The Kingdom of Bhutan 不丹王国

【国 名】 不丹王国(The Kingdom of Bhutan)。

【面 积】 约3.8万平方公里。

【人 口】 约73.5万(2018年)。人口增长率约为0.9%(2018年)。不丹族约占总人口的50%,尼泊尔族约占35%。不丹语“宗卡”为官方语言。藏传佛教(噶举派)为国教,尼泊尔族居民信奉印度教。

【首 都】 廷布(Thimphu),人口128350(2016年)。

【国家元首】 国王吉格梅·凯萨尔·纳姆耶尔·旺楚克(Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck),2006年12月9日登基,2008年11月加冕。

【重要节日】 国庆日(12月17日—第一任国王乌金·旺楚克登基日)、国王生日(2月21日)、加冕日(11月6日)。

[Country name] The Kingdom of Bhutan.

[Area] About 38,000 square kilometers.

[People] About 735,000 (2018). The population growth rate is about 0.9% (2018). The Bhutanese population accounts for about 50% of the total population, and the Nepalese ethnic group accounts for about 35%. The Bhutanese “Zongka” is the official language. Tibetan Buddhism (the Kagyu School) is a state religion, and Nepalese residents believe in Hinduism.

[The capital] Thimphu, with a population of 128,350 (2016).

[Head of State] King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, who was crowned on December 9, 2006 and crowned in November 2008.

[Important Festival] National Day (December 17th – the first king Ujin Wangchuk enthroned), the king’s birthday (February 21), and the coronation day (November 6th).

【简 况】 位于喜马拉雅山脉东段南坡,其东、北、西三面与中国接壤,南部与印度交界,为内陆国。北部山区气候寒冷,中部河谷气候较温和,南部丘陵平原属湿润的亚热带气候。

公元7世纪起为吐蕃王朝属地,9世纪成为独立部落。12世纪后,藏传佛教竺巴噶举派逐渐成为执掌世俗权力的教派。18世纪后期起遭英国入侵。1907年建立不丹王国。1910年1月,同英国签订《普那卡条约》。1949年8月,同印度签订《永久和平与友好条约》。1961年以来,不丹国王多次公开表示要保持国家的主权和独立。1971年加入联合国,1973年成为不结盟运动成员,1985年成为南亚区域合作联盟成员。2007年2月,同印度签署经修订的《不印友好条约》。

【政 治】 1998年,第四世国王吉格梅·辛格·旺楚克不再兼任政府首脑,将政府管理权移交给大臣委员会。2001年,成立宪法起草委员会,启动制宪工作。2006年,第四世国王吉格梅·辛格·旺楚克让位于其子吉格梅·凯萨尔·纳姆耶尔·旺楚克。2007年12月,举行首次国家委员会(上院)选举。2008年3月,举行首次国民议会(下院)选举,成立首届民选政府,标志着不丹开始向君主立宪制转变。2008年7月不丹颁布首部宪法。宪政改革后,不丹国内政治形势发生重大变化。新政府致力于应对金融危机和国内自然灾害,大力发展经济,巩固国内民主体制,同时逐步扩大对外交往,强化主权国家地位。

【议 会】 实行两院制,由国王、国家委员会(上院)、国民议会(下院)组成,拥有立法权。上院由25名议员组成,均为非党派人士,其中20名由各宗选举产生,其余5名由国王任命知名人士担任,现任国家委员会主席塔希·多吉(Tashi Dorji)。下院由47名议员组成,由选民直接选举产生。两院议员任期5年。2007年12月,产生首届国家委员会(上院)。2008年3月,产生首届国民议会(下院)。2018年10月,举行第三届国民议会选举,不丹统一党(Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa)赢得30席,繁荣进步党(Druk Phuensum Tshogpa)赢得17席。现任国民议会议长旺楚克·南吉(Wangchuk Namgyel),副议长卡玛·旺楚克(Karma Wangchuk)。

根据不丹宪法,经三分之二议员同意,议会有权对国王提出退位动议。如动议获议会四分之三投票通过,则应举行全民公投以决定国王是否退位。国王在位年龄不得超过65岁。

[Profile] Located on the southern slope of the eastern section of the Himalayas, it borders China on the east, north and west, and borders on India in the south. It is a landlocked country. The northern mountainous region has a cold climate, the central valley has a mild climate, and the southern hilly plain has a humid subtropical climate.

It was a Tubo dynasty since the 7th century and became an independent tribe in the 9th century. After the 12th century, the Tibetan Buddhism and the Bajiao School gradually became the sects of secular power. Invaded by the British in the late 18th century. The Kingdom of Bhutan was established in 1907. In January 1910, the Punakka Treaty was signed with the United Kingdom. In August 1949, he signed the Treaty of Permanent Peace and Friendship with India. Since 1961, the King of Bhutan has repeatedly stated publicly that he wants to maintain the sovereignty and independence of the country. He joined the United Nations in 1971, became a member of the Non-Aligned Movement in 1973, and became a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation in 1985. In February 2007, it signed the revised “Non-Indian Friendship Treaty” with India.

