The Lebanese Republic 黎巴嫩共和国

【国名】黎巴嫩共和国(The Lebanese Republic )。

【面积】10452平方公里。

【人口】 约610万(2018年)。绝大多数为阿拉伯人。阿拉伯语为官方语言,通用法语、英语。居民54%信奉伊斯兰教,主要是什叶派、逊尼派和德鲁兹派;46%信奉基督教,主要有马龙派、希腊东正教、罗马天主教和亚美尼亚东正教等。

【首都】贝鲁特(Beirut),人口约200万,7月平均最高气温32℃,1月平均最低气温11℃。

【国家元首】 总统米歇尔·奥恩(Michel Aoun)。

【重要节日】 烈士节(5月6日)、建军节(8月1日)、独立节(11月22日)。黎教派众多,各教派重要节日均为国家法定节日。

【地理与气候】 位于亚洲西南部地中海东岸。东、北部邻叙利亚,南界巴勒斯坦、以色列,西濒地中海。海岸线长220公里。沿海夏季炎热潮湿,冬季温暖。

【简史】 公元前2000年为腓尼基的一部分。以后相继受埃及、亚述、巴比伦、波斯和罗马统治。7~16世纪初并入阿拉伯帝国。1517年被奥斯曼帝国占领。第一次世界大战后沦为法国委任统治地。

1940年6月,法向纳粹德国投降后,黎被德、意轴心国控制。1941年6月英军在自由法国部队协助下占领黎巴嫩。同年11月自由法国部队宣布结束对黎的委任统治。1943年11月22日黎宣布独立,成立黎巴嫩共和国。1946年12月英、法军全部撤离黎巴嫩。1975年4月,黎巴嫩基督教和伊斯兰教两派因国家权力分配产生的矛盾激化,内战爆发。1989年10月,伊、基两派议员达成《塔伊夫协议》,重新分配政治权力。1990年,黎内战结束。

[Country name] The Lebanese Republic.

[Area] 10,452 square kilometers.

[Population] About 6.1 million (2018). The vast majority are Arabs. Arabic is the official language, common French, English. 54% of residents believe in Islam, mainly Shiite, Sunni and Druze; 46% believe in Christianity, mainly Marlon, Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Armenian Orthodox.

[Capital] Beirut has a population of about 2 million. The average maximum temperature in July is 32 °C, and the average minimum temperature in January is 11 °C.

[Head of State] President Michel Aoun.

[Important Festival] Martyrs’ Day (May 6th), Army Day (August 1st), Independence Day (November 22nd). There are many sects in Lebanon, and important festivals of all sects are national statutory holidays.

[Geography and Climate] Located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea in southwest Asia. It is adjacent to Syria in the east and north, Palestine in Israel in the south, and the Mediterranean Sea in the west. The coastline is 220 kilometers long. The coastal summer is hot and humid, and the winter is warm.

[A brief history] 2000 BC is part of Phoenician. Later, they were ruled by Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, and Rome. Into the Arab Empire from the 7th to the 16th century. Occupied by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. After the First World War, it became the appointed place of France.

In June 1940, after the French surrendered to Nazi Germany, Li was under the control of the Italian state. In June 1941, the British army occupied Lebanon with the assistance of the Free French Force. In November of the same year, the Free French Force announced the end of the appointment of Lebanon. On November 22, 1943, Lebanon declared independence and established the Lebanese Republic. In December 1946, the British and French troops all evacuated from Lebanon. In April 1975, the conflict between Christianity and Islam in Lebanon was intensified due to the distribution of state power, and civil war broke out. In October 1989, the Iraqi and Kyrgyz parties reached the Taif Agreement and redistributed political power. In 1990, the civil war ended.

【政治】

(1)政情

黎是议会民主共和国。议会实行一院制,现有128个议席,基督教和伊斯兰教议员各占一半。黎党派林立,但力量分散,目前无一党占绝对优势。2007年11月,拉胡德总统任满离职,议会多数派和反对派在总统选举问题上严重对立,选举被19次推迟,总统职位一直空缺。在阿盟和卡塔尔等八国外长组成的阿国调解委员会共同斡旋下,黎各派达成“多哈协议”,于2008年5月选举黎前武装部队总司令米歇尔·苏莱曼为总统,任期至2014年5月。2009年6月,“未来阵线”领衔的多数派在议会选举中胜选,苏莱曼总统授权多数派领袖萨阿德·哈里里(Saad Hariri)组阁,11月联合政府成立。2011年1月,联合政府因以真主党为主导的“3·8”联盟11名部长集体辞职而解散。苏莱曼总统授命前总理纳吉布·米卡提(Najib Mikati)出任总理并组阁,6月新政府成立。2013年3月22日,因内阁未能就成立黎议会选举监督机构和延长黎治安部队司令任期达成一致,米卡提总理宣布辞职。4月6日,苏莱曼总统授命塔马姆·萨拉姆(Tamam Salam)出任总理,2014年2月完成组建新内阁。苏莱曼总统任期于2014年5月25日结束。2016年10月31日,黎议会举行总统选举,米歇尔·奥恩(Michel Aoun)当选黎总统并随即就职。11月3日,奥恩任命萨阿德·哈里里(Saad Hariri)为总理并组阁,哈里里12月18日组阁成功。2017年11月,哈里里在访问沙特期间宣布辞职,12月宣布收回辞呈。2018年5月6日,黎选举产生新一届议会。5月23日,纳比·贝里连任议长。5月24日,奥恩总统宣布现政府转为看守政府,授权哈里里组建新一届政府。2019年1月31日,黎新政府组成,哈里里连任总理。

(2)宪法

1926年5月23日颁布,后经8次修改。1990年9月修改时增加了前言。宪法规定黎巴嫩是一个独立、统一和主权完整的国家,是议会民主共和国,具有阿拉伯属性,实行自由贸易政策。任何有悖各教派共处原则的权力均属非法。总统由议会选举产生,任期6年,不得连选连任。 1995年10月19日,议会修改宪法第49条,规定“现任总统在(目前)特殊情况下延任3年,延任只准一次”。修改宪法必须由总统提议后、经政府向议会提出,或10名以上议员提出动议,并获议会三分之二多数通过。

(3)议会

为一院制。主要职能是制定法律、修改宪法、选举总统、批准总理和阁员人选及审议国家财政预算和对外条约及协定。议席按教派间协商后的比例分配,议员由普选产生,任期四年。1992年7月,黎议会通过选举法修正案,议席增至128个,由基督教和伊斯兰教平分。本届议会于2009年6月选举产生,以“未来阵线”为首的黎议会多数派赢得全部128个议席中的71席,以真主党为首的议会少数派获得57席。现任议长纳比·贝里(Nabih Barri)于1992年11月当选,连任至今。黎本届议会于2018年5月6日选举产生。5月23日,纳比·贝里连任议长。

(4)政府

本届政府于2019年1月31日组成,共30人,主要成员为:总理萨阿德·哈里里(Saad Hariri),副总理格桑·哈斯巴尼(Ghassan Hasbani),外交和侨民事务部长纪伯伦·巴西勒(Gebran Bassil)等。

