The Lao People’s Democratic Republic 老挝人民民主共和国

【国名】老挝人民民主共和国(The Lao People’s Democratic Republic)。

【面积】23.68万平方公里。

【人口】680万(2017年)。分为50个民族,分属老泰语族系、孟—高棉语族系、苗—瑶语族系、汉—藏语族系,统称为老挝民族。通用老挝语。居民多信奉佛教。华侨华人约3万多人。

【首都】万象(Vientiane),人口85万(2015年)。最高平均气温31.7℃,最低平均气温22.6℃。

【国家元首】国家主席本扬·沃拉吉,2016年4月当选。

【重要节日】老挝人民军成立日:1月20日(1949年)。老挝人民革命党成立日:3月22日(1955年)。老挝新年(宋干节,也叫泼水节):佛历5月,一般从每年公历4月13日开始,前后共3天。独立日:10月12日(1945年)。塔銮节:佛历12月,公历11月。国庆日:12月2日(1975年)。

[Country name] The Lao People’s Democratic Republic.

[Area] 236,800 square kilometers.

[Population] 6.8 million (2017). It is divided into 50 ethnic groups, belonging to the Laotai language family, the Meng-Khmer language family, the Miao-Yao language family, and the Han-Tibetan language family, collectively known as the Lao ethnic group. General Lao. Most residents believe in Buddhism. There are more than 30,000 overseas Chinese.

[Capital] Vientiane, with a population of 850,000 (2015). The highest average temperature is 31.7 ° C, the lowest average temperature is 22.6 ° C.

[National Head of State] President Benjan Wolaji, elected in April 2016.

[Important Festival] The founding day of the Lao People’s Army: January 20 (1949). The founding day of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party: March 22 (1955). Laos New Year (Song Dry Festival, also known as Songkran Festival): May of the Buddhist calendar, generally starting from April 13 of the annual Gregorian calendar, a total of three days before and after. Independence Day: October 12 (1945). Tower Festival: December in the Buddha, November in the Gregorian calendar. National Day: December 2 (1975).

【简 况】位于中南半岛北部的内陆国家,北邻中国,南接柬埔寨,东临越南,西北达缅甸,西南毗连泰国,边界线长度分别为508公里、535公里、2067公里、236公里、1835公里。湄公河在老挝境内干流长度为777.4公里,流经首都万象,作为老挝与缅甸界河段长234公里,老挝与泰国界河段长976.3公里。属热带、亚热带季风气候,5月至10月为雨季,11月至次年4月为旱季,年平均气温约26℃。老挝全境雨量充沛,近40年来年降水量最少年份为1250毫米,最大年降水量达3750毫米,一般年份降水量约为2000毫米。

因缺乏史料,学术界对14世纪前的老挝历史有较多争议,通常认为在现今老挝疆域相继出现过堂明国、南掌国(澜沧国)等国家。1353年,法昂王建立澜沧王国(1353—1707年),定都琅勃拉邦,老挝出现历史上第一个统一的多民族国家。1560年,澜沧王国国王塞塔提腊迁都至万象。1707至1713年,澜沧王国先后分裂为北部琅勃拉邦、中部万象和南部占巴塞三个王国。1778年至1893年三国沦为暹罗(今泰国)属国。

1893年,法国与暹罗签订《法暹条约》(又称《曼谷条约》),琅勃拉邦、万象和占巴塞被并入法属印度支那联邦,1940年9月被日本占领。1945年9月15日,琅勃拉邦王国副王兼首相佩差拉在万象宣布老挝(旧称“寮国”)独立。10月12日,万象群众举行独立庆典,宣布成立伊沙拉(老挝语意为“自由”)政府。1946年,法国势力卷土重来,独立运动失败。1947年4月,在法国扶持下,琅勃拉邦国王西萨旺冯宣布成立老挝王国,实行君主立宪制。法国对外承认老挝是法兰西联邦内的独立国家,但仍掌握老挝国防、外交大权。为争取国家独立,老挝人民开展广泛的游击战争。1950年,苏发努冯组建新老挝伊沙拉,成立寮国抗战政府。1954年,法国在奠边府战役中失败,被迫签署日内瓦协议,承认老挝独立并撤军。

法国撤军后,美国积极在老挝扶植亲美势力,多次策划政变,唆使政府军进攻寮国战斗部队(即“巴特寮”,英文为Pathet Lao,由1956年成立的老挝爱国阵线领导),力图控制老挝。老挝国内一度存在老挝王国政府军、寮国战斗部队、富米·诺萨万军队三股势力,并先后出现富马为首相的第一次联合政府和萨纳尼空政府、富米政府、文翁政府。1962年,“关于老挝问题的日内瓦协议”签订后,老挝成立以富马亲王(中立)为首相、苏发努冯亲王(左派)与富米(右派)为副首相的第二次联合政府。1964年,美国策动亲美势力破坏联合政府并进攻解放区,老挝内战再起。1973年2月,老挝各方签署了“关于在老挝恢复和平与民族和睦的协定”。1974年4月,以富马为首相的第三次联合政府和以苏发努冯为主席的民族政治联合委员会成立。随着印支三国抗美战争节节胜利,老挝人民自1975年5月开始在全国开展夺权斗争。1975年12月2日,在万象召开的老挝全国人民代表大会宣布废除君主制,成立老挝人民民主共和国,组成以苏发努冯为主席的最高人民议会和以凯山·丰威汉为总理的政府。

[profile] A landlocked country in the northern part of the Indo-China Peninsula, bordering China to the north, Cambodia to the south, Vietnam to the east, Myanmar to the northwest, and Thailand to the southwest. The length of the border is 508 km, 535 km, 2067 km, 236 km, and 1835 respectively. Kilometers. The length of the Mekong River in Laos is 777.4 kilometers, flowing through the capital Vientiane, which is 234 kilometers long from the border between Laos and Myanmar, and 976.3 kilometers long from the border between Laos and Thailand. It has a tropical and subtropical monsoon climate. The rainy season is from May to October, and the dry season is from November to April. The annual average temperature is about 26 °C. There is abundant rainfall throughout Laos. In the past 40 years, the annual precipitation is 1250 mm, the maximum annual precipitation is 3750 mm, and the precipitation in general years is about 2000 mm.

Due to the lack of historical data, the academic circles have more controversy about the history of Laos before the 14th century. It is generally believed that there are successive countries such as Tang Mingguo and Nanzhangguo (澜沧国) in the territory of Laos. In 1353, King Faun established the Kingdom of the Kingdom (1353-1707), Luang Prabang, and Laos became the first unified multi-ethnic country in history. In 1560, the king of the kingdom of Seychelles moved to Vientiane. From 1707 to 1713, the Kingdom of the Kingdom split into the three kingdoms of Luang Prabang in the north, Vientiane in the central and Champasak in the south. From 1778 to 1893, the Three Kingdoms became a country of Siam (present-day Thailand).

In 1893, France signed the “Syrian Treaty of Siam” (also known as the “Bangkok Treaty”) with Siam. Luang Prabang, Vientiane and Champasak were incorporated into the French Indochina Federation and were occupied by Japan in September 1940. On September 15, 1945, the deputy king and prime minister of the Luang Prabang kingdom, Petra, announced the independence of Laos (formerly known as “the country”) in Vientiane. On October 12th, the Vientiane people held an independence celebration and announced the establishment of the government of Isa (Law in Laos). In 1946, the French forces made a comeback and the independence movement failed. In April 1947, under the support of France, Luang Prabang king Si Sawangvon announced the establishment of the Lao Kingdom and the constitutional monarchy. France confessed that Laos is an independent country within the French Confederation, but still holds the sovereignty and diplomatic power of Laos. In order to strive for national independence, the Lao people have carried out extensive guerrilla warfare. In 1950, Su Fanu Feng formed the new Lao Iza, and established the Shuguo Anti-Japanese War Government. In 1954, France failed in the Battle of Dien Bien, and was forced to sign the Geneva Accord, recognizing Laos’ independence and withdrawing troops.