[Politics] In 1998, the fourth king, Jigme Singh Wangchuck, no longer served as the head of government, and handed over the management of the government to the Council of Ministers. In 2001, the Constitution Drafting Committee was established to initiate constitutional work. In 2006, the fourth king, Jigme Singh Wangchuck, gave way to his son, Jigme Kaiser Namyel Wangchuk. In December 2007, the first national committee (upper house) election was held. In March 2008, the first National Assembly (lower house) election was held to establish the first elected government, marking the beginning of a constitutional change in Bhutan. In July 2008, Bhutan issued the first constitution. After the constitutional reform, the domestic political situation in Bhutan has undergone major changes. The new government is committed to coping with the financial crisis and domestic natural disasters, vigorously developing the economy, consolidating domestic democratic institutions, and gradually expanding foreign exchanges and strengthening the status of sovereign states.

[Parliament] The bicameral system is composed of the king, the National Committee (the upper house), and the National Assembly (the lower house), and has legislative power. The upper house is composed of 25 members, all of whom are non-partisan, 20 of whom are elected by each of the other, and the remaining 5 are appointed by the king as celebrities. The current chairman of the National Committee is Tashi Dorji. The lower house is composed of 47 members and is directly elected by the voters. The members of the two houses are appointed for a term of five years. In December 2007, the first National Committee (Upper House) was created. In March 2008, the first National Assembly (lower house) was created. In October 2018, the third National Assembly election was held. The Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa won 30 seats and the Druk Phuensum Tshogpa won 17 seats. The current Speaker of the National Assembly, Wangchuk Namgyel, and the Deputy Speaker Karma Wangchuk.

According to the Bhutanese Constitution, with the consent of two-thirds of the members, the parliament has the right to propose a denial of the king. If the motion is passed by three-quarters of the votes of the parliament, a referendum should be held to decide whether the king will abdicate. The age of the king is not more than 65 years old.

【政 府】 根据不丹宪法,在国民议会选举中获多数议席的政党领导人将由国王任命担任首相,负责组阁。首相任期不得超过两届,各政府部门大臣人选通过首相推荐由国王任命。经三分之一以上议员同意,国民议会可对政府提出不信任动议,如动议获国民议会三分之二以上投票通过,则国王有权解散政府。2018年10月,不丹统一党在第三届国民议会选举中获胜并组建新政府,洛塔·策林担任首相。

不丹政府内阁名单如下:

(1)首相洛塔·策林(Lotay Thsering)

(2)外交大臣丹迪·多吉(Tanji Dorji)

(3)内政与文化大臣喜如·坚赞(Sherub Gyeltshen)

(4)农业与林业大臣益西·班觉(Yeshey Penjor)

(5)经济大臣洛克纳特·夏尔玛(Loknath Sharma)

(6)教育大臣杰比雷(Jai Bir Rai)

(7)信息与通讯大臣卡玛·唐能·旺迪(Karma Donnen Wangdi)

(8)卫生大臣德钦·旺姆(Dechen Wangmo)

(9)财政大臣南杰·策林(Namgay Tshering)

(10)工程与人员安置大臣多吉·策林(Dorji Tshering)

(11)劳动与人力资源大臣乌金·多吉(Ugyen Dorji)

政府还设有11个直属机构:皇家文官委员会、国家计划委员会、国家环境委员会、国家劳动局、皇家货币局、国家技术培训局、皇家管理学院、法律事务局、不丹研究中心、地方发展委员会、国家文化事务委员会。

【高等法院】 系最高司法机构,但国王拥有最高司法权力,包括受理最高上诉案件。高等法院于1968年在廷布设立,包括首席法官在内共有8名法官,其中2名由国民议会选出,任期5年;其余由国王指派,任期由国王决定。各宗设有地方法院,由国王任命的宗长和地方法官负责处理地方诉讼案件。现任首席大法官为策林·旺楚克(Tshering Wangchuk)。

【寺院团】 是宗教事务的唯一仲裁机构,由中央寺院团和地方寺院团组成。全国约有5000名僧人,享受政府提供的财政资助。杰堪布为最高宗教领袖,由寺院选举并经国王批准的一名高僧担任,享有穿着与国王同样颜色披肩的特殊权利。坎布下有4名大僧人辅助。

[Government] According to the Bhutanese Constitution, the leader of the political party who won the majority of the seats in the National Assembly election will be appointed by the King as the Prime Minister and will be responsible for the formation of the Cabinet. The term of the Prime Minister shall not exceed two terms, and the candidates of the ministers of various government departments shall be appointed by the King through the recommendation of the Prime Minister. With the consent of more than one-third of the members, the National Assembly can raise a motion of no confidence in the government. If the motion is approved by more than two-thirds of the National Assembly, the King has the right to dissolve the government. In October 2018, the Bhutanese Unification Party won the third National Assembly election and formed a new government. Lotta Zelin served as Prime Minister.