(5)行政区划

全国分8个省:贝鲁特省、山区省、北方省、南方省、贝卡省、纳巴蒂耶省、阿卡省、巴尔贝克–希尔米勒省。

【political】

(1) Political situation

Lebanon is a parliamentary democratic republic. The parliament has a one-chamber system with 128 seats and half of Christian and Islamic lawmakers. The Li party is full of strength, but the power is scattered. At present, no party has an absolute advantage. In November 2007, President Lahoud was resigned, the parliamentary majority and the opposition were seriously opposed to the presidential election, the election was postponed 19 times, and the presidential position has been vacant. Under the mediation of the Arab mediation committee composed of eight foreign ministers, including the Arab League and Qatar, the Lebanese parties reached a “Doha Agreement”. In May 2008, the former Lieutenant Commander of the former Liberian armed forces, Michelle Suleiman, was elected as president. Until May 2014. In June 2009, the majority led by the “Future Front” won the parliamentary elections. President Suleiman authorized the majority leader Saad Hariri to form a cabinet. In November, the coalition government was established. In January 2011, the coalition government was dissolved due to the collective resignation of 11 ministers of the “3.8” coalition led by Hezbollah. President Suleiman gave the appointment of former Prime Minister Najib Mikati to the Prime Minister and formed the cabinet. The new government was established in June. On March 22, 2013, Prime Minister Mikati announced his resignation because the cabinet failed to reach an agreement on the establishment of the Lebanese parliamentary election monitoring body and the extension of the commander of the Li’an security forces. On April 6, President Suleiman ordered Tamam Salam to serve as Prime Minister and completed the formation of a new cabinet in February 2014. President Suleiman’s term ended on May 25, 2014. On October 31, 2016, the Lebanese parliament held a presidential election, and Michel Aoun was elected President of Lebanon and immediately took office. On November 3, Orn appointed Saad Hariri as Prime Minister and formed a cabinet. Hariri successfully formed the cabinet on December 18. In November 2017, Hariri announced his resignation during his visit to Saudi Arabia and announced his resignation in December. On May 6, 2018, Lebanon elected a new parliament. On May 23, Nabi Berry was re-elected as Speaker. On May 24, President Orn announced that the current government has turned into a caretaker government and authorized Hariri to form a new government. On January 31, 2019, the Li Xin government formed and Hariri was re-elected as prime minister.

(2) Constitution

It was promulgated on May 23, 1926, and was revised eight times. The foreword was added when it was revised in September 1990. The Constitution stipulates that Lebanon is an independent, unified and sovereign and complete country. It is a parliamentary democratic republic with Arab attributes and a free trade policy. Any power that has the principle of coexistence among sects is illegal. The president is elected by the parliament for a term of six years and is not eligible for re-election. On October 19, 1995, the Parliament amended Article 49 of the Constitution, which stipulates that “the current President shall be appointed for a period of three years under special circumstances (currently) and that he shall be allowed to serve only once.” The amendment of the constitution must be proposed by the president, submitted by the government to the parliament, or moved by more than 10 members, and passed by a two-thirds majority of the parliament.

(3) Parliament

For a single hospital system. The main functions are to enact laws, amend the constitution, elect the president, approve the prime minister and cabinet candidates, and review the state budget and foreign treaties and agreements. The seats are allocated according to the proportion of the sectarian consultations, and the members are elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years. In July 1992, the Lebanese parliament passed an amendment to the electoral law, and the number of seats increased to 128, divided equally between Christianity and Islam. The current parliament was elected in June 2009. The majority of the Lebanese parliament headed by the “Future Front” won 71 of the 128 seats, and the minority of the parliament headed by Hezbollah won 57 seats. The current Speaker, Nabih Barri, was elected in November 1992 and has been re-elected to this day. The Liben Parliament was elected on May 6, 2018. On May 23, Nabi Berry was re-elected as Speaker.

(4) Government

The current government consisted of 30 people on January 31, 2019. The main members were: Prime Minister Saad Hariri, Deputy Prime Minister Ghassan Hasbani, Foreign Affairs and Expatriate Affairs. Minister Gebran Bassil and so on.

(5) Administrative divisions

There are 8 provinces in the country: Beirut, Mountain Province, Northern Province, Southern Province, Bekaa Province, Nabatiyah Province, Aka Province, Balbeck-Hilmeler Province.

(6)政党

黎主要政党有:

“未来阵线”(Future Movement):伊斯兰教逊尼派政党。由黎前总理拉菲克·哈里里创建。2005年2月哈遇刺后,其子萨阿德·哈里里接任“未来阵线”领袖。2010年7月,“未来阵线”正式组建政党,萨阿德·哈里里当选主席,其弟艾哈迈德·哈里里当选总书记。

黎巴嫩长枪党(The Lebanese Kataeb Party):基督教马龙派政党。1936年11月成立,创始人为皮埃尔·杰马耶勒。2008年2月,阿明·杰马耶勒(Amin Gemayel)当选长枪党主席。

“黎巴嫩力量”(Lebanese Forces):基督教派右翼政党,原系长枪党的武装力量,由长枪党创始人皮埃尔·杰马耶勒次子巴希尔·杰马耶勒1976年创建。现任领导人为执行委员会主席萨米尔·贾加(Samir Jaga)。

自由国民党(The National Liberal Party):基督教马龙派政党。1958年9月成立,现任主席杜里·夏蒙(Dory Chamoun)。

真主党(The Party of God或Hezbullah):黎穆斯林什叶派政党。1982年以色列入侵黎巴嫩期间成立,与伊朗关系密切。该党拥有民兵约5000人,集中在黎南部地区。1992年2月18日,谢赫·阿巴斯·穆萨维总书记被炸身亡,哈桑·纳斯鲁拉(Hassan Nasrallah)当选总书记。2005年,真主党成员首次担任政府部长。2009年议会选举中该党获得12席。11月,该党宣布放弃建立伊朗式伊斯兰政权,突出该党的黎巴嫩和阿拉伯属性,强调该党将逐步转变为“防卫力量”和建设国家的支柱。本届政府中有两名阁员来自真主党。2013年7月,欧盟通过决议,将真主党军事分支列为恐怖组织。

自由国民阵线(Free Patriotic Movement):1992年由黎前军政府总理米歇尔·奥恩(Michel Aoun)将军组建。2005年成为议会内最大的基督教党团。2006年4月正式改组为政党。现任领导人外交和侨民事务部长纪伯伦·巴西勒。

“阿迈勒”运动(Amal Movement):伊斯兰教什叶派政党。1974年成立,前身为“被剥夺者运动”,为伊斯兰教什叶派主要组织。主席纳比·贝里(Nabih Barri)(现议长)。

社会进步党(The Progressive Socialist Party):1949年5月成立,为伊斯兰教德鲁兹派政党。1980年该党加入社会党国际。主席瓦立德·琼布拉特(Walid Joumblatt)。

黎巴嫩共产党(The Lebanese Communist Party):1924年成立,是中东地区创建较早的共产党之一。1948年被宣布为非法,1970年取得合法地位。总书记哈利德·哈达德(Khalid Haddad)。

(6) Political parties

The main political parties in Lebanon have:

“Future Movement”: An Sunni political party in Islam. Created by former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. After the assassination of Ha, in February 2005, his son Saad Hariri took over as the leader of the “Future Front”. In July 2010, the “Future Front” officially formed a political party, Saad Hariri was elected president, and his brother Ahmed Hariri was elected general secretary.

The Lebanese Kataeb Party: Christian Maron Party. Founded in November 1936, the founder was Pierre Gemayel. In February 2008, Amin Gemayel was elected chairman of the Pike Party.

“Lebanese Forces”: The Christian right-wing party, originally the armed arm of the Pike Party, was founded in 1976 by the second son of the Pike Party, Pierre Gemayel, Bashir Gemayel. The current leader is the Executive Committee Chairman Samir Jaga.

The National Liberal Party: A Christian Maron party. Founded in September 1958, the current chairman is Dory Chamoun.