After the withdrawal of the French army, the United States actively promoted the pro-American forces in Laos, and planned many coups, instigating the government forces to attack the Laos combat troops (ie “Bat Biao”, English for Pathet Lao, led by the Lao Patriotic Front, founded in 1956), trying to Control Laos. In Laos, there were three forces of the Laos government army, the Laos combat troops, and the Fumi Nosavan army. The first joint government of the Prime Minister of Fuma and the Sanani Air Government, the Fumi government, and Weng Weng successively appeared. government. In 1962, after the signing of the “Geneva Agreement on Laos Issues”, Laos established the second coalition government with Prince Fuma (neutral) as Prime Minister, Prince Sufanu (leftist) and Fumi (Right) as deputy prime minister. In 1964, the United States instigated pro-US forces to undermine the coalition government and attack the liberated areas, and the civil war in Laos resumed. In February 1973, the Lao parties signed the “Agreement on Restoring Peace and National Harmony in Laos”. In April 1974, the third coalition government with Prime Minister Fuma and the National Political Joint Committee chaired by Sufa Nuvon were established. With the victory of the Indo-China War against the United States, the Lao people began to fight for power in the country in May 1975. On December 2, 1975, the Lao People’s National Congress in Vientiane announced the abolition of the monarchy, the establishment of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the formation of the Supreme People’s Assembly chaired by Sufa Nuvon and the prime minister of Kaishan·Fengweihan. government.

【政治】老挝实行社会主义制度。老挝人民革命党是老挝唯一政党。1991年老挝党“五大”确定“有原则的全面革新路线”,提出坚持党的领导和社会主义方向等六项基本原则,实行对外开放政策。2001年老挝党“七大”制定了至2010年基本消除贫困、至2020年摆脱不发达状态的奋斗目标。2016年1月18日至22日,老挝党“十大”通过了社会发展“八五”规划、十年战略和十五年远景规划。当前,老挝政治稳定、社会安宁。

【宪法】1991年8月,老挝最高人民议会第二届六次会议通过了老挝人民民主共和国第一部宪法。宪法明确规定,老挝人民民主共和国是人民民主国家,全部权力属于人民,各族人民在老挝人民革命党领导下行使当家作主的权利。

【议会】老挝国会(原称最高人民议会,1992年8月改为现名)是国家最高权力机构和立法机构,负责制定宪法和法律。国会每届任期5年,每年召开两次会议,特别会议由国会常委会决定或由三分之二以上的议员提议召开。国会议员由地方直接选举产生。本届(第八届)国会于2016年4月选举产生,国会议员149名,主席巴妮·雅陶都(女)。

【政府】国家最高行政机关。本届政府于2016年4月成立,设18个部及3个直属机构(央行、国家主席府、总理府,其中国家主席府设部长一名,总理府设部长5名)。

政府主要成员:政府总理通伦·西苏里,副总理兼政府监察总署署长本通·吉马尼,副总理宋赛·西潘敦,副总理兼财政部长宋迪·隆迪。国防部部长占沙蒙·占雅拉,公安部部长维莱·坎拉冯,民政事务部部长坎曼·逊维乐,总理府部长扎伦·叶宝合,自然资源与环境部部长宋玛·奔舍那,新闻文化与旅游部部长波显坎·冯达拉,农业与林业部部长连·提乔,司法部部长赛西·山迪冯,劳动与社会福利部部长坎平·赛宋平,国家主席办公厅部长坎蒙·蓬塔迪,能源与矿产部部长坎玛尼·因提腊,工贸部部长开玛妮·奔舍那,科技部部长波万坎·冯达拉,外交部部长沙伦赛·贡玛西,教育与体育部部长显登·拉占塔本,央行行长宋赛·西帕赛,邮政通讯部部长坦沙迈·贡玛西,公共工程与运输部部长本占·辛塔冯,总理府部长兼总理府办公厅主任佩·蓬皮帕,计划与投资部部长苏潘·乔米赛,卫生部部长本贡·西塔冯,总理府部长本格·桑松萨,总理府部长阿伦乔·吉提昆,总理府部长苏万萍·布帕努冯。

【行政区划】全国划分为17个省、1个直辖市(万象市)。

[Politics] Laos implements a socialist system. The Lao People’s Revolutionary Party is the only political party in Laos. In 1991, the “Five Majors” of the Lao Party determined “a principled and comprehensive reform path” and proposed six basic principles of adhering to the party’s leadership and socialist direction, and implementing the policy of opening to the outside world. In 2001, the Laos “Seventh National Congress” formulated the goal of basically eradicating poverty by 2010 and getting rid of underdevelopment in 2020. From January 18 to 22, 2016, the “Top Ten” of the Lao Party passed the “Eighth Five-Year Plan” for social development, the 10-year strategy and the 15-year vision plan. At present, Laos has political stability and social peace.

[Constitution] In August 1991, the sixth session of the Second Supreme People’s Assembly of Laos adopted the first constitution of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The Constitution clearly stipulates that the Lao People’s Democratic Republic is a people’s democratic country, and all power belongs to the people. The people of all ethnic groups exercise the right to be the masters of the country under the leadership of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party.

[Parliament] The Lao Parliament (formerly known as the Supreme People’s Assembly, changed its current name in August 1992) is the highest authority and legislative body of the country, responsible for the formulation of the Constitution and laws. Each session of the National Assembly is held for five years and meets twice a year. The special meeting is decided by the Standing Committee of the National Assembly or by more than two-thirds of the members. Members of parliament are directly elected by the local government. The current (eighth) Congress was elected in April 2016, with 149 members of parliament and Chairman Barney Yatadu (female).

[Government] The highest administrative organ of the state. The current government was established in April 2016. It has 18 departments and 3 directly affiliated institutions (the central bank, the presidential palace, the prime minister’s office, including one minister of the presidential palace and five ministers of the prime minister’s office).

Key members of the government: Prime Minister Tong Lun Sisuri, Deputy Prime Minister and Director of the Government Supervision Office, Bentong Jimani, Deputy Prime Minister Song Sai Si Pan Dun, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Song Di Lundi. Minister of Defense Occupy Shamon Zhan Yala, Minister of Public Security Ville Kanlavon, Minister of Home Affairs Kanman Sunville, Prime Minister of the Prime Minister Zaron Ye Baohe, Minister of Natural Resources and Environment Song Ma Ben Sheena, Minister of Journalism, Culture and Tourism, Pohangkan Fondala, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, Lian Ticho, Minister of Justice, Sai Sai Shandi, Minister of Labor and Social Welfare, Kanping Sai Songping, Minister of the Office of the President of the State, Kanmon Puntadi, Minister of Energy and Minerals, Kamani Intila, Minister of Industry and Trade, Kaimani Bensena, Minister of Science and Technology, Powankan von Dara, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister Sharon Saigon Gamasi, Minister of Education and Sports Hinden Razan Taben, Central Bank Governor Song Sai Si Pasai, Minister of Post and Telecommunications Tansama Gonmarsi, Minister of Public Works and Transportation Ben Zinta Feng, Minister of the Prime Minister’s Office and Director of the Prime Minister’s Office, Pei Pompipa, Minister of Planning and Investment Supan Qiao Misai, Minister of Health Bengon Sitavon, Minister of the Prime Minister Bengo Sanson Sa, Prime Minister of the Prime Minister’s Office, Alan Jojit Kikun, Minister of the Prime Minister Su Wanping Bupa Feng.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 17 provinces and 1 municipality (Vientiane City).

