The Kingdom of Thailand 泰王国
【国 名】 泰王国（The Kingdom of Thailand）。
【面 积】 51.3万平方公里。
【人 口】 6900万。全国共有30多个民族。泰族为主要民族，占人口总数的40%，其余为老挝族、华族、马来族、高棉族，以及苗、瑶、桂、汶、克伦、掸、塞芒、沙盖等山地民族。泰语为国语。90%以上的民众信仰佛教，马来族信奉伊斯兰教，还有少数民众信仰基督教、天主教、印度教和锡克教。
【首 都】 曼谷（Bangkok），人口800万。
【国家元首】 国王哇集拉隆功(MAHA VAJIRALONGKORN BODINDRADEBAYAVARANGKUN)，拉玛十世王。2016年10月即位。
【简 况】 位于中南半岛中南部。与柬埔寨、老挝、缅甸、马来西亚接壤，东南临泰国湾（太平洋），西南濒安达曼海（印度洋），属热带季风气候，全年分为热、雨、凉三季，年均气温27℃。
[Country name] The Kingdom of Thailand.
[area] 513,000 square kilometers.
[People] 69 million. There are more than 30 ethnic groups across the country. The Thai nationality is the main ethnic group, accounting for 40% of the total population. The rest are Laos, Chinese, Malay, Khmer, and Miao, Yao, Gui, Wen, Karen, Yi, Seman, Shajia and other mountainous areas. Nationality. Thai is the national language. More than 90% of the people believe in Buddhism, Malays believe in Islam, and a few people believe in Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, and Sikhism.
[Capital] Bangkok, with a population of 8 million.
[Head of State] King Maha VAJIRALONGKORN BODINDRADEBAYAVARANGKUN, King Rama X. It will be in place in October 2016.
[Important Festival] Songkran Festival (April 13 to 15th of the Gregorian calendar); Water Lantern Festival (December 15th of the Thai calendar); National Day (December 5th of the Gregorian calendar).
[Profile] Located in the south-central part of the Central South Peninsula. It is bordered by Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Malaysia. It faces the Gulf of Thailand (Pacific) in the southeast and the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean) in the southwest. It has a tropical monsoon climate. It is divided into three seasons of heat, rain and cool, with an average annual temperature of 27 °C.
In 1238, a relatively unified country was formed. It was successively experienced by the Sukhothai Dynasty, the Ayutthaya Dynasty, the Thonburi Dynasty and the Bangkok Dynasty, formerly known as Siam. In the 16th century, colonialists such as Portugal, the Netherlands, Britain, and France successively invaded. In 1896, Britain and France signed a treaty stipulating that Siam was the buffer country between British Burma and French Indochina. Siam became the only country in Southeast Asia that did not become a colony. At the end of the 19th century, King Rama IV began to open to the outside world, and the Five Kings used Western experience to carry out social reforms. In June 1932, the Democratic Party launched a coup d’état and changed the monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. In 1939, it was renamed to Thailand. After several changes, it was officially named in 1949.
