The Lao People’s Democratic Republic 老挝人民民主共和国
【国名】老挝人民民主共和国（The Lao People’s Democratic Republic）。
[Country name] The Lao People’s Democratic Republic.
[Area] 236,800 square kilometers.
[Population] 6.8 million (2017). It is divided into 50 ethnic groups, belonging to the Laotai language family, the Meng-Khmer language family, the Miao-Yao language family, and the Han-Tibetan language family, collectively known as the Lao ethnic group. General Lao. Most residents believe in Buddhism. There are more than 30,000 overseas Chinese.
[Capital] Vientiane, with a population of 850,000 (2015). The highest average temperature is 31.7 ° C, the lowest average temperature is 22.6 ° C.
[National Head of State] President Benjan Wolaji, elected in April 2016.
[Important Festival] The founding day of the Lao People’s Army: January 20 (1949). The founding day of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party: March 22 (1955). Laos New Year (Song Dry Festival, also known as Songkran Festival): May of the Buddhist calendar, generally starting from April 13 of the annual Gregorian calendar, a total of three days before and after. Independence Day: October 12 (1945). Tower Festival: December in the Buddha, November in the Gregorian calendar. National Day: December 2 (1975).
[profile] A landlocked country in the northern part of the Indo-China Peninsula, bordering China to the north, Cambodia to the south, Vietnam to the east, Myanmar to the northwest, and Thailand to the southwest. The length of the border is 508 km, 535 km, 2067 km, 236 km, and 1835 respectively. Kilometers. The length of the Mekong River in Laos is 777.4 kilometers, flowing through the capital Vientiane, which is 234 kilometers long from the border between Laos and Myanmar, and 976.3 kilometers long from the border between Laos and Thailand. It has a tropical and subtropical monsoon climate. The rainy season is from May to October, and the dry season is from November to April. The annual average temperature is about 26 °C. There is abundant rainfall throughout Laos. In the past 40 years, the annual precipitation is 1250 mm, the maximum annual precipitation is 3750 mm, and the precipitation in general years is about 2000 mm.
Due to the lack of historical data, the academic circles have more controversy about the history of Laos before the 14th century. It is generally believed that there are successive countries such as Tang Mingguo and Nanzhangguo (澜沧国) in the territory of Laos. In 1353, King Faun established the Kingdom of the Kingdom (1353-1707), Luang Prabang, and Laos became the first unified multi-ethnic country in history. In 1560, the king of the kingdom of Seychelles moved to Vientiane. From 1707 to 1713, the Kingdom of the Kingdom split into the three kingdoms of Luang Prabang in the north, Vientiane in the central and Champasak in the south. From 1778 to 1893, the Three Kingdoms became a country of Siam (present-day Thailand).
In 1893, France signed the “Syrian Treaty of Siam” (also known as the “Bangkok Treaty”) with Siam. Luang Prabang, Vientiane and Champasak were incorporated into the French Indochina Federation and were occupied by Japan in September 1940. On September 15, 1945, the deputy king and prime minister of the Luang Prabang kingdom, Petra, announced the independence of Laos (formerly known as “the country”) in Vientiane. On October 12th, the Vientiane people held an independence celebration and announced the establishment of the government of Isa (Law in Laos). In 1946, the French forces made a comeback and the independence movement failed. In April 1947, under the support of France, Luang Prabang king Si Sawangvon announced the establishment of the Lao Kingdom and the constitutional monarchy. France confessed that Laos is an independent country within the French Confederation, but still holds the sovereignty and diplomatic power of Laos. In order to strive for national independence, the Lao people have carried out extensive guerrilla warfare. In 1950, Su Fanu Feng formed the new Lao Iza, and established the Shuguo Anti-Japanese War Government. In 1954, France failed in the Battle of Dien Bien, and was forced to sign the Geneva Accord, recognizing Laos’ independence and withdrawing troops.
After the withdrawal of the French army, the United States actively promoted the pro-American forces in Laos, and planned many coups, instigating the government forces to attack the Laos combat troops (ie “Bat Biao”, English for Pathet Lao, led by the Lao Patriotic Front, founded in 1956), trying to Control Laos. In Laos, there were three forces of the Laos government army, the Laos combat troops, and the Fumi Nosavan army. The first joint government of the Prime Minister of Fuma and the Sanani Air Government, the Fumi government, and Weng Weng successively appeared. government. In 1962, after the signing of the “Geneva Agreement on Laos Issues”, Laos established the second coalition government with Prince Fuma (neutral) as Prime Minister, Prince Sufanu (leftist) and Fumi (Right) as deputy prime minister. In 1964, the United States instigated pro-US forces to undermine the coalition government and attack the liberated areas, and the civil war in Laos resumed. In February 1973, the Lao parties signed the “Agreement on Restoring Peace and National Harmony in Laos”. In April 1974, the third coalition government with Prime Minister Fuma and the National Political Joint Committee chaired by Sufa Nuvon were established. With the victory of the Indo-China War against the United States, the Lao people began to fight for power in the country in May 1975. On December 2, 1975, the Lao People’s National Congress in Vientiane announced the abolition of the monarchy, the establishment of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the formation of the Supreme People’s Assembly chaired by Sufa Nuvon and the prime minister of Kaishan·Fengweihan. government.
