The Kingdom of Tonga 汤加王国
【国名】汤加王国（The Kingdom of Tonga）。
【议会】 即立法会。一院制。由9名贵族议员和17名平民议员组成。每4年选举一次。贵族议员由其所在选区贵族选举产生，平民议员由所在选区普选产生。议长由议员推选，国王任命。本届议会于2017年11月选举产生，现任议长为法卡法努阿（Lord Fakafanua）。本届议会17个平民议席中，“友谊之岛民主党”占14席，独立平民议员占3席。
[Country name] The Kingdom of Tonga.
[Area] The land area is 747 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of 700,000 square kilometers.
[Population] 108,000 (2017). 98% are Tongan, Polynesian, and the rest are other Pacific Islanders, Europeans, Asians and their descendants. There are about 2,000 Chinese overseas Chinese. General Tongan and English. Residents believe in Christianity.
[Head of State] King Tupu VI (Tupou VI), succeeded on March 18, 2012, officially crowned on July 4, 2015.
[Important Festival] Independence Day: June 4th; National Day (also known as Constitution Day): November 4th
[Profile] It is located in the western part of the South Pacific, on the west side of the international date line, and in the west of Fiji. It consists of the three major islands of Tongatapu, Wawau, Hapa and Eva, Newa, and a total of 173 islands, 36 of which are inhabited and have no rivers. It is a tropical rainforest climate, with a dry season from May to August, and a rainy season from April to April. The average annual temperature is 23 °C in the south and 27 °C in the north. The average annual precipitation is 1793 mm. 11 ~ (the following year) often have hurricanes and heavy rain in March.
People have settled here more than 3,000 years ago. It has experienced four dynasties since about 950 AD, and is now the Taofa Ahao Dynasty established by George Tup I in 1845. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Dutch, British and Spanish explorers arrived. Christianity was introduced in the 19th century. In 1900, he became a British protectorate. Independence on June 4, 1970, and became a member of the Commonwealth.
[Politics] Tonga is the only monarchy in the Pacific island countries. The society is divided into three classes: royal family, nobility and civilians. There are 33 hereditary nobility titles in the country. The king is the head of state and has long held the power. In recent years, Tonga has implemented political reforms. The king has delegated the power of state administration and part of the personnel rights, and retained the power of the armed forces to command the military, dissolve the parliament, and no resolutions. The Privy Council is no longer the highest administrative decision-making department and has been changed to the personal advisory body of the king.
[Constitution] The current constitution was promulgated by King George Tup I in 1875 and was revised in 2010. The Constitution stipulates that the government consists of the Cabinet, the Legislative Council and the Judiciary.
[Parliament] is the Legislative Council. One-chamber system. It consists of 9 aristocrats and 17 civilian members. Elected every four years. Aristocrats are elected by the nobility in their constituency, and civilian members are elected by universal suffrage. The speaker is elected by a member of parliament and appointed by the king. The current parliament was elected in November 2017 and the current speaker is Lord Fakafanua. Among the 17 civilian seats in the current parliament, the “Friendship Island Democratic Party” has 14 seats, and the independent civilian members have 3 seats.