Hezbollah (The Party of God or Hezbullah): Limusilin Shiite parties. It was established during the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and has close ties with Iran. The party has about 5,000 militiamen concentrated in southern Lebanon. On February 18, 1992, General Secretary Sheikh Abbas Mousavi was killed and Hassan Nasrallah was elected General Secretary. In 2005, Hezbollah members served as government ministers for the first time. The party won 12 seats in the 2009 parliamentary elections. In November, the party announced its renunciation of the establishment of the Iranian-style Islamic regime, highlighting the party’s Lebanese and Arab attributes, emphasizing that the party will gradually transform into a “defensive force” and build the country’s pillar. Two members of the current government are from Hezbollah. In July 2013, the EU passed a resolution to list the military branch of Hezbollah as a terrorist organization.

Free Patriotic Movement: In 1992, it was formed by General Michel Aoun, the prime minister of the former Li government. In 2005, it became the largest Christian party in Parliament. In April 2006, it was officially reorganized into a political party. The current leader of the Diplomatic and Expatriate Affairs, Gibran Basil.

“Amal Movement”: Islamic Shiite party. Founded in 1974, it was formerly known as the “Deprived Movement” and is the main organization of the Islamic Shiites. Chairman Nabih Barri (current speaker).

The Progressive Socialist Party: Established in May 1949 as a political party for the Islamic Druze. In 1980 the party joined the Socialist International. Chairman Walid Joumblatt.

The Lebanese Communist Party: Founded in 1924, it is one of the early Communist parties in the Middle East. It was declared illegal in 1948 and legally acquired in 1970. General Secretary Khalid Haddad.

【重要政治人物】

米歇尔·奥恩:总统。1935年2月出生于贝鲁特,基督教马龙派。曾在贝鲁特基督兄弟学校、圣心学校、黎军事学校等接受教育,在法国炮兵学校等军事学校受训。1984年6月担任黎军司令并晋升中将。1988年就任黎临时军政府总理兼国防部长。1991年流亡法国,于1996年在法组建自由国民阵线。2005年奥恩返黎,当年当选为议员,其领导的自由国民阵线成为黎议会最大的基督教党团。2015年卸任自由国民阵线主席一职。2016年10月31日,黎举行议会选举,奥恩当选黎总统并随即就职。已婚,有3个子女。

萨阿德·哈里里:总理。1970年4月出生于沙特利雅得,黎最大伊斯兰教逊尼派政党未来阵线主席。毕业于美国华盛顿乔治敦大学,获国际商务学士学位。2005年老哈里里遇刺身亡后,继承其父创立的未来阵线政党领导权。2009年就任总理,2011年哈里里内阁因超过三分之一部长辞职而解散。此后,哈里里长期旅居沙特。2016年,哈里里重返黎政坛并长居贝鲁特。11月3日被授命出任总理,12月18日组建新内阁。2017年11月,哈里里在访问沙特期间宣布辞职,12月宣布收回辞呈。2018年5月24日,奥恩总统宣布现政府转为看守政府,授权哈里里组建新一届政府。2019年1月31日,黎新政府组成,哈里里连任总理。已婚,有3个子女。

纳比·贝里:议长。1938年出生于塞拉利昂,伊斯兰教什叶派、阿迈勒运动主席。毕业于黎巴嫩大学法律系,后在法国进修。1963年任黎全国大学生联合会主席,并担任过世界爱国学生联合会执委会委员。后担任黎伊斯兰什叶派最高委员会委员,1980年当选为阿迈勒运动主席。1984年4月30日,担任水、电、司法、南方、重建事务国务部长。1989年11月,担任水、电资源、住房、合作部长。1990年12月至1992年5月,担任国务部长。1992年10月21日当选为议长,1996年10月、2000年10月、2005年6月、2009年6月、2018年5月五次连任。有9个子女。

【司法机构】 法院分为初审法院、上诉法院、最高法院、行政法院和治安法院。此外还有处理婚丧、遗产继承等问题的宗教法庭。

[important political figures]

Michel Owen: President. Born in Beirut in February 1935, Christian Maronite. He was educated at the Brotherhood School of the Brothers of Beirut, the Sacred Heart School, the Military School of Lebanon, and trained in military schools such as the French Artillery School. In June 1984, he served as Commander of the Li Jun and was promoted to Lieutenant General. In 1988, he served as Prime Minister and Minister of Defense of the Provisional Military Government of Lebanon. In exile in France in 1991, he established the Free National Front in France in 1996. In 2005, Orn returned to Lebanon and was elected as a member of parliament. The Liberal National Front led by him became the largest Christian party in the Lebanese parliament. In 2015, he stepped down as chairman of the Free National Front. On October 31, 2016, Lebanon held a parliamentary election, and Orn was elected President of Lebanon and immediately took office. Married with 3 children.

Saad Hariri: Prime Minister. Born in Saudi Arabia in April 1970, he is the chairman of the future front of the Sunni Islamist party in Lebanon. He graduated from Georgetown University in Washington, USA with a bachelor’s degree in international business. After the assassination of the old Hariri in 2005, he inherited the leadership of the future front party founded by his father. In 2009, he became prime minister. In 2011, the Hariri cabinet was dissolved due to the resignation of more than one-third of the ministers. Since then, Hariri has lived in Saudi Arabia for a long time. In 2016, Hariri returned to Li Zhengzheng and stayed in Beirut. On November 3, he was appointed as Prime Minister and a new cabinet was formed on December 18. In November 2017, Hariri announced his resignation during his visit to Saudi Arabia and announced his resignation in December. On May 24, 2018, President Orn announced that the current government had turned into a caretaker government and authorized Hariri to form a new government. On January 31, 2019, the Li Xin government formed and Hariri was re-elected as prime minister. Married with 3 children.

Nabi Berry: Speaker. Born in Sierra Leone in 1938, Chairman of the Islamic Shiite and Amal Movement. Graduated from the Faculty of Law of the University of Lebanon and studied in France. In 1963, he served as Chairman of the National Union of University Students, and served as a member of the Executive Committee of the World Federation of Patriotic Students. Later, he served as a member of the Supreme Council of the Islamist Shia, and was elected chairman of the Amal movement in 1980. On April 30, 1984, he served as Minister of State for Water, Electricity, Justice, the South, and Reconstruction. In November 1989, he served as Minister of Water, Electricity Resources, Housing and Cooperation. From December 1990 to May 1992, he served as Minister of State. On October 21, 1992, he was elected as the Speaker. In October 1996, October 2000, June 2005, June 2009, and May 2018, he was re-elected five times. There are 9 children.

[Judiciary] The court is divided into the court of first instance, the court of appeal, the supreme court, the administrative court and the magistrate court. There are also religious courts dealing with issues such as marriage and funeral and inheritance.