【司法机构】老挝最高人民法院为最高司法权力机关。最高人民法院院长坎潘·西提丹帕,2011年当选,2016年连任;最高人民检察院检察长坎山·苏冯,2011年当选,2016年连任。

【政党】老挝人民革命党(The Lao People’s Revolutionary Party):老挝唯一政党和执政党,前身为印度支那共产党老挝支部。1955年3月22日建立,原称“老挝人民党”,1972年召开“二大”时改为现名。现有党员约31万人,党组织1.9万个。其宗旨是:领导全国人民进行革新事业,建设和发展人民民主制度,建设和平、独立、民主、统一和繁荣的老挝,为逐步走上社会主义创造条件。

本届(第十届)中央委员会于2016年1月产生,由69名中央委员和8名中央候补委员组成。本扬·沃拉吉(Bounnhang VORACHIT)为党中央总书记。中央政治局委员共11人:本扬·沃拉吉、通伦·西苏里(Thongloun SISOULITH)、巴妮·雅陶都(女)(Pany YATHOTU)、本通·吉马尼(Bounthong CHITMANY)、潘坎·维帕万(Phankham VIPHAVANH)、占西·普西坎(Chansy PHOSYKHA)、赛宋蓬·丰威汉(Saysomphone PHOMVIHANE)、占沙蒙·占雅拉(Chansamone CHANYALATH)、坎潘·蓬马塔(Khamphan PHOMMATHAT)、辛拉冯·库派吞(Sinlavong KHOUTPHAYTHOUNE)、宋赛·西潘敦(Sonexay SIPHANDONE)。

【统一战线】老挝建国阵线成立于1956年1月,原名“老挝爱国战线”,是老挝人民革命党领导下的民族统一战线组织。主席赛宋蓬·丰威汉(Saysomphone PHOMVIHANE)。

【重要人物】

本扬·沃拉吉(Bounnhang VORACHIT):老挝人民革命党中央总书记。1937年生于沙湾拿吉省。1954年3月参加工作。曾任沙湾拿吉省委书记、万象市委书记兼市长,1999年任副总理兼财政部长,2001年任总理,2006年当选国家副主席并于2011年连任。2016年1月在老挝党“十大”上当选中央总书记。2016年4月当选国家主席。

通伦·西苏里(Thongloun SISOULITH):老挝政府总理。1945年生于华潘省。曾任副外长、劳动和社会福利部部长、国会外交委员会主任。2001年任副总理兼计划投资委主任,2006年任副总理兼外长和中联部长,2015年7月不再兼任中联部长。2016年4月当选政府总理。

巴妮·雅陶都(女)(Pany YATHOTU):老挝国会主席。1951年生于川圹省,苗族。长期在金融部门工作,曾任国家银行行长、国会少数民族委员会主任、国会副主席。2010年当选国会主席,2011、2016年两次连任。

[Judiciary] The Lao People’s Supreme People’s Court is the highest judicial authority. The President of the Supreme People’s Court, Campan Sididamba, was elected in 2011 and re-elected in 2016; the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Kanshan Suvon, was elected in 2011 and re-elected in 2016.

[Party] The Lao People’s Revolutionary Party: The only political party and ruling party in Laos, formerly the Laos branch of the Communist Party of Indochina. It was established on March 22, 1955. It was originally called the “Lao People’s Party.” When it was held in 1972, it was changed to its current name. There are about 310,000 current party members and 19,000 party organizations. Its purpose is to lead the people throughout the country to carry out innovation, build and develop the people’s democratic system, build peace, independence, democracy, unity and prosperity in Laos, and create conditions for the gradual embarkation of socialism.

The (10th) Central Committee was created in January 2016 and consists of 69 Central Committee members and 8 Central Reserve Members. Bounnhang Vorachit is the general secretary of the Party Central Committee. A total of 11 members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee: Ben Yang Woraji, Thongloun SISOULITH, Pany YATHOTU, and Bounthong CHITMANY , Phunkham VIPHAVANH, Chansy PHOSYKHA, Saysomphone PHOMVIHANE, Chansamone CHANYALATH, Campan Khamphan PHOMMATHAT, Sinalavong KHOUTPHAYTHOUNE, Sonexay SIPHANDONE.

[United Front] The Laos Founding Front was established in January 1956, formerly known as the Lao Lao Patriotic Front. It is the national united front organization under the leadership of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party. Chairman Saifsomphone PHOMVIHANE.

【VIP】

Bounnhang VORACHIT: General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party. Born in 1937 in Savannakhet Province. Worked in March 1954. He served as Secretary of the Shawan Naji Provincial Party Committee, Secretary of the Municipal Committee of Wanxiang and Mayor. In 1999, he served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance. In 2001, he was appointed Prime Minister. In 2006, he was elected Vice President of the State and re-elected in 2011. In January 2016, he was elected General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Lao Party. In April 2016, he was elected president of the country.

Thongloun SISOULITH: Prime Minister of the Lao Government. Born in 1946 in Huapan Province. He served as deputy foreign minister, minister of labor and social welfare, and director of the Congressional Foreign Affairs Committee. In 2001, he served as deputy prime minister and director of the Planning Investment Committee. In 2006, he served as deputy prime minister and foreign minister and minister of the China Federation. In July 2015, he no longer served as the minister of the China Federation. In April 2016, he was elected Prime Minister.

Pany YATHOTU: Chairman of the Lao National Assembly. Born in Sichuan Province in 1951, the Miao nationality. He has worked in the financial sector for a long time. He served as Governor of the National Bank, Director of the National Minority Committee of the National Assembly, and Vice Chairman of the National Assembly. In 2010, he was elected president of the National Assembly and was re-elected twice in 2011 and 2016.

【经济】以农业为主,工业基础薄弱。1986年起推行革新开放,调整经济结构,即农林业、工业和服务业相结合,优先发展农林业;取消高度集中的经济管理体制,转入经营核算制,实行多种所有制形式并存的经济政策,逐步完善市场经济机制,努力把自然和半自然经济转为商品经济;对外实行开放,颁布外资法,改善投资环境;扩大对外经济关系,争取引进更多的资金、先进技术和管理方式。1991年至1996年,国民经济年均增长7%。1997年后,老挝经济受亚洲金融危机严重冲击。老挝政府采取加强宏观调控、整顿金融秩序、扩大农业生产等措施,基本保持了社会安定和经济稳定。2017年经济增长6.9%,国内生产总值(GDP)约170亿美元,人均2472美元。2018年上半年经济增长6.7%,预计全年增长6.5%,GDP约179亿美元,人均2599美元。老挝货币名称是基普(KIP),2019年1月与美元汇率约为8500:1。

【资源】有锡、铅、钾盐、铜、铁、金、石膏、煤、稀土等矿藏。迄今得到开采的有金、铜、煤、钾盐、煤等。水利资源丰富。2012年森林面积约1700万公顷,全国森林覆盖率约50%,产柚木、花梨等名贵木材。

【工业】2016年至2018年,工业年平均增长率为10.4%。主要工业企业有发电、锯木、采矿、炼铁、水泥、服装、食品、啤酒、制药等及小型修理厂和编织、竹木加工等作坊。

【农业】2016年至2018年,农业年平均增长率为2.7%。稻谷产量约343万吨。农作物主要有水稻、玉米、薯类、咖啡、烟叶、花生、棉花等。全国可耕地面积约800万公顷,农业用地约470万公顷。

【服务业】老挝服务业基础薄弱,起步较晚。执行革新开放政策以来,老挝服务业取得很大发展。2016年至2018年,服务业年平均增长率为5.6%。

【旅游业】老挝琅勃拉邦、巴色县瓦普寺已被列入世界文化遗产名录,著名景点还有万象塔銮、玉佛寺,占巴塞的孔帕萍瀑布,琅勃拉邦的光西瀑布等。革新开放以来,旅游业成为老挝经济发展的新兴产业。近年来,老挝与超过500家国外旅游公司签署合作协议,开放15个国际旅游口岸,同时采取加大旅游基础设施投入、减少签证费,放宽边境旅游手续等措施,旅游业持续发展。2017年老挝共接待游客423.9万人次,2018年1—9月接待290万余人,同比增长3.2%,前三大游客来源国为泰国、越南和中国。2013年5月,老挝被欧盟理事会评为“全球最佳旅游目的地”。2019年为中老旅游年。

【交通运输】老挝是东南亚唯一的内陆国,主要靠公路、水运和航空运输,国内仅有首都万象至老泰边境3公里铁路。中老铁路于2015年12月奠基,2016年12月全线开工,计划将于2021年竣工。湄公河可以分段通航载重20吨~200吨船只。老挝公路总里程约4.7万公里,承载80%客货运量。