The list of the Bhutanese government cabinet is as follows:

(1) Prime Minister Lotay Thsering

(2) Foreign Minister Tanji Dorji

(3) Sherub Gyeltshen, Minister of the Interior and Culture

(4) Yeshey Penjor, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry

(5) Economic Minister Loknath Sharma

(6) Education Minister Jai Bir Rai

(7) Karma Donnen Wangdi, Minister of Information and Communications

(8) Dechen Wangmo, Minister of Health

(9) Chancellor of the Exchequer Namgay Tshering

(10) Dorji Tshering, Minister of Engineering and Personnel Resettlement

(11) Ugyen Dorji, Minister of Labor and Human Resources

The government also has 11 directly affiliated institutions: the Royal Civil Service Commission, the National Planning Commission, the National Environmental Council, the National Labor Bureau, the Royal Monetary Authority, the National Technical Training Authority, the Royal School of Management, the Legal Affairs Bureau, the Bhutan Research Center, and the Local Development Committee. National Cultural Affairs Committee.

[High Court] is the highest judicial body, but the King has the highest judicial power, including the highest appeal. The High Court was established in Thimphu in 1968. There are eight judges, including the Chief Justice, two of whom are elected by the National Assembly for a term of five years; the rest are appointed by the King for a term determined by the King. Each case has a local court, and the chiefs and magistrates appointed by the king are responsible for handling local litigation cases. The current Chief Justice is Tshering Wangchuk.

[Temple Group] It is the sole arbitration institution for religious affairs. It consists of the Central Temple Group and the local temple group. There are about 5,000 monks in the country who enjoy financial support from the government. Jenkob is the supreme religious leader, a monk who was elected by the monastery and approved by the king, and has the special right to wear the same color shawl as the king. There are four big men assisted by Camb.

【行政区划】 全国划分为4个行政区、20个宗(县)

【重要人物】 吉格梅·凯萨尔·纳姆耶尔·旺楚克:国王。1980年2月21日生,曾留学英国、印度。2004年10月任通萨宗宗长。2006年12月继位,成为旺楚克王朝第五世国王。2008年11月加冕。

【政 党】 正式注册有5个政党,主要有不丹统一党、繁荣进步党和人民民主党。不丹统一党2013年成立,主席为洛塔·策林,现为执政党,占国民议会(下院)47席中的30席。繁荣进步党2007年成立,主席为佩玛·嘉措(Pema Gyamtsho),现为在野党,占国民议会(下院)47席中的17席。人民民主党2007年成立,主席为策林·托杰(Tsering Tobgay)。

【经济】农业是不丹的支柱产业。50年代实行土地改革后,98%以上的农民拥有自己的土地、住房,平均每户拥有土地1公顷多。粮食基本自给。2015年,农业和林业劳动人口占总就业人口的58%。2017年,农业约占GDP的17.37%。第二、三产业近年来发展较快,2017年分别占GDP的40.57%和42.06%。水电资源丰富并向印度出口,水电及相关建筑业已成为拉动经济增长的主要因素。

2013至2017年,GDP增长分别为2.14%、5.75%、6.49%、7.99%、4.63%。其中第三产业发展最快,其次分别为制造业、电力和建筑业。2013至2017年通货膨胀率分别为8.77%、8.27%、4.58%、3.22%、4.96%。2002年开始,制造业和服务业率先对外资开放,外资控股最高可达70%。

不丹1961年起开始实行经济发展的“五年计划”,并从印度、瑞士、联合国开发计划署等国家和国际组织获得经济援助。2013年至2018年为不丹第11个五年计划,总投资约2132.91亿努,较上一个五年计划增长45.8%,主要目标是实现社会经济自给自足、包容、绿色发展。

不丹为最不发达国家之一。2016年,在联合国发展署发表的全球人类发展报告中,不丹排名第134位。

货币名称:努扎姆(Ngultrum),简称努(NU.),与印度卢比等值。

国内生产总值:25.12亿美元(2017年)。

人均GDP:约3438美元(2017年)。

GDP增长率(2017年):4.63%。

汇率(2017年):1美元≈65.1努。

年均通货膨胀率(2017年):4.96%。

失业率(2017年):2.4%。

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 4 administrative districts and 20 counties (counties).