[Politics] Laos implements a socialist system. The Lao People’s Revolutionary Party is the only political party in Laos. In 1991, the “Five Majors” of the Lao Party determined “a principled and comprehensive reform path” and proposed six basic principles of adhering to the party’s leadership and socialist direction, and implementing the policy of opening to the outside world. In 2001, the Laos “Seventh National Congress” formulated the goal of basically eradicating poverty by 2010 and getting rid of underdevelopment in 2020. From January 18 to 22, 2016, the “Top Ten” of the Lao Party passed the “Eighth Five-Year Plan” for social development, the 10-year strategy and the 15-year vision plan. At present, Laos has political stability and social peace.
[Constitution] In August 1991, the sixth session of the Second Supreme People’s Assembly of Laos adopted the first constitution of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The Constitution clearly stipulates that the Lao People’s Democratic Republic is a people’s democratic country, and all power belongs to the people. The people of all ethnic groups exercise the right to be the masters of the country under the leadership of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party.
[Parliament] The Lao Parliament (formerly known as the Supreme People’s Assembly, changed its current name in August 1992) is the highest authority and legislative body of the country, responsible for the formulation of the Constitution and laws. Each session of the National Assembly is held for five years and meets twice a year. The special meeting is decided by the Standing Committee of the National Assembly or by more than two-thirds of the members. Members of parliament are directly elected by the local government. The current (eighth) Congress was elected in April 2016, with 149 members of parliament and Chairman Barney Yatadu (female).
[Government] The highest administrative organ of the state. The current government was established in April 2016. It has 18 departments and 3 directly affiliated institutions (the central bank, the presidential palace, the prime minister’s office, including one minister of the presidential palace and five ministers of the prime minister’s office).
Key members of the government: Prime Minister Tong Lun Sisuri, Deputy Prime Minister and Director of the Government Supervision Office, Bentong Jimani, Deputy Prime Minister Song Sai Si Pan Dun, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Song Di Lundi. Minister of Defense Occupy Shamon Zhan Yala, Minister of Public Security Ville Kanlavon, Minister of Home Affairs Kanman Sunville, Prime Minister of the Prime Minister Zaron Ye Baohe, Minister of Natural Resources and Environment Song Ma Ben Sheena, Minister of Journalism, Culture and Tourism, Pohangkan Fondala, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, Lian Ticho, Minister of Justice, Sai Sai Shandi, Minister of Labor and Social Welfare, Kanping Sai Songping, Minister of the Office of the President of the State, Kanmon Puntadi, Minister of Energy and Minerals, Kamani Intila, Minister of Industry and Trade, Kaimani Bensena, Minister of Science and Technology, Powankan von Dara, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister Sharon Saigon Gamasi, Minister of Education and Sports Hinden Razan Taben, Central Bank Governor Song Sai Si Pasai, Minister of Post and Telecommunications Tansama Gonmarsi, Minister of Public Works and Transportation Ben Zinta Feng, Minister of the Prime Minister’s Office and Director of the Prime Minister’s Office, Pei Pompipa, Minister of Planning and Investment Supan Qiao Misai, Minister of Health Bengon Sitavon, Minister of the Prime Minister Bengo Sanson Sa, Prime Minister of the Prime Minister’s Office, Alan Jojit Kikun, Minister of the Prime Minister Su Wanping Bupa Feng.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 17 provinces and 1 municipality (Vientiane City).