老挝国际航班(截至2018年)主要有:万象市往返昆明、广州、南宁、海口、长沙、曼谷、清迈(泰)、金边、暹粒(柬)、河内、吉隆坡、新加坡、首尔;琅勃拉邦往返海口、成都、曼谷、清迈、乌隆(泰)、暹粒、河内、景洪、胡志明市;巴色往返曼谷、暹粒;沙湾拿吉往返曼谷。万象瓦岱、琅勃拉邦、沙湾那吉和巴色等机场为国际机场。

[Economy] is dominated by agriculture and its industrial base is weak. Since 1986, it has promoted reform and opening up, adjusted economic structure, that is, combining agriculture, forestry, industry and service industries, giving priority to the development of agroforestry; eliminating the highly centralized economic management system, transferring to the business accounting system, and implementing economic policies with multiple forms of ownership. Gradually improve the market economy mechanism, strive to turn the natural and semi-natural economy into a commodity economy; implement openness to the outside world, enact foreign investment laws, improve the investment environment; expand foreign economic relations, and strive to introduce more funds, advanced technologies and management methods. From 1991 to 1996, the national economy grew at an average annual rate of 7%. After 1997, the Lao economy was severely affected by the Asian financial crisis. The Lao government has adopted measures such as strengthening macroeconomic regulation and control, rectifying financial order, and expanding agricultural production, and has basically maintained social stability and economic stability. In 2017, the economy grew by 6.9%, and its gross domestic product (GDP) was about $17 billion, with a per capita income of $2,472. In the first half of 2018, the economy grew by 6.7%. It is expected to grow by 6.5% for the whole year, with GDP of about $17.9 billion and per capita of $2,599. The Laos currency name is Kip, and the exchange rate with the US dollar in January 2019 was about 8500:1.

[Resources] There are tin, lead, potash, copper, iron, gold, gypsum, coal, rare earth and other mineral deposits. Gold, copper, coal, potash, coal, etc., which have been mined so far. Rich in water resources. In 2012, the forest area was about 17 million hectares, and the national forest coverage rate was about 50%. It produced valuable wood such as teak and rosewood.

[Industrial] From 2016 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of industry is 10.4%. Major industrial enterprises include power generation, sawmilling, mining, iron making, cement, clothing, food, beer, pharmaceuticals, and small repair shops and weaving, bamboo and wood processing workshops.

[Agriculture] From 2016 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of agriculture is 2.7%. Rice production is about 3.43 million tons. The main crops are rice, corn, potato, coffee, tobacco, peanuts, cotton and so on. The country’s arable land area is about 8 million hectares, and agricultural land is about 4.7 million hectares.

[Service Industry] The service industry in Laos is weak and has a late start. Since the implementation of the reform and opening up policy, the Lao service industry has made great progress. From 2016 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of the service industry was 5.6%.

[Tourism] The temples of Luang Prabang and Pakse County in Laos have been included in the World Cultural Heritage List. Famous sights include the Vientiane Pagoda, the Jade Buddha Temple, the Kampong Waterfall in Champasak, and the light of Luang Prabang. West Falls and so on. Since the reform and opening up, tourism has become an emerging industry in the economic development of Laos. In recent years, Laos has signed cooperation agreements with more than 500 foreign travel companies to open 15 international tourist ports. At the same time, it has taken measures such as increasing investment in tourism infrastructure, reducing visa fees, and relaxing border travel procedures. The tourism industry continues to develop. In 2017, Laos received a total of 4.239 million tourists. From January to September 2018, it received more than 2.9 million people, a year-on-year increase of 3.2%. The top three tourists were from Thailand, Vietnam and China. In May 2013, Laos was named “the best travel destination in the world” by the European Council. 2019 is the year of old and middle-aged tourism.

[Transportation] Laos is the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia. It is mainly transported by road, water and air. There is only 3 kilometers of railway from the Vientiane to the Laotai border. The China-Laos Railway was laid in December 2015 and will be completed in December 2016. It is scheduled to be completed in 2021. The Mekong River can be transported in sections from 20 tons to 200 tons. The total length of Laos roads is about 47,000 kilometers, carrying 80% of passenger and cargo traffic.

Laos international flights (as of 2018) mainly include: Wanxiang City to Kunming, Guangzhou, Nanning, Haikou, Changsha, Bangkok, Chiang Mai (Thai), Phnom Penh, Siem Reap (Cambodia), Hanoi, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Seoul; Labang travels to Haikou, Chengdu, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Udon Thani (Thailand), Siem Reap, Hanoi, Jinghong, Ho Chi Minh City; Baise to Bangkok, Siem Reap; Savannakhet to and from Bangkok. Airports such as Vientiane Wattay, Luang Prabang, Shawan Nagy and Pakse are international airports.

【对外贸易】老挝同50多个国家和地区有贸易关系,与19个国家签署了贸易协定,中国、日本、韩国、俄罗斯、澳大利亚、新西兰、欧盟、瑞士、加拿大等35个国家(地区)向老挝提供优惠关税待遇。主要外贸对象为泰国、越南、中国、日本、欧盟、美国、加拿大和其他东盟国家。2017年老挝进出口贸易额93.45亿美元,同比增长10.5%,其中出口48.03亿美元,进口45.42亿美元。2012年10月,老挝正式加入世界贸易组织。

【外国资本】1994年4月21日,老挝国会颁布新修订的外资法,规定政府不干涉外资企业事务,允许外资企业汇出所获利润;外商可在老挝建独资、合资企业,享五年免税优惠。2004年,老挝继续补充和完善外商投资法,放宽矿产业投资政策。由于暂停审批新的矿业、橡胶及桉树种植特许经营项目政策等原因,2015—2016财年老挝吸引外资12.7亿美元。

【外国援助】2006年至2010年共获外援约24.2亿美元,年均4.88亿美元。“七五”规划前半期(2011—2013年4月)共获外援约16亿美元,完成引援总任务的35.4%。2014—2015财年,老挝共获得官方发展援助3亿美元。主要援助国及组织有:日本、瑞典、澳大利亚、法国、中国、美国、德国、挪威、泰国及亚洲开发银行、联合国开发计划署、国际货币基金组织、世界银行等。外援主要用于公路、桥梁、码头、水电站、通讯、水利设施等基础建设项目。

【社会保障】实行低工资制,职工退休后可领取基本工资的80%。医疗卫生事业逐年发展,国家职工和普通居民均享免费医疗。人均预期寿命约64岁。截至2009年底,全国有医院147所、卫生站823个,私人诊所222家;拥有病床总数6425张,医生1.2万人。

【军事】老挝人民军前身为老挝爱国战线领导的“寮国战斗部队”(即“巴特寮”),始建于1949年1月20日,1965年10月改名为“老挝人民解放军”,1982年7月改称现名。最高领导机构是中央国防和治安委员会,本扬·沃拉吉任主席,占沙蒙·占雅拉任国防部长。实行义务兵役制,服役期最少18个月。

武装部队总兵力约6万人,其中陆军约5万人,主力部队编为5个步兵师;空军2000多人;内河巡逻部队1000多人;部队机关院校5000人。

【教育】学制分为小学五年,初中三年,高中四年。老挝现有四所大学,学生5.4万人。位于首都万象的老挝国立大学前身为东都师范学院,1995年6月与其他10所高等院校合并设立国立大学,有8个学院。近两年,老挝南部占巴塞省、北部琅勃拉邦省的国立大学分校相继独立,被正式命名为“占巴塞大学”和“苏发努冯大学”。另有直属卫生部的医学院。各类专业学院154所(主要为私立学院),学生5.9万人。

[Foreign Trade] Laos has trade relations with more than 50 countries and regions, and has signed trade agreements with 19 countries. China, Japan, South Korea, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, the European Union, Switzerland, Canada and other 35 countries (regions) Laos offers preferential tariff treatment. The main foreign trade targets are Thailand, Vietnam, China, Japan, the European Union, the United States, Canada and other ASEAN countries. In 2017, the import and export trade volume of Laos was US$9.345 billion, a year-on-year increase of 10.5%, of which exports were US$4.803 billion and imports were US$4.542 billion. In October 2012, Laos officially joined the World Trade Organization.

