese government a series of requirements for freezing the organization’s armed forces, funds, and intelligence cooperation between the two sides. The Lebanese government insists that the national resistance movement should be treated differently from terrorism. After the death of former Prime Minister Hariri in February 2005, the United States increased its intervention in the Li issue. In April, October and December, the US United Law and the United Kingdom pushed the Security Council to adopt resolutions 1595, 1636 and 1644 on the international investigation of the Hariri murder.
In March 2014, US President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Salam met on the phone and congratulated the Li Xin government on voting through parliamentary trust. In May, US Secretary of State Kerry and the then President of Lebanon, Suleiman, made a phone call and expressed appreciation for the work of Su during his tenure. In June, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Lebanon. In February 2015, the US$25 million military assistance provided by the United States to Lebanon arrived in Lebanon. In April, US Deputy Secretary of State Brinken visited Lebanon. In April 2016, US Central Command Commander Joseph Votel visited Lebanon. In November, US Secretary of State Kerry congratulated Orn on his election as President of Lebanon. In February 2017, Commander of the US Central Command, Woertel, visited Lebanon. In April, a delegation of US congressmen visited Lebanon. In June, US President Trump congratulated President Leon on the Eid al-Fitr, and US Central Command Commander Walter visited Lebanon. In July, Prime Minister Hariri visited the United States. In October, President Owen visited the United States and a delegation of the US Congressional Finance Committee visited Lebanon. In November, US President Trump sent a congratulatory message to President Leon, President Barry, and Prime Minister Hariri. In December, Commander Ward of the US Central Command visited Lebanon. In February 2018, US Secretary of State Tillerson visited Lebanon. In April, US President Trump issued a statement to extend greetings to the participants of the “Western Conference” and the Li people in Lebanon.
In January 2019, US Deputy Secretary of State Hale visited Lebanon. In March, US Secretary of State Pompei visited Lebanon.
Relations with France: Lebanon was the French appointed ruling place before independence in 1943, and the two countries have traditional relations. In order to seek economic and political advantages in Lebanon, the law has invested heavily in the reconstruction of the market. The law supports the Hariri government-led economic reconstruction and reform plan. In 2002, the law promised to provide 500 million U.S. dollars to Lebanon at the second international aid conference. In February 2005, former Prime Minister Hariri was killed, and President Chirac personally went to Lebanon to attend the funeral. The law advocated an international investigation into the incident and supported Lebanon to hold a parliamentary election and reorganize the government. In April, October and December, France and the United States and Britain jointly promoted the Security Council’s resolutions 1595, 1636 and 1644 on the international investigation of Hariri’s murder. During the Lebanon-Israel conflict in 2006, the law promoted the Security Council to adopt resolution 1701, which called for a ceasefire between Lebanon and Israel. After the conflict, 2,000 soldiers from the French army participated in UNIFIL.
In March 2014, Li Shi’s President Suleiman went to France to attend the “International Support Group” meeting in Lebanon. In April, the French and French Friendship Group visited Lebanon. In May, French President Hollande and the then President of Lebanon, Suleiman, telephoned and expressed appreciation for the work of Su during his tenure. In February 2015, French Presidential Envoy Ji Lu visited Lebanon. In April, Li Malong sent Archbishop Rah to visit France. In September, Prime Minister Salam met with French President Hollande during the UN General Assembly. In April 2016, French President Hollande visited Lebanon. In July, French Foreign Minister Ai Luo visited Lebanon. In November, French President Hollande called to congratulate Orn on his election to General Litong. In March 2017, French Defense Minister Ledrien visited Lebanon. In May, President Owen of Lebanon and the new French President Mark Long called. In September, President Owen visited France. In November, Prime Minister Hariri and Foreign Minister Basile visited France respectively. In December, Prime Minister Raleigh Hariri visited France. In March 2018, French Special Envoy and Mediterranean Affairs Representative Duxon visited Lebanon. In April, Prime Minister Raleigh Hariri visited France and attended the “Western Conference” held in Paris. In June, Li Malong sent Archbishop Rah to visit France. In August, the French Senate delegation visited Lebanon. In October, President Orn met with French President Mark Long. In November, the caretaker Prime Minister Hariri went to France to attend the opening ceremony of the Paris Peace Forum, during which he met with French President Mark Long.
In January 2019, Prime Minister Raleigh Hariri went to France.
[Military] The total strength of the government army is about 56,000, of which about 54,000 are the Army, 800 are the Air Force, and about 1,100 are the Navy. The French and the United States are mainly responsible for providing weapons and training. There are also about 17,000 internal security forces. The president is the supreme commander of the army. A military service system that combines compulsory military service with voluntary military service. The duration of the duty uniform is 18 months, and the voluntary system is signed for at least 3 years.
After Israel’s invasion of Lebanon in March 1978, the United Nations stationed troops in Lebanon and carried out its mission to monitor Israel’s withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and security, and assist the Lebanese government in effectively governing the southern part of Israel’s withdrawal.