【政党】老挝人民革命党（The Lao People’s Revolutionary Party）：老挝唯一政党和执政党，前身为印度支那共产党老挝支部。1955年3月22日建立，原称“老挝人民党”，1972年召开“二大”时改为现名。现有党员约31万人，党组织1.9万个。其宗旨是：领导全国人民进行革新事业，建设和发展人民民主制度，建设和平、独立、民主、统一和繁荣的老挝，为逐步走上社会主义创造条件。
本届（第十届）中央委员会于2016年1月产生，由69名中央委员和8名中央候补委员组成。本扬·沃拉吉（Bounnhang VORACHIT）为党中央总书记。中央政治局委员共11人：本扬·沃拉吉、通伦·西苏里（Thongloun SISOULITH）、巴妮·雅陶都（女）（Pany YATHOTU）、本通·吉马尼（Bounthong CHITMANY）、潘坎·维帕万（Phankham VIPHAVANH）、占西·普西坎（Chansy PHOSYKHA）、赛宋蓬·丰威汉（Saysomphone PHOMVIHANE）、占沙蒙·占雅拉(Chansamone CHANYALATH)、坎潘·蓬马塔(Khamphan PHOMMATHAT）、辛拉冯·库派吞（Sinlavong KHOUTPHAYTHOUNE）、宋赛·西潘敦(Sonexay SIPHANDONE)。
[Judiciary] The Lao People’s Supreme People’s Court is the highest judicial authority. The President of the Supreme People’s Court, Campan Sididamba, was elected in 2011 and re-elected in 2016; the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Kanshan Suvon, was elected in 2011 and re-elected in 2016.
[Party] The Lao People’s Revolutionary Party: The only political party and ruling party in Laos, formerly the Laos branch of the Communist Party of Indochina. It was established on March 22, 1955. It was originally called the “Lao People’s Party.” When it was held in 1972, it was changed to its current name. There are about 310,000 current party members and 19,000 party organizations. Its purpose is to lead the people throughout the country to carry out innovation, build and develop the people’s democratic system, build peace, independence, democracy, unity and prosperity in Laos, and create conditions for the gradual embarkation of socialism.
The (10th) Central Committee was created in January 2016 and consists of 69 Central Committee members and 8 Central Reserve Members. Bounnhang Vorachit is the general secretary of the Party Central Committee. A total of 11 members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee: Ben Yang Woraji, Thongloun SISOULITH, Pany YATHOTU, and Bounthong CHITMANY , Phunkham VIPHAVANH, Chansy PHOSYKHA, Saysomphone PHOMVIHANE, Chansamone CHANYALATH, Campan Khamphan PHOMMATHAT, Sinalavong KHOUTPHAYTHOUNE, Sonexay SIPHANDONE.
[United Front] The Laos Founding Front was established in January 1956, formerly known as the Lao Lao Patriotic Front. It is the national united front organization under the leadership of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party. Chairman Saifsomphone PHOMVIHANE.
Bounnhang VORACHIT: General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party. Born in 1937 in Savannakhet Province. Worked in March 1954. He served as Secretary of the Shawan Naji Provincial Party Committee, Secretary of the Municipal Committee of Wanxiang and Mayor. In 1999, he served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance. In 2001, he was appointed Prime Minister. In 2006, he was elected Vice President of the State and re-elected in 2011. In January 2016, he was elected General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Lao Party. In April 2016, he was elected president of the country.
Thongloun SISOULITH: Prime Minister of the Lao Government. Born in 1946 in Huapan Province. He served as deputy foreign minister, minister of labor and social welfare, and director of the Congressional Foreign Affairs Committee. In 2001, he served as deputy prime minister and director of the Planning Investment Committee. In 2006, he served as deputy prime minister and foreign minister and minister of the China Federation. In July 2015, he no longer served as the minister of the China Federation. In April 2016, he was elected Prime Minister.
Pany YATHOTU: Chairman of the Lao National Assembly. Born in Sichuan Province in 1951, the Miao nationality. He has worked in the financial sector for a long time. He served as Governor of the National Bank, Director of the National Minority Committee of the National Assembly, and Vice Chairman of the National Assembly. In 2010, he was elected president of the National Assembly and was re-elected twice in 2011 and 2016.
[Economy] is dominated by agriculture and its industrial base is weak. Since 1986, it has promoted reform and opening up, adjusted economic structure, that is, combining agriculture, forestry, industry and service industries, giving priority to the development of agroforestry; eliminating the highly centralized economic management system, transferring to the business accounting system, and implementing economic policies with multiple forms of ownership. Gradually improve the market economy mechanism, strive to turn the natural and semi-natural economy into a commodity economy; implement openness to the outside world, enact foreign investment laws, improve the investment environment; expand foreign economic relations, and strive to introduce more funds, advanced technologies and management methods. From 1991 to 1996, the national economy grew at an average annual rate of 7%. After 1997, the Lao economy was severely affected by the Asian financial crisis. The Lao government has adopted measures such as strengthening macroeconomic regulation and control, rectifying financial order, and expanding agricultural production, and has basically maintained social stability and economic stability. In 2017, the economy grew by 6.9%, and its gross domestic product (GDP) was about $17 billion, with a per capita income of $2,472. In the first half of 2018, the economy grew by 6.7%. It is expected to grow by 6.5% for the whole year, with GDP of about $17.9 billion and per capita of $2,599. The Laos currency name is Kip, and the exchange rate with the US dollar in January 2019 was about 8500:1.