[Important figures] Jigme Kaiser Namyel Wangchuck: King. Born on February 21, 1980, he studied in the UK and India. In October 2004, he served as the governor of Thong Sa Zong. In December 2006, he succeeded to become the fifth king of the Wangchuck Dynasty. Coronation in November 2008.

[Political Party] There are five political parties officially registered, mainly the Bhutan Unity Party, the Prosperity and Progress Party and the People’s Democratic Party. The Bhutanese Unification Party was established in 2013. The chairman is Lotta Celine, now a ruling party, accounting for 30 of the 47 seats in the National Assembly (lower house). The Prosperity and Progressive Party was established in 2007. The chairman is Pema Gyamtsho, who is now an opposition party and accounts for 17 of the 47 seats in the National Assembly (lower house). The People’s Democratic Party was established in 2007 with Chairman Tsering Tobgay.

[Economy] Agriculture is the pillar industry of Bhutan. After the implementation of land reform in the 1950s, more than 98% of farmers owned their own land and housing, and each household had an area of ​​more than 1 hectare. Food is basically self-sufficient. In 2015, the agricultural and forestry labor force accounted for 58% of the total employed population. In 2017, agriculture accounted for 17.37% of GDP. The secondary and tertiary industries have developed rapidly in recent years, accounting for 40.57% and 42.06% of GDP respectively in 2017. Hydropower resources are abundant and exported to India, and hydropower and related construction industries have become the main factors driving economic growth.

From 2013 to 2017, GDP growth was 2.14%, 5.75%, 6.49%, 7.99%, and 4.63%, respectively. Among them, the tertiary industry has the fastest development, followed by manufacturing, power and construction. The inflation rates from 2013 to 2017 were 8.77%, 8.27%, 4.58%, 3.22%, and 4.96%, respectively. Since 2002, the manufacturing and service industries have taken the lead in opening up to foreign investment, with foreign investment holding up to 70%.

Bhutan began to implement the “five-year plan” for economic development in 1961, and received economic assistance from countries and international organizations such as India, Switzerland, and the United Nations Development Program. From 2013 to 2018, it is the 11th five-year plan of Bhutan. The total investment is about 213.291 billion yuan, which is 45.8% higher than the previous five-year plan. The main goal is to achieve social and economic self-sufficiency, tolerance and green development.

Bhutan is one of the least developed countries. In 2016, Bhutan ranked 134th in the Global Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Agency.

Currency name: Ngultrum, referred to as Nu (NU.), equivalent to the Indian Rupee.

Gross domestic product: $2.512 billion (2017).

Per capita GDP: about $3,438 (2017).

GDP growth rate (2017): 4.63%.

Exchange rate (2017): 1 US dollar ≈ 65.1 Nu.

Average annual inflation rate (2017): 4.96%.

Unemployment rate (2017): 2.4%.

【资源】有白云石、石灰石、大理石、石墨、石膏、煤、铅、铜、锌等矿藏。水力资源丰富。水电资源蕴藏量约为3万兆瓦,目前仅约1.5%得到开发利用。森林覆盖率约为70.46%,自然保护区面积占国土面积的51.4%。物种丰富,每万平方公里上有植物3281种。

【工 业】 2017年,工业(包括电力、建筑业和制造业)总产值667亿努,增长2.41%,占GDP的40.57%。建筑业产值261.26亿努,占GDP的7.25%。制造业产值119.38亿努,占GDP的7.25%。近年来,对印度电力出口带动不丹水电站建设,电力行业逐渐成为经济支柱之一。2017年,水电产值217.28亿努,占GDP的13.2%。2017年,不丹全国发电量为77.3亿千瓦时,出口57亿千瓦时。

【农牧林业】 可耕地面积占国土总面积的16%,主要农作物有玉米、稻子、小麦、大麦、荞麦、马铃薯和小豆蔻。畜牧养殖较普遍。主要树种有婆罗双树、橡树、松树、冷杉、云杉、桦树等,以丰富的名木花草闻名遐迩。盛产水果。苹果、柑橘等大量向印度和孟加拉国出口。

【旅游业】 不丹外汇的重要来源之一。1974年开始对外开放旅游业,但控制较严,一般只接受团体旅游。出于环保考虑,对境外游客每人每天收取165至200美元的最低消费费用。1987年7月起,寺院、宗教圣地不对外开放。每年3月至6月、9月至12月是旅游旺季,游客主要来自泰国、中国、日本、美国和欧洲等地。2017年,入境游客62272人次,创收7980万美元。

【交通运输】 公路总里程18181.3公里(2017年),拥有机动车辆96307辆(2017年)。山区仍以马、牛、骡为主要运输工具。河流众多但湍急,无法航行。

帕罗机场是不丹唯一机场,距首都廷布65公里。航空公司有不丹航空公司(Druk Air Corporation),成立于1983年2月,航线包括从帕罗至新德里、加尔各答、加德满都、达卡、曼谷和仰光。2017年载客量26.6万人次。2006年,不丹与印度、泰国和孟加拉国分别签署关于加强航空联系的谅解备忘录。