【政府】 内阁由包括首相、副首相在内的内阁大臣组成。首相从26名议员中选举产生，国王任命；内阁大臣由首相提名，由国王任命。首相可从议员之外提名4名内阁大臣。目前内阁成员共12人，主要包括：首相兼外交大臣阿基利希·波希瓦（‘Akilisi Pohiva）、副首相兼基础设施和旅游大臣塞密西·西卡（Semisi Sika）、农业、食品、林业和渔业大臣塞密西·法卡豪（Semisi Fahahau）、财政和国家规划大臣波希瓦·图伊奥内托阿（Pohiva Tu’ionetoa）、教育和培训大臣佩尼西马尼·费费塔（Penisimani Fifita）、气象、能源、信息、减灾、环境、通讯和气变大臣波阿西·泰伊(Poasi Tei)、内政大臣洛萨莱尼·马阿西（Losaline Ma’asi）、商业、消费者、贸易、革新和劳工大臣图伊·乌阿塔（Tu’i Uata，非议员）、卫生和公共企业大臣萨亚·皮乌卡拉（Saia Piukala）、司法和监狱大臣西奥内·法奥图西亚（Sione Fa’otusia）、税收、海关、警察和消防大臣马泰尼·塔普埃卢埃卢（Mateni Tapueluelu）、土地、自然资源和国防大臣马阿富（Lord Ma’afu，贵族）。
【司法机构】 设最高法院、上诉法院、土地法院和地方法院。上诉法院院长、最高法院首席大法官和其他法官均由国王任命。现任上诉法院院长兼最高法院首席大法官为欧文·鲍尔森（Owen Paulson）。
【政党】 （1）汤加“友谊之岛民主党”，2010年9月成立，领袖为波希瓦（Akilisi Pohiva）。在2014年11月大选中赢得10个议席，2017年11月大选中赢得14个议席。（2）人权和民主运动党，1992年成立（2010年该党部分党员另组“友谊之岛民主党”独立）。（3）人民民主党，2008年4月成立。（4）可持续建设国家党，2007年8月成立。（5）人民国家党，2018年6月成立。
【重要人物】图普六世（King Tupou VI）：国王，图普五世国王胞弟。1959年7月12日生于努库阿洛法。毕业于美国海军学院、澳大利亚军事学院和澳大利亚邦德大学。1998年10月任外交国防大臣。2000年1月任首相兼外交国防、农林、渔业、海事和港务大臣。2006年2月辞去首相职务。2006年9月被敕封为王储。随后任汤驻澳大利亚高专。2012年3月18日继承王位。2015年7月正式加冕。
[Government] The cabinet consists of cabinet ministers including the prime minister and deputy prime minister. The Prime Minister was elected from 26 members of the Parliament, and the King was appointed; the Minister of the Cabinet was nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the King. The Prime Minister may nominate four cabinet ministers from outside the parliament. At present, there are 12 members of the cabinet, including: Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Akilisi Pohiva, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Infrastructure and Tourism Semisi Sika, Agriculture, Food Minister of Forestry and Fisheries Semisi Fahahau, Minister of Finance and National Planning Pohiva Tu’ionetoa, Minister of Education and Training Penismani Fee Penisimani Fifita, Minister of Meteorology, Energy, Information, Disaster Mitigation, Environment, Communications and Gas Change, Poasi Tei, Home Secretary, Losaline Ma’asi, Business , Consumer, Trade, Innovation and Labour Minister Tu’i Uata (non-Member), Minister of Health and Public Enterprise Saia Piukala, Justice and Prison Minister Sione Matone Tapueluelu, Minister of Taxation, Customs, Police and Firefighting, Land, Natural Resources and Defense Minister Lord Ma’afu (Sione Fa’otusia) noble).
[Judiciary] Set up the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the Land Court and the District Court. The President of the Court of Appeal, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and other judges are appointed by the King. The current Chief of the Court of Appeal and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is Owen Paulson.
[Party] (1) Tonga “Friendship Island Democratic Party”, established in September 2010, the leader is Akilisi Pohiva. In the November 2014 election, he won 10 seats, and in November 2017, he won 14 seats in the general election. (2) The Human Rights and Democracy Movement Party was established in 1992 (in 2010, some members of the party also formed the “Friendship Island Democratic Party” independence). (3) The People’s Democratic Party was established in April 2008. (4) The National Party for Sustainable Construction was established in August 2007. (5) The National Party of the People’s Republic of China was established in June 2018.