[Resources] There are tin, lead, potash, copper, iron, gold, gypsum, coal, rare earth and other mineral deposits. Gold, copper, coal, potash, coal, etc., which have been mined so far. Rich in water resources. In 2012, the forest area was about 17 million hectares, and the national forest coverage rate was about 50%. It produced valuable wood such as teak and rosewood.
[Industrial] From 2016 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of industry is 10.4%. Major industrial enterprises include power generation, sawmilling, mining, iron making, cement, clothing, food, beer, pharmaceuticals, and small repair shops and weaving, bamboo and wood processing workshops.
[Agriculture] From 2016 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of agriculture is 2.7%. Rice production is about 3.43 million tons. The main crops are rice, corn, potato, coffee, tobacco, peanuts, cotton and so on. The country’s arable land area is about 8 million hectares, and agricultural land is about 4.7 million hectares.
[Service Industry] The service industry in Laos is weak and has a late start. Since the implementation of the reform and opening up policy, the Lao service industry has made great progress. From 2016 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of the service industry was 5.6%.
[Tourism] The temples of Luang Prabang and Pakse County in Laos have been included in the World Cultural Heritage List. Famous sights include the Vientiane Pagoda, the Jade Buddha Temple, the Kampong Waterfall in Champasak, and the light of Luang Prabang. West Falls and so on. Since the reform and opening up, tourism has become an emerging industry in the economic development of Laos. In recent years, Laos has signed cooperation agreements with more than 500 foreign travel companies to open 15 international tourist ports. At the same time, it has taken measures such as increasing investment in tourism infrastructure, reducing visa fees, and relaxing border travel procedures. The tourism industry continues to develop. In 2017, Laos received a total of 4.239 million tourists. From January to September 2018, it received more than 2.9 million people, a year-on-year increase of 3.2%. The top three tourists were from Thailand, Vietnam and China. In May 2013, Laos was named “the best travel destination in the world” by the European Council. 2019 is the year of old and middle-aged tourism.
[Transportation] Laos is the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia. It is mainly transported by road, water and air. There is only 3 kilometers of railway from the Vientiane to the Laotai border. The China-Laos Railway was laid in December 2015 and will be completed in December 2016. It is scheduled to be completed in 2021. The Mekong River can be transported in sections from 20 tons to 200 tons. The total length of Laos roads is about 47,000 kilometers, carrying 80% of passenger and cargo traffic.
Laos international flights (as of 2018) mainly include: Wanxiang City to Kunming, Guangzhou, Nanning, Haikou, Changsha, Bangkok, Chiang Mai (Thai), Phnom Penh, Siem Reap (Cambodia), Hanoi, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Seoul; Labang travels to Haikou, Chengdu, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Udon Thani (Thailand), Siem Reap, Hanoi, Jinghong, Ho Chi Minh City; Baise to Bangkok, Siem Reap; Savannakhet to and from Bangkok. Airports such as Vientiane Wattay, Luang Prabang, Shawan Nagy and Pakse are international airports.
[Foreign Trade] Laos has trade relations with more than 50 countries and regions, and has signed trade agreements with 19 countries. China, Japan, South Korea, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, the European Union, Switzerland, Canada and other 35 countries (regions) Laos offers preferential tariff treatment. The main foreign trade targets are Thailand, Vietnam, China, Japan, the European Union, the United States, Canada and other ASEAN countries. In 2017, the import and export trade volume of Laos was US$9.345 billion, a year-on-year increase of 10.5%, of which exports were US$4.803 billion and imports were US$4.542 billion. In October 2012, Laos officially joined the World Trade Organization.
[Foreign Capital] On April 21, 1994, the Lao Parliament enacted a newly revised Foreign Investment Law, which stipulates that the government does not interfere with foreign-funded enterprises and allows foreign-funded enterprises to remit profits; foreign investors can establish wholly-owned and joint ventures in Laos for five years. Tax exemption. In 2004, Laos continued to supplement and improve the foreign investment law and ease the investment policy of the mining industry. Due to the suspension of approval of new mining, rubber and eucalyptus planting franchise project policies, Laos attracted US$1.27 billion in foreign investment in FY2015-2016.