【经济概况】 黎实行自由、开放的市场经济,私营经济占主导地位。黎内战前曾享有中、近东金融、贸易、交通和旅游中心的盛名,但16年内战加之以色列入侵,造成直接和间接经济损失约1650亿美元。1991年中东和平进程启动后,黎预期经济利好,大兴土木,后由于地区形势持续动荡,其经济复苏计划受挫,背上了沉重的债务包袱。九十年代后期,黎经济形势渐入困境,财政赤字居高不下,债务攀升。2006年长达月余的黎以冲突造成黎大量基础设施被毁,直接经济损失达32亿美元,间接损失超过70亿美元,使黎经济发展陷入停顿,债务负担加重,战后重建任务艰巨。冲突结束后,黎获得逾100亿美元援助承诺。

2008年底国际金融危机爆发以来,由于黎国内金融体系与国际经济联系较弱,且黎中央银行灵活运用外汇和黄金储备应对得当,黎平稳渡过危机,经济逆势增长。2018年主要经济数字如下:

国内生产总值(GDP):518亿美元

人均GDP:8492美元

经济增长率:1.5%

货币名称:黎巴嫩镑

汇率: 1美元=1507黎镑

进口总额:180亿美元

出口总额:40亿美元

外债:316亿美元

外汇和黄金储备:531亿美元

通货膨胀率:3.1%

【资源】 矿产资源少,且开采不多。矿藏主要有铁、铅、铜、褐煤和沥青等。

【工业】 黎工业基础相对薄弱,以加工业为主。主要行业有非金属制造、金属制造、家具、服装、木材加工、纺织等。从业人数约20万,占黎劳动力的7%,是仅次于商业和非金融服务业的第三大产业。

【农业】 农业欠发达。全国可耕地面积24.8万公顷,其中灌溉面积10.4万公顷。牧场36万公顷,林地面积79万公顷。贝卡谷地为黎主要农业区,可耕地面积占黎全国的52%。农产品以水果和蔬菜为主。黎粮食生产落后,主要靠进口,作物有大麦、小麦、玉米、马铃薯等。经济作物有烟草、甜菜、橄榄等。近年来,黎葡萄种植业发展很快,年产葡萄酒600万~700万瓶,出口额约1200万美元。

[Economic Profile] Lebanon implements a free and open market economy, and the private economy dominates. Before the war, Li was once famous for the financial, trade, transportation and tourism centers of the Middle and Near East, but the 16-year civil war combined with the Israeli invasion caused direct and indirect economic losses of about 165 billion US dollars. After the start of the Middle East peace process in 1991, Lebanon expected economic prosperity and great development. Later, due to the continued turmoil in the regional situation, its economic recovery plan was frustrated and carried a heavy debt burden. In the late 1990s, the economic situation in Lebanon gradually became difficult, the fiscal deficit remained high, and debts climbed. The 2006 Lebanon-Israel conflict resulted in the destruction of a large number of infrastructures in Lebanon. The direct economic losses amounted to 3.2 billion U.S. dollars and the indirect losses exceeded 7 billion U.S. dollars. This caused the economic development of Lebanon to come to a standstill, the debt burden was aggravated, and the task of post-war reconstruction was arduous. After the conflict ended, Lebanon received more than $10 billion in aid commitments.

Since the outbreak of the international financial crisis at the end of 2008, due to the weak link between the domestic financial system and the international economy, and the flexible use of foreign exchange and gold reserves by the Central Bank of Lebanon, Li has smoothly weathered the crisis and the economy has grown against the trend. The main economic figures for 2018 are as follows:

Gross domestic product (GDP): $51.8 billion

GDP per capita: $8,492

Economic growth rate: 1.5%

Currency Name: Lebanese Pound

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 1507 Lebanese pound

Total imports: $18 billion

Total exports: $4 billion

External debt: $31.6 billion

Foreign exchange and gold reserves: $53.1 billion

Inflation rate: 3.1%

[Resources] There are few mineral resources and there is not much mining. The deposits mainly include iron, lead, copper, lignite and asphalt.

[Industrial] The industrial base of Lebanon is relatively weak, mainly in the processing industry. The main industries are non-metal manufacturing, metal manufacturing, furniture, clothing, wood processing, textiles, etc. The number of employees is about 200,000, accounting for 7% of the labor force in Lebanon. It is the third largest industry after commercial and non-financial services.

[Agriculture] Agriculture is underdeveloped. The country’s arable land area is 248,000 hectares, of which 104,000 hectares are irrigated. There are 360,000 hectares of pasture and 790,000 hectares of forest land. The Bekaa Valley is the main agricultural area of ​​Lebanon, and the arable land area accounts for 52% of the country. Agricultural products are mainly fruits and vegetables. The food production in Lebanon is backward, mainly imported, and the crops include barley, wheat, corn and potatoes. Cash crops include tobacco, beets, and olives. In recent years, the grape growing industry in Lebanon has developed rapidly, with an annual output of 6 million to 7 million bottles of wine and an export value of about 12 million US dollars.

【旅游业】黎原为中东旅游胜地。内战前,每年入境旅客达200万人次,旅游收入占国民收入的20%以上。内战期间,旅游业一蹶不振。战后黎政府曾将振兴旅游业作为重建计划重要组成部分,但近年黎以冲突及安全形势不稳再次影响了黎旅游业的振兴。黎现有各类星级饭店398家。主要旅游点有腓尼基时代兴建的毕卜鲁斯城、古罗马时代兴建的巴尔贝克城和十字军时代兴建的赛达城堡。此外,北部的雪山有很多滑雪场,吸引了大量游客。

【交通运输】

水运:主要港口有贝鲁特港、的黎波里港、赛达港,其中贝鲁特港现有集装箱及集散货码头14个,承担着黎八成以上的进出口货物运输量。

空运:贝鲁特国际机场是著名航空港。1990年黎政府投资4亿美元改造贝鲁特机场,将其吞吐量由每年200万人次提高到600万人次。2005年5月更名为“拉菲克·哈里里国际机场”。

公路:贯穿全境,全长约7300公里,其中高速或快速公路约530公里。公路在内战、黎以冲突期间均遭严重破坏,修复工作进展缓慢。黎车辆总数约为160万辆,平均每2.5人拥有一辆汽车,人均拥有量居世界前列。

铁路:全长402公里,全部为国有,除贝鲁特—谢卡(Chekka)段外,其余因战乱破坏而被废弃。

【财政金融】贝鲁特曾是中东金融中心,外汇和黄金可自由买卖。全国有72家银行,其中商业银行65家。黎银行多为私人所有,其中较大的有奥狄银行、黎巴嫩—法国银行、毕卜鲁斯银行等。

【对外贸易】外贸在黎国民经济中占有重要地位,政府实行对外开放与保护民族经济相协调的外贸政策。出口商品主要有蔬菜、水果、金属制品、纺织品、化工产品、玻璃制品和水泥等。主要贸易对象是美国、中国、法国、意大利、德国等。

【医疗卫生】黎共有医院161所,床位约13516张,注册医生约5000人,医护人员共约2万人。

[Tourism] Liyuan is a tourist destination in the Middle East. Before the civil war, there were 2 million inbound passengers each year, and tourism revenue accounted for more than 20% of national income. During the civil war, the tourism industry was in a slump. After the war, the Lebanese government once revitalized tourism as an important part of the reconstruction plan. However, the recent conflicts in Lebanon and Israel and the unstable security situation have once again affected the revitalization of tourism in Lebanon. There are 398 star-rated hotels in Lebanon. The main tourist spots are the city of Bibrus built in the Phoenician era, the Balbeck city built in the Roman era, and the Seda Castle built during the Crusades. In addition, there are many ski resorts in the snowy mountains in the north, attracting a large number of tourists.

【Transportation】

Water transport: The main ports are Beirut Port, Tripoli Port and Saida Port. Among them, there are 14 container and bulk cargo terminals in Beirut Port, which are responsible for the import and export volume of Li Bacheng.

Air transport: Beirut International Airport is a famous air port. In 1990, the Lebanese government invested 400 million U.S. dollars to renovate Beirut Airport, increasing its throughput from 2 million to 6 million per year. In May 2005, it was renamed “Rafik Hariri International Airport”.

