The Islamic Republic of Pakistan 巴基斯坦伊斯兰共和国
【国名】巴基斯坦伊斯兰共和国（The Islamic Republic of Pakistan）。
[Country name] The Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
[Area] 796,095 square kilometers (excluding Pakistani-controlled Kashmir).
[Population] 208 million. Pakistan is a multi-ethnic country, of which 63% are Punjabi, 18% are Sindhi, 11% are Pashtun, and 4% are Kushiro. Urdu is the national language, the official language is Urdu and English, and the main national languages are Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto and Baluchi. More than 95% of the residents believe in Islam (the state religion), and a few believe in Christianity, Hinduism, and Sikhism.
[Capital] Islamabad, with a population of 1.1 million (2017). It is inland, with an altitude of 503-610 meters. It has a subtropical monsoon climate. The dry season and the rainy season have distinct boundaries. The average annual precipitation is 1143 mm, the highest temperature is 47 °C, and the lowest temperature is 0 °C.
[Head of State and Government] The current President, Arif Alvi, took office on September 9, 2018. The current Prime Minister, Imran Khan, took office on August 18, 2018.
[Important Festival] National Day: March 23; Independence Day: August 14.
[Profile] Pakistan is located in the northwestern part of the South Asian subcontinent. It is bordered by India in the east, China in the northeast, the border with Afghanistan in the northwest, Iran in the west, and the Arabian Sea in the south. The coastline is 980 kilometers long. In addition to the southern tropical climate, the rest is subtropical. The south is hot and humid, affected by the monsoon, and the rainy season is longer; the northern part is dry and cold, and some places have snow all year round. The annual average temperature is 27 °C.
Bahara is part of British India. In 1858, India became a British colony. In March 1940, the All India Muslim League adopted a resolution on the establishment of Pakistan. In June 1947, the United Kingdom announced the “Mount Barton Plan” and implemented the India-Pakistan division. On August 14, the same year, Pakistan declared independence and became a self-governing body of the Commonwealth, including the eastern and western parts of Pakistan. On March 23, 1956, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was established, still a member of the Commonwealth, withdrawn in 1972 and rejoined in 1989. In March 1971, the Eastern Peoples declared the establishment of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, and in December of the same year, Bangladesh officially became independent.
[Constitution] After the founding of the State, the three constitutions were promulgated in 1956, 1962 and 1973. In 1977, Zia Huck imposed military law and partially suspended the constitution. In 1985, the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution was passed, granting the President the power to dissolve the National Assembly and the Federal Cabinet, to appoint and remove military leaders and judges. The 12th Amendment to the Constitution, passed in July 1991, provides for the federal government to establish special courts and appellate courts to combat crime and rectify public order. In April 1997, the Sharif government passed the 13th Amendment to the Constitution in Parliament, canceling the president’s power to dissolve the National Assembly and the Federal Cabinet, and will dissolve the provincial and provincial cabinets, the provincial governor, the chiefs of the armed forces and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The power of the judge of the court is returned to the Prime Minister for exercise. Subsequently, the Pakistani parliament passed the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, which was designed to prohibit parliamentarians from rebelling.
In 1999, after Musharraf came to power, he issued an interim constitution order No. 1, proclaiming a moratorium on the constitution. In August 2002, Mu promulgated the “Legal Framework Order” (LFO), announcing the restoration of the 1973 Constitution and the 8th Amendment to the Huck Era Constitution, stipulating that the President has the power to dissolve the National Assembly, appoint the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Chief of Staff of the Three Armies. On December 29, 2003, the Pakistani parliament passed the 17th Amendment to the Constitution, stipulating that the President has the power to dissolve the parliament after approval by the Supreme Court, and has the right to appoint and dismiss the leaders of the three armed forces after consultation with the Prime Minister.
On April 8 and 15, 2010, the National Assembly and the Senate passed the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, transferring part of the Presidential Power to the Prime Minister and making adjustments on major sensitive issues such as central and local decentralization. On December 22, 2010, the Pakistani parliament unanimously passed the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, giving the Prime Minister the power to decide on the appointment of the High Court and the Supreme Court, and the President finally finalized the decision. On February 20, 2012, the Pakistani parliament passed the 20th Amendment to the Constitution, canceling the power of the president to appoint the caretaker prime minister, which was decided by the Prime Minister and the opposition leaders. The amendment also includes the extension of the term of the Election Committee.