[Foreign Aid] From 2006 to 2010, foreign aid was approximately US$2.42 billion, with an annual average of US$488 million. In the first half of the “Seventh Five-Year Plan” (2011-April), foreign aid was approximately 1.6 billion U.S. dollars, and 35.4% of the total tasks of the signings were completed. In the fiscal year 2014-2015, Laos received a total of US$300 million in official development assistance. The main donor countries and organizations are: Japan, Sweden, Australia, France, China, the United States, Germany, Norway, Thailand and the Asian Development Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, etc. Foreign aid is mainly used for infrastructure projects such as roads, bridges, docks, hydropower stations, communications, and water conservancy facilities.
[Social Security] A low-wage system is implemented, and employees can receive 80% of their basic salary after retirement. The medical and health undertakings are developing year by year, and both state employees and ordinary residents enjoy free medical care. The average life expectancy is about 64 years. By the end of 2009, there were 147 hospitals, 823 health stations and 222 private clinics nationwide; there were 6,425 beds and 12,000 doctors.
[Military] The Lao People’s Army, formerly known as the Laos Fighting Force led by the Lao Patriotic Front, was founded on January 20, 1949. In October 1965, it was renamed the Lao People’s Liberation Army. In July, it was renamed the current name. The highest governing body is the Central Defence and Security Committee, and Ben Yang Wolaji is the chairman, and Shamon Zhan Yala is the Minister of Defense. The compulsory military service system is implemented and the service period is at least 18 months.
The total strength of the armed forces is about 60,000, of which about 50,000 are from the army. The main force is composed of 5 infantry divisions; more than 2,000 airmen; more than 1,000 inland patrols; and 5,000 military institutions.
[Education] The academic system is divided into five years of elementary school, three years of junior high school, and four years of high school. There are four universities in Laos with 54,000 students. Located in Vientiane, the National University of Laos was formerly known as Dongdu Teachers College. In June 1995, it merged with 10 other colleges and universities to establish a national university with 8 colleges. In the past two years, the National University of the Republic of Saskatchewan in the southern part of Laos and the Luang Prabang Province in the north have been successively named, and they have been officially named as “Champa University” and “Sufa Nuvon University”. There is also a medical school directly under the Ministry of Health. There are 154 professional colleges (mainly private colleges) with a student population of 59,000.
[News media] There are about 20 kinds of newspapers and magazines across the country. The “People’s Daily” was the Central Organ of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party. It was published on August 13, 1950 and published in Lao. Others include “Bat 寮”, “New Vientiane”, “People’s Army” and so on. Foreign newspapers include the English newspaper “Vientiane Times”, “KPL News” and the French publication “Innovation Weekly”.
Bart News Agency: Founded in January 1968, it is the Lao National News Agency, which publishes the Lao “Bat Biao” daily newspaper (founded on December 2, 1999) and the English and French “KPL News”.
Laos National Radio: Located in Vientiane, it broadcasts in Laotian and broadcasts in Vietnamese, Cambodian, French, English and Thai. In addition, there are Lao People’s Army radio stations and 14 provincial radio stations.
Laos National TV: Built in December 1983, there are three sets of programs, each playing about 18 hours a day.
[External Relations] Pursuing a foreign policy of peace, independence, and friendship with all countries, it advocates developing friendly relations with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, attaches importance to developing relations with neighboring neighbors, and improving and developing relations with Western countries. Construction creates a good external environment. In 2016, the “Top Ten” of the old party reiterated that it will continue to adhere to the foreign policy of “less enemies and friends”, maintain special solidarity and friendly relations with Vietnam, strengthen comprehensive strategic cooperation with China, strengthen good-neighborliness and friendship with ASEAN countries, and actively strive for international economic and technological cooperation. assistance.
Laos officially joined ASEAN in July 1997. Established diplomatic relations with 140 countries.
[Relationship with China] China and Laos established diplomatic relations on April 25, 1961. The Lao government pursues the one-China policy and supports China’s great cause of peaceful reunification.