【通讯邮政】 不丹电信公司1999年1月成立。1999年,不丹建成全国计算机互联网,拥有自己的域名后缀.bt,并成立因特网服务商Druknet。2017年,共有固定电话用户21364户,移动用户730623户,88个邮局。

【财政金融】 每年7月1日至次年6月30日为一个财政年度。2016/2017财年国内生产总值约1646.28亿努,增长4.63%,人均国内生产总值约2235.17努。外贸额1048.8亿努,外汇储备约11.03亿美元。

主要金融机构有皇家货币局(Royal Monetary Authority)、不丹银行(Bank of Bhutan)等。皇家货币局成立于1982年,是不丹的中央银行,负责制定和执行政府的货币政策,代表政府办理外币存款业务。不丹银行成立于1968年,属国家商业银行,一度与印度国家银行合办。2002年,印度国家银行将管理权移交给不丹,持股份额也由40%降至20%。

作为不丹私有化进程的里程碑,1996年不丹政府允许金融部门公开发行股票,并与亚洲开发银行和花旗银行签署协定,允许它们购买不丹国家银行(Bhutan National Bank)不超过40%的股份。

[Resources] There are mineral deposits such as dolomite, limestone, marble, graphite, gypsum, coal, lead, copper and zinc. Rich in water resources. Hydropower resources are about 30,000 megawatts, and only about 1.5% are currently being exploited. The forest coverage rate is about 70.46%, and the nature reserve area accounts for 51.4% of the country’s land area. It is rich in species and has 3,281 species of plants per 10,000 square kilometers.

[Industrial] In 2017, the total output value of industry (including electricity, construction and manufacturing) was 66.7 billion yuan, an increase of 2.41%, accounting for 40.57% of GDP. The construction industry has an output value of 26.162 billion yuan, accounting for 7.25% of GDP. The manufacturing output value was 11.938 billion yuan, accounting for 7.25% of GDP. In recent years, the power export of India has driven the construction of the Bhutan hydropower station, and the power industry has gradually become one of the pillars of the economy. In 2017, the hydropower output value was 21.728 billion yuan, accounting for 13.2% of GDP. In 2017, the national power generation in Bhutan was 7.73 billion kWh and the export was 5.7 billion kWh.

[Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Forestry] The area of ​​arable land accounts for 16% of the total land area. The main crops are corn, rice, wheat, barley, buckwheat, potato and cardamom. Livestock farming is more common. The main species are salic, oak, pine, fir, spruce, birch, etc., famous for their rich names of wood and flowers. Rich in fruit. Apples, citrus, etc. are exported to India and Bangladesh.

[Tourism] One of the important sources of Bhutanese foreign exchange. Since 1974, the tourism industry has been opened to the outside world, but the control is stricter and generally only accepts group travel. For environmental protection, foreign visitors are charged a minimum daily fee of $165 to $200 per person. Since July 1987, monasteries and religious sites have not been opened to the public. March to June and September to December each year is a tourist season, mainly from Thailand, China, Japan, the United States and Europe. In 2017, there were 62,272 inbound tourists, generating $79.8 million.

[Transportation] The total length of the road is 18181.3 km (2017), with 96,307 motor vehicles (2017). Horses, cattle and donkeys are still the main means of transportation in the mountains. There are many rivers but they are so rushing that they cannot sail.

Paro Airport is the only airport in Bhutan, 65 kilometers from the capital, Thimphu. The airline has Druk Air Corporation, which was established in February 1983 and includes flights from Paro to New Delhi, Kolkata, Kathmandu, Dhaka, Bangkok and Yangon. In 2017, the number of passengers was 266,000. In 2006, Bhutan signed a memorandum of understanding with India, Thailand and Bangladesh on strengthening aviation links.

[Communication Post] Bhutan Telecom was established in January 1999. In 1999, Bhutan built the national computer Internet, owning its own domain name suffix .bt, and established Internet service provider Druknet. In 2017, there were 21,364 fixed-line telephone users, 730,623 mobile users, and 88 post offices.

[Financial Finance] Every year from July 1st to June 30th is a fiscal year. In 2016/2017, the gross domestic product (GDP) was approximately 16426.28 billion nn, an increase of 4.63%, and the per capita GDP was approximately 2235.17. The foreign trade volume was 104.88 billion yuan, and the foreign exchange reserve was about 1.103 billion US dollars.