【政 治】 实行君主立宪制。二战后军人集团长期把持政权，政府一度更迭频仍。20世纪90年代开始，军人逐渐淡出政坛。2001年，泰爱泰党在全国大选中胜出，塔信担任总理，2005年连任。2006年9月发生军事政变，塔信下台。2007年举行全国大选，人民力量党获胜，党首沙玛出任总理。2008年9月，沙玛被判违宪下台，人民力量党推选颂猜接任总理。12月，宪法法院判决人民力量党、泰国党和中庸民主党贿选罪名成立，予以解散，颂猜下台。12月15日，民主党党首阿披实当选总理。2011年5月，阿披实宣布解散国会下议院，7月举行全国大选，为泰党赢得国会下议院过半议席。8月，英拉政府成立。2013年12月，英拉宣布解散国会下议院，重新大选。2014年2月，泰国举行下议院选举，因反对派抵制，部分地区投票无法顺利举行。3月，宪法法院判决大选无效。5月22日，军方以“国家维稳团”名义接管政权。7月31日，国家立法议会组成。8月21日，立法议会选举“国家维稳团”主席、陆军司令巴育为新总理。24日，巴育就任总理。2015年8月、2016年12月和2017年11月，巴育三次调整内阁。2016年10月13日，泰国国九世王普密蓬·阿杜德去世，哇集拉隆功国王即位。
【宪 法】 现行宪法于2017年4月6日经哇集拉隆功国王批准生效，系泰国第20部宪法。
【议 会】 国家立法议会负责制定法律，行使国会和上、下两院职权。2014年7月成立，共有议员250人。现任立法议会主席蓬佩，副主席素拉猜、披拉萨。
【政 府】 2017年11月巴育政府改组内阁。现任内阁成员包括总理巴育·詹欧差上将（GEN.PRAYUT CHAN-O-CHA），副总理兼国防部长巴威·翁素万上将（GEN.PRAWIT WONGSUWAN），副总理兼司法部长巴金·詹东空军上将（ACM.PRAJIN JUNTONG），副总理颂奇·乍都西披塔（MR.SOMKID JATUSRIPITAK），副总理威沙努·科岩（MR.WISSANU KREA- NGAM），副总理察猜·沙里甘亚上将（GEN.CHATCHAI SARIKALYA）等5位副总理以及外交、商业、交通等各部部长、副部长共36人。
[Politics] Implement a constitutional monarchy. After the Second World War, the military group held power for a long time, and the government was still changing. Beginning in the 1990s, the military gradually faded out of politics. In 2001, the Thai Rak Thai Party won the national election. Tashin served as the prime minister and was re-elected in 2005. A military coup took place in September 2006, and Tashin stepped down. In 2007, the national election was held, the People’s Power Party won, and the party leader Shama became the prime minister. In September 2008, Shama was sentenced to be unconstitutional, and the People’s Power Party elected and decided to take over as prime minister. In December, the Constitutional Court sentenced the People’s Power Party, the Thai Party and the Zhongyong Democratic Party to plead guilty to bribery and disbanded them. On December 15, the leader of the Democratic Party, Abhisit, was elected prime minister. In May 2011, Abhisit announced the dissolution of the House of Commons, the national election in July, and the Thai party won more than half of the House of Commons. In August, the Yingluck government was established. In December 2013, Yingluck announced the dissolution of the House of Commons and re-election. In February 2014, Thailand held the election of the House of Commons. Due to the boycott of the opposition, voting in some areas could not be held smoothly. In March, the Constitutional Court ruled that the election was invalid. On May 22, the military took over the regime in the name of the “National Stability Group.” On July 31, the National Legislative Assembly was formed. On August 21, the Legislative Assembly elected the Chairman of the National Stability Team and the Army Commander, Ba Yu, as the new Prime Minister. On the 24th, Ba Yu became the prime minister. In August 2015, December 2016 and November 2017, Ba Yu adjusted the cabinet three times. On October 13, 2016, the king of Thailand, King Bhumibol Adulyadej, died, and the king of Wah Laklong was in the throne.
[Constitution] The current Constitution came into effect on April 6, 2017, approved by King Whaj Lalong Gong, and is the 20th Constitution of Thailand.
[Meetings] The National Legislative Assembly is responsible for enacting laws and exercising the powers of the Congress and the upper and lower houses. Established in July 2014, there are 250 members. The current President of the Legislative Assembly, Pompeii, and Vice-President Suraya and Pilasa.
[Government] In November 2017, the Ba Yu government reorganized the cabinet. The current cabinet members include Prime Minister GEN.PRAYUT CHAN-O-CHA, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense General GEN.PRAWIT WONGSUWAN, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Justice Ba Jin ·Zhan Dong Air Force General (ACM.PRAJIN JUNTONG), Deputy Prime Minister MR.SOMKID JATUSRIPITAK, Deputy Prime Minister MR.WISSANU KREA-NGAM, Deputy Prime Minister There are five deputy prime ministers such as GEN.ChatCHAI SARIKALYA and 36 ministers and deputy ministers of foreign affairs, commerce, and transportation.