[Important person] King Tupou VI: King, the brother of King Tup V. Born on July 12, 1959 in Nuku’alofa. Graduated from the US Naval Academy, the Australian Military Academy, and Bond University Australia. In October 1998, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Defense. In January 2000, he served as Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, National Defense, Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Maritime Affairs and Port Affairs. Resigned from the post of Prime Minister in February 2006. In September 2006, he was sealed as the Crown Prince. Later, he was appointed to the Australian College of Higher Education. On March 18, 2012, he succeeded to the throne. Officially crowned in July 2015.
Akilisi Pohiva: Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs. Born on April 7, 1941, he was a teacher and newspaper editor and was one of the founders of Tonga’s Human Rights and Democratic Reform Movement. After being elected as a member in 1987 and re-elected to this day, he is the deepest civilian member of the Tang Dynasty. In 2010, he established the “Tanga Friendship Island Democratic Party” and served as the leader. In November 2014, he was elected the first civilian prime minister in the history of soup. In December 2017, the general election was re-elected to date.
[Economy] is dominated by agriculture, fisheries and tourism, with underdeveloped industries, low levels of productivity, backward economic development, and heavy reliance on foreign aid. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: about 490 million US dollars.
Per capita GDP: about $4,700.
Economic growth rate: 2.7%.
Inflation rate: 1.43%.
Currency name: PA’ANGA.
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 2.03 Panga (December 2018).
空运：共有大小6个机场。澳大利亚（Virgin Australia）、新西兰（Air New Zealand）、斐济（Fiji Airways）有航班飞经汤加。2013年3月起，国内航线主要由汤加REAL TONGA航空公司运营。
[Resources] The fishery resources are abundant, and the land is basically free of mineral resources. In May 2008, Canada’s Nautilus Mining Company began mining exploration in the Tonga waters. In February 2010, Modulus Energy Company of the United States signed an agreement with Tang to obtain oil and gas resources exploration in Tanghai. In order to protect domestic resources, in August 2014, Tang introduced the “Seabed Minerals Law.”
[Industrial] Emphasis on the development of industry and the diversification of products. Major industries include small fishing boat manufacturing, biscuit and instant noodle manufacturing, processing and packaging of edible coconut oil and solid fats, metal scrap processing, solar water heater assembly, furniture processing, electric welding iron fences, paint dispensing and tobacco plants.
[Agriculture] Agriculture is dominated by small farms, crop varieties are monotonous, farming methods are primitive, technology is backward, and production is not high. The area of cultivated land in Tonga is 179.3 square kilometers, accounting for 24% of the total land area, and the per capita cultivated land is about 0.15 hectares. The number of people engaged in agricultural production accounts for 40% of the total employment. The main agricultural products include taro, cassava, pumpkin, vanilla, kava, etc., and also produces tropical fruits such as bananas, pineapples, coconuts, watermelons, papayas and a small number of vegetables. Rice, flour, some vegetables and fruits and meat depend on imports. Exports of agricultural products and fish dominate the export of soup. Agriculture is expected to grow by 1.1% in FY17/18.
[Fisheries] Tanghai has a vast sea area and is rich in fishery resources. It is mainly exported to tuna. In recent years, due to climatic reasons and overfishing, fish resources have been decreasing, and transportation costs have increased, exports of major fishery products such as tuna have declined, and development has been lower than expected. The fishery output value accounts for about 3% of the soup’s GDP. In the 2017/18 fiscal year, the fishery output value increased by 1.87%.
[Tourism] Tourism is one of the economic sectors that the government of the Tang Dynasty has vigorously developed. It is regarded as a new economic growth point that increases people’s income and solves employment. Tonga has its historical and cultural traditions and tourism resources, but its development capabilities are limited and tourism has not yet achieved rapid development. At present, there are more than 110 hotels, motels and inns across the country, with more than 1,100 guest rooms. In 2016, the total number of foreign tourists coming to soup was about 87,000, an increase of 19.4% year-on-year, of which 3,300 were Chinese tourists. Tonga is now a destination country for Chinese citizens. In 2017, the number of cruise ships in the soup reached 21 ships. The hotel catering industry is one of the main industries of the soup. It is an important industry for government revenue and employment, accounting for about 3% of the total GDP of the soup. The hotel restaurant industry in the 2017/18 fiscal year is expected to grow by 0.3% year-on-year.