The main financial institutions are the Royal Monetary Authority and the Bank of Bhutan. Founded in 1982, the Royal Monetary Authority is the central bank of Bhutan. It is responsible for formulating and implementing the government’s monetary policy and handling foreign currency deposits on behalf of the government. The Bank of Bhutan was established in 1968 as a national commercial bank and was once co-organized with the National Bank of India. In 2002, the National Bank of India handed over management rights to Bhutan, and its shareholding was also reduced from 40% to 20%.

As a milestone in the privatization process in Bhutan, the Bhutanese government allowed the financial sector to issue shares publicly in 1996 and signed an agreement with the Asian Development Bank and Citibank to allow them to buy up to 40% of the shares of Bhutan National Bank. .

【对外贸易】 对外贸易主要在南盟成员间进行。印度是最大贸易伙伴,与不丹签有自由贸易协定。2016/2017财年,不丹进口额669.96亿努,出口额为372.97亿努。不丹对印进、出口额分别占总进、出口额的80.56%和84.8%。其他主要贸易伙伴有中国、韩国、泰国、新加坡、日本等。其中,不丹与孟加拉国之间签有优惠贸易协定。

主要出口产品为电力、化学制品、木材、加工食品、矿产品等。主要进口产品为燃料、谷物、汽车、机械、金属、塑料等。

不丹于1998年成为WTO的观察员,现申请成为正式成员。

【外国援助】 不丹经济建设严重依赖外国和国际组织援助。2016/2017财年,不丹接受外援129.87亿努,较上一财年减少12.77%。其中,印度是最大援助方。此外,不丹还接受来自日本、丹麦、联合国开发计划署、奥地利、荷兰、瑞士、亚洲开发银行、世界银行等方面的援助。

【人民生活】 据世界银行和不丹国家统计局数据显示,自2007年至2017年,不丹贫困人口率从23%降到8.2%。实行免费医疗,享受基础医疗的人口超过90%,人均寿命66.1岁。2016年,有各类医疗机构901家,其中医院30家,医生299名。婴儿死亡率为40‰。2017年不丹人口中,14岁以下的占26.04%,15-64岁的占68.03%,65岁以上占5.93%。1998年,不丹在日内瓦建立世界首个健康信托基金,保证提供基础医疗用的疫苗和基本药物。不丹传统医学来源于藏医药学,至今仍广泛使用。2004年底起,全国范围内实行禁烟。

【军 事】 武装力量主要由皇家陆军(包括皇家卫队)和皇家警察组成,实行义务兵役制,国王是武装力量最高统帅。皇家陆军于1963年由民兵武装组织改编组建,兵力约16000人(2014年)。现任首席作战指挥官是巴图·泽林中将。皇家卫队正式组建于1961年,主要负责王室成员的安全保卫工作。皇家警察正式成立于1965年,隶属于不丹内政与文化部,主要职能是维护社会治安并担负边界警卫和消防任务。

【文化教育】 2017年,全国有各类学校1854所,教员12057名,在校学生213766名。2016年不丹毛入学率为18.6%,适龄儿童入学率为94.7%。国民识字率约为71.4%(2017年)。2003年6月建立第一所大学不丹皇家大学。1961年起学校实行双语制,不丹语“宗卡”为必修课。强调职业技术教育,以适应社会需要。射箭和摔跤为不丹传统民族体育项目。

【新闻出版】 不丹政府设有不丹新闻与广播机构,负责全国广播、电视事务。1973年,成立不丹广播公司,用不丹语、英语、尼泊尔语等广播。1999年,不丹广播公司开通电视服务。《昆色尔》为不丹国家报纸,并在互联网上更新。2006年,两份私人报纸《不丹时报》和《不丹观察家报》开始发行。另有《德鲁克·洛塞尔》季刊,用宗卡、英语和尼泊尔语出版。

[Foreign Trade] Foreign trade is mainly carried out among members of the SAARC. India is the largest trading partner and has a free trade agreement with Bhutan. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, Bhutan’s import volume was 66.996 billion yuan, and the export value was 37.297 billion yuan. Bhutan’s imports and exports accounted for 80.56% and 84.8% of the total import and export respectively. Other major trading partners are China, Korea, Thailand, Singapore, and Japan. Among them, Bhutan has signed a preferential trade agreement with Bangladesh.

The main export products are electricity, chemicals, wood, processed food, mineral products and so on. The main imported products are fuel, grain, automobile, machinery, metal, plastic and so on.

Bhutan became an observer of the WTO in 1998 and is now applying to become a full member.

[Foreign Aid] Bhutan’s economic construction relies heavily on foreign and international organizations’ assistance. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, Bhutan received 12.987 billion yuan in foreign aid, a decrease of 12.77% from the previous fiscal year. Among them, India is the largest aid party. In addition, Bhutan also receives assistance from Japan, Denmark, the United Nations Development Program, Austria, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank.