In recent years, the leaders of the two parties and the two countries have exchanged visits frequently. In March 2016, Laotian Prime Minister Tong Xing came to China to attend the first leaders meeting of the Minjiang-Mekong River Cooperation and the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Boao Forum for Asia. In May, General Secretary of the Lao Party Central Committee and President of the People’s Republic of China Ben Yang paid an official goodwill visit to China. In July, Premier Li Keqiang met with Lao Prime Minister Tong Lun during the ASEM Summit in Mongolia. In September, Premier Li Keqiang went to Laos to attend the series of leaders of East Asian cooperation leaders and paid an official visit to Laos. Ben Yang came to China to attend the summit of the G20 leaders in Hangzhou. From November 28th to December 1st, Tonglun officially visited China. In May 2017, Ben Yang came to China to attend the “One Belt, One Road” International Cooperation Summit Forum. In July, Laos Deputy Prime Minister Song Sai came to China to attend the 10th China-ASEAN Education Exchange Week. In September, Song Sai came to China to attend the 14th China-ASEAN Expo. State Councilor and Defense Minister Chang Wanquan visited the old and the two armies held the first high-level meeting of the border. From November 13th to 14th, General Secretary Xi Jinping and the President of the State paid a state visit to Laos. In January 2018, Premier Li Keqiang met with Tong Lun during his second summit meeting in Cambodia. In March, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi met with Tong Lun during the Sixth Summit of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation in Vietnam. In May, State Councilor and Minister of Public Security Zhao Kezhi visited the old. On May 30th, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and President Xi Jinping held talks with General Secretary of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party Central Committee and President Ben Yang in Beijing. On May 31, Premier Li Keqiang met with Ben Yang. In June, Song Sai came to China to attend the China-South Asia Expo. In July, Huang Kunming, member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, secretary of the Central Secretariat, and Minister of the Central Propaganda Department visited the old and attended the seventh theoretical seminar of the two parties. In August, Laos Deputy Prime Minister Song Di came to China to attend the first China International Intelligent Industry Expo, and Foreign Minister Sharonsai officially visited China. In September, Zhao Leji, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, paid an official goodwill visit to Laos. Song Di came to China to attend the 15th China-ASEAN Expo. In November, Tong Lun came to China to attend the first China International Import Expo, and President Xi Jinping met with him. In December, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi paid an official visit to Laos and co-chaired the Fourth Foreign Ministers’ Meeting.
According to the statistics of the Ministry of Commerce of China, in 2016, the bilateral trade volume between China and Laos was US$ 2.34 billion, down 15.7% year-on-year. In 2017, bilateral trade volume was US$3.02 billion, up 28.6% year-on-year, of which China’s exports were US$1.43 billion, up 44.5% year-on-year, and imports were US$1.59 billion, up 17% year-on-year. I mainly import copper, wood, agricultural products, etc., mainly exporting automobiles, motorcycles, textiles, steel, wire and cable, communication equipment, electrical and electronic products. From January to October 2018, bilateral trade volume was US$ 2.68 billion, up 15.1% year-on-year. Among them, China’s exports were 1.07 billion US dollars, down 3.4% year-on-year, and imports were 1.61 billion US dollars, up 32% year-on-year.
On December 2, 2015, the foundation stone laying ceremony for the construction of the China-Laos railway was held in Vientiane. The leaders of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China, Zhang Dejiang, and Laos President Zhumari, attended the meeting. On December 25, 2016, the opening ceremony of the entire China-Laos railway was held in Luang Prabang, and the Lao Prime Minister Tong Lun attended. On December 12, 2017, the Wangmen Village Tunnel was successfully completed and became the first tunnel of the China-Laos Railway. The China-Laos railway plan will be completed in 2021.
[Relationship with ASEAN] After Laos formally joined ASEAN in July 1997, it actively participated in ASEAN affairs and developed friendly relations and cooperation with ASEAN. In 2004, it assumed the presidency of ASEAN and successfully hosted the ASEAN Summit and the ASEAN and Dialogue Leaders Series Meeting. Play an active role in ASEAN. The Lao Prime Minister attended the previous ASEAN summit. In 2016, Laos once again served as the rotating presidency of ASEAN and hosted a series of meetings on East Asian cooperation.