[Foreign Capital] On April 21, 1994, the Lao Parliament enacted a newly revised Foreign Investment Law, which stipulates that the government does not interfere with foreign-funded enterprises and allows foreign-funded enterprises to remit profits; foreign investors can establish wholly-owned and joint ventures in Laos for five years. Tax exemption. In 2004, Laos continued to supplement and improve the foreign investment law and ease the investment policy of the mining industry. Due to the suspension of approval of new mining, rubber and eucalyptus planting franchise project policies, Laos attracted US$1.27 billion in foreign investment in FY2015-2016.

[Foreign Aid] From 2006 to 2010, foreign aid was approximately US$2.42 billion, with an annual average of US$488 million. In the first half of the “Seventh Five-Year Plan” (2011-April), foreign aid was approximately 1.6 billion U.S. dollars, and 35.4% of the total tasks of the signings were completed. In the fiscal year 2014-2015, Laos received a total of US$300 million in official development assistance. The main donor countries and organizations are: Japan, Sweden, Australia, France, China, the United States, Germany, Norway, Thailand and the Asian Development Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, etc. Foreign aid is mainly used for infrastructure projects such as roads, bridges, docks, hydropower stations, communications, and water conservancy facilities.

[Social Security] A low-wage system is implemented, and employees can receive 80% of their basic salary after retirement. The medical and health undertakings are developing year by year, and both state employees and ordinary residents enjoy free medical care. The average life expectancy is about 64 years. By the end of 2009, there were 147 hospitals, 823 health stations and 222 private clinics nationwide; there were 6,425 beds and 12,000 doctors.

[Military] The Lao People’s Army, formerly known as the Laos Fighting Force led by the Lao Patriotic Front, was founded on January 20, 1949. In October 1965, it was renamed the Lao People’s Liberation Army. In July, it was renamed the current name. The highest governing body is the Central Defence and Security Committee, and Ben Yang Wolaji is the chairman, and Shamon Zhan Yala is the Minister of Defense. The compulsory military service system is implemented and the service period is at least 18 months.

The total strength of the armed forces is about 60,000, of which about 50,000 are from the army. The main force is composed of 5 infantry divisions; more than 2,000 airmen; more than 1,000 inland patrols; and 5,000 military institutions.

[Education] The academic system is divided into five years of elementary school, three years of junior high school, and four years of high school. There are four universities in Laos with 54,000 students. Located in Vientiane, the National University of Laos was formerly known as Dongdu Teachers College. In June 1995, it merged with 10 other colleges and universities to establish a national university with 8 colleges. In the past two years, the National University of the Republic of Saskatchewan in the southern part of Laos and the Luang Prabang Province in the north have been successively named, and they have been officially named as “Champa University” and “Sufa Nuvon University”. There is also a medical school directly under the Ministry of Health. There are 154 professional colleges (mainly private colleges) with a student population of 59,000.

【新闻媒体】全国各种报刊约有20种。《人民报》为老挝人民革命党中央机关报,创刊于1950年8月13日,用老挝文出版。其他还有《巴特寮报》、《新万象报》、《人民军报》等。外文报刊有英文报《万象时报》、《KPL新闻》和法文刊物《革新周刊》。

巴特寮通讯社:1968年1月成立,为老挝国家通讯社,出版老挝文《巴特寮》日报(1999年12月2日创刊)及英、法文《KPL新闻》。

老挝国家广播电台:设在万象,用老挝语广播,对外用越、柬、法、英、泰语广播。此外,还有老挝人民军广播电台和14个省级广播电台。

老挝国家电视台:建于1983年12月,共三套节目,每天各播放节目18小时左右。

【对外关系】奉行和平、独立和与各国友好的外交政策,主张在和平共处五项原则基础上同世界各国发展友好关系,重视发展同周边邻国关系,改善和发展同西方国家关系,为国内建设营造良好外部环境。2016年老党“十大”重申继续坚持“少树敌、广交友”外交政策,保持同越南的特殊团结友好关系,加强与中国全面战略合作,加强与东盟国家睦邻友好,积极争取国际经济和技术援助。

老挝于1997年7月正式加入东盟。已同140个国家建交。

[News media] There are about 20 kinds of newspapers and magazines across the country. The “People’s Daily” was the Central Organ of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party. It was published on August 13, 1950 and published in Lao. Others include “Bat 寮”, “New Vientiane”, “People’s Army” and so on. Foreign newspapers include the English newspaper “Vientiane Times”, “KPL News” and the French publication “Innovation Weekly”.

Bart News Agency: Founded in January 1968, it is the Lao National News Agency, which publishes the Lao “Bat Biao” daily newspaper (founded on December 2, 1999) and the English and French “KPL News”.

Laos National Radio: Located in Vientiane, it broadcasts in Laotian and broadcasts in Vietnamese, Cambodian, French, English and Thai. In addition, there are Lao People’s Army radio stations and 14 provincial radio stations.

Laos National TV: Built in December 1983, there are three sets of programs, each playing about 18 hours a day.

[External Relations] Pursuing a foreign policy of peace, independence, and friendship with all countries, it advocates developing friendly relations with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, attaches importance to developing relations with neighboring neighbors, and improving and developing relations with Western countries. Construction creates a good external environment. In 2016, the “Top Ten” of the old party reiterated that it will continue to adhere to the foreign policy of “less enemies and friends”, maintain special solidarity and friendly relations with Vietnam, strengthen comprehensive strategic cooperation with China, strengthen good-neighborliness and friendship with ASEAN countries, and actively strive for international economic and technological cooperation. assistance.

Laos officially joined ASEAN in July 1997. Established diplomatic relations with 140 countries.

【同中国的关系】中老于1961年4月25日建交。老挝政府奉行一个中国政策,支持中国和平统一大业。

近几年来,中老两党两国领导人互访频繁。2016年3月,老挝总理通邢来华出席澜沧江—湄公河合作首次领导人会议及博鳌亚洲论坛2016年年会。5月,老挝党中央总书记、国家主席本扬对我国进行正式友好访问。7月,李克强总理在蒙古出席亚欧首脑会议期间会见老挝总理通伦。9月,李克强总理赴老挝出席东亚合作领导人系列会议并对老挝进行正式访问,本扬来华出席二十国集团领导人杭州峰会。11月28日至12月1日,通伦正式访华。2017年5月,本扬来华出席“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛。7月,老挝副总理宋赛来华出席第10届中国—东盟教育交流周。9月,宋赛来华出席第14届中国—东盟博览会,国务委员兼国防部长常万全访老,两军举行首次边境高层会晤。11月13日至14日,习近平总书记、国家主席对老挝进行国事访问。2018年1月,李克强总理在柬埔寨出席澜湄合作第二次领导人会议期间会见通伦。3月,王毅国务委员兼外长在越南出席大湄公河次区域经济合作第六次领导人会议期间会见通伦。5月,国务委员、公安部部长赵克志访老。5月30日,中共中央总书记、国家主席习近平在北京同来华访问的老挝人民革命党中央总书记、国家主席本扬举行会谈。5月31日,李克强总理会见本扬。6月,宋赛来华出席中国—南亚博览会。7月,中共中央政治局委员、中央书记处书记、中宣部部长黄坤明访老并出席中老两党第七次理论研讨会。8月,老挝副总理宋迪来华出席首届中国国际智能产业博览会,外长沙伦赛正式访华。9月,中共中央政治局常委、中央纪委书记赵乐际对老挝进行正式友好访问,宋迪来华出席第15届中国—东盟博览会。11月,通伦来华出席首届中国国际进口博览会,习近平主席予以会见。12月,王毅国务委员兼外长对老挝进行正式访问并共同主持澜湄合作第四次外长会。

据中国商务部统计,2016年,中老双边贸易额为23.4亿美元,同比下降15.7%。2017年双边贸易额30.2亿美元,同比增长28.6%,其中中方出口14.3亿美元,同比增长44.5%,进口15.9亿美元,同比增长17%。我主要进口铜、木材、农产品等,主要出口汽车、摩托车、纺织品、钢材、电线电缆、通信设备、电器电子产品等。2018年1—10月双边贸易额为26.8亿美元,同比增长15.1%,其中中方出口10.7亿美元,同比下降3.4%,进口16.1亿美元,同比增长32%。

2015年12月2日,中老铁路开工奠基仪式在万象举行,中国全国人大常委会委员长张德江、老挝国家主席朱马里等双方领导人出席。2016年12月25日,中老铁路全线开工仪式在琅勃拉邦举行,老挝总理通伦出席。2017年12月12日,旺门村隧道顺利贯通,成为中老铁路首个贯通的隧道。中老铁路计划将于2021年竣工。

[Relationship with China] China and Laos established diplomatic relations on April 25, 1961. The Lao government pursues the one-China policy and supports China’s great cause of peaceful reunification.