[Transportation] Highway: The total length is about 950 kilometers; the number of cars is 40,000.
Water transport: Mainly based on ferry transportation on each island. There are 6 seaports. The port of Nuku’alofa in Tongatapu and the port of Naaf in Wawau Island can dock ocean freighters. There are regular liners between Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, Samoa and Japan.
Air transport: There are 6 airports in total. Flights from Australia (Virgin Australia), New Zealand (Air New Zealand) and Fiji Airways (Fji Airways) fly through Tonga. Since March 2013, domestic routes have been mainly operated by Tonga REAL TONGA Airlines.
（1）汤加国家储备银行（National Reserve Bank of Tonga）：成立于1989年。核准资本为200万潘加。是汤中央银行，负责发行货币、调节汇率及管理国家外汇储备等。
（2）汤加发展银行（Tonga Development Bank）：成立于1977年。是促进投资的金融机构。主要负责向私营部门提供金融贷款。其权益资本主要由澳大利亚和新西兰政府捐赠。
（3）南太银行（Bank of South Pacific）汤加分行：2015年7月南太银行收购西太银行汤加分行（Westpac Bank of Tonga）成立。
（4）马来西亚银行（MBF Bank Limited）：成立于20世纪90年代初，为较小的商业银行。
（5）澳新银行（Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited）汤加分行：成立于1993年，系商业银行。
（6） 太平洋国际商业银行（Pacific International Commercial Bank）：2014年4月开业。
【军事】国王陛下武装部队（His Majesty’s Armed Forces， 原名“汤加国防军”，2013年9月改现名）由 陆军、海军和皇家卫队组成，共600多名官兵。国王为国防军最高统帅，土地、资源大臣马阿富兼任国防大臣。总参谋长（原称“国防军司令”）为费埃拉凯帕准将。
[Financial Finance] In the 2017/18 fiscal year, Tonga’s fiscal revenue was 548 million Panga, and expenditure was 596 million Panga. Foreign exchange reserves of 425 million Panga (November 2017). Tang government debt is about 230 million US dollars, accounting for 47% of GDP (June 2018). The national financial system consists of commercial banks such as Tonga National Reserve Bank, Tonga Development Bank and South Pacific Bank Tonga Branch.
(1) National Reserve Bank of Tonga: Established in 1989. The approved capital is 2 million Panga. It is the Central Bank of Tang, responsible for issuing currency, regulating exchange rates and managing national foreign exchange reserves.
(2) Tonga Development Bank: Established in 1977. It is a financial institution that promotes investment. Mainly responsible for providing financial loans to the private sector. Its equity capital is mainly donated by the Australian and New Zealand governments.
(3) Bank of South Pacific Tonga Branch: In July 2015, South Pacific Bank acquired the Westpac Bank of Tonga (Westpac Bank of Tonga).
(4) Bank of Malaysia (MBF Bank Limited): Established in the early 1990s as a smaller commercial bank.
(5)Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited Tonga Branch: Established in 1993 as a commercial bank.
(6) Pacific International Commercial Bank: opened in April 2014.
[Foreign Trade] For a long time, the trade deficit has been huge. In 2016, it imported 322 million Panjia and exported 0.15 billion Panjia, accounting for 4.7% of its imports. It mainly exports pumpkin, fish, kava, sandalwood, vanilla and root crops. Mainly imported food, clothing, daily necessities, machinery, transportation equipment, fuel and building materials. The main trading partners are New Zealand, Australia, Fiji, the United States and Japan.
[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid mainly comes from Australia, New Zealand, Japan, China, the European Union, the World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank. In recent years, Tonga’s funding for foreign aid has continued to increase. The amount of international aid for the 2016/17 fiscal year was approximately 179 million Panga.