[Relationship with Vietnam] Established diplomatic relations in September 1962, and the two countries maintained a special unity and friendly relationship. 2017 is the year of friendship and friendship between the two countries. It is the 55th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries and the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between Laos and Vietnam. The two countries maintain close high-level exchanges and hold many celebrations. In February, Tong Lun went to Vietnam to attend the 39th meeting of the Laoyue Intergovernmental Committee and visited Vietnam. In March, Barney visited Vietnam, and the member of the Political Bureau of the Lao Party Central Committee, the secretary of the Municipal Committee of Vientiane and the mayor of Xinhua, visited the Vietnam. In April, Vietnamese Prime Minister Qi Chunfu visited his wife with his wife, and Barney visited Vietnam. In July, Laos Vice President Pan Kan visited Vietnam. Vice Chairman of the Vietnamese National Assembly, Mr. Cong, visited the old and attended the 55th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Laos and Vietnam and the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Laos and Vietnam. In August, Laos Deputy Prime Minister Bento visited Vietnam. In October, Tong Lun and Song Sai visited Vietnam respectively. In November, Ben Yang went to Vietnam to attend the APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting. In December, this visit to Vietnam, the two sides issued a “Joint Statement”, Sharon contest went to Vietnam to attend the fourth foreign ministerial consultations, the Lao Party Central Political Bureau member, the Minister of National Defense accounted for the visit of Saudi Arabia. In January 2018, Vietnamese Defense Minister Wu Chunli visited Laos. In February, Qi Chunfu went to the 40th meeting of the Laoyue Intergovernmental Joint Committee. In March, Tong Lun went to Vietnam to attend the sixth summit meeting of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation. In May, the Minister of the Party Central Committee of Laos accounted for the West visit. In June, Tong Lun went to Japan to attend the 24th “Asian Future” international conference and held a bilateral meeting with Vietnamese Deputy Prime Minister Zhang Heping. Vietnamese Vice President Deng Shiyu attended the visit. In October, Ben Yang sent a congratulatory message to the President of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Fu Fuzhong, who was elected as the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Chen Jinxiu, secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the head of the Central Inspection Commission, met with President Ben Yang and Prime Minister Tong Rong and held talks with Vice Premier Bentong. .
[Relationship with other ASEAN countries] Laos maintains good relations with other ASEAN countries. In May 2016, Myanmar’s President Tingju visited the old, and the State Affairs Aung San Suu Kyi visited. In August, Laos President Ben Yang visited Myanmar. In September, Brunei Sultan Hassanal, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen, Indonesian President Joko, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib, Myanmar State Government Aung San Suu Kyi, Philippine President Duterte, Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, Thai Prime Minister Vietnamese Prime Minister Hunchun Fu came to Laos to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation. In November, Lao Prime Minister Tong Lun went to Cambodia to attend the 9th Summit of the Cambodian Arab Development Triangle. In January 2017, Singaporean President Chen Qingyan visited the old, and Princess Sirindhorn of Thailand visited the old. In April, Tong Lun went to the Philippines to attend the 30th ASEAN Summit and held talks with Philippine President Duterte. In May, Tong Lun went to Cambodia to attend the opening ceremony of the 2017 ASEAN World Economic Forum and visited Singapore and Malaysia. In July, Sharonsai went to the Philippines to attend the East Asian Cooperation Series Foreign Ministers’ Meeting. In October, Pankan visited Brunei and Tonglun visited Indonesia. In November, Tong Lun went to the Philippines to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation. In January 2018, Tong Lun visited Myanmar. In April, Tong Lun went to Singapore to attend the 32nd ASEAN Summit. In May, Ben Yang paid a state visit to Singapore. In November, Tong Lun went to Singapore to attend the 33rd ASEAN Summit and other series of meetings. In December, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen visited the old and met with President Ben Yang, Chairman of the Barney Congress and talks with Prime Minister Tong Lun.
[Relationship with Japan] Established diplomatic relations in December 1952. From 1991 to 2012, Japan was the largest donor to Laos, with an average annual aid of more than $100 million. Cooperation in the investment field between the two sides has developed rapidly. In March 2012, Laotian Prime Minister Tong Xing visited Japan. In November 2013, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe officially visited the country. In August 2014, the Vice-President of the Japanese Senate, Xing Shidong, visited the old. In March 2015, Laos Prime Minister Thong Xing visited Japan and attended the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations. The relationship between Laos and Japan was upgraded to a strategic partnership. In July, Tong Xing went to Japan to attend the Mekong-Japan Summit. In September 2016, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe went to Laos to attend the series of leaders of East Asian cooperation leaders. In June 2017, Lao Prime Minister Tong Lun visited Japan. In April 2018, Japanese Foreign Minister and Norohiro visited the old for the first time. In June, Tong Lun went to Japan to attend the 24th International Conference on the Future of Asia and visited.