Highway: Throughout the whole territory, the total length is about 7,300 kilometers, of which about 530 kilometers are high-speed or expressways. The roads were seriously damaged during the civil war and the Lebanon-Israel conflict, and the repair work was slow. The total number of vehicles in Lebanon is about 1.6 million, with an average of one car per 2.5 people, and the per capita possession ranks among the top in the world.

Railway: The total length of 402 kilometers, all state-owned, except for the Beirut-Cheka section, the rest were abandoned due to war damage.

[Financial Finance] Beirut was once the financial center of the Middle East, and foreign exchange and gold were freely traded. There are 72 banks across the country, including 65 commercial banks. Banks in Lebanon are mostly privately owned, with the larger ones being Oddi Bank, Lebanese-French Bank, and Bibrus Bank.

[Foreign Trade] Foreign trade plays an important role in the national economy of Lebanon. The government implements a foreign trade policy that is open to the outside world and that protects the national economy. Export commodities mainly include vegetables, fruits, metal products, textiles, chemical products, glass products and cement. The main trade targets are the United States, China, France, Italy, Germany and so on.

[Medical and Health] There are 161 hospitals in Li, with a total of 13,516 beds, about 5,000 registered doctors, and about 20,000 medical staff.

【对外关系】 黎奉行中立不结盟政策,主张建立公正、合理、平等、均衡的国际政治、经济新秩序。对外强调其阿拉伯国家属性,调整与叙利亚关系,积极发展同埃及、沙特等阿拉伯大国的关系,重视同美国和法国等西方国家的关系。

同美国的关系:黎、美于1943年建交。黎巴嫩重视发展同美国的关系,争取美在政治、经济、军事上的支持和援助。美支持黎独立、主权和领土完整,支持《塔伊夫协议》;敦促叙利亚军队撤出黎境内;要求黎政府解除真主党武装。1997年美解除了长达12年之久的对美公民赴黎禁令。美在“9·11”事件后宣布黎真主党为恐怖组织,并向黎政府提出了冻结该组织武装、资金,双方进行情报合作等一系列要求。黎政府则坚持认为应将民族抵抗运动与恐怖主义区别对待。2005年2月黎前总理哈里里遇害后,美国加大对黎问题的干预力度。4月、10月、12月,美联合法、英推动安理会通过有关哈里里遇害国际调查的1595、1636、1644号决议。

2014年3月,美总统奥巴马与黎总理萨拉姆通电话,祝贺黎新政府通过议会信任投票。5月,美国务卿克里与时任黎总统苏莱曼通电话,对苏在任期间的工作表示赞赏。6月,美国务卿克里访问黎。2015年2月,美国向黎提供的2500万美元军事援助运抵黎。4月,美副国务卿布林肯访黎。2016年4月,美国中央司令部司令约瑟夫·沃特尔访黎。11月,美国务卿克里电话祝贺奥恩当选黎总统。2017年2月,美国中央司令部司令沃特尔访黎。4月,美国会议员代表团访黎。6月,美国总统特朗普电贺黎总统奥恩开斋节,美国中央司令部司令沃特尔访黎。7月,黎总理哈里里访美。10月,黎总统奥恩访美,美国国会财政委员会代表团访黎。11月,美国总统特朗普就黎独立日电贺黎总统奥恩、议长贝里、总理哈里里。12月,美国中央司令部司令沃特尔访黎。2018年2月,美国国务卿蒂勒森访黎。4月,美国总统特朗普发表声明,向在巴黎召开的援助黎巴嫩的“西德尔会议”与会者和黎人民致以问候。

2019年1月,美国副国务卿黑尔访黎。3月,美国务卿蓬佩奥访黎。

同法国的关系:黎在1943年独立前曾是法国委任统治地,两国有传统的关系。法为谋求在黎的经济和政治优势,大力投入黎重建市场。法支持哈里里政府主导的经济重建与改革计划,2002年法在第二次国际援黎会议上承诺向黎提供5亿美元援助。2005年2月,黎前总理哈里里遇害,希拉克总统夫妇亲自赴黎参加葬礼,法主张对事件进行国际调查,并支持黎举行议会大选,改组政府。4月、10月、12月,法与美、英共同推动安理会通过有关哈里里遇害国际调查的1595、1636、1644号决议。2006年黎以冲突期间,法推动安理会通过要求黎以停火的1701号决议。冲突后,法派兵2000人参加联黎部队。

2014年3月,黎时任总统苏莱曼赴法出席黎“国际支持小组”会议。4月,法议会法黎友好小组访黎。5月,法总统奥朗德与时任黎总统苏莱曼通电话,对苏在任期间的工作表示赞赏。2015年2月,法国总统特使吉鲁访黎。4月,黎马龙派大主教拉伊访法。9月,黎总理萨拉姆在纽约联大期间会见法国总统奥朗德。2016年4月,法国总统奥朗德访黎。7月,法国外长艾罗访黎。11月,法国总统奥朗德致电祝贺奥恩当选总黎统。2017年3月,法国国防部长勒德里昂访黎。5月,黎总统奥恩与法国新任总统马克龙通电话。9月,黎总统奥恩访法。11月,黎总理哈里里、外长巴西勒分别访法。12月,黎总理哈里里访法。2018年3月,法国特使、地中海事务代表杜克森访黎。4月,黎总理哈里里访法,出席在巴黎召开的“西德尔会议”。6月,黎马龙派大主教拉伊访法。8月,法参议员代表团访黎。10月,奥恩总统会见法国总统马克龙。11月,看守内阁总理哈里里赴法出席巴黎和平论坛(Paris Peace Forum)开幕式,其间会见法国总统马克龙。

2019年1月,黎总理哈里里赴法。

[External Relations] Li Fengxing’s neutral non-alignment policy advocates the establishment of a fair, rational, equal and balanced international political and economic new order. He emphasized the attributes of his Arab countries, adjusted relations with Syria, actively developed relations with Arab countries such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia, and attached importance to relations with Western countries such as the United States and France.

Relations with the United States: Lebanon and the United States established diplomatic relations in 1943. Lebanon attaches importance to developing relations with the United States and strives for political, economic and military support and assistance from the United States. The United States supports Lebanon’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, supports the Taif Agreement, urges Syrian troops to withdraw from Lebanon, and demands that the Lebanese government disarm Hezbollah. In 1997, the United States lifted the 12-year ban on US citizens going to Lebanon. After the “9.11” incident, the United States announced that Hezbollah was a terrorist organization and proposed to the Lebanese government a series of requirements for freezing the organization’s armed forces, funds, and intelligence cooperation between the two sides. The Lebanese government insists that the national resistance movement should be treated differently from terrorism. After the death of former Prime Minister Hariri in February 2005, the United States increased its intervention in the Li issue. In April, October and December, the US United Law and the United Kingdom pushed the Security Council to adopt resolutions 1595, 1636 and 1644 on the international investigation of the Hariri murder.

In March 2014, US President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Salam met on the phone and congratulated the Li Xin government on voting through parliamentary trust. In May, US Secretary of State Kerry and the then President of Lebanon, Suleiman, made a phone call and expressed appreciation for the work of Su during his tenure. In June, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Lebanon. In February 2015, the US$25 million military assistance provided by the United States to Lebanon arrived in Lebanon. In April, US Deputy Secretary of State Brinken visited Lebanon. In April 2016, US Central Command Commander Joseph Votel visited Lebanon. In November, US Secretary of State Kerry congratulated Orn on his election as President of Lebanon. In February 2017, Commander of the US Central Command, Woertel, visited Lebanon. In April, a delegation of US congressmen visited Lebanon. In June, US President Trump congratulated President Leon on the Eid al-Fitr, and US Central Command Commander Walter visited Lebanon. In July, Prime Minister Hariri visited the United States. In October, President Owen visited the United States and a delegation of the US Congressional Finance Committee visited Lebanon. In November, US President Trump sent a congratulatory message to President Leon, President Barry, and Prime Minister Hariri. In December, Commander Ward of the US Central Command visited Lebanon. In February 2018, US Secretary of State Tillerson visited Lebanon. In April, US President Trump issued a statement to extend greetings to the participants of the “Western Conference” and the Li people in Lebanon.