In January 2015, the Pakistani National Assembly and the Senate passed the 21st Amendment to the Constitution, establishing a two-year military court to quickly investigate terrorism and cases that endanger national security. In June 2016, the 22nd Amendment was adopted to adjust the qualifications of members of the Election Committee. In January 2017, the Palestinian National Assembly and the Senate passed the 23rd Amendment to resume the military court established by the 21st Amendment and extend it for two years.
[Parliament] The federal legislature. After the founding of the People’s Republic in 1947, it was a one-chamber system. After the 1973 Constitution was enacted, it implemented a bicameral system consisting of the National Assembly (lower house) and the Senate (upper house). The National Assembly is elected by universal suffrage. The Senate is elected by the Provincial Assembly and the National Assembly on the principle of equal seats in each province.
There are 342 seats in the National Assembly, of which 272 are universal suffrage seats. 60 seats reserved for women, and 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims, which were distributed by political parties in proportion to universal suffrage. The National Assembly has one speaker and one deputy speaker, and the term of office of the members is five years. The Senate has 100 seats, and the term of office of the members is 6 years, and half of them are elected every 3 years. There shall be one chairman and one vice chairman for a term of three years.
On March 3, 2018, Pakistan held a re-election in the Senate. On March 12, independent candidate Sadik Sangilani from Balochistan was elected chairman of the Senate.
On July 25, 2018, Pakistan held the National Assembly elections, and the Justice Movement Party won the first largest party in the parliament. On August 15, Assad Kaiser was elected as the Speaker of the National Assembly.
【司法机构】最高法院为最高司法机关，各省和伊斯兰堡设高等法院，各由1名首席大法官和若干法官组成。现任最高法院首席大法官为米安·萨其布·尼萨（Mian Saqib Nisar）。全国设总检察长，各省设省检察长。现任总检察长阿什塔尔·奥萨夫·阿里（Ashtar Ausaf Ali）。
（1）正义运动党（Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf）：为执政党。1996年成立。主席为巴基斯坦家喻户晓的板球明星、现任总理伊姆兰·汗（Imran Khan）执政后重点关注打击腐败、扶贫减贫、改善民生。
（2）巴基斯坦穆斯林联盟（谢里夫派）（Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz）：简称“穆盟（谢派）”。成立于1906年，当时称作全印穆斯林联盟，1947年巴立国后改称巴基斯坦穆斯林联盟。党章规定要在巴实现政治、社会和经济改革。
（3）巴基斯坦人民党（Pakistan People’s Party）：简称“人民党”。成立于1967年12月，主要势力在信德省和旁遮普省，主张议会民主、自由平等、经济私有化。现任党主席为巴已故前总理贝·布托之子比拉瓦尔·布托（Bilawal Bhutto）。
（4）主要党派还有：巴基斯坦穆斯林联盟（领袖派）[Pakistan Muslim League（QA）]、伊斯兰促进会（Jamaat-i-Islami） 、统一民族运动党（Muttahidah Qaumi Movement）、人民民族党（Awami National Party）等。
[Government] On August 20, 2018, the current cabinet was sworn in, including 24 federal ministers, 5 ministers of state and 4 prime ministers, and 8 prime ministers.
[Administrative divisions] There are four provinces in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, and Sindh, and the Islamabad Capital Territory. Each province has a special district, county, township and village association.
[Judiciary] The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ, and the provinces and Islamabad have high courts, each consisting of one chief justice and several judges. The current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is Mian Saqib Nisar. The country has a general procurator-general, and the provinces have provincial procurators. The current Attorney General, Ashtar Ausaf Ali.
[Party] Pakistan has a multi-party system. There are about 200 existing political parties and many factions. At present, the major national parties mainly include:
(1) The Justice Movement Party (Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf): The ruling party. Established in 1996. The chairman is the Pakistani household cricket star, the current prime minister, Imran Khan, who has focused on combating corruption, poverty alleviation, and improving people’s livelihood.
(2) Pakistan Muslim League (Nakhy) (Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz): referred to as “Mumeng (Xie Pai)”. Founded in 1906, it was then called the All India Muslim League. In 1947, the State of Palestine was renamed the Pakistan Muslim League. The party constitution stipulates that political, social and economic reforms should be implemented in Pakistan.
(3) Pakistan People’s Party: referred to as the “People’s Party.” Founded in December 1967, the main forces in Sindh and Punjab advocated parliamentary democracy, freedom and equality, and economic privatization. The current party chairman is Bilawal Bhutto, the son of the late Prime Minister Bhutto.