[Administrative Division] There are 77 provinces in the central, southern, eastern, northern and northeastern regions. There are counties, districts and villages under the government. Bangkok is the only prefecture-level municipality. Each government is a civil servant and is appointed by the Ministry of the Interior. The mayor of Bangkok is produced by direct election.
[Judicial System] It belongs to the civil law system, and the statutory law is the main basis for the court judgment. The judicial system consists of a constitutional court, a judicial court, an administrative court and a military court:
The main function of the Constitutional Court is to make a final ruling on a case in which a member of Parliament or the Prime Minister has challenged a bill that has been unconstitutional, but has been deliberated by Congress, and the politician is suspected of concealing assets. It consists of a dean and 14 judges. The president and the judge are nominated by the speaker to be approved by the king for a term of nine years.
The administrative court mainly deals with litigation disputes between state organs, state-owned enterprises and local governments or between civil servants and private enterprises. The administrative court is divided into two levels, the Supreme Administrative Court and the Primary Administrative Court, and has an Administrative Judicial Committee composed of the President of the Supreme Administrative Court and nine experts. The appointment of the President of the Supreme Administrative Court shall be subject to the approval of the Administrative Judicial Committee and the House of Lords and shall be nominated by the Prime Minister for approval by the King.
Military courts mainly deal with military crimes and other cases prescribed by law.
The Judicial Court mainly examines all cases that are not considered by the Constitutional Court, the Administrative Court and the Military Court. It is divided into the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance, and has a special Criminal Office for politicians. There is also a Judicial Committee consisting of the President of the Supreme Court and 12 judges from the third-level courts, responsible for appointments and dismissals, promotion, salary increases and disciplinary actions at all levels. The Judicial Court has a secretariat that is responsible for handling daily administrative matters.
【经 济】 实行自由经济政策。属外向型经济，依赖中、美、日等外部市场。传统农业国，农产品是外汇收入的主要来源之一，是世界天然橡胶最大出口国。20世纪80年代，电子工业等制造业发展迅速，产业结构变化明显，经济持续高速增长，人民生活水平相应提高，工人最低工资和公务员薪金多次上调，居民教育、卫生、社会福利状况不断改善。1996年被列为中等收入国家。1997年亚洲金融危机后陷入衰退。1999年经济开始复苏。2003年7月提前两年还清金融危机期间国际货币基金组织提供的172亿美元贷款。
【资 源】 主要有钾盐、锡、褐煤、油页岩、天然气，还有锌、铅、钨、铁、锑、铬、重晶石、宝石和石油等。
【工 业】 出口导向型工业。主要门类有：采矿、纺织、电子、塑料、食品加工、玩具、汽车装配、建材、石油化工、软件、轮胎、家具等。工业在国内生产总值中的比重不断上升。
【农 业】 传统经济产业，农业人口约1530万人。全国可耕地面积约1.4亿莱（1莱＝1600平方米），占国土面积的41%。主要作物有稻米、玉米、木薯、橡胶、甘蔗、绿豆、麻、烟草、咖啡豆、棉花、棕油、椰子等。
【渔 业】 海域辽阔，拥有2705公里海岸线，泰国湾和安达曼海是得天独厚的天然海洋渔场。此外，还有总面积1100多平方公里的淡水养殖场。曼谷、宋卡、普吉等地是重要的渔业中心和渔产品集散地。泰国是世界市场主要鱼类产品供应国之一，也是位于日本和中国之后的亚洲第三大海洋渔业国。全国从事渔业人口约50万人。
[Important figures] Wow Ji Lalong Gong: King. King of the Tenma Dynasty. Born in Bangkok on July 28, 1952. In December 1972, he was appointed as the Crown Prince and in October 2016. In the early years, he studied at the Royal Preparatory School in the UK and Australia, and then went to the Royal Military Academy of Canberra, Australia to study with a Bachelor of Arts degree. He served in the Royal Forest Army of Thailand and was the general of the army, sea and air.