In recent years, the leaders of the two parties and the two countries have exchanged visits frequently. In March 2016, Laotian Prime Minister Tong Xing came to China to attend the first leaders meeting of the Minjiang-Mekong River Cooperation and the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Boao Forum for Asia. In May, General Secretary of the Lao Party Central Committee and President of the People’s Republic of China Ben Yang paid an official goodwill visit to China. In July, Premier Li Keqiang met with Lao Prime Minister Tong Lun during the ASEM Summit in Mongolia. In September, Premier Li Keqiang went to Laos to attend the series of leaders of East Asian cooperation leaders and paid an official visit to Laos. Ben Yang came to China to attend the summit of the G20 leaders in Hangzhou. From November 28th to December 1st, Tonglun officially visited China. In May 2017, Ben Yang came to China to attend the “One Belt, One Road” International Cooperation Summit Forum. In July, Laos Deputy Prime Minister Song Sai came to China to attend the 10th China-ASEAN Education Exchange Week. In September, Song Sai came to China to attend the 14th China-ASEAN Expo. State Councilor and Defense Minister Chang Wanquan visited the old and the two armies held the first high-level meeting of the border. From November 13th to 14th, General Secretary Xi Jinping and the President of the State paid a state visit to Laos. In January 2018, Premier Li Keqiang met with Tong Lun during his second summit meeting in Cambodia. In March, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi met with Tong Lun during the Sixth Summit of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation in Vietnam. In May, State Councilor and Minister of Public Security Zhao Kezhi visited the old. On May 30th, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and President Xi Jinping held talks with General Secretary of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party Central Committee and President Ben Yang in Beijing. On May 31, Premier Li Keqiang met with Ben Yang. In June, Song Sai came to China to attend the China-South Asia Expo. In July, Huang Kunming, member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, secretary of the Central Secretariat, and Minister of the Central Propaganda Department visited the old and attended the seventh theoretical seminar of the two parties. In August, Laos Deputy Prime Minister Song Di came to China to attend the first China International Intelligent Industry Expo, and Foreign Minister Sharonsai officially visited China. In September, Zhao Leji, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, paid an official goodwill visit to Laos. Song Di came to China to attend the 15th China-ASEAN Expo. In November, Tong Lun came to China to attend the first China International Import Expo, and President Xi Jinping met with him. In December, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi paid an official visit to Laos and co-chaired the Fourth Foreign Ministers’ Meeting.

According to the statistics of the Ministry of Commerce of China, in 2016, the bilateral trade volume between China and Laos was US$ 2.34 billion, down 15.7% year-on-year. In 2017, bilateral trade volume was US$3.02 billion, up 28.6% year-on-year, of which China’s exports were US$1.43 billion, up 44.5% year-on-year, and imports were US$1.59 billion, up 17% year-on-year. I mainly import copper, wood, agricultural products, etc., mainly exporting automobiles, motorcycles, textiles, steel, wire and cable, communication equipment, electrical and electronic products. From January to October 2018, bilateral trade volume was US$ 2.68 billion, up 15.1% year-on-year. Among them, China’s exports were 1.07 billion US dollars, down 3.4% year-on-year, and imports were 1.61 billion US dollars, up 32% year-on-year.

On December 2, 2015, the foundation stone laying ceremony for the construction of the China-Laos railway was held in Vientiane. The leaders of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China, Zhang Dejiang, and Laos President Zhumari, attended the meeting. On December 25, 2016, the opening ceremony of the entire China-Laos railway was held in Luang Prabang, and the Lao Prime Minister Tong Lun attended. On December 12, 2017, the Wangmen Village Tunnel was successfully completed and became the first tunnel of the China-Laos Railway. The China-Laos railway plan will be completed in 2021.

【同东盟的关系】1997年7月老挝正式加入东盟后,积极参与东盟事务,发展与东盟的友好合作关系,2004年担任东盟轮值主席国,成功主办东盟峰会及东盟与对话国领导人系列会议,在东盟内发挥积极作用。老挝总理出席历届东盟峰会。2016年,老挝再次担任东盟轮值主席国,主办东亚合作系列会议。

【同越南的关系】1962年9月建交,两国保持特殊团结友好关系。2017年是老越团结友好年,是两国建交55周年暨《老越友好合作条约》签署40周年,两国保持密切高层来往,举行多项庆祝活动。2月,通伦赴越出席老越政府间联合委员会第39次会议并访越。3月,巴妮访越,老挝党中央政治局委员、万象市委书记兼市长辛拉冯访越。4月,越南总理阮春福携夫人访老,巴妮访越。7月,老挝国家副主席潘坎访越,越南国会副主席丛氏放访老并出席老越建交55周年和《老越友好合作条约》签署40周年系列庆祝活动。8月,老挝副总理本通访越。10月,通伦、宋赛分别访越。11月,本扬赴越出席APEC领导人非正式会议。12月,本扬访越,双方发表《联合声明》,沙伦赛赴越出席第四次越老外交部长级磋商,老挝党中央政治局委员、国防部部长占沙蒙访越。2018年1月,越南国防部长吴春历访问老挝。2月,阮春福赴老出席老越政府间联合委员会第40次会议。3月,通伦赴越出席大湄公河次区域经济合作第六次领导人会议。5月,老挝党中组部部长占西访越。6月,通伦赴日本出席第24届“亚洲的未来”国际会议期间同越南副总理张和平举行双边会见,越南国家副主席邓氏玉盛访老。10月,本扬就越共中央总书记阮富仲当选国家主席致贺电;越共中央书记处书记、中央检查委员会主任陈锦秀访老,分别会见本扬主席、通伦总理并与本通副总理举行会谈。

【同东盟其他国家的关系】老挝与东盟其他国家保持良好关系。2016年5月,缅甸总统廷觉访老,国务资政昂山素季随同访问。8月,老挝国家主席本扬访问缅甸。9月,文莱苏丹哈桑纳尔、柬埔寨首相洪森、印尼总统佐科、马来西亚总理纳吉布、缅甸国务资政昂山素季、菲律宾总统杜特尔特、新加坡总理李显龙、泰国总理巴育、越南总理阮春福来老挝出席东亚合作领导人系列会议。11月,老挝总理通伦赴柬埔寨出席柬老越发展三角区第9届峰会。2017年1月,新加坡总统陈庆炎访老,泰国诗琳通公主访老。4月,通伦赴菲律宾出席第30届东盟峰会,与菲律宾总统杜特尔特举行会谈。5月,通伦赴柬埔寨出席2017年东盟世界经济论坛开幕式,访问新加坡和马来西亚。7月,沙伦赛赴菲律宾出席东亚合作系列外长会。10月,潘坎访问文莱,通伦访问印度尼西亚。11月,通伦赴菲律宾出席东亚合作领导人系列会议。2018年1月,通伦访问缅甸。4月,通伦赴新加坡出席第32届东盟峰会。5月,本扬对新加坡进行国事访问。11月,通伦赴新加坡出席第33届东盟峰会等系列会议。12月,柬埔寨首相洪森访老,分别会见本扬主席、巴妮国会主席并同通伦总理会谈。

【同日本的关系】1952年12月建交。1991—2012年,日本是老挝最大的援助国,年均援助数额超过1亿美元。双方投资领域合作发展迅速。2012年3月,老挝总理通邢访日。2013年11月,日本首相安倍晋三正式访老。2014年8月,日本参议院副议长興石东访老。2015年3月,老挝总理通邢访问日本并出席老日建交60周年庆祝活动,老日关系提升为战略合作伙伴关系。7月,通邢赴日本出席湄公河—日本峰会。2016年9月,日本首相安倍晋三赴老挝出席东亚合作领导人系列会议。2017年6月,老挝总理通伦访问日本。2018年4月,日本外相和野太郎首次访老。6月,通伦赴日本出席第24届“亚洲的未来”国际会议并顺访。

[Relationship with ASEAN] After Laos formally joined ASEAN in July 1997, it actively participated in ASEAN affairs and developed friendly relations and cooperation with ASEAN. In 2004, it assumed the presidency of ASEAN and successfully hosted the ASEAN Summit and the ASEAN and Dialogue Leaders Series Meeting. Play an active role in ASEAN. The Lao Prime Minister attended the previous ASEAN summit. In 2016, Laos once again served as the rotating presidency of ASEAN and hosted a series of meetings on East Asian cooperation.