(4) The main parties are: Pakistan Muslim League (QA), Jamaat-i-Islami, Muttahidah Qaumi Movement, People’s National Party (Awami) National Party) and so on.
[Important person] President Arif Alvi. A professional dentist who was the chairman of the Pakistan Dental Association. One of the founders of the Justice Movement Party. From 2006 to 2013, he served as Secretary-General of the Justice Movement Party and since 2016 he has served as Chairman of the Party’s Sindh Province. In 2013 and 2018, he was elected to the National Assembly twice. On September 4, 2018, he was elected President of Pakistan.
Prime Minister Imran Khan. The former cricket professional athlete, in 1992, led the Pakistani national cricket team to win the cricket World Cup. In 1996, he founded the Justice Movement Party and served as chairman. In 2002, he was elected to the National Assembly for the first time. The Justice Movement Party became the largest party in parliament in the July 2018 general election and was elected Pakistani Prime Minister on August 17.
[Economy] Pakistan’s economy is dominated by agriculture, with agricultural output accounting for 19.5% of GDP. The industrial base is weak. Affected by factors such as the instability of the domestic political situation, the impact of the international financial crisis, and the rise in international commodity prices, the economic situation in Pakistan continued to deteriorate in 2008. Since 2009, with the adjustment efforts of Pakistan and the help of the international community, the positive factors in Pakistan’s economic operation have increased, and the important economic indicators have improved. In 2010, there was a rare and extraordinary flood in the history of Pakistan, with economic losses amounting to 46 billion U.S. dollars. The main economic data for the 2017-2018 fiscal year (July 2017 to June 2018) is as follows:
Gross domestic product: $313 billion.
Per capita GDP: $1,641.
GDP growth rate: 5.8%.
Currency name: Pakistan Rupee.
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar is equivalent to 101.9 rupees (January 2019).
(Source: World Bank data and Pakistan annual economic survey report)
[Resources] The main mineral reserves include: 492 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 184 million barrels of oil, 185 billion tons of coal, 430 million tons of iron, 74 million tons of bauxite, and a large amount of chrome ore, marble and gemstones. The forest coverage rate is 4.8%.
[Industrial] In the fiscal year 2017/2018, the growth rate of the Pakistani industry was 5.8%. The largest industrial sector is the cotton textile industry. Others include wool textiles, sugar, paper, tobacco, tanning, machine building, fertilizer, cement, electricity, natural gas, and petroleum.
[Agriculture] In the fiscal year 2017/2018, the agricultural growth rate of Pakistan was 3.8%. The main agricultural products are wheat, rice, cotton, sugar cane and so on. The country’s arable land area is 57.68 million hectares, of which the actual cultivated area is 21.68 million hectares. The agricultural population accounts for about 66.5% of the national population.
[Tourism] The development is slow, and tourists are mostly Pakistanis and citizens of the Gulf countries who have settled in Europe and America. The main tourist spots are Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Quetta, Faisalabad and so on. In 2003, Pakistan officially became a destination country for Chinese citizens to travel abroad at their own expense.
[Transportation] Domestic passenger and cargo transportation is mainly highway.
Highway: The total length is 260,000 kilometers, and there are about 94.138 million motor vehicles. Pakistan’s road passenger traffic accounts for 90% of total passenger traffic, and road freight accounts for 96% of total freight traffic.
Railway: A total length of 7791 kilometers.
Water transport: Karachi and Kassim are two international ports, accounting for 95% of Pakistan’s international cargo volume.
Air transport: Pakistan International Airlines has 44 civil aviation aircraft, flying to 38 international airports and 24 domestic airports. The total length of the route is 345,900 kilometers. The five international airports are in Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar and Multan.
[Financial Finance] In fiscal year 2017/2018, Pakistan’s fiscal revenue was 2.6764 billion rupees and fiscal expenditure was 536.10 billion rupees.
(Source: Pakistan Ministry of Finance Annual Economic Report)
[Foreign Trade] In recent years, the Pakistani government has been striving to accelerate industrialization, expand exports, and narrow the trade deficit. Trade relations with more than 90 countries and regions.
Mainly imported petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and transportation equipment, steel products, fertilizers and electrical products. Mainly export rice, cotton, textiles, leather products and carpets.
[Foreign Investment] In recent years, the Pakistani government has implemented extensive structural reforms, improved the investment environment, and vigorously attracted foreign investment. From July 2017 to June 2018, foreign direct investment was US$ 2.76 billion.