Ba Yu Zhan Ou: Prime Minister. Born on March 21, 1954 in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. He studied at the Thai Military Preparatory School, the Army Command Staff College, and the National Defense College. He served as the Chief of Staff and Deputy Commander of the Thai Army. In 2010, he served as Commander of the Army and retired at the end of September 2014. On May 22, 2014, the Thai military took over the regime in the name of the “National Stability Group” and was the chairman of the “National Stability Group”. On August 21, the National Legislative Assembly elected Ba Yu as the prime minister, and Ba Yu took office on the 24th.
[Economy] Implement a free economic policy. It is an export-oriented economy and relies on external markets such as China, the United States and Japan. In traditional agricultural countries, agricultural products are one of the main sources of foreign exchange earnings and the world’s largest exporter of natural rubber. In the 1980s, the electronics industry and other manufacturing industries developed rapidly, the industrial structure changed significantly, the economy continued to grow at a high speed, the people’s living standards improved accordingly, the minimum wages for workers and civil servants’ salaries were raised several times, and the education, health, and social welfare status of residents continued to improve. In 1996 it was classified as a middle-income country. After the 1997 Asian financial crisis, it fell into recession. The economy began to recover in 1999. In July 2003, two years earlier, the loan of $17.2 billion provided by the International Monetary Fund during the financial crisis was paid off.
Since 1963, the National Economic and Social Development Five-Year Plan has been implemented. The 12th Five-Year Plan begins in 2017. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: $421 billion.
GDP growth rate: 3.9%.
Currency name: 铢.
Exchange rate (average annual price): 1 US dollar ≈ 31.6 baht.
Inflation rate: 0.66%.
Unemployment rate: 1.3%.
[Resources] There are mainly potassium salts, tin, lignite, oil shale, natural gas, as well as zinc, lead, tungsten, iron, antimony, chromium, barite, gemstones and petroleum.
[Industrial] Export-oriented industry. The main categories are: mining, textiles, electronics, plastics, food processing, toys, automotive assembly, building materials, petrochemicals, software, tires, furniture and so on. The share of industry in GDP is rising.
[Agriculture] Traditional economic industry, the agricultural population is about 15.3 million. The country’s arable land area is about 140 million rai (1 rai = 1600 square meters), accounting for 41% of the country’s land area. The main crops are rice, corn, cassava, rubber, sugar cane, mung bean, hemp, tobacco, coffee beans, cotton, palm oil, coconut and so on.
[fishing industry] The sea area is vast and has 2,705 kilometers of coastline. The Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea are unique natural marine fisheries. In addition, there are freshwater farms with a total area of more than 1,100 square kilometers. Bangkok, Songkhla, Phuket and other places are important fishing centers and distribution centers for fishery products. Thailand is one of the major fish producers in the world market and the third largest marine fishery country in Asia after Japan and China. The country is engaged in a fishery population of about 500,000 people.
[Service Industry] Tourism maintains a stable development momentum and is one of the important sources of foreign exchange earnings. The main tourist spots are Bangkok, Phuket, Chiang Mai, Pattaya, Chiang Rai, Hua Hin, and Koh Samui.
[Transportation] Mainly by road and air transportation.
Railway: narrow rail, with a total length of 4451 kilometers, a total of 47 provinces across the country.
Highway: The total mileage of the road is 160,000 kilometers. All the prefectures and counties are connected by roads and extend in all directions.
Water transport: The Mekong River and the Chao Phraya River are the two major waterway transport routes in Thailand. There are 47 ports across the country, including 26 seaports and 21 international ports. Lianbangbangang is Thailand’s largest logistics hub, with container shipments accounting for 52% of the country’s total. Thailand’s important terminals also include Bangkok Port, Songkhla Port, Phuket Port, Chiang Saen Port, Chiang Khong Port, Laon Port and Sriracha Port. The shipping line can reach China, Japan, the United States, Europe and Singapore.