[Relationship with the United States] Established diplomatic relations in 1950. After the establishment of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic in 1975, the two countries maintained diplomatic relations at the agency level. In November 1991, they were upgraded to diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level. In August 1992, the two sides resumed exchange of ambassadors. In 2005, the United States gave the old normal trade relations treatment. In recent years, bilateral relations have further developed, and the United States has provided assistance to the old anti-drugs, the removal of unexploded ordnance, and people’s livelihood. In 2010, the old deputy prime minister and foreign minister, Tong Lun, visited the United States and became the highest-ranking official to visit the United States since the establishment of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. In July 2012, US Secretary of State Clinton paid an official visit to Laos. This is the first time the US Secretary of State has visited the country in 57 years. In February 2014, the fifth bilateral comprehensive dialogue between Laos and the United States was held in Vientiane. Laos Deputy Foreign Minister Bengue and the US State Department’s Chief Assistant Secretary for East Asian Affairs, Maher, presided over. In September 2015, Laos President Jumari met with US President Barack Obama during his attendance at the UN General Assembly. In November, Laotian Prime Minister Thong Xing met with US President Barack Obama during a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation in Malaysia. In January 2016, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Laos. In September, US President Barack Obama went to Laos to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation and visited Laos to realize the first visit of the US President. In January 2017, US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Southeast Asian Affairs Patrick Murphy visited the old. In September, US Treasury Secretary Wilbur Ross visited the old. In February and April 2018, a senior delegation from the US Congress visited the old. In November, Sharon’s foreign minister met with US Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan in Singapore.
[Relationship with Russia] Established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in October 1960. After the establishment of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic in 1975, the Soviet Union was once the largest donor to Laos. In 1991, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the old aid was all terminated. In December 1991, the Lao Government officially announced its recognition of the Russian Federation and is willing to develop friendly relations with Russia on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. In March 1992, the two countries exchanged ambassadors. In 1994, the two countries signed an agreement on the principle of friendly relations. In recent years, the two sides have maintained friendly exchanges and cooperation in various fields. In 2011, Laos President Zhumari visited Russia. In 2013, Laos President Barney visited Russia. In 2014, the Chairman of the Russian Federation Committee, Matviyanko, went to the 35th ASEAN Parliamentary Union Conference. In October 2015, Lao Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Tong Lun visited Russia. In September 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin went to Laos to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation. In June 2017, Lao Foreign Minister Sharonsai visited Russia. In September, Laotian Prime Minister Tong Lun visited Russia.
[Relationship with other countries] In July 2013, Laos President Jumari officially visited Belarus. In August, New Zealand Governor Matt Parry paid a state visit to Laos. In September, East Timorese Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão officially visited the old. In October, Laos President Jumari visited France. Canadian Foreign Minister John Baird visited the old. In November, Laos President Jumari made an official visit to South Korea. In March 2014, New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely and Belarusian Foreign Minister Vladimir Makai visited the old. In July, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited the old. In August, North Korean Foreign Minister Li Wei visited the old. In September, Cuban Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez Parrilla visited the old. In October 2015, Laos President Jumari paid a state visit to Cuba. Mesa, member of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China and Vice Chairman of the State Council, visited the old. The party secretary of the old party occupied the commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the Workers’ Party of Korea. In September 2016, South Korean President Park Geun-hye, Indian Prime Minister Modi, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull, and New Zealand Prime Minister John Key went to Laos to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation. In May 2017, Lao Foreign Minister Sharonsai visited Austria and Hungary. In June, Sharonsai visited Azerbaijan. In August, Australian Defense Minister Paine visited the old. In September, the foreign minister of Azerbaijan visited the old. In November, Sharonsai visited Australia and UAE Foreign Minister Abdullah visited the country. In November 2018, Vice-President Pankan visited France, Chairman of the State Council of Cuba and Chairman of the Council of Ministers Diaz visited the old, and Indian Foreign Minister Swaraj visited the old.
[Relationship with the EU] Laos maintains traditional friendly relations with major EU countries. Among them, Germany, Sweden and France are all major donors, and assistance is concentrated in infrastructure construction, culture, human resource development, agriculture, and health. In August 2011, the EU stated that it would relax the rules of origin, and the least developed countries, including Laos, could be exempted from the GSP system and would import raw materials, produce finished products and export to the EU market as preferential trading partners of the EU.
[Participating in regional and international cooperation organizations] Laos is an important member of the Ministry of Economic Cooperation, attending meetings of leaders and foreign ministers, and is currently co-chairing with me as a co-chairman until 2020. Laos is a member of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation (GMS) and successfully hosted the third GMS Leaders Meeting in 2008. Laos maintains good cooperation with international agencies such as the United Nations, the World Bank and ADB. In October 2012, the 7th Asia-Europe Parliamentary Partner Meeting was held in Laos. In November, the ninth Asia-Europe Meeting was held in Laos. In March 2013, the Asia-Europe Regional Review Conference of the Almaty Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries, the 7th Cambodian Veterans (CLV) Summit, the 6th Cambodian and Myanmar Summit (CLMV), and the 5th Irrawaddy River – The Chao Phraya-Mekong Economic Strategic Cooperation Summit (ACMECS) was held in Vientiane. In January 2014, the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) visited Amano.