[People’s Life] The Pakistani government is striving to solve social problems and improve people’s living conditions, especially employment and health care. There are a number of social and religious welfare organizations in the country engaged in welfare activities. The government is also vigorously developing information technology to enable more ordinary people to use high-tech information equipment.
[Military] The Constitution of Pakistan stipulates that the President is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The military recruitment system is implemented. The service period of the Army is 7 years, and the sea and air force are 7-8 years. The armed forces consist of active, reserve and local forces. The total strength is 675,000.
[Education] Free primary and secondary education. The Pakistani government has greatly improved the literacy rate, improved the educational facilities and conditions of colleges and universities, and decided to increase education funding. The literacy rate (the government data) of 10 years old (including 10 years old) is 58%. There are 155,000 primary schools in the country, 28,700 junior high schools, 16,100 high schools, and 51 universities. Famous institutions of higher learning include Punjab University, Karachi University, Islamabad Jinna University and Peshawar University. The number of students enrolled in the school is 38.22 million, and the number of faculty and staff is 1.41 million.
[News and Publications] English newspapers include “News”, “Dawn”, “National News”, etc.; Urduwen newspapers include “Battle”, “The Voice of the Times” and “Oriental Newspaper”. The circulation of major newspapers is between 50,000 and 300,000.
Main news agencies: Pakistan United News Agency (APP, state-run), Pakistan International News Agency (PPI, private).
Radio station: Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, which has 27 stations and broadcasts in 7 languages.
TV station: Pakistan TV Company (PTV), major cities have TV stations, with a population coverage rate of 87.8%.
Pakistan pursues an independent and non-aligned foreign policy and focuses on developing relations with Islamic countries and China. Committed to maintaining peace and stability in South Asia and developing relations with Western countries while strengthening solidarity and cooperation with developing countries. Support the Middle East peace process. Advocate the destruction of weapons of mass destruction. Call for the establishment of a fair and rational new international political and economic order. Attach importance to economic diplomacy. Developed countries are required to take practical measures to narrow the gap between the North and the South.
[Relationship with the United States] During the Cold War, Pakistan and the United States had close ties. Since then, Pakistan has incurred US sanctions for nuclear tests and coups. After the “9.11” incident, Pakistan participated in the international war on terrorism, helped the United States fight terrorism, and took measures to combat domestic extremist forces.
After the US Obama administration took office, it introduced a new strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan and increased its military and economic investment in Pakistan. In October 2009, the United States introduced the Kerry-Lugar Act, which provided $7.5 billion in aid to Pakistan within five years. The two countries have established a strategic dialogue mechanism.
At the same time, there are many differences between the two countries. Pakistan is very dissatisfied with the fact that U.S. drones frequently enter Pakistan. In 2011, affected by bin Laden’s killing in Pakistan and the U.S. NATO’s cross-border air strikes on Pakistan’s border post, Pakistan closed its NATO logistics supply line and interrupted high-level visits with the United States. The United States suspended some military assistance to Pakistan. The relationship between the two countries has fallen to a low point.
Since 2012, the top leaders of the two countries have gradually resumed contact. In April, the Pakistani parliament passed guidelines on adjusting relations with the United States and overall foreign policy, demanding that the United States respect Pakistan’s sovereignty, unconditionally apologize for cross-border air strikes, and stop drones from crossing the border. In July, the US officially apologized for the cross-border air strikes, and Pakistan subsequently reopened the NATO logistics supply line. The relationship between the two countries has gradually improved. In June 2013, after Prime Minister Sharif took office, he advocated improving relations with the United States and opposing U.S. attacks on Pakistan. At the end of July, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Pakistan and the two sides agreed to restart the Pakistan-US strategic dialogue. In October, Prime Minister Sharif visited the United States and met with US President Barack Obama. The two sides agreed to establish a lasting partnership and the United States announced that it would resume providing 1.6 billion U.S. dollars in economic and military assistance to Pakistan. In November, the U.S. drone killed the Pakistani Taliban’s number one Maheshud in Pakistan, causing the Palestinian government’s peace talks with Bata to stagnate. The Pakistani side expressed strong opposition to this and the relations between the two countries were affected. Subsequently, the Pakistani government still insisted on improving the bilateral relations policy and restarted the Pakistan-US strategic dialogue in March 2014.