[People’s Lives] According to data from the World Bank and the National Bureau of Statistics of Bhutan, the poverty rate in Bhutan fell from 23% to 8.2% from 2007 to 2017. Free medical care is provided, with a population of over 90% enjoying basic medical care and a life expectancy of 66.1 years. In 2016, there were 901 medical institutions of various types, including 30 hospitals and 299 doctors. The infant mortality rate is 40‰. Among the population of Bhutan in 2017, 26.04% were under 14 years old, 68.03% were aged 15-64 years old, and 5.93% were over 65 years old. In 1998, Bhutan established the world’s first health trust fund in Geneva to guarantee the provision of basic medical vaccines and essential medicines. Traditional medicine in Bhutan is derived from Tibetan medicine and is still widely used today. Since the end of 2004, smoking has been implemented nationwide.

[Military] The armed forces are mainly composed of the Royal Army (including the Royal Guard) and the Royal Police. They are compulsory military service and the King is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The Royal Army was reorganized in 1963 by militia armed groups with a force of approximately 16,000 (2014). The current chief operational commander is Lieutenant General Batu Zelin. The Royal Guard was formally established in 1961 and is responsible for the security of the royal family members. The Royal Police was formally established in 1965 and is part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Culture of Bhutan. Its main function is to maintain social security and to undertake border security and fire protection tasks.

[Cultural Education] In 2017, there were 1,854 schools of various types in the country, with 12,057 faculty members and 213,766 students. In 2016, the gross enrollment rate of Bhutan was 18.6%, and the enrollment rate of school-age children was 94.7%. The national literacy rate is about 71.4% (2017). In June 2003, the first university, the Royal University of Bhutan, was established. Since 1961, the school has been bilingual, and the Bhutanese “Zongka” is a compulsory course. Emphasize vocational and technical education to meet the needs of society. Archery and wrestling are traditional ethnic sports in Bhutan.

[Press and Publication] The Bhutanese government has a Bhutan news and broadcasting agency responsible for national radio and television affairs. In 1973, Bhutan Broadcasting Corporation was established to broadcast in Bhutanese, English and Nepali. In 1999, Bhutan Broadcasting Corporation opened a television service. “Kunsell” is the national newspaper of Bhutan and is updated on the Internet. In 2006, two private newspapers, the Bhutan Times and the Bhutanese Observer, were released. There is also a quarterly issue of Drucker Russell, published in Zongka, English and Nepali.

【对外关系】 以维护独立和主权、实现经济自力更生为对外政策的两大目标。主张大小国家一律平等,奉行不结盟政策,在和平共处基础上同所有国家发展友谊和合作,特别是同邻国友好相处。已同印度等53个国家及欧盟建立外交关系,在纽约和日内瓦设有常驻联合国代表处,在印度、孟加拉国、科威特、比利时和泰国设有使馆,在加尔各答设有领馆,在10个国家设有14位名誉领事。印度和孟加拉国在不丹设有使馆。

1971年加入联合国,目前是约75个国际组织的成员国。

【同中国的关系】 参见“中国不丹双边关系”

【同印度的关系】 不丹与印度关系密切。不丹与印度实行开放边界,自由通商。印度是不丹最大的贸易伙伴、援助国和债权国。1949年8月8日,不印签订《永久和平与友好条约》。1968年,不印正式建交。2007年2月,不丹第五世国王吉格梅·凯萨尔·纳姆耶尔·旺楚克访印,双方签署经过修订的《不印友好条约》。2008年2月,印外秘梅农访不。5月,印度总理辛格访不。7月,不丹首相吉格梅·廷里访印。11月,不丹第五世国王吉格梅·凯萨尔·纳姆耶尔·旺楚克举行加冕典礼,印度总统帕蒂尔,团结进步联盟主席、国大党主席索尼娅·甘地,外长慕克吉出席。2009年6月,不丹首相吉格梅·廷里访印,印外长克里希纳访问不丹。12月,不丹第五世国王访印。2010年4月,印度总理辛格赴不丹出席第16届南盟峰会。10月,不丹第五世国王访印。同月,不丹首相吉格梅·廷里访印。2011年10月,不丹第五世国王携王后婚后首次出访印度。2013年1月,不丹第五世国王访问印度,印度外长库尔希德访问不丹。2月,不丹首相吉格梅·廷里访印。2013年8月,印度国家安全顾问梅农访问不丹,不丹首相策林·托杰访问印度。2014年1月,不丹第五世国王访问印度。5月,不丹首相策林·托杰访问印度。6月,印度总理莫迪访问不丹。2017年11月,不丹第五世国王旺楚克夫妇访问印度。2018年12月,不丹首相洛塔·策林访问印度。

