The Kingdom of Bahrain 巴林王国

【国 名】 巴林王国(The Kingdom of Bahrain)

【面 积】 767平方公里

【人 口】 150万,外籍人占55%。

【宗 教】 85%的居民信奉伊斯兰教,其中什叶派占70%,逊尼派占30%。

【官方语言】 阿拉伯语,通用英语。

【首 都】 麦纳麦(Manama),人口26万。

【国庆日】 12月16日

【国家元首】 国王哈马德·本·伊萨·阿勒哈利法(Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa),1999年3月6日即位埃米尔,2002年2月14日改称国王。

[Country name] The Kingdom of Bahrain

[area] 767 square kilometers

[People] 1.5 million, foreigners accounted for 55%.

[Discipline] 85% of the residents believe in Islam, of which Shiites account for 70% and Sunnis for 30%.

[Official language] Arabic, general English.

[Capital] Manama, with a population of 260,000.

[National Day] December 16

[Head of State] King Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa, who was in the Emir on March 6, 1999, was renamed King on February 14, 2002.

【简 况】 位于波斯湾西南部的岛国,界于卡塔尔和沙特阿拉伯之间,与沙特有跨海大桥相连接。属热带沙漠气候,夏季炎热、潮湿,7月至9月平均气温为35℃。凉季温和宜人,11月至次年4月气温在15-24℃之间。年平均降水量77毫米。

公元前3000年即建有城市。公元前1000年腓尼基人到此。公元7世纪成为阿拉伯帝国的一部分,隶属巴士拉省。1507年至1602年遭葡萄牙人占领。1602年至1782年处于波斯帝国的统治之下。1783年宣告独立。1820年英国入侵巴林,强迫其签订波斯湾和平条约。1880年沦为英国保护国。1971年3月英国宣布其同波斯湾诸酋长国签订的所有条约在同年年底终止。1971年8月15日巴林宣告独立并建立巴林国。2002年更改国名为巴林王国。

【政 治】 君主世袭制王国。国家元首由哈利法家族世袭,掌握政治、经济和军事大权。1999年哈马德继任埃米尔。继位后,哈注意保持内、外政策的连贯性,政权实现了平稳过渡。2002年2月14日,巴林国更名为巴林王国。2011年2月,受西亚北非地区部分国家政局突变影响,巴林爆发大规模反政府抗议活动,要求国王解散政府、改善民生、促进民主。应巴林政府要求,海合会军队进驻巴林协助维持秩序。2012年以来,巴林小规模示威游行和街头暴力仍时有发生,但较动荡之初已大幅减少,巴林社会总体保持平稳。

【宪 法】 独立后第一部宪法于1973年6月2日颁布,同年12月开始生效。2000年11月,哈马德埃米尔发表敕令,成立民族宪章全国最高制定委员会,负责制定民族宪章。2001年2月,巴林举行全国投票,以98.4%的支持率通过了《民族行动宪章》。2002年2月14日,颁布新宪法,改国体为王国制,修改国旗,确定新国歌,埃米尔改称国王。

【议 会】 1972年选出制宪议会。1973年成立国民议会,1975年被解散。2002年10月,根据新宪法成立由众议院和协商会议组成的两院制国民议会,两院享有同等立法监督权,通过的法律草案需呈国王批准。众议院由40名直选议员组成,众议长由议员选出。协商会议由国王任命的40名议员组成,主席由国王任命。两院议员任期均为4年,可连任。本届议会于2018年12月产生。众议长福吉亚·宾特·阿卜杜拉·泽娜(Fawzia bint Abdulla Zainal),兼任巴国民议会议长;协商会议主席阿里·本·萨利赫·阿勒萨利赫(Ali bin Saleh Al-Saleh)。

2012年8月,巴林修改宪法,进一步扩大国民议会中众议院权力,包括众议院有权否决首相提出的组阁名单并对副首相及内阁大臣进行质询,且有关官员本人必须应询;有权对首相提出不信任案动议,三分之二议员同意即可通过;国民议会议长由协商会议主席兼任改为由众议院议长兼任;取消协商会议对内阁大 臣的质询权,使其仅成为立法机构,不再具有监督权;每年审议下年度政府财政预算,监督当年预算执行情况。

[Profile] An island country located in the southwestern part of the Persian Gulf, between Qatar and Saudi Arabia, connected to the Saudi Sea-cross Bridge. It has a tropical desert climate and is hot and humid in summer. The average temperature from July to September is 35 °C. The cool season is mild and pleasant, with temperatures between 15 and 24 °C from November to April. The average annual precipitation is 77 mm.