In August 2017, US President Trump announced a new policy toward Afghanistan and South Asia, demanding that Pakistan strengthen its counter-terrorism efforts. In September, Pakistani Prime Minister Abbas met with US Vice President Burns during the UN General Assembly. In October, Pakistani Foreign Minister Asif was invited to visit the United States to meet with US Secretary of State Tillerson and Presidential National Security Assistant McMaster. In the month, the Pakistani military successfully rescued the American hostages kidnapped in Afghanistan in 2012. President Trump and Secretary of State Tillerson expressed their gratitude to the Palestinian side. In December, Trump issued the “National Security Strategy Report”, accusing the Pakistani anti-terrorism.
In March 2018, Pakistani Prime Minister Abbas visited the United States and met with US Vice President Penns and Chairman of the House of Representatives Asia Pacific Affairs Committee Ted. In September, US Secretary of State Pompeo visited Pakistan briefly on the way to the US-India “2+2” dialogue. This is the first time that the Pakistani high-level government has contacted the Pakistani government. In October, Pakistani Foreign Minister Qureshi went to the United States to attend the UN General Assembly and met with Pompeo.
[Relationship with Afghanistan] Pakistan and Afghanistan have close ties in geography, history, culture, religion and ethnicity. After the “9.11” incident, Pakistan participated in the international war on terrorism, cracked down on the Taliban and al-Qaeda, worked hard to develop relations with the Afghan government, and actively participated in the reconstruction of Afghanistan.
Since April 2013, Pakistan and Afghanistan have had exchanges of fire in the vicinity of the “Duran Line” (the Pakistani border defined by the British colonists, and the Arab side has not admitted it), and the contradictions have risen in promoting the participation of the Afghan Taliban in the peace talks. The relationship is getting cold again. In July, Pakistani Prime Minister’s National Security and Foreign Affairs Adviser Aziz visited Afghanistan to repair relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan and promote President Karzai’s visit to Pakistan. In August, President Karzai visited Pakistan and held talks with Prime Minister Sharif. The two sides exchanged views on the Pakistan-Afghanistan relations, the Arab reconciliation process, and the regional situation. In November, Prime Minister Sharif visited Afghanistan.
In September 2014, President Hussein of Pakistan attended the inauguration ceremony of President Ghani. In November, President Ghani visited Pakistan. Ghani has repeatedly expressed his willingness to promote the improvement of Pakistan-Afghanistan relations during his tenure. In May 2015, Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif visited Afghanistan.
In July 2015, after the suspension of the peace talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban, the Afghan accused the Palestinians of lacking sincerity and the relationship between the two countries was once again tense. In December, President Ghani went to Pakistan to attend the Fifth Foreign Ministers’ Meeting of the Istanbul Process, and the relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan changed.
In 2016, there were many terrorist attacks in Pakistan and Afghanistan, causing heavy casualties. The two sides accused each other and the relationship between the two countries fell into a trough.
In October 2017, Pakistani Army Chief of Staff Bajiewa visited Afghanistan, and the Pakistan-Afghanistan relations showed a positive easing momentum. In December, the first China-Afghanistan-Pakistan tripartite foreign ministers’ dialogue was held in Beijing. The three parties reached a series of consensus and issued a press communique.
In April 2018, Pakistani Prime Minister Abraham visited Afghanistan. The two sides reached consensus in the political, economic, and security fields and released positive signals to improve relations. In September, Pakistani Foreign Minister Qureshi visited Afghanistan and held talks with the leaders of Afghanistan. The two sides made a positive statement on improving relations. In December, the second China-Afghanistan-Pakistan tripartite foreign ministers’ dialogue was held in Kabul, Afghanistan.
[Relationship with India] Pakistan and India broke out three times in 1947, 1965 and 1971. In 1971, Pakistan and India broke off diplomatic relations and resumed diplomatic relations in 1976. Since 2004, Pakistan and India have launched a comprehensive dialogue process and bilateral relations have continued to ease.
In July 2008, the two countries launched the fifth round of comprehensive dialogue and opened trade across the Kashmir control line for the first time. In November, a major terrorist attack occurred in Mumbai, India, which accused the Pakistani organization of being infected, and the Pakistan-India relationship was suddenly tense. Under the mediation of the international community, the tension between the two countries has eased.
In 2009, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh met with Pakistani President Zardari and Prime Minister Gilani during the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit and the Non-Aligned Summit.
In February 2010, Basha secretary Bahir and Indian and foreign secretary Raoqi held a secret-level dialogue in New Delhi. In April, the two prime ministers met during the SAARC summit. In July, Pakistani Foreign Minister Qureshi held talks with Indian Foreign Minister Krishna in Islamabad.