【同南亚其他国家的关系】 不丹同除阿富汗以外的南亚所有国家建立了外交关系,来往日益增多。不丹是南亚区域合作联盟(南盟)成员,积极主张加强南亚区域合作。2004年,不丹加入“环孟加拉湾多领域经济技术合作倡议”(BIMSTEC)。2010年4月,不丹主办第16届南盟峰会。

【同南亚以外国家的关系】 1985年,不丹开始发展跨地区外交,已同科威特、荷兰、瑞典、丹麦、瑞士、挪威、日本、芬兰、韩国、奥地利、泰国、巴林、澳大利亚、新加坡、加拿大、比利时、巴西、西班牙、古巴、斐济、摩洛哥、卢森堡、捷克、塞尔维亚、印尼、蒙古、越南、缅甸、阿根廷、哥斯达黎加、安道尔、毛里求斯、瑞士、阿联酋、斯洛文尼亚、斯洛伐克、亚美尼亚、土耳其、埃及、哈萨克斯坦、波兰、哥伦比亚、塔吉克斯坦、阿塞拜疆、阿曼等国建交。

[External Relations] The two major goals of foreign policy are to maintain independence and sovereignty and achieve economic self-reliance. It advocates equality of all countries and small countries, pursues a non-aligned policy, and develops friendship and cooperation with all countries on the basis of peaceful coexistence, especially with neighboring countries. Has established diplomatic relations with 53 countries including India and the European Union, with permanent offices in New York and Geneva, embassies in India, Bangladesh, Kuwait, Belgium and Thailand, and 10 consulates in Kolkata. The country has 14 honorary consuls. India and Bangladesh have embassies in Bhutan.

He joined the United Nations in 1971 and is currently a member of some 75 international organizations.

[Relationship with China] See “China Bhutan Bilateral Relations”

[Relationship with India] Bhutan has close ties with India. Bhutan and India have opened borders and are free to trade. India is Bhutan’s largest trading partner, donor and creditor. On August 8, 1949, the Treaty of Permanent Peace and Friendship was not signed. In 1968, no official diplomatic relations were established. In February 2007, Bhutan’s fifth king, Jigme Kaiser Namyel Wangchuck, visited India and the two sides signed the revised Treaty of Non-Indian Friendship. In February 2008, the Indian Foreign Minister Mei Nong visited. In May, Indian Prime Minister Singh visited. In July, Bhutanese Prime Minister Jigme Tinry visited India. In November, Bhutan’s fifth king, Jigme Kaiser Namyel Wangchuck, held a coronation ceremony, Indian President Patil, Chairman of the Solidarity Progressive Alliance, President of the Congress Party Sonia Gandhi, Foreign Minister Mukherjee attended. In June 2009, Bhutanese Prime Minister Jigme Tinry visited India and Indian Foreign Minister Krishna visited Bhutan. In December, the fifth king of Bhutan visited India. In April 2010, Indian Prime Minister Singh went to Bhutan to attend the 16th SAARC Summit. In October, the fifth king of Bhutan visited India. In the same month, Bhutanese Prime Minister Jigme Tinry visited India. In October 2011, the fifth king of Bhutan visited India with his first marriage. In January 2013, the fifth king of Bhutan visited India and Indian Foreign Minister Kurshid visited Bhutan. In February, Bhutanese Prime Minister Jigme Tinry visited India. In August 2013, Indian National Security Advisor Menon visited Bhutan and Bhutanese Prime Minister Celine Toj visited India. In January 2014, the fifth king of Bhutan visited India. In May, Bhutan’s Prime Minister, Celine Toj, visited India. In June, Indian Prime Minister Modi visited Bhutan. In November 2017, the fifth king of Wang Buk, Bhutan, visited India. In December 2018, Bhutanese Prime Minister Lotta Zelin visited India.

[Relationship with other countries in South Asia] Bhutan has established diplomatic relations with all countries in South Asia except Afghanistan, and its exchanges are increasing. Bhutan is a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and actively advocates strengthening regional cooperation in South Asia. In 2004, Bhutan joined the BIMSTEC Multi-Sector Economic and Technical Cooperation Initiative (BIMSTEC). In April 2010, Bhutan hosted the 16th SAARC Summit.

[Relationship with countries outside South Asia] In 1985, Bhutan began to develop interregional diplomacy, with Kuwait, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Norway, Japan, Finland, South Korea, Austria, Thailand, Bahrain, Australia, Singapore, Canada. , Belgium, Brazil, Spain, Cuba, Fiji, Morocco, Luxembourg, Czech Republic, Serbia, Indonesia, Mongolia, Vietnam, Myanmar, Argentina, Costa Rica, Andorra, Mauritius, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, Slovenia, Slovakia, Armenia, Turkey, Egypt, Kazakhstan, Poland, Colombia, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Oman and other countries established diplomatic relations.