[Cultural Education] There are 2,704 primary and middle schools in Lebanon, with more than 760,000 students and more than 60,000 teachers. There are 41 colleges and universities of various types, including 4 comprehensive universities. The University of Lebanon is the only national comprehensive university founded in 1953. The University of Beirut was founded in 1960. The American University of Beirut was founded in 1866 by the American Church and taught in English. St. Joseph University was established in 1881 and taught in French with a Confucius Institute.
The Lebanon-Middle East News Center is famous. There are more than 600 newspapers and magazines across the country. The main daily newspapers include “Dayly Newspaper”, “Flag Newspaper”, “Home Garden” and “Anwar Newspaper”. The main publications include “Event Weekly”, “Arab Weekly”, “Hunter”, “Magazine Weekly”, “Lebanon Review”, “Monday Morning” and so on.
News Agency: The Lebanese National News Agency is the only official news agency, founded in 1962 and headed by the Ministry of Information. A press release of three languages, A, English and French, is published daily, only the official domestic news of Lebanon. The Central News Agency is a private news agency founded in September 1982. Daily reports on the political, economic, and commercial aspects of Lebanon. The “Middle East Report” is a private news agency founded in 1977. In addition to the weekend, the daily newsletter of the domestic and foreign newsletter was issued. A special issue of reviews and news analysis content on weekends. There are branches in Cairo and Washington.
Radio stations: There are more than 140 radio stations in Lebanon, most of which are private entertainment stations. Among them, the Lebanese Radio is a national radio station and is headed by the Ministry of Information. Its predecessor was “Oriental Radio”, which was founded in 1938. After the outbreak of the civil war, due to economic difficulties, the station was forced to stop broadcasting. The “Voice of the Motherland” radio was founded in 1984 by the Sunni Charity Foundation of Islam. In addition to English news programs, it is mainly broadcast in Arabic. The “Voice of the People” radio station was founded by the Lebanese Communist Party in 1987 and has resident correspondents in Cairo, Paris, London and Moscow.
TV station: Lebanese national television station, established in 1978. It is owned by the Lebanese Television Company. The government accounts for half of the capital. The company’s chairman and board members are appointed by the government. The Future TV Station, founded in 1992 by the late former Prime Minister Hariri, is the second largest TV station in Lebanon. The Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation Television (LBC) was established in 1985 as a private television station. The Beacon TV Station, founded by the Li Hezheng Party, was founded in 1991.
Relations with Syria: Lebanon and Syria were the same political entity during the French mandate. After Li’s independence, Syria did not recognize that Li Xu still maintained a “special relationship”. After May 1976, the Syrian Army (initially about 28,000 people) had been stationed in Lebanon under the name of “Arab Deterrent Force.” In May 1991, Li Xu signed the “Brotherhood Cooperation and Coordination Treaty” and the “Security and Defence Treaty” to determine the highest level and most comprehensive coordination between the two countries. In January 1996, Li Xu signed five agreements on economic integration, the elimination of double taxes, the promotion and guarantee of investment, the establishment of a joint border post and cooperation in the social field. At the same time, the two sides decided to cooperate closely with Israel in negotiations and never to be alone with peace. On September 2, 2004, the United States, France and other countries pushed the Security Council to adopt Resolution 1559 and demanded that all Syrian troops stationed in Lebanon be evacuated. After the death of former Prime Minister Hariri in February 2005, the United States and other Western countries and the Li anti-Syrians accused Syria of being responsible for this. Syria announced in April that it would withdraw all its troops, security personnel and military equipment in Lebanon. In May 2006, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1680, encouraging Syria and Lebanon to demarcate borders, establish formal diplomatic relations, and send diplomatic representatives to each other. On July 12 and August 13, 2008, President Suleiman and Syrian President Bashar met twice in Paris and Damascus. The two sides announced their decision to establish diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level. On October 15, Foreign Minister Syrian Li signed a communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations, and the two countries formally established diplomatic relations.
Since the turmoil in the Syrian situation in 2011, the spillover effect has continued to ferment, which has had a serious negative impact on the stability and economic development of the political situation in Lebanon. There have been many armed conflicts in Li’s domestic pro-narrative and anti-Syrian factions and caused casualties. The territory of Lebanon has been attacked by shells and rockets from Syria. The Lebanese government advocates safeguarding Syria’s sovereignty, independence and unity, and opposing external interference. The Security Council should act with caution and the international community should create conditions for the advancement of the Syrian domestic political process. The Lebanese government has a “no-involvement” policy on the Syrian issue, and has reservations about the implementation of sanctions against Syria by the Arab League’s Syrian resolutions. It also cooperates with agencies such as the UNHCR to provide humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees in Lebanon.