In January 2019, US Deputy Secretary of State Hale visited Lebanon. In March, US Secretary of State Pompei visited Lebanon.

Relations with France: Lebanon was the French appointed ruling place before independence in 1943, and the two countries have traditional relations. In order to seek economic and political advantages in Lebanon, the law has invested heavily in the reconstruction of the market. The law supports the Hariri government-led economic reconstruction and reform plan. In 2002, the law promised to provide 500 million U.S. dollars to Lebanon at the second international aid conference. In February 2005, former Prime Minister Hariri was killed, and President Chirac personally went to Lebanon to attend the funeral. The law advocated an international investigation into the incident and supported Lebanon to hold a parliamentary election and reorganize the government. In April, October and December, France and the United States and Britain jointly promoted the Security Council’s resolutions 1595, 1636 and 1644 on the international investigation of Hariri’s murder. During the Lebanon-Israel conflict in 2006, the law promoted the Security Council to adopt resolution 1701, which called for a ceasefire between Lebanon and Israel. After the conflict, 2,000 soldiers from the French army participated in UNIFIL.

In March 2014, Li Shi’s President Suleiman went to France to attend the “International Support Group” meeting in Lebanon. In April, the French and French Friendship Group visited Lebanon. In May, French President Hollande and the then President of Lebanon, Suleiman, telephoned and expressed appreciation for the work of Su during his tenure. In February 2015, French Presidential Envoy Ji Lu visited Lebanon. In April, Li Malong sent Archbishop Rah to visit France. In September, Prime Minister Salam met with French President Hollande during the UN General Assembly. In April 2016, French President Hollande visited Lebanon. In July, French Foreign Minister Ai Luo visited Lebanon. In November, French President Hollande called to congratulate Orn on his election to General Litong. In March 2017, French Defense Minister Ledrien visited Lebanon. In May, President Owen of Lebanon and the new French President Mark Long called. In September, President Owen visited France. In November, Prime Minister Hariri and Foreign Minister Basile visited France respectively. In December, Prime Minister Raleigh Hariri visited France. In March 2018, French Special Envoy and Mediterranean Affairs Representative Duxon visited Lebanon. In April, Prime Minister Raleigh Hariri visited France and attended the “Western Conference” held in Paris. In June, Li Malong sent Archbishop Rah to visit France. In August, the French Senate delegation visited Lebanon. In October, President Orn met with French President Mark Long. In November, the caretaker Prime Minister Hariri went to France to attend the opening ceremony of the Paris Peace Forum, during which he met with French President Mark Long.

In January 2019, Prime Minister Raleigh Hariri went to France.

【军事】政府军总兵力约5.6万人,其中陆军约5.4万人、空军约800人、海军约1100人,主要由法国和美国负责提供武器和训练。另有内部治安军约1.7万人。总统为军队最高统帅。实行义务兵役制与志愿兵役制相结合的兵役体制。义务制服役期限为18个月,志愿制至少签3年合同。

1978年3月,以色列入侵黎巴嫩后,联合国向黎派驻多国维和部队,并执行任务至今,以监督以色列从黎巴嫩境内撤军,恢复国际和平与安全,并协助黎政府有效管辖以色列撤出的南部地区。

【文化教育】 黎全国有中小学2704所,在校学生76万余名,教师6万余名。各类高等院校共计41所,其中综合大学4所。黎巴嫩大学是唯一国立综合大学,1953年创建。贝鲁特阿拉伯大学创办于1960年。贝鲁特美国大学由美国教会创建于1866年,用英语授课。圣·约瑟大学1881年建立,用法语授课,设有孔子学院。

【新闻出版】

黎以中东新闻中心著称。全国各类报刊有600余家。主要日报有《白天报》、《旗帜报》、《家园报》、《安瓦尔报》。主要刊物有《事件周刊》、《阿拉伯周刊》、《狩猎者》、《杂志周刊》、《黎巴嫩评论》、《星期一早晨》等。

通讯社:黎巴嫩国家通讯社是唯一官方通讯社,成立于1962年,属新闻部领导。每日发阿、英、法3种文字的新闻稿,只报道官方的黎国内消息。中央通讯社为私人通讯社,创立于1982年9月。每日用阿文报道黎国内政治、经济、商业等方面消息。“中东报道”是私人通讯社,1977年创办。除周末外,每日发黎国内、外消息英文通讯稿。周末有综述和新闻分析内容的专刊。在开罗和华盛顿设有分社。

广播电台:黎全国现有140多家广播电台,其中大部分是私营娱乐性电台。其中,黎巴嫩广播电台为国家广播电台,属新闻部领导。其前身是“东方电台”,始建于1938年。内战爆发后,由于经济困难,该台被迫停止对外广播。“祖国之声”电台为黎伊斯兰教逊尼派慈善基金会于1984年创办。除英语新闻节目外,主要用阿语广播。“人民之声”电台为黎巴嫩共产党于1987年创办,在开罗、巴黎、伦敦和莫斯科派有常驻记者。

电视台:黎巴嫩国家电视台,成立于1978年。属黎巴嫩电视公司所有,政府占一半资本,公司董事长和董事会成员均由政府任命。未来电视台,创办于1992年,由已故前总理哈里里创建,是黎目前第二大电视台。黎巴嫩广播公司电视台(LBC)成立于1985年,系私营电视台。灯塔电视台,由黎真主党开办,创办于1991年。

[Military] The total strength of the government army is about 56,000, of which about 54,000 are the Army, 800 are the Air Force, and about 1,100 are the Navy. The French and the United States are mainly responsible for providing weapons and training. There are also about 17,000 internal security forces. The president is the supreme commander of the army. A military service system that combines compulsory military service with voluntary military service. The duration of the duty uniform is 18 months, and the voluntary system is signed for at least 3 years.

After Israel’s invasion of Lebanon in March 1978, the United Nations stationed troops in Lebanon and carried out its mission to monitor Israel’s withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and security, and assist the Lebanese government in effectively governing the southern part of Israel’s withdrawal.

[Cultural Education] There are 2,704 primary and middle schools in Lebanon, with more than 760,000 students and more than 60,000 teachers. There are 41 colleges and universities of various types, including 4 comprehensive universities. The University of Lebanon is the only national comprehensive university founded in 1953. The University of Beirut was founded in 1960. The American University of Beirut was founded in 1866 by the American Church and taught in English. St. Joseph University was established in 1881 and taught in French with a Confucius Institute.

【News Publishing】

The Lebanon-Middle East News Center is famous. There are more than 600 newspapers and magazines across the country. The main daily newspapers include “Dayly Newspaper”, “Flag Newspaper”, “Home Garden” and “Anwar Newspaper”. The main publications include “Event Weekly”, “Arab Weekly”, “Hunter”, “Magazine Weekly”, “Lebanon Review”, “Monday Morning” and so on.

News Agency: The Lebanese National News Agency is the only official news agency, founded in 1962 and headed by the Ministry of Information. A press release of three languages, A, English and French, is published daily, only the official domestic news of Lebanon. The Central News Agency is a private news agency founded in September 1982. Daily reports on the political, economic, and commercial aspects of Lebanon. The “Middle East Report” is a private news agency founded in 1977. In addition to the weekend, the daily newsletter of the domestic and foreign newsletter was issued. A special issue of reviews and news analysis content on weekends. There are branches in Cairo and Washington.