Air transport: There are 57 airports in the country, including 8 international airports. After the Suvarnabhumi International Airport was put into use, it replaced the original Don Mueang International Airport and became an important air transportation hub in Southeast Asia. A total of 80 airlines in 53 countries have fixed routes to Thailand. 89 international routes can reach more than 40 cities in Europe, America, Asia and Oceania. Domestic routes are spread across 21 large and medium cities across the country.
[Financial Finance] As of the end of 2017, Thai foreign exchange reserves were 202.4 billion US dollars, and the Thai baht appreciated by about 8%. In 2017, the fiscal revenue was 2.35 trillion baht and the surplus was 7.6 billion baht.
[Foreign Trade] Foreign trade plays an important role in the national economy. In 2017, Thailand’s trade volume totaled 455.9 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 12.3%. Of this total, exports were US$236.7 billion, up 9.9% year-on-year; imports were US$222.8 billion, up 14.7% year-on-year. Industrial products are the main growth point for exports. China, Japan, ASEAN, the United States, and the European Union are important trading partners of Thailand.
The main export products are: automobiles and spare parts, computers and spare parts, integrated circuit boards, electrical appliances, primary plastics, chemicals, petrochemicals, jewellery, ready-to-wear, shoes, rubber, furniture, processed seafood and canned food, rice, cassava Wait.
The main imported products are: mechanical and electrical products and spare parts, industrial machinery, electronic products spare parts, auto parts, construction materials, crude oil, paper machinery, steel, integrated circuit boards, chemical products, computer equipment and spare parts, household appliances, jewelry Gold ornaments, metal products, feed, fruits and vegetables.
[Foreign Investment] Mainly investing in the United States, ASEAN, China and Taiwan. In 2017, Thailand’s new investment in China reached US$110 million, a year-on-year increase of 96.3%. The companies that invest in China mainly include: Zhengda Group and Bangkok Bank.
[Foreign Investment] In 1961, an open market economy policy was introduced, and a series of preferential policies were adopted to encourage foreign investors to invest in Thailand. From 1987 to 1990, it was the peak period for foreign investment in Thailand. In 1997, affected by the Asian financial crisis, foreign investment in Thailand fell sharply. In recent years, the Thai government has increased investment, strengthened infrastructure construction, improved legislation, and created a favorable environment to attract foreign investment.
【军 事】 19世纪中叶仿效西方建立陆、海军，1915年建立空军。宪法规定国王为武装部队最高统帅。国家安全委员会为最高国防决策机构，隶属内阁，总理兼任主席。国防部为最高军事行政机关，负责制定和实施国防政策和计划。最高司令部为军队最高指挥机构，下设陆海空三个军种司令部，负责指挥和协调三军行动。
【教 育】 实行12年制义务教育。中小学教育为12年制，即小学6年、初中3年、高中3年。中等专科职业学校为3年制，大学一般为4年制，医科大学为5年制。著名高等院校有：朱拉隆功大学、法政大学、玛希敦大学、农业大学、清迈大学、孔敬大学、宋卡纳卡琳大学、诗纳卡琳威洛大学、易三仓大学和亚洲理工学院等。此外还有兰甘亨大学和素可泰大学等开放性大学。
【新闻出版】 媒体以私营为主，按市场规则运作。泰文媒体是主流媒体，英文、华文媒体居辅助地位。主要泰文报纸有《民意报》、《泰叻报》、《经理报》、《每日新闻》等。 主要华文报纸有《新中原报》、《中华日报》、《星暹日报》、《亚洲日报》、《京华中原》和《世界日报》等。主要英文报纸有《曼谷邮报》、《民族报》等。
【对外关系】 奉行独立自主的外交政策。重视周边外交，积极发展睦邻友好关系，维持大国平衡。重视区域合作，2012年至2015年担任中国—东盟关系协调国，积极推进东盟一体化和中国—东盟自贸区建设，支持东盟与中日韩合作。重视经济外交，推动贸易自由化。发起并推动亚洲合作对话（ACD）机制，2016年主办ACD第二次领导人会议。积极参加亚太经济合作组织（APEC）、亚欧会议（ASEM）、世界贸易组织（WTO）、东盟地区论坛（ARF）、博鳌亚洲论坛 （BFA）、澜沧江—湄公河合作、大湄公河次区域经济合作等多边合作机制。2018年6月主办“伊洛瓦底江—湄南河—湄公河三河流域经济合作战略”（ACMECS）第八届峰会。积极发展与穆斯林国家关系。谋求在国际维和、气候变化、粮食安全、能源安全及禁毒合作等地区和国际事务中发挥积极作用。2016年泰国担任77国集团主席国，2019年担任东盟轮值主席国。