[Relationship with Vietnam] Established diplomatic relations in September 1962, and the two countries maintained a special unity and friendly relationship. 2017 is the year of friendship and friendship between the two countries. It is the 55th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries and the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between Laos and Vietnam. The two countries maintain close high-level exchanges and hold many celebrations. In February, Tong Lun went to Vietnam to attend the 39th meeting of the Laoyue Intergovernmental Committee and visited Vietnam. In March, Barney visited Vietnam, and the member of the Political Bureau of the Lao Party Central Committee, the secretary of the Municipal Committee of Vientiane and the mayor of Xinhua, visited the Vietnam. In April, Vietnamese Prime Minister Qi Chunfu visited his wife with his wife, and Barney visited Vietnam. In July, Laos Vice President Pan Kan visited Vietnam. Vice Chairman of the Vietnamese National Assembly, Mr. Cong, visited the old and attended the 55th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Laos and Vietnam and the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Laos and Vietnam. In August, Laos Deputy Prime Minister Bento visited Vietnam. In October, Tong Lun and Song Sai visited Vietnam respectively. In November, Ben Yang went to Vietnam to attend the APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting. In December, this visit to Vietnam, the two sides issued a “Joint Statement”, Sharon contest went to Vietnam to attend the fourth foreign ministerial consultations, the Lao Party Central Political Bureau member, the Minister of National Defense accounted for the visit of Saudi Arabia. In January 2018, Vietnamese Defense Minister Wu Chunli visited Laos. In February, Qi Chunfu went to the 40th meeting of the Laoyue Intergovernmental Joint Committee. In March, Tong Lun went to Vietnam to attend the sixth summit meeting of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation. In May, the Minister of the Party Central Committee of Laos accounted for the West visit. In June, Tong Lun went to Japan to attend the 24th “Asian Future” international conference and held a bilateral meeting with Vietnamese Deputy Prime Minister Zhang Heping. Vietnamese Vice President Deng Shiyu attended the visit. In October, Ben Yang sent a congratulatory message to the President of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Fu Fuzhong, who was elected as the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Chen Jinxiu, secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the head of the Central Inspection Commission, met with President Ben Yang and Prime Minister Tong Rong and held talks with Vice Premier Bentong. .

[Relationship with other ASEAN countries] Laos maintains good relations with other ASEAN countries. In May 2016, Myanmar’s President Tingju visited the old, and the State Affairs Aung San Suu Kyi visited. In August, Laos President Ben Yang visited Myanmar. In September, Brunei Sultan Hassanal, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen, Indonesian President Joko, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib, Myanmar State Government Aung San Suu Kyi, Philippine President Duterte, Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, Thai Prime Minister Vietnamese Prime Minister Hunchun Fu came to Laos to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation. In November, Lao Prime Minister Tong Lun went to Cambodia to attend the 9th Summit of the Cambodian Arab Development Triangle. In January 2017, Singaporean President Chen Qingyan visited the old, and Princess Sirindhorn of Thailand visited the old. In April, Tong Lun went to the Philippines to attend the 30th ASEAN Summit and held talks with Philippine President Duterte. In May, Tong Lun went to Cambodia to attend the opening ceremony of the 2017 ASEAN World Economic Forum and visited Singapore and Malaysia. In July, Sharonsai went to the Philippines to attend the East Asian Cooperation Series Foreign Ministers’ Meeting. In October, Pankan visited Brunei and Tonglun visited Indonesia. In November, Tong Lun went to the Philippines to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation. In January 2018, Tong Lun visited Myanmar. In April, Tong Lun went to Singapore to attend the 32nd ASEAN Summit. In May, Ben Yang paid a state visit to Singapore. In November, Tong Lun went to Singapore to attend the 33rd ASEAN Summit and other series of meetings. In December, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen visited the old and met with President Ben Yang, Chairman of the Barney Congress and talks with Prime Minister Tong Lun.

[Relationship with Japan] Established diplomatic relations in December 1952. From 1991 to 2012, Japan was the largest donor to Laos, with an average annual aid of more than $100 million. Cooperation in the investment field between the two sides has developed rapidly. In March 2012, Laotian Prime Minister Tong Xing visited Japan. In November 2013, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe officially visited the country. In August 2014, the Vice-President of the Japanese Senate, Xing Shidong, visited the old. In March 2015, Laos Prime Minister Thong Xing visited Japan and attended the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations. The relationship between Laos and Japan was upgraded to a strategic partnership. In July, Tong Xing went to Japan to attend the Mekong-Japan Summit. In September 2016, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe went to Laos to attend the series of leaders of East Asian cooperation leaders. In June 2017, Lao Prime Minister Tong Lun visited Japan. In April 2018, Japanese Foreign Minister and Norohiro visited the old for the first time. In June, Tong Lun went to Japan to attend the 24th International Conference on the Future of Asia and visited.

【同美国的关系】1950年建交。1975年老挝人民民主共和国成立后两国维持代办级外交关系,1991年11月升格为大使级外交关系。1992年8月,双方恢复互派大使。2005年,美给予老正常贸易关系待遇。近年来双方关系进一步发展,美向老禁毒、清除未爆炸弹、民生等领域提供援助。2010年,老副总理兼外长通伦访美,成为老挝人民民主共和国成立以来访美的最高级别官员。2012年7月,美国国务卿克林顿对老挝进行正式访问。这是美国务卿57年来首次访老。2014年2月,老挝—美国第五次双边全面对话会在万象举行,老挝副外长本格和美国务院负责东亚事务的首席助卿帮办马希尔主持。2015年9月,老挝国家主席朱马里在出席联合国大会期间会见美国总统奥巴马。11月,老挝总理通邢在马来西亚出席东亚合作领导人系列会议期间会见美国总统奥巴马。2016年1月,美国国务卿克里访问老挝。9月,美国总统奥巴马赴老挝出席东亚合作领导人系列会议并访问老挝,实现美国总统首次访老。2017年1月,负责东南亚事务的美国副助理国务卿帕特里克·墨菲访老。9月,美国财政部长威尔伯·罗斯访老。2018年2月、4月,美国会高级代表团访老。11月,沙伦赛外长在新加坡会见美国副国务卿约翰·沙利文。

【同俄罗斯的关系】1960年10月同苏联建交。1975年老挝人民民主共和国成立后,苏联一度为老挝最大的援助国。1991年,苏联解体后,对老援助全部终止。1991年12月,老挝政府正式宣布承认俄罗斯联邦,愿在和平共处五项原则的基础上发展同俄罗斯的友好关系。1992年3月,两国互派大使。1994年,两国签署友好关系原则协定。近年来,双方保持各领域友好交流合作。2011年,老挝国家主席朱马里访俄。2013年,老挝国会主席巴妮访问俄罗斯。2014年,俄罗斯联邦委员会主席马特维延科赴老出席第35届东盟议会联盟大会。2015年10月,老挝副总理兼外长通伦访俄。2016年9月,俄罗斯总统普京赴老挝出席东亚合作领导人系列会议。2017年6月,老挝外长沙伦赛访问俄罗斯。9月,老挝政府总理通伦访问俄罗斯。