A city was built in 3000 BC. The Phoenicians arrived here in 1000 BC. It became part of the Arab Empire in the 7th century and is part of Basra. It was occupied by the Portuguese from 1507 to 1602. From 1602 to 1782, under the rule of the Persian Empire. In 1783 declared independence. In 1820, the British invaded Bahrain and forced them to sign the Persian Gulf Peace Treaty. In 1880, he became a British protectorate. In March 1971, the United Kingdom announced that all its treaties with the emirates of the Persian Gulf were terminated at the end of the same year. On August 15, 1971, Bahrain declared independence and established the State of Bahrain. In 2002, the country was changed to the Kingdom of Bahrain.

[political] The monarchy of the hereditary kingdom. The head of state was hereditary by the Khalifa family and possessed political, economic and military powers. In 1999 Hamad succeeded Emir. After the succession, Kazakhstan paid attention to maintaining the coherence of internal and external policies, and the political power achieved a smooth transition. On February 14, 2002, the State of Bahrain was renamed the Kingdom of Bahrain. In February 2011, affected by a sudden change in political situation in some countries in West Asia and North Africa, Bahrain erupted a large-scale anti-government protest, demanding that the king dissolve the government, improve people’s livelihood, and promote democracy. At the request of the Bahraini government, the GCC troops stationed in Bahrain to help maintain order. Since 2012, small-scale demonstrations and street violence in Bahrain have occurred from time to time, but have been substantially reduced at the beginning of the turmoil, and the overall Bahraini society has remained stable.

[Constitution] The first constitution after independence was promulgated on June 2, 1973, and became effective in December of the same year. In November 2000, Hamad Emir issued an order to establish the National Supreme Council of National Charters, which is responsible for the formulation of the national charter. In February 2001, Bahrain held a national vote and adopted the National Action Charter with a support rate of 98.4%. On February 14, 2002, a new constitution was promulgated, the state system was changed to the kingdom system, the national flag was revised, and the new national anthem was confirmed. The Emir was renamed the king.

[Parliament] In 1972, the Constituent Assembly was elected. The National Assembly was established in 1973 and was dissolved in 1975. In October 2002, a bicameral National Assembly consisting of the House of Representatives and the Consultative Meeting was established in accordance with the new Constitution. Both houses have the same legislative supervision power, and the draft laws passed must be approved by the King. The House of Representatives is composed of 40 directly elected members, and the Speaker of the House is elected by a member of Parliament. The consultation meeting consisted of 40 members appointed by the King and the chairman was appointed by the King. Both members of the House of Representatives are appointed for a term of four years and are eligible for re-election. The current parliament was produced in December 2018. The Speaker of the House of Representatives Fawzia bint Abdulla Zainal, who is also the Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan; the chairman of the consultation meeting, Ali bin Saleh Al- Saleh).

In August 2012, Bahrain amended the Constitution to further expand the powers of the House of Representatives in the National Assembly, including the House of Representatives’ power to veto the list of cabinets proposed by the Prime Minister and to question the Deputy Prime Minister and the Cabinet Minister, and the relevant officials themselves must consult; the right to propose to the Prime Minister The no-confidence motion is approved by two-thirds of the members. The chairman of the National Assembly is replaced by the chairman of the House of Representatives. The cancellation of the consultation meeting’s right of inquiry to the cabinet minister makes it only a legislative body and no longer has The right to supervise; review the government budget for the next year and supervise the implementation of the budget for the year.

【政 府】 本届内阁于1971年成立,共有24名成员,最近一次调整时间为2018年12月。现内阁主要成员:首相哈利法·本·萨勒曼·阿勒哈利法 (Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa)、王储兼第一副首相萨勒曼·本·哈马德·阿勒哈利法(Salman bin Hamad AL-Khalifa)、副首相穆罕默德·本·穆巴拉克·阿勒哈利法(Mohammed bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa)、副首相阿里·本·哈利法·阿勒哈利法(Ali bin Khalifa Al-Khalifa)、副首相贾瓦德·阿勒阿里德(Jawad bin Salem Al Arrayed)、副首相哈立德·本·阿卜杜拉·阿勒哈利法(Khalid bin Abdullah Al-Khalifa)、外交大臣哈立德·本·艾哈迈德·本·穆罕默德·阿勒哈利法(Khalid bin Ahmed Bin Mohammed Al-Khalifa)。