[People’s Life] Implement a national free medical system. In 2015, Tonga’s health budget was 30.2 million Panga, accounting for 6.1% of the total budget for the year.
[Military] His Majesty’s Armed Forces (formerly known as the “Tanga Defence Force”, renamed in September 2013) consists of the Army, Navy and Royal Guards, with more than 600 officers and men. The king is the supreme commander of the National Defence Force, and the Minister of Land and Resources Ma Afu is also the Minister of National Defense. The Chief of Staff (formerly known as the “Defence Commander”) was Brigadier General Fiera Kepa.
There are more than 400 police officers.
【新闻出版】 全国共有4种主要报纸，每周出版一次，多数用汤加文出版，分别是：《汤加时报》（Taimi）、《螺号报》（Ke’lea）、《宣告报》（Talaki）和《汤加日报》（Tonga Daily News）。主要网站是《汤加风》（Matangi Tonga）。此外还有部分宗教报纸和不定期出版的杂志。
[Education] Public schools provide free education to children aged 6-14. The University of the South Pacific has a branch campus in Tang and a private engineering university. Tonga law stipulates that the church can participate in school. About 90% of primary schools are founded by the government, and about 75% of secondary schools are founded by the church. Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan and other countries offer scholarships to study abroad.
[Press and Publication] There are 4 major newspapers in the country, published once a week, most of which are published in Tonga, namely: “Taimi”, “Ke’lea”, “Talaki” (Talaki) And Tonga Daily News. The main website is Matangi Tonga. There are also some religious newspapers and magazines that are not regularly published.
There are 5 radio stations and 1 TV station in the country, mainly broadcast in Tonga, and also broadcast a small number of English news, sports games and TV dramas. China Central Television’s English News Channel and the British BBC program are free to watch.
[External Relations] Tonga has established diplomatic relations with more than 60 countries. Australia and New Zealand have a high-tech office in Tang, China and Japan have embassies in Tang, and South Korea, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, France, and Finland have a reputation in soup. consul.
Tonga has embassies in China and Japan; a high-tech office in Australia; a high-tech office in the UK and a joint venture in Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and the European Union; The delegation to the United Nations also manages the affairs of the United States, Canada, Cuba, Mexico, etc.; the general consulate in San Francisco and Auckland; and the honorary consular office in Hawaii.
Tonga is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and the International Labour Organization. Tang cares about regional security and stability; actively participates in regional cooperation and advocates the establishment of a nuclear-free zone in the South Pacific. In July 2007, Tonga joined the World Trade Organization. In July 2014, Tonga was elected a member of the Board of Directors of the International Seabed Authority and became the second small island developing country to be elected as a member of the Council after Fiji until 2018. In February 2016, Tang joined the International Labor Organization.
In October 2007, Tonga hosted the 38th Pacific Islands Forum Summit, the 19th Forum Post-Conference Dialogue and the 17th South Pacific Tourism Organization Council of Ministers. In April 2011, Tonga hosted the FAO Regional Conference of Agriculture Ministers in the Southwest Pacific Region. In April 2011, Tonga held a development partner forum to seek assistance from donors. In May of the same year, Tonga hosted the Pacific Island Countries Forum of Trade Ministers. In the same month, Tonga held an annual review meeting of the Energy Roadmap Program, calling on development partners to actively support the use of renewable energy and reduce dependence on petroleum energy. In March 2013, Tonga hosted the Pacific Leaders Energy Summit to discuss the planning and utilization of new energy development in the countries of the region. In May 2013, Tonga hosted the South Pacific Defense Conference. In October 2014, Tonga hosted the South Pacific Tourism Ministers Meeting. In June 2016, Tonga hosted the first Pacific Island Noncommunicable Disease Summit. In April 2017, hosted the Regional Energy and Transportation Ministers Meeting and the Whale Protection Conference.