Relations with other Arab countries: During the Lebanon-Israel conflict in 2006, the Arab countries gave Lebanon political and financial support. In May 2008, eight foreign ministers, including the Arab League and Qatar, formed the Afghan Mediation Committee and promoted the Lebanese parties to reach a “Doha Agreement.” The crisis of the presidential election of Liein ended. In March 2014, President Suleiman went to Kuwait to attend the Arab League summit. Foreign Minister Lebanese Basile went to Egypt to attend the Arab League Foreign Ministers’ Meeting. In the same month, Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi visited Lebanon. In April, Foreign Minister Basile went to Egypt to attend the Arab League Emergency Foreign Ministers’ Meeting. In May, Prime Minister Salam and Foreign Minister Basil visited Saudi Arabia. In June, Lebanese President Berry attended the inauguration ceremony of the new Egyptian President Seychelles; Prime Minister Salam visited Kuwait; Chairman of the Arab National Parliamentary Union and Kuwaiti Speaker Ghanim visited Lebanon. Since 2013, Saudi Arabia has twice provided Lebanon with $3 billion and $1 billion in military assistance to strengthen the construction of the Li army. In January 2015, Arab League Secretary General Arrabi visited Lebanon. In March, Prime Minister Salam went to Egypt to attend the Egyptian Economic Development Conference. In June, Prime Minister Salam visited Saudi Arabia and Egypt. In July, Prime Minister Salam visited Jordan. In November, Prime Minister Salam went to Saudi Arabia to attend the 4th Arab-Latin American Summit. In the same month, Palestinian Foreign Minister Maliki visited Lebanon. In February 2016, the Saudi cabinet meeting confirmed the cessation of military aid to Lebanon. In March, the GCC and the Arab League listed Li Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. In April, Lebanese President Berry went to Egypt to attend the 23rd meeting of the Arab Parliamentary Union. In August, Egyptian Foreign Minister Shukri visited Lebanon. In February 2017, Saudi Gulf Affairs Minister Samir Sabhan announced during his visit to Lebanon that Saudi Arabia would cancel its travel warning to Lebanon. In January 2017, President Leon’s visit to Saudi Arabia, Arab League Secretary General Gat, Jordan’s Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Jorda, and Iraqi Foreign Minister Jaafari visited Lebanon respectively. In the same month, Palestinian President Abbas visited Lebanon and President O’Neill visited Egypt and Jordan. In March, President Owen visited Egypt. In May, Prime Minister Rafi Hariri visited Qatar. In June, Kuwaiti President Ghanim visited Lebanon. In August, Prime Minister Rafi Hariri visited Kuwait. In November, Prime Minister Rafi Hariri visited Egypt and Saudi Arabia. In December, Foreign Minister Basile visited Brazil. In January 2018, President Owen visited Kuwait. In February, President Orn visited Iraq and Foreign Minister Basile visited Kuwait. In March, Prime Minister Rafi Hariri visited Saudi Arabia and Kazakhstan also called to congratulate Egyptian President Seychelles for re-election. In June, President Berry congratulated Abbas on his re-election as the chairman of the PLO Executive Committee. In September, Iraqi Vice President Allawi visited Lebanon.
In February 2019, Prime Minister Rafi Hariri visited the United Arab Emirates, and Secretary-General of the Arab League, Gat, visited Lebanon. In March, President Owen visited Tunisia and Speaker Berry visited Jordan.
Relations with Israel: South Lebanon is bordered by the north. In March 1978, it invaded southern Lebanon to fight the PLO. In June 1982, a large-scale invasion of Lebanon. In 1985, Israel established a “safety zone” of about 850 square kilometers in southern Lebanon on the grounds of defending the northern Galilee region. It stationed troops of more than a thousand people and fostered Nanli, a group of 3,000 pro-Christian Christians. military. In May 2000, he unilaterally withdrew from southern Lebanon, but Lebanon still insisted on the 1923 international border, demanding the end of the occupation of Sheba farm, Kaful Shuba village, northern Gagir village, etc. The borderline of June 4, 1967. In July 2006, Hezbollah’s armed forces crossed Israel and captured two Israeli soldiers. The Israeli army immediately launched a large-scale military operation against Lebanon. In August, the Security Council ceased fire after the adoption of resolution 1701. The conflict caused more than 1,000 civilians to die in Lebanon, more than 4,000 injured and more than 1 million people displaced. There are also 157 deaths in Israel. In October 2007 and July 2008, Li Hezbollah and Israel twice carried out “replacement of prisoners” with the assistance of the United Nations and the International Red Cross. From April to July 2010, the domestic security department of Lebanon cracked a number of Israelis in the Lishui newspaper network, arrested nearly 100 people and sentenced three people to death. The maritime boundary between Lebanon and Israel has not been demarcated, and there are differences between the two sides on the issue of maritime economic rights. Li Fang has repeatedly asked the United Nations to help the two sides delimit the maritime boundary. In July 2011, Israel demarcated its exclusive economic zone in the Mediterranean and the border with Israel and Lebanon. Li Fang expressed opposition to Israel’s unilateral decision on the issue of maritime delimitation. Since the outbreak of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict in August 2014, sporadic exchanges of fire have occurred from time to time in the border areas of Lebanon and Israel. In December 2018, Israel launched the “Northern Barrier” operation on the Lebanese border with the aim of expelling and destroying the tunnels that Hezbollah excavated in the Lebanon-Israel border area.