【行政区划】 全国分为4个省,分别是首都省、穆哈拉克省、北方省、南方省。

【重要人物】 国王哈马德·本·伊萨·阿勒哈利法:1950年1月28日生于麦纳麦。曾在英、美军事学院读书,创建了巴林国防军。1964年被立为王储,其后兼任武装部队最高统帅。1971年巴林独立后任国防大臣。1999年3月6日继位,成为巴林第十一任埃米尔,2002年2月14日改称国王。曾于2013年9月访华。

首相哈利法·本·萨勒曼·阿勒哈利法:1935年生,国王哈马德之叔。1957年任教育委员会主席。1959年任政府秘书长。1960年任财政内政大臣。1966年至1970年主持国家行政委员会工作。 1970年任国务委员会主席。1973年被任命为首相。曾于2002年5月访华、2008年11月出席南京第四届“世界城市论坛”。

王储萨勒曼·本·哈马德·阿勒哈利法:1969年10月21日生,国王长子。1992年获美国华盛顿大学政治学学士学位,1994年获英国剑桥大学历史哲学硕士学位。1995年被任命为国防部次大臣。 1999年3月9日被立为王储,同年3月22日被任命为巴林武装部队副统帅。2013年3月11日起兼任第一副首相。

[Government] The current cabinet was established in 1971 with a total of 24 members. The most recent adjustment was December 2018. The main members of the cabinet: Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa, Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister Salman Bin Hamad Al Khali Law (Salman bin Hamad AL-Khalifa), Deputy Prime Minister Mohammed bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa, Deputy Prime Minister Ali Ben Khalifa Al Khalifa ( Ali bin Khalifa Al-Khalifa), Deputy Prime Minister Jawad bin Salem Al Arrayed, Deputy Prime Minister Khalid bin Abdullah Al- Khalifa), Foreign Minister Khalid bin Ahmed Bin Mohammed Al-Khalifa.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into four provinces, namely the Capital Province, Muharraq Province, Northern Province, and Southern Province.

[Important figures] King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa: Born in Manama on January 28, 1950. He studied at the British and American Military Academy and founded the Bahrain Defense Force. In 1964, he was established as the Crown Prince, and later served as the highest commander of the armed forces. In 1971, Bahrain became an independent Minister of National Defense. On March 6, 1999, he became the eleventh Emir of Bahrain and was renamed King on February 14, 2002. He visited China in September 2013.

Prime Minister Khalifa Bin Salman Al Khalifa: Born in 1935, the uncle of King Hamad. In 1957, he served as chairman of the Board of Education. In 1959, he served as Secretary General of the Government. In 1960, he served as Minister of Finance and Interior. From 1966 to 1970, he presided over the work of the State Administrative Commission. In 1970, he served as chairman of the Council of State. In 1973 he was appointed Prime Minister. He visited China in May 2002 and attended the 4th World Urban Forum in Nanjing in November 2008.

Crown Prince Salman Bin Hamad Al Khalifa: Born on October 21, 1969, the eldest son of the king. He received a bachelor’s degree in political science from the University of Washington in 1992 and a master’s degree in history from the University of Cambridge in 1994. In 1995, he was appointed as the Minister of Defense. On March 9, 1999, he was established as the Crown Prince. On March 22 of the same year, he was appointed as the deputy commander of the Bahrain Armed Forces. From March 11, 2013, he will also serve as the first deputy prime minister.

【经 济】 巴林是海湾地区最早开采石油的国家。近年来,巴开始向多元化经济发展,建立了炼油、石化及铝制品工业,大力发展金融业,成为海湾地区银行和金融中心。

2018年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:387亿美元

人均国内生产总值:4.8万美元

国内生产总值增长率:1.2%

进出口总额:366亿美元

进口额:176亿美元

出口额:190亿美元

货币:巴林第纳尔(BD)

汇率:1美元=0. 38第纳尔

【资 源】 已探明石油储量2055万吨,天然气储量1182亿立方米。2018年4月,巴林宣布发现一座新油气田,预估储量达800亿桶石油和10-20万亿立方英尺天然气。

【工 业】 主要有石油和天然气开采、炼油和炼铝业、船舶维修等。

【农 业】 可耕地面积1.1万公顷,约占全国总面积的14%,目前实际种植面积4766公顷。农业人口约占劳动力总人口的1.5%。农业对国内生产总值的贡献率 约为0.28%,粮食主要靠进口,本地农产品的供给量仅占巴食品需求总量的6%。主要农产品有水果、蔬菜、家禽、海产品等。