【同其他国家关系】2013年7月,老挝国家主席朱马里正式访问白俄罗斯。8月,新西兰总督麦特帕里对老挝进行国事访问。9月,东帝汶总理夏纳纳·古斯芒正式访老。10月,老挝国家主席朱马里访问法国。加拿大外长约翰·贝尔德访老。11月,老挝国家主席朱马里对韩国进行正式访问。2014年3月,新西兰外长麦卡利、白俄罗斯外长弗拉基米尔・马凯访老。7月,澳大利亚外长毕晓普访老。8月,朝鲜外务相李洙墉访老。9月,古巴外长布鲁诺·罗德里格斯·帕里利亚访老。2015年10月,老挝国家主席朱马里对古巴进行国事访问。古共中央政治局委员、国务委员会副主席梅萨访老。老党中组部部长占西赴朝出席朝鲜劳动党成立70周年纪念活动。2016年9月,韩国总统朴槿惠、印度总理莫迪、澳大利亚总理特恩布尔、新西兰总理约翰·基等赴老挝出席东亚合作领导人系列会议。2017年5月,老挝外长沙伦赛访问奥地利、匈牙利。6月,沙伦赛访问阿塞拜疆。8月,澳大利亚国防部长潘恩访老。9月,阿塞拜疆外长访老。11月,沙伦赛访问澳大利亚,阿联酋外长阿卜杜拉访老。2018年11月,潘坎副主席访问法国,古巴国务委员会主席兼部长会议主席迪亚斯访老,印度外长斯瓦拉吉访老。

【同欧盟的关系】老挝与各主要欧盟国家保持传统友好关系。其中,德国、瑞典、法国均为老主要援助国,援助集中在基础设施建设、文化、人力资源开发、农业、卫生等领域。2011年8月,欧盟表示将放宽原产地规则,包括老挝在内的最不发达国家可以获得普惠制体系的豁免资格,将作为欧盟的优惠贸易伙伴进口原材料、生产成品并出口欧盟市场。

【参与地区和国际合作组织情况】老挝是澜湄合作重要成员国,出席历次领导人和外长会议,目前同我担任澜湄合作共同主席国,至2020年。老挝是大湄公河次区域经济合作(GMS)成员,2008年成功举办GMS第三次领导人会议。老挝与联合国、世行、亚行等国际机构保持良好合作。2012年10月,第七届亚欧议会伙伴会议在老挝召开。11月,第九届亚欧首脑会议在老挝召开。2013年3月,内陆发展中国家《阿拉木图行动纲领》亚欧地区审查会议,第七届柬老越(CLV)峰会,第六届柬老缅越峰会(CLMV),第五届伊洛瓦底江—湄南河—湄公河经济战略合作峰会(ACMECS)在万象举行。2014年1月,国际原子能机构(IAEA)总干事天野之弥访老。

[Relationship with the United States] Established diplomatic relations in 1950. After the establishment of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic in 1975, the two countries maintained diplomatic relations at the agency level. In November 1991, they were upgraded to diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level. In August 1992, the two sides resumed exchange of ambassadors. In 2005, the United States gave the old normal trade relations treatment. In recent years, bilateral relations have further developed, and the United States has provided assistance to the old anti-drugs, the removal of unexploded ordnance, and people’s livelihood. In 2010, the old deputy prime minister and foreign minister, Tong Lun, visited the United States and became the highest-ranking official to visit the United States since the establishment of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. In July 2012, US Secretary of State Clinton paid an official visit to Laos. This is the first time the US Secretary of State has visited the country in 57 years. In February 2014, the fifth bilateral comprehensive dialogue between Laos and the United States was held in Vientiane. Laos Deputy Foreign Minister Bengue and the US State Department’s Chief Assistant Secretary for East Asian Affairs, Maher, presided over. In September 2015, Laos President Jumari met with US President Barack Obama during his attendance at the UN General Assembly. In November, Laotian Prime Minister Thong Xing met with US President Barack Obama during a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation in Malaysia. In January 2016, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Laos. In September, US President Barack Obama went to Laos to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation and visited Laos to realize the first visit of the US President. In January 2017, US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Southeast Asian Affairs Patrick Murphy visited the old. In September, US Treasury Secretary Wilbur Ross visited the old. In February and April 2018, a senior delegation from the US Congress visited the old. In November, Sharon’s foreign minister met with US Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan in Singapore.

[Relationship with Russia] Established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in October 1960. After the establishment of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic in 1975, the Soviet Union was once the largest donor to Laos. In 1991, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the old aid was all terminated. In December 1991, the Lao Government officially announced its recognition of the Russian Federation and is willing to develop friendly relations with Russia on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. In March 1992, the two countries exchanged ambassadors. In 1994, the two countries signed an agreement on the principle of friendly relations. In recent years, the two sides have maintained friendly exchanges and cooperation in various fields. In 2011, Laos President Zhumari visited Russia. In 2013, Laos President Barney visited Russia. In 2014, the Chairman of the Russian Federation Committee, Matviyanko, went to the 35th ASEAN Parliamentary Union Conference. In October 2015, Lao Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Tong Lun visited Russia. In September 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin went to Laos to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation. In June 2017, Lao Foreign Minister Sharonsai visited Russia. In September, Laotian Prime Minister Tong Lun visited Russia.

[Relationship with other countries] In July 2013, Laos President Jumari officially visited Belarus. In August, New Zealand Governor Matt Parry paid a state visit to Laos. In September, East Timorese Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão officially visited the old. In October, Laos President Jumari visited France. Canadian Foreign Minister John Baird visited the old. In November, Laos President Jumari made an official visit to South Korea. In March 2014, New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely and Belarusian Foreign Minister Vladimir Makai visited the old. In July, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited the old. In August, North Korean Foreign Minister Li Wei visited the old. In September, Cuban Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez Parrilla visited the old. In October 2015, Laos President Jumari paid a state visit to Cuba. Mesa, member of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China and Vice Chairman of the State Council, visited the old. The party secretary of the old party occupied the commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the Workers’ Party of Korea. In September 2016, South Korean President Park Geun-hye, Indian Prime Minister Modi, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull, and New Zealand Prime Minister John Key went to Laos to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation. In May 2017, Lao Foreign Minister Sharonsai visited Austria and Hungary. In June, Sharonsai visited Azerbaijan. In August, Australian Defense Minister Paine visited the old. In September, the foreign minister of Azerbaijan visited the old. In November, Sharonsai visited Australia and UAE Foreign Minister Abdullah visited the country. In November 2018, Vice-President Pankan visited France, Chairman of the State Council of Cuba and Chairman of the Council of Ministers Diaz visited the old, and Indian Foreign Minister Swaraj visited the old.

[Relationship with the EU] Laos maintains traditional friendly relations with major EU countries. Among them, Germany, Sweden and France are all major donors, and assistance is concentrated in infrastructure construction, culture, human resource development, agriculture, and health. In August 2011, the EU stated that it would relax the rules of origin, and the least developed countries, including Laos, could be exempted from the GSP system and would import raw materials, produce finished products and export to the EU market as preferential trading partners of the EU.

[Participating in regional and international cooperation organizations] Laos is an important member of the Ministry of Economic Cooperation, attending meetings of leaders and foreign ministers, and is currently co-chairing with me as a co-chairman until 2020. Laos is a member of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation (GMS) and successfully hosted the third GMS Leaders Meeting in 2008. Laos maintains good cooperation with international agencies such as the United Nations, the World Bank and ADB. In October 2012, the 7th Asia-Europe Parliamentary Partner Meeting was held in Laos. In November, the ninth Asia-Europe Meeting was held in Laos. In March 2013, the Asia-Europe Regional Review Conference of the Almaty Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries, the 7th Cambodian Veterans (CLV) Summit, the 6th Cambodian and Myanmar Summit (CLMV), and the 5th Irrawaddy River – The Chao Phraya-Mekong Economic Strategic Cooperation Summit (ACMECS) was held in Vientiane. In January 2014, the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) visited Amano.