Radio stations: There are more than 140 radio stations in Lebanon, most of which are private entertainment stations. Among them, the Lebanese Radio is a national radio station and is headed by the Ministry of Information. Its predecessor was “Oriental Radio”, which was founded in 1938. After the outbreak of the civil war, due to economic difficulties, the station was forced to stop broadcasting. The “Voice of the Motherland” radio was founded in 1984 by the Sunni Charity Foundation of Islam. In addition to English news programs, it is mainly broadcast in Arabic. The “Voice of the People” radio station was founded by the Lebanese Communist Party in 1987 and has resident correspondents in Cairo, Paris, London and Moscow.

TV station: Lebanese national television station, established in 1978. It is owned by the Lebanese Television Company. The government accounts for half of the capital. The company’s chairman and board members are appointed by the government. The Future TV Station, founded in 1992 by the late former Prime Minister Hariri, is the second largest TV station in Lebanon. The Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation Television (LBC) was established in 1985 as a private television station. The Beacon TV Station, founded by the Li Hezheng Party, was founded in 1991.

同叙利亚的关系:黎、叙在法国委任统治时期曾是同一个政治实体。黎独立后,叙未予承认,黎叙仍保持“特殊关系”。1976年5月之后,叙军(最初约2.8万人)一直以“阿拉伯威慑部队”的名义驻扎在黎。1991年5月,黎叙签署“兄弟关系合作与协调条约”和“安全与防务条约”,确定两国将进行最高级和最全面的协调。1996年1月,黎叙签订经济一体化、取消双重税、推进和保证投资、建立联合边界哨所和社会领域合作五项协定。同时,双方决定在与以色列谈判中密切配合,决不单独与以媾和。2004年9月2日,美、法等国推动安理会通过1559号决议,要求叙驻黎部队全部撤离。2005年2月黎前总理哈里里遇害后,美等西方国家和黎反叙派指责叙应对此负责。叙于4月宣布撤回其驻黎全部军队、安全人员和军事装备。2006年5月,联合国安理会通过第1680号决议,鼓励叙黎两国划定边界、建立正式外交关系并相互派驻外交代表。2008年7月12日和8月13日,苏莱曼总统和叙总统巴沙尔在巴黎和大马士革两次会晤,双方宣布决定建立大使级外交关系。10月15日,叙黎外长签署建交公报,两国正式建交。

2011年叙局势动荡以来,外溢效应持续发酵,对黎政局稳定和经济发展带来严重负面影响。黎国内亲叙和反叙派别多次发生武装冲突并造成人员伤亡,黎境内曾遭到来自叙境内的炮弹和火箭弹袭击。黎政府主张维护叙的主权、独立和统一,反对外部干涉,安理会应谨慎行事,国际社会应为推进叙国内政治进程创造条件。黎政府对叙问题持“不卷入”政策,对阿盟涉叙决议有关对叙实施制裁等内容持保留态度,并与联合国难民署等机构合作,向在黎的叙难民提供人道主义救助。

同其他阿拉伯国家的关系:2006年黎以冲突期间,阿拉伯国家给予黎政治与财政支持。2008年5月,由阿盟和卡塔尔等八国外长组成阿国调解委员会,并促成黎各派达成“多哈协议”,黎因总统选举问题发生的危机结束。2014年3月,苏莱曼总统赴科威特出席阿盟峰会。黎外长巴西勒赴埃及参加阿盟外长会。同月,埃及外长法赫米访问黎。4月,黎外长巴西勒赴埃及参加阿盟紧急外长会。5月,黎总理萨拉姆、外长巴西勒分别访问沙特。6月,黎议长贝里参加埃及新总统塞西就职典礼;黎总理萨拉姆访问科威特;阿拉伯国家议会联盟主席、科威特议长贾尼姆访黎。2013年以来,沙特先后两次向黎提供30亿美元和10亿美元军事援助,加强黎军队建设。2015年1月,阿盟秘书长阿拉比访黎。3月,黎总理萨拉姆赴埃及出席埃及经济发展大会。6月,黎总理萨拉姆访沙特、埃及。7月,黎总理萨拉姆访问约旦。11月,黎总理萨拉姆赴沙特出席第四届阿拉伯—拉美峰会。同月,巴勒斯坦外长马立基访黎。2016年2月,沙特内阁会议确认停止对黎军援。3月,海合会、阿盟先后将黎真主党列为恐怖组织。4月,黎议长贝里赴埃及出席阿拉伯议会联盟第23次大会。8月,埃及外长舒克里访黎。2017年2月,沙特海湾事务大臣萨米尔·萨卜汉访黎期间,宣布沙特取消对黎巴嫩的旅行警告。2017年1月,黎总统奥恩访问沙特,阿盟秘书长盖特、约旦副总理兼外交大臣乔达、伊拉克外长贾法里分别访黎。同月,巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯访黎,黎总统奥恩先后访问埃及、约旦。3月,黎总统奥恩访问埃及。5月,黎总理哈里里访问卡塔尔。6月,科威特议长加尼姆访黎。8月,黎总理哈里里访问科威特。11月,黎总理哈里里访问埃及、沙特。12月,黎外长巴西勒访问埃及。2018年1月,黎总统奥恩访问科威特。2月,奥恩总统访问伊拉克,外长巴西勒访问科威特。3月,黎总理哈里里访问沙特,哈还致电祝贺埃及总统塞西连任。6月,黎议长贝里电贺阿巴斯再次当选巴解执委会主席。9月,伊拉克副总统阿拉维访黎。

2019年2月,黎总理哈里里访问阿联酋,阿盟秘书长盖特访黎。3月,黎总统奥恩访问突尼斯,议长贝里访问约旦。

Relations with Syria: Lebanon and Syria were the same political entity during the French mandate. After Li’s independence, Syria did not recognize that Li Xu still maintained a “special relationship”. After May 1976, the Syrian Army (initially about 28,000 people) had been stationed in Lebanon under the name of “Arab Deterrent Force.” In May 1991, Li Xu signed the “Brotherhood Cooperation and Coordination Treaty” and the “Security and Defence Treaty” to determine the highest level and most comprehensive coordination between the two countries. In January 1996, Li Xu signed five agreements on economic integration, the elimination of double taxes, the promotion and guarantee of investment, the establishment of a joint border post and cooperation in the social field. At the same time, the two sides decided to cooperate closely with Israel in negotiations and never to be alone with peace. On September 2, 2004, the United States, France and other countries pushed the Security Council to adopt Resolution 1559 and demanded that all Syrian troops stationed in Lebanon be evacuated. After the death of former Prime Minister Hariri in February 2005, the United States and other Western countries and the Li anti-Syrians accused Syria of being responsible for this. Syria announced in April that it would withdraw all its troops, security personnel and military equipment in Lebanon. In May 2006, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1680, encouraging Syria and Lebanon to demarcate borders, establish formal diplomatic relations, and send diplomatic representatives to each other. On July 12 and August 13, 2008, President Suleiman and Syrian President Bashar met twice in Paris and Damascus. The two sides announced their decision to establish diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level. On October 15, Foreign Minister Syrian Li signed a communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations, and the two countries formally established diplomatic relations.