【交通运输】 境内无铁路。首都和主要城镇有公路相连,各级公路总长4274多公里。巴林和沙特之间由长达25公里的法赫德国王大桥相连。萨勒曼深水港有14个泊位、2个集装箱轮泊位和一个滚装轮泊位,可停泊6万吨级轮船。

巴林有5个机场。位于穆哈拉克岛的巴林国际机场,飞机日均起落300余架次,是中东地区繁忙的空港之一。2017年巴林国际机场全年运送旅客总数840万人次。

[Economy] Bahrain is the first country to extract oil from the Gulf. In recent years, Pakistan has begun to develop into a diversified economy, established a refining, petrochemical and aluminum products industry, vigorously developed the financial industry, and became a banking and financial center in the Gulf.

The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $38.7 billion

Per capita GDP: 48,000 US dollars

GDP growth rate: 1.2%

Total import and export: 36.6 billion US dollars

Imports: $17.6 billion

Exports: $19 billion

Currency: Bahraini Dinar (BD)

Exchange rate: 1 USD = 0.38 dinars

[Resources] The proven oil reserves are 20.55 million tons and the natural gas reserves are 118.2 billion cubic meters. In April 2018, Bahrain announced the discovery of a new oil and gas field with estimated reserves of 80 billion barrels of oil and 10-20 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

[Industrial] There are mainly oil and gas exploration, refining and aluminum smelting, ship maintenance and so on.

[Agriculture] The area of ​​arable land is 11,000 hectares, accounting for 14% of the total area of ​​the country. The actual planting area is currently 4,766 hectares. The agricultural population accounts for about 1.5% of the total workforce. The contribution rate of agriculture to GDP is about 0.28%. The grain is mainly imported, and the supply of local agricultural products only accounts for 6% of the total demand of Pakistani food. The main agricultural products are fruits, vegetables, poultry and seafood.

[Transportation] There is no railway in the territory. The capital and major towns are connected by roads, with a total length of more than 4,274 kilometers. Bahrain and Saudi Arabia are connected by the 25-kilometer King Fahd Bridge. The Salman Deepwater Port has 14 berths, 2 container berths and a ro-ro ship berth to park 60,000-ton ships.

There are 5 airports in Bahrain. Located at the Bahrain International Airport on the island of Muharraq, the aircraft has an average of more than 300 flights per day, making it one of the busy airports in the Middle East. In 2017, Bahrain International Airport transported 8.4 million passengers throughout the year.

【通 讯】 1969年巴林开通中东地区第一个卫星地面站。目前,巴林拥有4个卫星地面站,与国际卫星组织及阿拉伯卫星组织的卫星相连。1981年,巴林政府从英国人经营的电信公司中取得60%的股权,并把公司改组为巴林电信公司。该公司实现了通讯系统数字程控化。此外还有VIVA、ZAIN等跨国电信公司。移动电话普及率182%,固定电话普及率21%。还有巴林有线无线通讯公司等电信公司。

【财政金融】 金融业发达是巴林经济的显著特点。巴林享有中东地区金融服务中心的美誉。2016年巴林金融业产值占国内生产总值的16.1%,是巴林第二大产业。目前,有400多家地区及国际金融服务机构在巴林设立办事处。

【对外贸易】 主要出口石油产品、天然气和铝锭。主要贸易伙伴是美国、日本、德国、英国、沙特、韩国、印度等。

【人民生活】 全国实行免费医疗,居民卫生服务普及率达100%,人均寿命73岁。有公立医院6所,医疗中心43所,医护人员2000余人,另有一所军事医院。

【军 事】 执行海湾阿拉伯国家合作委员会统一的防御政策。国王哈马德·本·伊萨·阿勒哈利法任国防军最高统帅,萨勒曼王储任武装部队副统帅。实行志愿兵役制。武装部队总兵力11800人,其中陆军8500人,海军1000人,空军1500人,国民卫队等其他人员800人。另有半军事化部队约9250人,其中警察9000人,海岸警卫队250人。巴林是美国第五舰队司令部所在地。