[Relationship with New Zealand] Established diplomatic relations in 1970. The two countries have close ties. Xin is the main donor of the soup. In 1976, it began to provide assistance to the soup, and then increased year by year. Xin is the largest trading partner and import market for soup. In November 2006, there was a riot in the capital of Tonga. New and Australian troops were sent to help maintain law and order and calm the riots. In February 2013, the Tupu VI couple paid a state visit to New Zealand. In June 2014, New Zealand Prime Minister John Keye visited Tang. In February 2015, the new foreign minister, McCarley, visited the soup. In July 2015, the new governor, Matt Parry, went to Tang to attend the coronation ceremony of King Tupu VI. In March 2018, New Zealand Prime Minister Adeen visited Tang. Nearly 70,000 Tongan expatriates live in New Zealand.
[Relationship with Australia] The establishment of diplomatic relations in 1970, the two countries have close ties. Australia is the main donor of the soup. In 1976, it began to provide assistance to the soup. Australia is an important trading partner of Tang. The Australian Soup is a mutual establishment of the High Commission. In April 2015, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Tonga. In July 2015, Australian Governor Cosgrove went to Tang to attend the coronation ceremony of King Tupu VI. In May 2016, Australia and Tang signed an aid agreement to provide 12 million Australian dollars in financial support to Tangfang in the next three years. The current soup is located in the Australian high school Princess Angrika Latufo Ipika.
[Relationship with the United States] In recent years, relations between the two countries have strengthened. US aid to Tang includes military support and dispatched “peace team” volunteers. In May 2013, US Secretary of the Navy, Ray Mabus, visited Tang. In June, the US-led “Pacific Partner 2013” was held in Tang, and the US “Pearl Harbor” warship visited Tang. In April 2014, Commander of the US Pacific Command, Locklear, visited Tang, met with Tonga Prime Minister Tuywakano, and reached an agreement with Tang Fang on the establishment of a national partnership between the United States and the United States. At the end of July 2014, the US-led “Pacific Angels” operation was held on the islands of Towawau and Hapa, providing humanitarian medical services to local soup people. At present, there are about 40,000 expatriates living in the United States.
[Relationship with Japan] In 1970, the establishment of diplomatic relations, the Japanese soup has an embassy. Japan is an important trading partner and donor country of soup, and it is the main export market for soup pumpkin and tuna. In May 2015, Tang Prime Minister Bohiva went to Japan to attend the 7th Japan and Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting. In July 2015, the Japanese Crown Prince Deren and his wife went to Tang to attend the coronation ceremony of King Tupu VI. In May 2018, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Infrastructure and Tourism Sika went to Japan to attend the 8th Japan and Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting (PALM8).
[Relationship with the UK] Maintaining traditional relations with the UK. The United Kingdom had been in the Tangji High Commission for nearly a hundred years. However, due to the adjustment of the foreign institutions, the official office of the company was officially closed on April 1, 2006. The Queen of England had visited the soup three times in the last century. In March 2012, Prince Richard of the Duke of Gloucester, England, went to Tang to attend the funeral of King Tup. In May, the couple of Tonga King Tupliu VI went to the UK to attend the 60th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II’s accession to the throne. In October 2013 and February 2015, King Tupu VI and his wife visited the UK.
[Relationship with France] The two countries signed the “France-Tonga Friendship Treaty” as early as 1855. France has an honorary consul in soup. The law does not provide some military material assistance to the soup from time to time, and the French warship often visits the soup. In May 2015, the French warship “Greek Moon” visited Tang.
[Relationship with the EU] The EU has several assistance projects in Tang. The EU has worked in the Tang Dynasty office and the Chargé d’affaires. Since 2002, the office has been managed by the Fiji office. The EU provided 17 million Panjia aid to Tang through the 9th EU Assistance Program 2002-2007. The 10th EU Aid Program in 2008-2013 provided 15 million euros in aid to Tang, mainly in the areas of renewable energy development, climate change, disaster prevention and mitigation. The 11th EU Assistance Program in 2014-2020 provided 11 million euros in aid to soup for renewable energy development.