Since the turmoil in the Syrian situation in 2011, the spillover effect has continued to ferment, which has had a serious negative impact on the stability and economic development of the political situation in Lebanon. There have been many armed conflicts in Li’s domestic pro-narrative and anti-Syrian factions and caused casualties. The territory of Lebanon has been attacked by shells and rockets from Syria. The Lebanese government advocates safeguarding Syria’s sovereignty, independence and unity, and opposing external interference. The Security Council should act with caution and the international community should create conditions for the advancement of the Syrian domestic political process. The Lebanese government has a “no-involvement” policy on the Syrian issue, and has reservations about the implementation of sanctions against Syria by the Arab League’s Syrian resolutions. It also cooperates with agencies such as the UNHCR to provide humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

Relations with other Arab countries: During the Lebanon-Israel conflict in 2006, the Arab countries gave Lebanon political and financial support. In May 2008, eight foreign ministers, including the Arab League and Qatar, formed the Afghan Mediation Committee and promoted the Lebanese parties to reach a “Doha Agreement.” The crisis of the presidential election of Liein ended. In March 2014, President Suleiman went to Kuwait to attend the Arab League summit. Foreign Minister Lebanese Basile went to Egypt to attend the Arab League Foreign Ministers’ Meeting. In the same month, Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi visited Lebanon. In April, Foreign Minister Basile went to Egypt to attend the Arab League Emergency Foreign Ministers’ Meeting. In May, Prime Minister Salam and Foreign Minister Basil visited Saudi Arabia. In June, Lebanese President Berry attended the inauguration ceremony of the new Egyptian President Seychelles; Prime Minister Salam visited Kuwait; Chairman of the Arab National Parliamentary Union and Kuwaiti Speaker Ghanim visited Lebanon. Since 2013, Saudi Arabia has twice provided Lebanon with $3 billion and $1 billion in military assistance to strengthen the construction of the Li army. In January 2015, Arab League Secretary General Arrabi visited Lebanon. In March, Prime Minister Salam went to Egypt to attend the Egyptian Economic Development Conference. In June, Prime Minister Salam visited Saudi Arabia and Egypt. In July, Prime Minister Salam visited Jordan. In November, Prime Minister Salam went to Saudi Arabia to attend the 4th Arab-Latin American Summit. In the same month, Palestinian Foreign Minister Maliki visited Lebanon. In February 2016, the Saudi cabinet meeting confirmed the cessation of military aid to Lebanon. In March, the GCC and the Arab League listed Li Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. In April, Lebanese President Berry went to Egypt to attend the 23rd meeting of the Arab Parliamentary Union. In August, Egyptian Foreign Minister Shukri visited Lebanon. In February 2017, Saudi Gulf Affairs Minister Samir Sabhan announced during his visit to Lebanon that Saudi Arabia would cancel its travel warning to Lebanon. In January 2017, President Leon’s visit to Saudi Arabia, Arab League Secretary General Gat, Jordan’s Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Jorda, and Iraqi Foreign Minister Jaafari visited Lebanon respectively. In the same month, Palestinian President Abbas visited Lebanon and President O’Neill visited Egypt and Jordan. In March, President Owen visited Egypt. In May, Prime Minister Rafi Hariri visited Qatar. In June, Kuwaiti President Ghanim visited Lebanon. In August, Prime Minister Rafi Hariri visited Kuwait. In November, Prime Minister Rafi Hariri visited Egypt and Saudi Arabia. In December, Foreign Minister Basile visited Brazil. In January 2018, President Owen visited Kuwait. In February, President Orn visited Iraq and Foreign Minister Basile visited Kuwait. In March, Prime Minister Rafi Hariri visited Saudi Arabia and Kazakhstan also called to congratulate Egyptian President Seychelles for re-election. In June, President Berry congratulated Abbas on his re-election as the chairman of the PLO Executive Committee. In September, Iraqi Vice President Allawi visited Lebanon.

In February 2019, Prime Minister Rafi Hariri visited the United Arab Emirates, and Secretary-General of the Arab League, Gat, visited Lebanon. In March, President Owen visited Tunisia and Speaker Berry visited Jordan.

同以色列的关系:黎南部与以北部接壤。1978年3月,以侵入黎南部打击巴解武装。1982年6月,以大规模入侵黎。1985年,以色列以保卫北部加利利地区为由在黎南部建立了约850平方公里的“安全区”,驻扎了千余人的部队,并扶植由3000名亲以黎基督徒组成的南黎军。2000年5月,以单方面从黎南部撤军,但黎仍坚持1923年国际边界线,要求以结束对谢巴农场、卡弗尔舒巴村、加吉尔村北部等地的占领,并撤至1967年6月4日的边界线。2006年7月,真主党武装越境袭击以色列并俘获两名以军士兵,以军随即对黎展开大规模军事行动。8月,安理会通过1701号决议后双方停火。冲突造成黎逾1000名平民死亡,4000余人受伤,逾100万人流离失所。以色列亦有157人死亡。2007年10月和2008年7月,黎真主党与以色列在联合国和国际红十字会的协助下两次进行“换俘”。2010年4~7月,黎国内安全部门破获多个以色列在黎谍报网,逮捕近百人,并将3人判处死刑。黎以海上边界迄未划定,双方在海上经济权益问题上存在分歧。黎方多次要求联合国帮助双方划定海上边界。2011年7月,以方划定其地中海专属经济区及以黎海上边界,黎方表示反对以方在海上划界问题上作出任何单方面决定。2014年8月巴以冲突爆发以来,黎以边境地区不时发生零星交火。2018年12月,以色列在黎以边境以国土范围内开展“北部屏障”行动,旨在排查和摧毁黎真主党在黎以边境地区挖掘的隧道。

Relations with Israel: South Lebanon is bordered by the north. In March 1978, it invaded southern Lebanon to fight the PLO. In June 1982, a large-scale invasion of Lebanon. In 1985, Israel established a “safety zone” of about 850 square kilometers in southern Lebanon on the grounds of defending the northern Galilee region. It stationed troops of more than a thousand people and fostered Nanli, a group of 3,000 pro-Christian Christians. military. In May 2000, he unilaterally withdrew from southern Lebanon, but Lebanon still insisted on the 1923 international border, demanding the end of the occupation of Sheba farm, Kaful Shuba village, northern Gagir village, etc. The borderline of June 4, 1967. In July 2006, Hezbollah’s armed forces crossed Israel and captured two Israeli soldiers. The Israeli army immediately launched a large-scale military operation against Lebanon. In August, the Security Council ceased fire after the adoption of resolution 1701. The conflict caused more than 1,000 civilians to die in Lebanon, more than 4,000 injured and more than 1 million people displaced. There are also 157 deaths in Israel. In October 2007 and July 2008, Li Hezbollah and Israel twice carried out “replacement of prisoners” with the assistance of the United Nations and the International Red Cross. From April to July 2010, the domestic security department of Lebanon cracked a number of Israelis in the Lishui newspaper network, arrested nearly 100 people and sentenced three people to death. The maritime boundary between Lebanon and Israel has not been demarcated, and there are differences between the two sides on the issue of maritime economic rights. Li Fang has repeatedly asked the United Nations to help the two sides delimit the maritime boundary. In July 2011, Israel demarcated its exclusive economic zone in the Mediterranean and the border with Israel and Lebanon. Li Fang expressed opposition to Israel’s unilateral decision on the issue of maritime delimitation. Since the outbreak of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict in August 2014, sporadic exchanges of fire have occurred from time to time in the border areas of Lebanon and Israel. In December 2018, Israel launched the “Northern Barrier” operation on the Lebanese border with the aim of expelling and destroying the tunnels that Hezbollah excavated in the Lebanon-Israel border area.