【教 育】 实行免费教育和普及9年一贯制的中等教育制度。教育宗旨是普及和完善教育种类,提高教学水平。是海湾阿拉伯国家中最早拥有女子学校的国家,也是中东海湾地区受教育程度最高的国家。巴林大学和阿拉伯海湾大学(由海湾合作委员会资助)分别于1986年和1987年建成开学。此外还有一所成人教育中心。巴林文盲率为4.9%,15至25岁青年受教育率达99%,为中东海湾地区受教育程度较高的国家。

【新闻出版】 全国共有报纸13种,主要报纸有:《海湾消息报》(阿文),《天天报》(阿文),《中间报》(阿文),《祖国报》(阿文),《海湾日报》(英文),《每日论坛报》(英文)《海湾日报》 (英、阿文),《光明日报》(阿文),《巴林湾日报》(阿文),《海湾每周镜报》(英文),《天天报》(阿文),《海湾消息报》(英文)等。

巴林广播电台1955年开始播音,用阿拉伯语和英语广播。有4个波段。

巴林电视台共有3个频道,其中两个阿拉伯语频道,一个英语频道。

【对外关系】 奉行温和务实的外交政策,主张加强海湾国家之间的团结与合作。巴林系联合国、阿拉伯国家联盟和海湾合作委员会的成员国。目前已同156个国家建立了外交关系。

[Communication] In 1969, Bahrain opened the first satellite ground station in the Middle East. Currently, Bahrain has four satellite earth stations connected to satellites of the International Satellite Organization and the Arab Satellite Organization. In 1981, the Bahraini government acquired a 60% stake in a British-operated telecommunications company and reorganized the company into Bahrain Telecom. The company realized the digital program control of the communication system. In addition, there are multinational telecommunications companies such as VIVA and ZAIN. The mobile phone penetration rate is 182%, and the fixed telephone penetration rate is 21%. There are also telecommunications companies such as Bahrain Cable and Wireless Communications.

[Financial Finance] The development of the financial industry is a distinctive feature of the Bahrain economy. Bahrain enjoys a reputation as a financial services centre in the Middle East. In 2016, Bahrain’s financial industry accounted for 16.1% of GDP, making it the second largest industry in Bahrain. Currently, more than 400 regional and international financial services institutions have established offices in Bahrain.

[Foreign Trade] Mainly export petroleum products, natural gas and aluminum ingots. The main trading partners are the United States, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, India and so on.

[People’s Life] Free medical care is implemented throughout the country, and the penetration rate of residents’ health services is 100%, and the average life expectancy is 73 years. There are 6 public hospitals, 43 medical centers, more than 2,000 medical personnel, and another military hospital.

[Military] Implement a unified defense policy of the Gulf Cooperation Council. King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa was the supreme commander of the National Defence Force, and King Salman was the deputy commander of the armed forces. Implement a voluntary military service system. The total strength of the armed forces is 11,800, including 8,500 in the Army, 1,000 in the Navy, 1,500 in the Air Force, and 800 in the National Guard. There are also about 9,250 semi-military units, including 9,000 police officers and 250 Coast Guards. Bahrain is the seat of the US Fifth Fleet Command.

[Education] Implement a free education and popularize a nine-year system of secondary education. The educational aim is to popularize and improve the types of education and improve the level of teaching. It is the first country in the Gulf Arab countries to have a girls’ school and the most educated country in the Gulf of the Middle East. The University of Bahrain and the Arab Gulf University (funded by the Gulf Cooperation Council) were established in 1986 and 1987 respectively. There is also an adult education centre. The illiteracy rate in Bahrain is 4.9%, and the education rate for young people aged 15 to 25 is 99%, which is a country with a higher education level in the Middle East Gulf region.

[Press and Publication] There are 13 kinds of newspapers in the country. The main newspapers are: “Bay News” (Awen), “Tiantianbao” (Awen), “Intermediate” (Awen), “The Motherland” (Awen) , Gulf Daily (English), Daily Tribune (English), Gulf Daily (English, Arabic), Guangming Daily (Awen), Bahrain Bay Daily (Awen), Gulf Weekly Mirror (English), “Tian Tian Bao” (A Wen), “Gulf News” (English) and so on.

The Bahrain Radio Station began broadcasting in 1955 and broadcast in Arabic and English. There are 4 bands.

Bahrain TV has 3 channels, two Arabic channels and one English channel.

[External Relations] Pursue a moderate and pragmatic foreign policy and advocate strengthening the unity and cooperation between the Gulf countries. Bahrain is a member of the United Nations, the League of Arab States and the Gulf Cooperation Council. At present, diplomatic relations have been established with 156 countries.