In February 2011, the two foreign ministries announced the resumption of the dialogue process, including eight issues including Kashmir, anti-terrorism and water resources. In March, at the invitation of Prime Minister Singh, Pakistani Prime Minister Gilani went to India to watch the semi-finals between the cricket World Cup and India and met with Singh. In July, Pakistani Foreign Minister Hina and Indian Foreign Minister Krishna met in New Delhi. In November, the two prime ministers met again during the 17th SAARC Summit. In the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council, they voted for Pakistan.
On April 8, 2012, Pakistani President Zardari visited India in private and met with Indian Prime Minister Singh to promote the continued improvement of bilateral relations. At the beginning of 2013, the Pakistani and Indian sides had several cross-border crossfire incidents near the control line of the Keke District. Many soldiers and soldiers in Pakistan and India were killed and injured, which caused certain interference to the improvement of bilateral relations.
In June 2013, after Sharif was elected prime minister, he said that he will work to improve Pakistan-India relations. Indian Prime Minister Singh’s special envoy visited Pakistan. At the same time, the positions of Pakistan and India on the Kashmir dispute and other issues are very different.
In May 2014, Prime Minister Sharif was invited to participate in the inauguration ceremony of Indian Prime Minister Modi. This was the first time that Pakistani Prime Minister went to India to participate in the inauguration ceremony of the Indian Prime Minister after the partition of Pakistan and India in 1947. In August, as Pakistan’s high-level meeting in India met with the leaders of the Pan-Party Freedom Conference in India-controlled Kashmir, the Indian side announced the abolition of the secret dialogue between the two countries. Since October, Pakistan and India have had continuous exchanges of fire near the control line, causing at least 17 deaths on both sides. The two sides accused each other of provoking the incident.
In March 2015, the foreign secretary Su Jiesheng visited Pakistan. In July, during the Ufa Summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif and Indian Prime Minister Modi met and the relations between the two countries showed positive momentum, but they did not resume full dialogue.
Since 2016, relations between the two countries have continued to be strained due to issues such as Kashmir.
At the beginning of 2017, Pakistan and India released goodwill from each other and exchanged prisoners in the other country. The relationship between the two countries has eased. In April, the Pakistani court sentenced the Indian spy Jadav to death, and India’s reaction was strong and the relationship between the two sides deteriorated further. During the year, Pakistan and India frequently exchanged fire in the vicinity of the Kashmir control line. Both sides suffered casualties and the relationship continued to be tense.
In May 2018, Pakistan and India reached an agreement and agreed to abide by the ceasefire agreement signed in 2003 to restore peace in Jammu and Kashmir. In July, Indian Prime Minister Modi spoke with the Chairman of the Justice Movement Party, Imran Khan, and congratulated the JEM party that he led in winning the election. In August, Prime Minister Modi sent a congratulatory letter to Prime Minister Imran Khan and proposed a constructive interaction between the two sides. In September, the Indian Foreign Ministry confirmed that the two foreign ministers will meet during the 73rd UN General Assembly in New York. Since then, the Indian media has reported that the so-called Palestinians have killed the Indian police and the “Freedom Warrior” stamps in the Pakistani issue area. The Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced the cancellation of the meeting between the two foreign ministers. The momentum of improvement in Pakistan-India relations has been frustrated. In November, Pakistan and India initiated the construction of the Indo-Sikhs to the pilgrimage corridor of Pakistan, and the foundation stone laying ceremony was held. Prime Minister Imran Khan and several senior officials of Pakistani military and government officials attended the ceremony together. However, the two governments have repeatedly accused each other of the Kashmir issue.
[Relationship with China]
1. Pakistan is one of the first countries to recognize China. On May 21, 1951, China and Pakistan formally established diplomatic relations. Since the establishment of diplomatic ties, the two countries have developed good-neighborly friendship and mutually beneficial cooperation on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and have progressed smoothly.
2. China and Pakistan have established trade relations since the early 1950s and launched trade operations. In January 1963, the two countries signed the first trade agreement. In October 1982, the two countries established the China-Pakistan Joint Committee on Economic, Trade and Scientific and Technological Cooperation. So far, 14 meetings have been held. Thanks to the joint efforts of both sides, the economic and trade cooperation between the two countries has made great progress. In 2006, the two countries signed a free trade agreement and implemented it in July 2007. In February 2009, the two countries signed the “China-Pakistan Free Trade Zone Service Trade Agreement”, when China became the second largest trading partner of Pakistan.
3. The bilateral exchanges and cooperation between the two sides in culture, science and technology and education are more active.