[Military] In the mid-19th century, the West was established in the West, and the Air Force was established in 1915. The Constitution stipulates that the King is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The National Security Council is the highest defense decision-making body, subordinate to the cabinet, and the prime minister serves as the chairman. The Ministry of National Defense is the highest military administrative agency responsible for formulating and implementing national defense policies and plans. The Supreme Command is the highest commanding body of the military. It has three military command headquarters, which is responsible for commanding and coordinating the operations of the three armed forces.
[Education] Implement 12-year compulsory education. Primary and secondary education is a 12-year system, that is, 6 years of primary school, 3 years of junior high school, and 3 years of high school. The secondary vocational school is a three-year system, the university is generally a four-year system, and the medical university is a five-year system. Famous universities include: Chulalongkorn University, Hosei University, Mahidol University, Agricultural University, Chiang Mai University, Khon Kaen University, Song Kana Karin University, Srinakarin Willow University, Yisangcang University And Asian Institute of Technology. There are also open universities such as Ramkhamhaeng University and Sukhothai University.
[Press and Publication] The media is mainly private and operates according to market rules. Thai media is the mainstream media, and English and Chinese media are in an auxiliary position. The main Thai newspapers include “People’s Daily”, “Taipei”, “Manager”, “Daily News” and so on. The main Chinese newspapers include New China Plains, China Daily, Star Siam Daily, Asia Daily, Beijing Zhongyuan and World Daily. The main English newspapers include “Bangkok Post” and “National Newspaper”.
There are more than 230 radio stations, of which 59 are managed by the Government’s Public Liaison Office. The Thai Radio Station is a national radio station with a foreign country and is broadcast in languages such as Thailand, Britain, France, China, Malaysia, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Japan.
There are 6 TV stations in Bangkok, all of which are broadcast on satellite. 86 local cable companies. The TV network covers the whole country.
[External Relations] Pursue an independent foreign policy. Attach importance to neighboring diplomacy, actively develop good-neighborly and friendly relations, and maintain the balance of major powers. Attach importance to regional cooperation. From 2012 to 2015, he will serve as the coordinating country of China-ASEAN relations, actively promote the integration of ASEAN and the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area, and support ASEAN and China-Japan-ROK cooperation. Attach importance to economic diplomacy and promote trade liberalization. Launched and promoted the Asian Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) mechanism and hosted the second ACD Leaders Meeting in 2016. Actively participate in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the Boao Forum for Asia (BFA), the Lancang-Mekong River Cooperation, and the Greater Mekong Sub-region Economic Cooperation. Multilateral cooperation mechanism. In June 2018, the 8th Summit of the “Ilova River – Chao Phraya River – Mekong River Three Rivers Economic Cooperation Strategy” (ACMECS) was hosted. Actively develop relations with Muslim countries. Seeking to play an active role in regional and international affairs such as international peacekeeping, climate change, food security, energy security and anti-drug cooperation. In 2016, Thailand assumed the presidency of the Group of 77 and in 2019 assumed the presidency of ASEAN.